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WATER

Types of Fluids

Fluids are generally divided into two categories, ideal fluids and real fluids.

Ideal Fluids:

Incompressible

Real Fluids:

Compressible

Gage pressure – is the pressure above or below the atmosphere and can be measured by pressure

gauges or manometers.

Atmospheric pressure – is the pressure at any one point on the Earth’s surface from the weight of the air

above it. A vacuum is a space that has all matter removed from it.

Manometer

Open Type – has an atmospheric surface in one leg and is capable of measuring gage pressures.

Differential Type – without an atmospheric surface and capable of measuring only differences of

pressure

Piezometer – the simplest form of open manometer. It is a tube tapped into a wall of a container or

conduit for the purpose of measuring pressure.

Buoyancy

The buoyancy of a body immersed in a fluid is that property which will determine whether the body will

sink, rise or float. • Buoy - to lift; to support; to keep afloat (Merriam Webster dictionary)

• Buoyant force - is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the buoyed body.

Archimedes’ Principle

• A body immersed in a fluid experiences a vertical buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid it

displaces.

Types of Dams

Gravity Dams – use only the force of gravity to resist water pressure – that is, they hold back the water

by the sheer force of their weight pushing downward.

Embankment Dams - Any dam constructed of excavated natural materials or of industrial waste

materials. Also called an Earth Dam

Masonry Dams - Any dam constructed mainly of stone, brick, or concrete blocks jointed with mortar. A

dam having only a masonry facing should not be referred to as a masonry dam.

• Determines the safety of the structure against sliding due to the hydrostatic force produced by the

retained body of water.

Stability

• Another interesting and important problem associated with submerged or floating bodies is concerned

with the stability of the bodies.

• A body is said to be in a stable equilibrium position if, when displaced, it returns to its equilibrium

position.

METACENTRIC HEIGHT

The metacentric height is a property of the cross section for the given weight, and its value gives an

indication of the stability of the body.

RELATIVE EQUILIBRIUM

• Relative equilibrium of liquid is a condition where the whole mass of liquid including the vessel in

which the liquid is contained, is moving at uniform accelerated motion with respect to the earth.

• There are two cases of relative equilibrium in liquid namely Linear Translation and Rotation.

SOIL

Voids – these are the “SPACES” not occupied by the soil solids therefore these may come in both liquid

and gaseous states in this case, water and air.

Void Ratio – denoted by ( e ) - Defined as the ratio of volume of voids to the volume of solids. It is

expressed in decimal form.

Porosity - denoted by ( n ) - Defined as the ratio of volume of voids to the total volume. It is expressed in

percentage and does not exceed 100%

Degree of Saturation – denoted by ( S ) - Defined as the ratio of volume water to the volume of voids.

Expressed in percentage.

Water Content – denoted by ( w )(MC) - Defined as the ratio of Mass/Weight of water to mass/weight of

solids. It is expressed as percentage but used as decimal in computations.

Specific Gravity of Soil Solids – denoted by ( Gs ) - The specific gravity of any material is the ratio of its

density/unit weight to that of water. It ranges from 2.60-2.80 for most natural soil. A standard method of

measuring the specific gravity of soils uses a calibrated glass flask known as pycnometer. The pycnometer

is first filled with water and set on a balance to find its mass. Then it is refilled with a known mass of dry

soil plus water so the total volume is the same as before.

Specific Gravity of Soil – denoted by ( G ) – The specific gravity of soil is DIFFERENT from the specific

gravity of soil solids, G refers to the specific gravity of the bulk of the soil which includes the voids it

contains.

Unit Weight/Specific Weight – denoted by ( “γ” (the Greek letter Gamma) ) – Defined as the ratio of the

weight of a substance over its volume. The most commonly used values of unit weight are that of water

which are 9.81 KN/m3 for SI and 62.4 pcf (pounds per cubic foot) for English.

Density/Unit Mass/Specific Mass – denoted by ( “ρ” (the lower case Greek letter rho) ) – Defined as the

ratio of the mass of a substance over its volume.

Air Void Ratio – denoted by ( avr ) – Defined as the ratio of the volume of air over the total volume.

compactness of natural cohensionless soil (coarse grained soil). It is equal to the ratio of the difference

between the maximum void ratio and the in-situ void ratio and the difference between the maximum

void ratio and the minimum void ratio.

Relative Compaction – denoted by (Re) – Used to express the relative compactness of both cohesive

(fine-grained) and cohesionless (coarse grained) soil. It is the ratio between the in-situ dry unit weight

and the maximum dry unit weight of the soil.

Swell Factor - denoted by (SF) – it is the ratio of the Volume of the excavated material and the volume of

the in-situ material (borrow pit material or bank material).

Permeability - The property of soil that permits the passage of water under a gradient of force.

Head – As discussed in Fluid Mechanics, it is the linear equivalent measure (usually in meters) of a

certain term.

Hydraulic Conductivity – (k) - Also known as the Coefficient of Permeability – is the coefficient used in

Darcy’s Law. The most common unit of measurement for this is “cm/s”. It depends on several factors:

fluid viscosity, pore size distribution, grain size distribution, void ratio, roughness of mineral particles and

degree of saturation of soil.

Hydraulic Gradient – (i) – Also known as the slope – it is defined as the change in head (Head Loss) over

the length corresponding to the heads. Darcy’s Law – It is an equation formulated by Darcy which is

explained having the velocity equal to Hydraulic Conductivity multiplied to the Hydraulic Gradient.

Discharge velocity/Velocity – (v) – is the velocity of water flowing through soil considering the gross

cross-sectional area of the soil.

Seepage Velocity – (vs) – is the actual/real velocity of water flowing through soils which consider only

the area of the voids. It is larger if not equal to the Discharge Velocity.

Transmissivity – (T) – also known as Transmissibility – it is the product of the hydraulic conductivity and

the saturated thickness of the aquifer. It is the ability of the aquifer to transmit water through its entire

thickness.

DESIGN

1. First Law – An object either at rest or in constant velocity remains in that state of motion unless acted

upon by an unbalanced force.

2. Second Law – Force is directly proportional to mass multiplied by the acceleration. (F = ma)

3. Third Law – For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Couple is a system of forces whose magnitude of the resultant is zero and yet has a moment sum.

Geometrically, couple is composed of two equal forces that are parallel to each other and acting in

opposite direction.

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