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First published in Great Britain 2010
A&C Black Publishers
36 Soho Square
LondonWlD 3QY

ISBN: 978-1408-12991-3

Copyright @ Dessainet Tolra/Larousse2009

A CIP cataloguerecord for this book is availablefrom the British Library.

Gilles Ronin has assertedhis rights under the Copyright, Design and PatentsAct, 1988,to be ldentlfiod $ thc
author of this work.

All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproducedin any form or by any mctru - gfsphls,
electronic or mechanical,including photocopying, recording,taping or information storsgcInd r€trlcvd ryltcmi -
without the prior permissionin writing from the publishers.

Publisher:Collette Hanicotre
Editor: Corinne de Montalembert
Pagedesign:Florence Le Maux
Cover design:James'W'atson
Proofreader:Madeleine Biaujeaud,
Photography:Olivier Ploton
English text layout: Penny Mills
Translator:Alexa Stace
Editorial assistant:
Ellen Parnavelas

This book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managcd,sustainableforests,It is natural,
renewableand recyclable.Thelogging and manufacturing processesconfornx to the environnental regulationsof
the country of origin.

Printed and bound in China
Introduction 4 Walls and partitions 24 Planning the space 62
Representing An Interior Space 5 Format and scale 25 Converting a space undet the eaves 64
Developing your project 5 Floor plan 25 | ) c s i g n i r r gr r p l r t f i r r r u f o r r r l r c d 64
The progression 5 Layout ofa Flat 26 | ) c s i g r r i n lr;r s r r l l l f l i g l r t o f s t c p s 65
Variations and transformations 5 | ) e s i g n i r r;gr s k y l i g l r t 65
PERSPECT 2ft A Fcw Sirrrplc (lonstrrtction Tricks 66
6 Isornetric Ptojection 30 I l o w t o c s t r r t r l i sc lt rl t r r rt l c p t l t s 66
Materials 8 An effect of reduction 3l t l i v i t l cr r w r r l l 66
The Line 10 DrawingThree-ditnensional Objects I l o w t o r l c r r lw i t l r i t t t i t ' t ' c 1 . 1 t t l l t r - s l r sl ppcl cdc 66
Graphics, tonal values and colours 10 arrd Furniture 32 I l o w t l o y t t t t r l t ' ; t wl r ' i r tl c ? 67
Figures 1I Designing an o{lice space 34 l \ ' r ' s l t cl it v c o t ' p t r r i l '11i 1 1v1i1, ' * 2 67
Proportions 1.2 A foldaway oflice on a shelf 34 l)owu n l)trtition ril/all 68
Constructing a drawing 13 Grouping office furmture 35 ( l r r ' : ti lrr g , r trt t ' z z ; trittt c o t ' o v t ' t ' l r : t t t 1 . 1 6L)
'I'lrc ()blirlut,
Playing about with space 3(r Viow 70
PLANSANDL OUTS 1.4 Drawing a kitchen 37 l)r.sigrrirrg n r()(rn by Eye 72
Drawing the Plan 16 Swapping around kitchen and bathroorn .]tt S t ' l t i n gI l r c l r o t t n r l r t t ' i t ' s /z
Scales 16 Visualising a kitchen corner 4() l t l r ritr r gt l r t 'l t o t ' i z o t t 72
Conventions and Syrnbols 18 Creating an open partition 42 l ) l : t itt r gl l t c l t o ti z o t ti r r t l r c t l r l w i r r g 73
Doors 18 Transforrning a flat 44 l ) l ; rirr r gt l r t ': r r r g l crsr r r ttll t c l i r r co l '
Windows 18 Creating a dressing room and t l r ct c i l i r r g 73
Convenrions regardinglines 18 a bathroom 46 l ) l r ritn g ,t l t r ' v ; r t t i s l t i tpr g
oirrt 74
A base line, or contour 18 Seeing things in perspective 4fl f l ' t l r r 'v ; r r r i s l r i upgo i t t t i s t t o l o t t t l r c p l p c r 75
A thin Line 18 The vanishing point 4tt I)illcrcrrt ()blit;rro Vic,ws 76
A thin dotted line 18 The horizon 50 i r k i r r go r r t ; r p r r t l i l i o rw t rrll 77
The logic behind the symbois 19 Moving the vanishing point on the horizort 5l A Vitrw firxrr Abovc . . . 78
Furniture and equipment 19 The height of the horizon 52 ...And o High-AnglcVicw 79
Changing Around the Furniture 20 The height of the horizon in the drawing 52 l)rnwirrg orr thc Ctxrrputer 80
Elevation and Section 22 The height of the horizon, people ancl scalc 53 S k t ' t tl r l J p u0
I\earranging an area of wall 23 The view frorn the front 54 lixlrlolltiorr 8i)
I)esign in modules 23 The principles of a frongal view 55 |ilst Stcps 80
Making aLayottt 24 The problem of depth 55 M r r k i r r gu r r r o t l c lf i r r y o r r r p r o j c c t s 8i
Organisation of the layout 24 To draw the depth 5(r
A team effort 24 Mastering the depth 57 Grids for Isometric Projections 82
A sketch of the ground plan 24 To rnove a partition wall 5ri Grids for FrontalViews 84
Thc dimensions 24 Creating an extension to block off Grids for Oblique Views 86
a corner 60
Sittingquietl.y at home,sketchbook in hand,is theideatwayto tackte
d r a w i n gI.n f a c t ,y o u rh o m ei s a n absotutemineof subjects to draw,perhaps
youalready havea ptanin yourheadfora makeover or ionversion?
House spacenot only containsobjectsto be
drawn, but offers a setting,enablingyou to
understandperspectiveand to explore the
different waysof depicting space.Once you have
graspedthe principles,drawing will become a
game,even a pleasure.

