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# TERMS

WATER

Types of Fluids

Fluids are generally divided into two categories, ideal fluids and real fluids.

Ideal Fluids:

 Incompressible

Real Fluids:

 Compressible

##  Experience friction and turbulence

Gage pressure – is the pressure above or below the atmosphere and can be measured by pressure
gauges or manometers.

Atmospheric pressure – is the pressure at any one point on the Earth’s surface from the weight of the air
above it. A vacuum is a space that has all matter removed from it.

## Absolute pressure – is the pressure above absolute zero. (vacuum)

Manometer

Open Type – has an atmospheric surface in one leg and is capable of measuring gage pressures.

Differential Type – without an atmospheric surface and capable of measuring only differences of
pressure

Piezometer – the simplest form of open manometer. It is a tube tapped into a wall of a container or
conduit for the purpose of measuring pressure.

Buoyancy

The buoyancy of a body immersed in a fluid is that property which will determine whether the body will
sink, rise or float. • Buoy - to lift; to support; to keep afloat (Merriam Webster dictionary)

• Buoyant force - is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the buoyed body.
Archimedes’ Principle

• A body immersed in a fluid experiences a vertical buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid it
displaces.

Types of Dams

Gravity Dams – use only the force of gravity to resist water pressure – that is, they hold back the water
by the sheer force of their weight pushing downward.

Embankment Dams - Any dam constructed of excavated natural materials or of industrial waste
materials. Also called an Earth Dam

Masonry Dams - Any dam constructed mainly of stone, brick, or concrete blocks jointed with mortar. A
dam having only a masonry facing should not be referred to as a masonry dam.

## FACTOR OF SAFETY FOR SLIDING

• Determines the safety of the structure against sliding due to the hydrostatic force produced by the
retained body of water.

Stability

• Another interesting and important problem associated with submerged or floating bodies is concerned
with the stability of the bodies.

• A body is said to be in a stable equilibrium position if, when displaced, it returns to its equilibrium
position.

METACENTRIC HEIGHT

The metacentric height is a property of the cross section for the given weight, and its value gives an
indication of the stability of the body.

RELATIVE EQUILIBRIUM

• Relative equilibrium of liquid is a condition where the whole mass of liquid including the vessel in
which the liquid is contained, is moving at uniform accelerated motion with respect to the earth.

• There are two cases of relative equilibrium in liquid namely Linear Translation and Rotation.
SOIL

Voids – these are the “SPACES” not occupied by the soil solids therefore these may come in both liquid
and gaseous states in this case, water and air.

Void Ratio – denoted by ( e ) - Defined as the ratio of volume of voids to the volume of solids. It is
expressed in decimal form.

Porosity - denoted by ( n ) - Defined as the ratio of volume of voids to the total volume. It is expressed in
percentage and does not exceed 100%

Degree of Saturation – denoted by ( S ) - Defined as the ratio of volume water to the volume of voids.
Expressed in percentage.

Water Content – denoted by ( w )(MC) - Defined as the ratio of Mass/Weight of water to mass/weight of
solids. It is expressed as percentage but used as decimal in computations.

Specific Gravity of Soil Solids – denoted by ( Gs ) - The specific gravity of any material is the ratio of its
density/unit weight to that of water. It ranges from 2.60-2.80 for most natural soil. A standard method of
measuring the specific gravity of soils uses a calibrated glass flask known as pycnometer. The pycnometer
is first filled with water and set on a balance to find its mass. Then it is refilled with a known mass of dry
soil plus water so the total volume is the same as before.

Specific Gravity of Soil – denoted by ( G ) – The specific gravity of soil is DIFFERENT from the specific
gravity of soil solids, G refers to the specific gravity of the bulk of the soil which includes the voids it
contains.

Unit Weight/Specific Weight – denoted by ( “γ” (the Greek letter Gamma) ) – Defined as the ratio of the
weight of a substance over its volume. The most commonly used values of unit weight are that of water
which are 9.81 KN/m3 for SI and 62.4 pcf (pounds per cubic foot) for English.

Density/Unit Mass/Specific Mass – denoted by ( “ρ” (the lower case Greek letter rho) ) – Defined as the
ratio of the mass of a substance over its volume.

Air Void Ratio – denoted by ( avr ) – Defined as the ratio of the volume of air over the total volume.

## Relative Density/Degree of Density/Density Index – denoted by (Dr) – Used to express relative

compactness of natural cohensionless soil (coarse grained soil). It is equal to the ratio of the difference
between the maximum void ratio and the in-situ void ratio and the difference between the maximum
void ratio and the minimum void ratio.

Relative Compaction – denoted by (Re) – Used to express the relative compactness of both cohesive
(fine-grained) and cohesionless (coarse grained) soil. It is the ratio between the in-situ dry unit weight
and the maximum dry unit weight of the soil.

Swell Factor - denoted by (SF) – it is the ratio of the Volume of the excavated material and the volume of
the in-situ material (borrow pit material or bank material).

Permeability - The property of soil that permits the passage of water under a gradient of force.
Head – As discussed in Fluid Mechanics, it is the linear equivalent measure (usually in meters) of a
certain term.

Hydraulic Conductivity – (k) - Also known as the Coefficient of Permeability – is the coefficient used in
Darcy’s Law. The most common unit of measurement for this is “cm/s”. It depends on several factors:
fluid viscosity, pore size distribution, grain size distribution, void ratio, roughness of mineral particles and
degree of saturation of soil.

Hydraulic Gradient – (i) – Also known as the slope – it is defined as the change in head (Head Loss) over
the length corresponding to the heads. Darcy’s Law – It is an equation formulated by Darcy which is
explained having the velocity equal to Hydraulic Conductivity multiplied to the Hydraulic Gradient.

Discharge velocity/Velocity – (v) – is the velocity of water flowing through soil considering the gross
cross-sectional area of the soil.

Seepage Velocity – (vs) – is the actual/real velocity of water flowing through soils which consider only
the area of the voids. It is larger if not equal to the Discharge Velocity.

Transmissivity – (T) – also known as Transmissibility – it is the product of the hydraulic conductivity and
the saturated thickness of the aquifer. It is the ability of the aquifer to transmit water through its entire
thickness.
DESIGN

## Newton’s Three Laws of Motion.

1. First Law – An object either at rest or in constant velocity remains in that state of motion unless acted
upon by an unbalanced force.

2. Second Law – Force is directly proportional to mass multiplied by the acceleration. (F = ma)

3. Third Law – For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Couple is a system of forces whose magnitude of the resultant is zero and yet has a moment sum.
Geometrically, couple is composed of two equal forces that are parallel to each other and acting in
opposite direction.