If you want to study a litde carpentry prqect,

take down a partition wall, or simply dream about
what you could do later,you will find here how
to draw a layout, enablingyou to make several
plansfor your space.Itt alsoa good exercisein

You will alsofind here the practicalprinciples

which will help you put your plans down on
paperand better expressyour ideas,for no serious
project getsmade without a progressiveplan.

It is alsoan opportunity to learn some tricks of

the trade and conventionswhich are part of an
architecttknow-how and which willhelp with

The relationshipbetween a drawing and a project

is at the heart of this book, and is reciprocal.If the
capaclryto representa spaceis the prerequisitefor
convertingit, and is a techniqueto be acquired,
the different variationsalsooffer many absorbing
exercisesfor those learning to draw.
r \ uCI Jnrf u
CD n -6r I jI nI IttoUr Ij I U I. \ T a n 2 n C
c rUr r- l1 yr ,rrt li n l vr r o DIJO_Urt
Y o ud o n ' tn e e dt o m a k ea d r a w t ntgo t a k eo u ta p a r t i t i own a L tB. u ti f t h es i t u a t i oins m o r ec o m p t i c a t eydo,uc a n n otth i n k
i t t h r o u gw
h i t h o ust o m es u p p o r tB. y p u t t i n yg o u ri d e a sd o w no n p a p e tr h e yc a nt h e nd e v e t oapn de n t a r g en,o tj u s ta s
disconnecte t hdo u g h t a
s n di d e a sb, u tc o h e r e n t lA. yf .r e e h a n d r a w i n gi n p e n c i t g i v eyso ut h e L i b e r ttyo b e c r e a t i v e .

your project
Developing V a r i a t i o nasn dt r a n s f o r m a t i o n s
It is by means of several kinds of representation, From the first you will be confronted witlt tlrc
drawings and plans, that we learn how to develop a practice of conversion. Getting into thc hrrbit of'
project. In this book, some of these representations varying elements from the start, on the grrplrics
rurebased on real spaces- houses and flats - and we side as well as from a model, is way of bcttcr'
will give you finished examples of real conversions, understanding the rules of design, at the sanrc tirrre
like the numerous books on home decoration or as inventing modifications, of finding and projct -
irrterior design which you will find in the public ting ideas.
library. But becauseyou live in your own space,the Let's take an example.You can draw a particrrlur'
cxamples you find are never just right. This book space or room like a camera, strictly copying wlrlt
therefore aims to show above all a real method of is in front ofyou, but you would not be makirrs usc
clrawing, with a progressive acquisition of the skills of the rules which permit you to show the splcc
which wiii enable you to carry out operations logr- in question a little differently: a partition less,sorrrc
cllly, and to put your own ideas down on paper. panels here and a transparent space there, tl-rc cci-
ling taken down to increasethe loft space,anci why
not a flight ofstairs to facilitate access,etc.
Some of the elementary principles of persl.rct'-
The progression tive and some professional tricks will teach you t<r
First of all there are the principal drawings, like the think intelligently about your drawing, as thorrqlr
ground plan and the section, the technique ofscale it were a little mechanism where you can nrovc tlrc
drawing, which allows you to measure the spaces parts about.
to be converted, and then finally the different kinds From the first pages on line, its valucs urrtl
of perspective which enable you to understand colours, we get into the habit of grafting on v:rri:r-
space,whiie studying its modifications. tions and new creations.
Themes such asa small conversion (ofa bcdrrlr>rrr,
sitting-room or kitchen) will be introcluccd pro-
gressively,but also more general,architccturll iclcls,
such asdepth, thickness,geometry and tlansp:rrcrrty.
L e a r na n dp r a c t i s b e a s i cf r e e h a n d r a w i n gt e c h n i q u eTs h . e s ea r e
i n d i s p e n s a bf ot er a L rI e p r e s e n t a t i o n a I d r a w an yo
i ndg , uw i [ [n e e ds o m e
understandin og s r t h ef o t L o w i ncgh a p t e r s .
f t h e s es k i l . Lf o



Drawwgsart drhi U h"^n,Jrwft/^{;
,rl' rhz hzlVvf a fin, nvl"s:a d,rawwg
tvard,ah/"ffn.cLt7 yayt, olty:, 4 fra.hqq.rctu(
wrrto r^lz.r, +r" ah"/,eo" s*-sVwtrzsfvr
atglas an-rLa ,,.n+fur,to te ^sd,:/arug!
A,7tt/ ,,rkLun^dzr 71pLyV
f4,fctu ,,'15f rr drawt4y
yn'albl Lt,nzr

+t "l(ttr^4r(

cLq:fvr l^ol"/"ug
f4lff wv fvsLfl,&1,
t-lv Pnyt Eko!-ft[r-rr.y
rlw yaytr ^sd, dzttrj,s wwhzttr'zrk u a sttgb drawL4r7, rr a srausrlnrf
d,rawwgs a"Jla"rt rf n:t',ly rnrh.t,-f,rsroart,a slaroljwLwrd"a ftu'ff ovver
u tnl,tsytruntl,e
ofl* arc v^Null nto^r r-f.yo*urtJruV fttu1r-tl^c drnwwg
*trlo *aftr"ilr*t, nst soo:/n /ayer,yrrfrrn r]" a.tko!-,tr avflj, tlu ynrtlzm,t

rflow nrc,*bV 4,fr[tr$rLut, tr"^fu,Xv" vvtlLrnd, tn JL4firLtnWJ(

rhz iltruqLl4ywr rlu -
tlznl ynyt o tlghtfu fttl4q4rerw ro-6yrt^ tr !ervi.[,o.e
t^r tenwry d,uf-f',cnlr rc f ,nd,.Tr?I*g 14yff,eud44trca rvl,Lnr tw Lgqv$, 0t \, /lY\tA t-lU,ALLrw:

q V lt\/ul/ tt\u,lLtlr(i,',yrl
v/t Lt,ne,
l,as rn^al"(,, sarfaufnr,f,4 yz*6[
M#f. rtrr,ltr trr(frl lut tt'rr.vt,tallrrw,all

I,r,rl,trtt (0 hqvetha
ylr, tl, ,tlhtwtlrr/,Vt)rt

,/rt(t ( , (ttttt(t
( ttrttyuttlh ll*ten lnanl,,
rurl thu',7h.
C^f.yfi^r ltrrlrt
n nlq Lt han/,l,e, ff 'aJt,4
rntfur vwnd'e -frrtr"srft trcnl",
ln u srfrz, qhj, (qswr vh,
rlu ynyt

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' \ t ' t l , ( t t , ( r, t t , t(

t t ,' l t t 1 , 1 t , 1 1, 1l 1

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Drawing a I i n ei s a r e f l e c t i oonf y o u r a t t i t u daen dy o u rp e r s o n a L iTt yh.ek i n d
o f I i n e d i r e c tc, t e a nc, l u m s yh, e s i t a n h t ,e a v yt,i g h t i, n c i s i veet c- d e p e n d s
on y o u rp e r s o n a L ilttyi m
. p r o v ew s i t hp r a c t i c ea,s y o uw i L st e ew i t ht h e s ef e w
w a r m i n g - ue px e r c i s e s .

The [ine Graphics,

tonaIvaluesand cotours
A line is not just a thirrg irr itsclt, lr r.cprcscnrs You have to show surfaces, shadows, differences of
something - it is a synrbol ()f il (.()nt()r.rf,
rrrr ;rxis, tone in your drawing. But the pencil is not made
a horizon, the motifs orr thc floor or. thc scttirrg for showing a suface.'W'ork out a range of values,
of the door-frame. A lirrc hrrsu firrrrr, nrost oficrr in small 2-3cm squares, from the lightest to the
straight,a point of departurc rrrrdirrrivul,it posirion darkest, in five or six stages,then do gradations.
in spaceand on the pagc, rrrrorictrt;rtiorr.lrr prrrc- Note how you can avoid it looking too mechanical
tical terms a line is the routc bctwecrr two poirrts, by combining repetition and variations.
and it is the points that rrrc criricrrl rrrrtl nrtrst lrc
well placed.

Dr4wJiln4:rraglrr Lw"es frotn tht,lrtht tT

ahrrl'zr, wwlw^t lnrbg t rl,o tt/ rf thz yut)
tw nwh. )^r sh,ynwg thz papr rl,z first
fLw, ql t;f tt rgtstz,r rl',ad*stq^(, tlan
draw s7Tlnaseawn"d' fime rllrhz rrcccl,arc,4a,w
grgyi wtrLtar"lury, d.cts,
:w,allr7"l^, [.uvs,
*o. vay t-lwtht(rufy,
oblry uy tlv wfau tw vnnoln.
r *

The construction of certain shapes, notably the
square,and then the circle, is a pernanent exercise
in drawing.The shapesenable us to see the value
of the vertical and horizontal, basis of all propor-
tion and orientation of line, in brief the nreasure
of the whole drawing.The constructions arc lirn-
bering-up exercises,to practise regularly,likc goitrg i
.... ."...\,
to the gym!

th' (h4,J?^nre,drawdnad'tryv^'al,:, wlu.oln

Dr4w 4. aurala audz 4 t?^4.rc d"rawurg rlrl
rlu dra*wg u n^ad.e ^/ rf Ltws,ad.dzd, .ys^,t rf tht, :dzs ahd'th wd'nw
d,tryrr',a.1": rf rh.crrtargh,
nnl, rh.ewd,nw yy1,1^7't
yrylrt:wely frctwyru"t:tn"a.dzat ran-dnw,t:h'en ytw rf rfu t?^nre.rlni Ver4rwrvhasa y*ynst,-
4J Llvfh[ Hrb6.
yurwd' frezharl'. Th+sorzatzsthzr utzneotmu hflr vwur crntlayow ft d'raw:hayz:wuyeayeoa.vz
"y nwl w Vltct, ft d'wrl'ca WWhi' aw Hvcra,l
wkol,onwfu1 t* t*ru
"y d't rryw arght
ard, Jr rw. Fra an L * :rttyt
- 4'hl/ 60 )'
+f / 30

Dr4wa Luv, tnarL q,Wwhr ar./"dww, t1

(yr, th4rL rff rl.t I,w tntv r cq,nnL

Draw srw lwrkvtqL Lt*,2s,anl' vtttpaL wws,

teo. st d,g yrtsry"tn ynrtbuJa.rffio,',1ry, wlu,h,
ttoV ,l'o ws( ^sr,nLvnu wuavef^laxo1wal drawwg
Tl'.Lscxeroieaatute d.{^at1 d*^*t*g a Mtwvr!-
vf yaral.hlLws, fl"erunwby ngrd' vf Ar rl'a ta& rf a squ,are
/r4pra( drawug arglz: rf
yery*'trrnl,a.rLws 3ao, 5fo, Go"4.h"d,9o"
a 11
r r \_/-yvr

P r o p o r t i o nasr e r e [ a t i v m
e e a s u r e m e n tW s .ea r e n o td i s c u s s i nage s t h e t i c s
h e r e ,i t i s s i m p t ya q u e s t i o on f t h e L e n g tohf c o n n e c t i obne t w e e tnh ev a r i o u s
e t e m e n tas n dt h e d i s t a n c b e e t w e e tnh ev a r i o u sp o i n t si n t h e d r a w i n g .
N o t et h a t ,i f y o ug e tt h e s ec o n n e c t i o nasb s o L u t erLi gyh ta t a [ [p o i n t sy, o u r
d r a w i n gw i L b l "e p e r f e c t tayc c u r a t eT.h i si s a v i t a t s k i L L m
t oa s t e r .

When drawing, get into the habit of observing

proportions, and watch out for the errors which
will inevitably arise.To look at the proportions of
arcctangle,the simplest way is to compare it men-
tally with one or several squares.

Dr4wltw rf rh.e:u"yl,erfocorsarow^.d,1w- ynturzs,

rh'efrvnt rf yueu:,f f,"ru.t *t, l,*^:zl.olnnyyli,artu,
Drlw Jrw rccrargl,u,ft4rtw7 wutltsqrnrzs*ht"rlryo flwn d+vttz^y il"all ^rewtl,J.Pry oarcfuL 4(futrwL rc rhat,
frvlffrtchr, wk"ol"gwt moL ntjzorm swtuviuaL
tdznttyy ahl' urd'tpafttlzr frnvotwru

C o n s t r u c t i nagd r a w i n g

liol your first try, choose a wall panel, with a door,

rvirrdow, picture frames, pieces of furniture etc.
| )r';rw it all on the flat, as though there were no
l)crspcctive (there probably is) respecting not just
t lrc proportions of each element, but showing how
tlrcy a1ign, the diagonal, horizontal and vertical
lirrcswhich connect all these objects This opera-
tiorr is what we call constructing the drawing.

Prqori'Jedrnwt*g l*rt<shi'a.L Th.etu

lr4rtut d..rawt
q7 t lnccbwvnt t u l n t t , r t o t u ' fw l l l , t 4 l r t l v o / f o t t v r r u ,1l ys
q^/, vzr(baL Lwrlt vtJlaLt;t what t ws^[d,/lol Lrlt tI tlurr lqtq(il ttrtthl rrty\(rl lltcrt drncut
PANf ,4xo ul^yovT-f
T od r a wa p t a no f a c e r t a i ns p a c ey, o us h o u l di n t h e o r yh a v em a d ea n o t eo f a t [
t h e d i m e n s i o nbse f o r e h a nTdh. ep L a na n dt h e l a y o utto s c a [ ea r et h u sc t o s e t y
r e t a t e dB. u t ,t o m a k et h i sl a y o u yt ,o uh a v et o u n d e r s t a nt hd e p r i n c i p a L r u toef s
r e p r e s e n t a t i ot hne, ny o uw i [ [s e eb e t t e rh o wt o o r g a n i syeo u rw o r k .T h i si s w n y
w e a r eg o t n gt o s t a r tb ys h o w i n tgh e p r i n c i p L be es h r n tdh ep t a n .

n tcd,

j"'ti- ,,

al";" , .
'i: .'"'.

4 t
t 4

? tl


the plan
T h ep L a no r l a y o uits a v i e wf r o ma b o v eA. n e l e v a t i o n I h, o r i z o n t a t v i ef w
a c, eo n ,
i f y o uI i k e w
) o r k so n t h e s a m ep r i n c i p t ew,i t ha s c a L et o, w h i c hy o ua d ds o m e
c o d e sa n dc o n v e n t i o nt hsa ts a v et i m ea n dm a k et h e p t a ne a s i e tro r e a d .

'/ro cr Loh\
fZr lw

Tlrc scale is the connection in size between the
H{r( qrc tl*ec ykru nf rhz s^w flar, wtt'ln r/too rt taYw
lr\ cl-awing and reality. Scale allows us to measure
rhrzed.t"'ffrrznr vla havz^or sl**w
sonl,et. clistanceson a plan or a map.

uaofu rl'z saynavtewvf llq synu, v tha

Note that there is no sca-leon a sketch or in a
sanv ,t1ur r,tudztaLl.
perspective drawing, since the objects, varying rn
size according to the distance,are not measurable.
Eachobjectis drawnto sca[e M a k i n ga g r a p h i cs c a t e
Scrrlcis expressedby a fraction,suchasI/l0,called At this scale a room measuring 4 x 6nr bccourcs, If you don't likc doing mental calculations, draw a
n tenth.For the interior of a houseor flat the scaie on paper, a rectangle of 8 x 12cm.You crur show littlc scllc on thc plan.In this way you can measure,
of 1/50 is currentlyused.Thiscan alsobe expressed rooms, staircases,kitchen equipnrent ctc. in tlrc arrclcvcrr just tlkc irr at a glance, the dimensions of
its 2cm to the metre, or 2cnt p.m. (There are 50 space,but to give details you need a scrrlc, tlrc sprtccsrrrrclolrjccts represented.
tinres2cm in a metre.) such as 1,/20 or 1,/1,0.

q2 O,J 4

t/zo v tar^
F,r t^

7HE t rt ALw/yt -lrfi€


h^4.r,r, u'*,I',!)o',r'
FIAr I€€^V

arrdsvrnbols A thin line
This shows details which are not structural - strips
of parquet, motifi on a wall, elements in low relief
Convention a sr ea n i n t e r e s t i nags p e cot f p t a nd r a w i n g sA.s i t i s n o tp o s s i b tteo ctc.
g i v et h e d e t a i t so f s o m ee t e m e n tw s h i c ha r ee i t h e rt o os m a I t o, r o t h e r w i steo o
r e p e t i t i v seu, c ha s d o o r sw Thin dotted line
, i n d o w se t c ,w e u s es y m b o l s .
This shows the outline of large elements which are
lbove the plan, such as a large beam, or the boun-
claries of a nezzanine or overhang.
Doors are shown open, rheir width to sca-le,indi-
cating if they open inwards or outwards.You don't
draw a line for the threshold. Avoid showing the
door with a diagonal line - on the contrary take ) u,tr LuuJrv
the chance to practise drawing a quarter-circlel
The symbol is simple, showing just the frame and
rwtlws d'rnwug wt sfrnww*:r nf rlrz owrtht
the top of the door (thickness may or may not be
:yrtnl": Nrretlat ws 4rt lr^Lf-lyrtrl",l'"Lf
shown to scale). Only the passagethrough is really
shown to scale.
1 rtalunr

Windows _t_
Windows (except for French windows) are shown rluwr rrTy
uy Lwu perpendicular lrres
two pcrpgrrcrruurar lines orl
on tlle
the wail,
wa[, snowlng
the width of the ledge. They are usually shown Fuw d.rffzd,Lr,ntun"danat-trg
Arrow sh.wuyt d,ucofww
s h u t ( s e ep l 6 ) .
Dw rf rhz:rty: nv<<antw nr wzrharg

$41urcr (gnard,raul)
C o n v e n t i o nr se g a r d i n g[ i n e s
Unlike a sketch, in a scale drawing the thickness
of the lines must be consistent and regular, because
they signi$z something. When drawing in ink, or
with instruments, the thickness is strictly control-
led, but when using pencil you are in control. It's
a good exercise!

A b a s e[ i n e ,o r c o n t o u r tl4q ^ nt
It shows an edge in the space, an outline, for rl,w stars
example the top of a piece of furniture or the
banister of a staircase.In fact you don't make many
lines of this kind on a plan drawing. l{cfwru LLM

Lines indicating dirnensions S h o w i n gf u r n i t u r ea n de q u i p m e n t
Scc p24 In general, pieces of furniture ilrc nol shttwtt ott
a ground plan, since they are not pL\nllrlllct)t.llut
The section line and the walls if their presence is useful on your luyout, yott r'rttt
Whcn you make a floor plan, in principle you show choose to show them exactly,or to tlsc syttt|.rtlls,lts
cvcrything under a certain height. By convention, shown below.
this is fixed at 1 metre from the ground. Everything Fixed sanitary ware is always slrowrr (tltcsc rtt't'
lubove this height is left out of the plan. But there not furniture). Kitchen furniturc is vurillrlt', rtrrtl
ilrc certain elements which come up from the you can decide for yourself.
ground and go higher than this fixed height, e.g.
thc outside walls and partition walls. On a floor
plan these are shown cut off, as if a horizontal
bhde had separated them from the upper part.
The passageof this blade defines the section. To
differentiate the section it is drawn with a very
hearry line.

The stairs
You also show what is under the stairs, as for
cxample a small storage space. The banister, lb-]
or guard rail, is shown by two lines. To indicate i-tJ
the direction of the stairs draw an arrow, always htt wurh
indicating upstairs. z tarwffr
z-Jcq?r Jtf4
T h eL o g i cb e h i n dt h e s y m b o l s
Note that there is always a logic in these conven-
tions: a single line indicates an outline, two iines
two outlines, which here makes the top of the
banister,or handrail.'When the section line arrives
at the windows, it is replaced by two thin little qth lctt
lines, closed-up, which indicate the thickness of
the Elass.


wa.slntasi,t" W4,JM4JLIL tl+owt try d,s^tbt{d,

the furrriture

G e tu s e dt o w o r k i n go n a f l o o rp [ a n ,
L a y i nogu tt h e d i f f e r e natr r a n g e m e n t s
o f f r r r n i t r rvr e
o r cr o u [ dh a v ei n t h e
s a m er o o m . D r a wa p t a no f t h e r o o m
y o ua r ei n n o w t, h e nc h a n g e the
furniture a r o u n dT. h i se x e r c i sw eiIl
g e ty o ua c c u s t o m et od u n d e r s t a n d i n g
t h ed i m e n s i o nosf v a r i o u es [ e m e n t s , I
b e i n ga w a r eo f t h e i rp r o p o r t i o nasn d
thinkina g b o u t h ee m p t ys p a c e s
w h i c he n a b l ep e o p l e t o m o v ea b o u ta

trus( wrnLza
lkt f rha rmn wLrhw
furn"tturc.vw oawybtrov[y rhu as trwr;y

?trft nrrntgtnzw, tlz, :rfa i vyywkt

fireykx, *lnbl"l',a:fucwtwrdad, ^f ^^1
ludAzr" t1rlw rzlzvuto*. r/u Anu'grqtl,(u
rc rh't,Itjtohzndwr

arrargen^4hi':fh.( dlnug rntk ha: t huolarrn47ewt' il4 /"t,ru,1q
ratl,clrat tem
tzzn nwed,rwnl' ah"/,dw arra. whf, rf (h4, ynov&LMtr rfu wtntr+w
anl tfu il,ffwlr-rcvtw
sittug-rwn' l.rastzr* rcvtszd'. dnorharlcuvlkc[ul vll.

A Fv&v/71/AF
ENT/ yov
c A 1 1 7c o l o u a
Y0ut DAAr.v/vC
/7A/€ Aooih
wtLL ^rot-R
&AKrvc Avy
vFw puacFlArFr.

T-ll , .
. Y r I '
l| i,l ro\ \- /-vA t r n n
lL , L u l U l ld t l O S e C I l O n
A n e t e v a t i oi n
s a s t r a i g h t - ovni e wo f a w a [ [ .l f y o us t a n db a c k ,L o o k i nagt t h e
w a Lh I o r i z o n t a [ y[ yo,uh a v ea f u I t - f a cvei e wo f t h ew a I t ,k n o w na s a n e l e v a t r o n .
T h ep r i n c i p Li set h es a m ea s f o r t h ef l o o rp l , a nT.h es i d ew a L t as r et h u s
s e c t i o n evde r t i c a [ [ay s, t h e y w e r eh o r i z o n t a toLnyt h ef L o o pr L a nT. h i se L e v a t i o n
c a nb e c a t [ e da s e c t i o n aeL[ e v a t i o n .

The drawing is of what is facing you, the items t&rwt rf q tafl'r*tn, tt tb pala ,/ zo,
against the wall: doors and windows, but also
l" i nw:"kathfvr drnwtrgsr.rwLl
shelves and tables, making an ensemble, like a small
fagade in your room. Side passages,
syausnr/, flr.t,arrargtmeff rf dzraLb
doors and win_
dows are always cut ofl, but avoid cutting a single s*1" qJo"ytvard,s, lwluasil. Nrrefhe
isolated item, such as a column. All this is imoor_ rkob"zy rf tfu sotwt" h,nt, rt hzly
tant: the line of section must indicate the volume
ffitrzrt-tnrr rl,z rnyrv :yau
in general and the openings, even if they are not
exact\ opposite.

rf n sr,ttug-rwn,,fth a.str,alL
tabny nr,"d,,z


DrqwJlw rnvbr i,tveltvqt|ttv (fac{-rtu) I\tqw (ht vqtut,r
t o l e uu'lrvl'epL

R e a r r a n g i nagn a r e ao f w a t l
l\cthinking the layout of a flat doesn't alwaysmean
rrroving interior walls. Rearranging a wall panel,
changing the decoration and objects displayed is
in itself an important modification.You can plan
this on paper, especially if you are thinking of
buying new elements such asshelves,storageboxes,
scts of drawers etc.

D e s i g ni n m o d u l e s
Thke measurements of the various elements to be
included, and imagine the various different ways
they could be put together. They will be much
nrore interesting if you have worked them out in a
clrawing: they then become reai little compositions,
combining practicality with aesthetics.


T h el a y o uct o n s i s tos f p r o d u c i nagg r o u n dp t a na n de t e v a t i o nosf a b u i t d i n go,r
o n eo f i t s p a r t s a
, ftertaking m e a s u r e m e not sn t h es p o t ,T h e r ea r et h u st w o
p h a s e st a: k i n gm e a s u r e m e nat ns dc o p y i ntgh e mo u to n t h ed o c u m e n t s .

0rganisationof the layout W a l t sa n d p a r t i t i o n s Details

'We 'When
start with preliminary drawings on which we marking down tlrc lrcirsurr.rrrcnts of crc:lr The amount of detail required depends on your
mark the measurements taken.These drawings are room, there is a tcndency trl frllgct the thickncss final intention. For a flat, dont include panel
an intermediate stage berween the sketch and the of the wallsor panels.Trkcnlcil$rlrcllcnttwicc,to n.rouldings. But if you are planning to reorganise
ground plan: they are done by hand, on the spot, guardagainstmistakcs.Mcasurcirgninsttlrc rcll flnt a library or similar, you probably should include
but with most of the codes in place. Now that you suface,not the thick rrrouldinl{s oll tltc cloorsor them.
are (more or less) fully informed on all the ways of wall oanels.
showing what you can see, you must get ready to
take the measurements.

A team effort
Ideally there should be three people involved: one 3b
to draw and take notes, and two to hold the tape
when large areas are involved. At home, you can il
get your family involved in this operation. Bur if J1,,. l
you are on your own you'll just have to manage.
$o L ' l p 'Jr-t
A sketchof the groundptan I
This is the moment to apply the principles of l. 16

drawing laid out on page 10. Start by making a

freehand plan in a hardback notebook, preferably
room by room. Leave space around the drawing for
writing down the measurements. At this stage the
exact scale of the drawing doesnt matter because
you are going to mark it in.Try to keep the drawing
in proportion, so that it is easierto read.

T h ed i m e n s i o n s
These are indicated on a parallel line in the same
direction, with small lines to indicate where
Luu rv uluae l,w ir,,
ParaLhL dtcotwm snnl)ttzu
the measurement runs, and little bias marks to w Mrl fl4t l^4lltuHL\lltt w,d,watzthft' t't u a
indicate that it's a measurement. not oart of the Myu w4Jw'tt^tli- ard, rrt
drawinE. Be methodical!
l4rf f rl.',( drawt*g

the . .=-
Yrlu can now go on to a drawing of the whoie
M i
tlring. Think of the floor plan as a good sketch
which you want to improve or tidy up. Of course ;*
you can work in two stages:a first sketch as a foun- i
dation, and then superimpose a final drawing. i
F o r m a ta n ds c a l e W r
Now itt time to choose a scale. Let's think of +
an example. If you are doing a layout of a flat of
100m', more or lesssquare,it will be around 10m x /l}.

I 0m. At a scaleof 1/50 (or Zcm per m.) it will be a

square20cm x 20cm,which could go in anA4 for-
mat. But it will be too cramped, asyou must always
Ieave some space around the drawing. Thus an A.3
format (29.7crn x 42cm) or even larger (50cm x
65cm) would be more appropriate. Of course,you
can cram in a little more in a sketchbook.

C o n s t r u c t i ntgh e f l o o r p l a n
You must first of all make an outline, that's to say
trace out the lines which will not be visible at the
final stage of the work, but which will help to
ensure that the visible lines are well positioned.
, e $

Studythe layout
Before drawing the floor plan, make little sketches
of it, diagrams in which you can analyse the gene-
ral dimensions.Without really making a final plan,
it's a way of understanding its logic.

Lalroutof a flat
I n t h i se x a m p [w e e g o o n t o t h e l a y o uot f a w h o l ef l a t ,T h ed r a w i n g s
o n th e s et w o p ag e ssh o wth e d i ffe re nstages, t andthe pr ogr essive
f i n e - t u n i nogf t h e d r a w i n ga s w e s k e t c ha n dv e r i f yt h e d e t a i t s .

rhu firr lryw, wudzin lt*, lrartun lauoln tlufaor

rhar rhc,flwr yLanrf d,.aflar w rea[ysunphnrvlaanh q

tdrwd, ^f tlr 4 d,tyrcawru.

rlw drawLla i wr ft saql,c,.

rdJ arrhz oW ftW,

th*sseovrtr, dztall rha

vLrlw fkrd' d*awt*g,alldrz un;frrw,nflrtu
aw wWrwryrgleoti
l,qit,tw. stz fh4,dr4h rf d^zy,yleotvwygc a0,


I n a s c a t ed r a w i n g y o uh a v ea g o o dv i e wo f t h e l o c a t i o an n dc a nt a k e
m e a s u r e m e nat s a c c u r a t eat ys y o uc o u t di n t h ea c t u a t s p a cM e .o r e o v et hr ,i s
i s t h ed r a w i n m g o s tu s e di n b u i L d i nwgo r k .
I n o r d e rt o d o t h i s ,y o un e e dt o t r a i ny o u r s e [t fo [ o o ka t s p a c ed i f f e r e n t L y
f r o mt h ew a y y o un o r m a L lpye r c e i viet .T h u sw e a r e n o wg o i n gt o c o n s i d e r
m o r e ' v i s u a [ ' m e t h oodf rse p r e s e n t a t i-otnh e d i f f e r e nkti n d so f p e r s p e c t i

' tvtrufv



Th i sf o r m o f p e rsp e cti ve i s ve rye a sy
t o a p p l . yM. o r e o veirt e n a b L eyo s u
e v e n t u a [ttoy t a k em e a s u r e m e n t s ,
a s w i t ha f l o o rp | ' a nI.n e f f e c tt,h e
p a r a L l el i Ln e sd o n o tc o n v e r g e
t o w a r d st h ev a n i s h i npgo i n t t; h e y ,lo p^ptr) rn frnl thz waLb.
s t a yp a r a l l e S t . e v e r avIa r i a t i o n s Nd-aal,srrlnar *hn yw t*vlw aruLrr.rn rhz lryo"r, d'z ,zot^Aile, f tha face: rf d,z wall:ra[a n*
e x i s ta, c c o r d i ntgo t h ea n g l eo f s i g h t rlnzasycorrf a ynrnlhlp|rattt^r h,t,llwLfV llzs stry ynrall,eLtr eaahnrhz,r.rlv vwwts d,wtrrrtd,
c n o s e nn: e a r e tro t h e l a y o u to, r u+rtkwn rv rlv,ywnrl yl"a.w, t^t l,zey:thu ,U"krfy
n e a r e tro t h e e l e v a t i o n .

|. vrt oqrL,wlvnrlv phwl,at tun ylvtcrl, lsruer

ila I'e1Altrf rhznryks,a: d,z n aLd,toaft
rlv vuwfavwt rlv fam rf rl,,cwnlk,r, rlt. azrrwvw rf rhzJcnwryrnft-lvyk*.

Trgtrfrrm z ft + d,r,vtdztl'a fugk: a 2. v'ltaa\ttf a rumtkrrutnlrty nrJvynra7 r/4 W nr,.d,

r14lrstlztrf rhzykw.
an/' t fu ,, rhzwr(d.rqwd^ali,r'cs


oturve tha rvuvvrv',rst/4.rLqrw6

yussutl,e, ft dN(
arglzl ohv,*.


An effectof reduction

The prqection view does not distort length. It To mitigate this impression we can corrcct it ,r
produces a paradoxical optical illusion: thinking we Little by reducing the height, but then yor-rlosc tlrc
lre seeing in perspective, we find that the vertical chance of taking measurements.Note thlt rrrcustr-
lines, that's to say the walls, are higher than in reality rements are only taken while the vertical lincs strry
' lf DlMENSroNr
because,if the perspective was true, they would parallel, and parallel to the sides of the flt>or plrrrr. (lr\rrlvl( ! ' ' Jr ( ' ' ( ' l r \ l t i
tiJl l'!lrl(
cflectively be dwarGd by the effect of distance. PIAN t:t-^*'
rrt'rl rlt l r(x)R
I t l t t ' a pt t
l(AL' BvT/
ll 1l1l vl FII(At
t*^t' *ntfjl
/)rA(,\)FlALl *
V! I H

A ] R

T ou n d e r s t a ntdh i st e c h n i q uoef t h e p r o j e c t i ovni e w ,s t a r tw i t hs i m p L o e b j e c t ss,u c ha s c u b e sb, e f o r ed r a w i n gs p a c e s .
Practisb o r d o m e s t i ac p p L i a n c -e st h i si s a g o o de x e r c i swe h i c hw i L fLa m i l . i a r i ys oe uw i t h
e yd r a w i n gp i e c e so f f u r n i t u r e
t h e i rs h a p e sa n dd i m e n s i o n T s .h e s ep r o g r e s s i vs e
k e t c h ew s i Ua. t s or e m i n dy o uo f t h e i n i t i apLr i n c i p t eosf d r a w i n gI:i n e s
o f c o n s t r u c t i oann dp r o p o r t i o n s .
Ywwl) wt"u,lotb'ry atrhz d*a*,atwkol,yvtnrrhu vr,ew u ^vf^l twd,rawwg a l^allntjut rhts tsd*tattthzfqotrhat, u1*,
L,rn* o"rseLvu
tt a rzdnucLya,r tf d,a vt'smLfidd' ah4'ahvawry frrn rlz varul'"g
/loirt, du vizwisyraotw"U ,l" Jarne45yznyotwz ,r,rl,
varu,tlutgyraw (su drawtrg,yefl.

ora,wrha Jq^4.r{,
vr rcotargl,evf z. P^r unrhz verttpaLluw: aht, rhtn rhz yarailzLw^,tt
rlugrcw,a, ykw vf rha nficor

rl,a fin*:hzrtd.rnwwg

t. Dr4waw nrglz rf 3o", rhzn d*vt"dz

tlz tty z. Drqwthz ^yrgk:, d^zwrhz 4rw\r{tfl. q, Dt'aw
tfu /w rt' rfu wh, rh4wrh'tHar.
Lwwmt*n. T/uwd'wrlzzqaLhatf u"tl,'rzz.

4. Drnwthz aryh vf rl,'zta.aL r Drtw tlz tatL qh/, rhatuthz rar vf rfu arwu 6. Ad.d,

Destonan offlcesoace \J

T a k i n ga d v a n t a goef t h e b e n e f i tos f t h e p r o j e c t i ovni e w ,i , e .k e e p i n tgh e

d i m e n s i o nm s ,a k es o m ed e t a i l esdt u d i e os f a n o b j e cot r a s m a [ [p i e c eo f
f u r n i t u r eM . o r ev i s u atLh a ng r o u n dp l a n st,h e s es t u d i e s " a t t o yo wut o s h o w A fotdawayofficeon a shetf
t h i c k n e so s ,b j e c tssu p e r i m p o s o end eu p o na n o t h ear n ds p a c e sT.h a n k tso t h e
If you only have a small space, and not much
f l e x i b i l . iot fyd r a w i n gi n p e n c i [w, e c a ni n t r o d u csee e - t h r o u gvhi e w sa, v o i d i n g money, you can make yourself a foldaway office,
m u L t i p |v. iee w so f t h e s a m et h i n q . even a mobile one if you fit castors on it.

t. f(4.rf ty bawug :
drawtrs Drqw rlelrc^yi,
s"rfaq, firsr.

' -:tu*-'

z. Drtw n tl,'z fn* vtrbah, rlntnl,raw u" th.cmlv, l,cvcl,s


i 5i:::l'
_ li"*-

3. Nw drq w rffi.q, :hzLf.ovwrfiryt( rv rc,Jervt,

syaczfrr rlw out^L wvr a,h-d,
g f f i c ef u r n i t u r e
lrrojcction view enablesyou to move furniture
,rtorrrrrlls you pleaseTry out some arrangements
Itr lintl the one that suits you best, before buying
tlrc vlu'ious elements of your office corner. ,)'
z Dr4w tlvdw v{rttoq.l,s,tlutu d,rqw
tlw vartor^s wv!- stnrfaus an/, / \

I ' F o l r( r l o , v
v/try (NABLFf
.tttt you
f Qri^/ / t
ro rTuDy
DtlAtL.f n
ND 7-A16
^iltol ( Alt(

t Drq,w4 flwr ykr, rf rhz varn^s il_

tkwhr'r (wtJUt/"


q Draw untll rtlur d.cwrt's1ort

rud,: sltclves,

4 Ft,rurhrht,rr,arnyur,t unall dradzrntl:- kny,

i,only nd.d,una
yrr(ul.,a,cilrf^rcr, lwb r"

Fiaytngaboutwtth space
F i n a L lw , ye, c a nc o n s i d ear s p a c ea s a n a s s o c i a t i oonf w a t [ sa n do b j e c t sU. s i n g
a g r i dt r a c e do u t b e f o r ea n dp t a c e d u n d e rt h e p a g eI i ft h e p a p e ri s t h i ne n o u g h )
a t l o w sy o ut o pta ya b o u tw i th sp a ce sa s youplease.Onceyouhavemaster eo
t h e p r i n c i p | . oe fsp r o j e c t i oyno uh a v ea t y o u rd i s p o s i t i oanh i g h t yu s e f u I
i n s t r u m e net ,q u i v a t e tnot a s m a [ [ - s c a m [ eo d e Lb,u te a s i e tro m o d i f y .
Drawinga kitchen
Here is an exercisein using prqection.The preli-
nrinary drawing of the corner of the room and a
framework of 60cm squaresautomatically enables
you to place units to the correct size.This visual-r- t Df4wa rumfur rf eootnJf/artJ
iation of the units, even if simplified, enablesyou ftrarvkr/" ilz) avrrsyavtrll'g1a
to group them better. rlu rumhr tf ltt"lr,ewuwfl q,hi

z Drqw wfhz vzrfr,aaL

cxykm'e/" wu/W 32,flvw *t *r
rh.evyrflwns rrq.r[s*lu.ohfrcvcnt
th.tdra*ug teag rcn/"enst!.

3 Ad), shadl4yand,d,*auh,a,tl47
rhzymtrl.:frvrwygc ,t.
T h i sp r o j e cm t a k e sa s i g n i f i c a cn ht a n g et o t h eh o m e I. n s o m eo t d
i s o f t e nf a rf r o mt h ed i n i n ga r e aa n dt h e
f l a t so r h o u s e tsh e k i t c h e n
bathroom i s v e r ysma L t. Wh a tw e w a n tto do is swapthemr ound,
c o r n e irn a L i v i n g - r o owm
c r e a t i nag k i t c h e n a r e aa, n da
i t ha d r n i n g
m o r es p a c i o ubsa t h r o o m w i t hn a t u r al Li g h tT. h eL i v i nrgo o m sh a v cb e e n
e n [ a r g ebdyg e t t i n g r i do f a d o o ra n dt a k i n gd o w na p a r t i t i ow n a t LT. h i s
is s h o w ni n t h efo L L o w i e g mp tew,h e rea layouthasatr eady
n xa been
don e{ s e ep . 2 6 lr.
rhzv t*v rwwl

t\t ttNltw t.vvtprtlec

natks ^t

to rccthz avadatLe

*-\ |

t lu farti,rt,onrL,nvctecnralaw
rwq.ytorhar wcoatuvt"r*ilucd''a
{^rurc lirol,ewtmtr, t^'r ^1t,t, *t
W4,vre rhz lzwLtfww wv[-
Dcffi,rcnrrut nf wraLLtMa dlnina a,rca,
al.rrgn ,uaLL,
unks v d,i;yQywu,n


l f .

I lv hotv.,nral luvrrl rlv,yvnl ykwcxrcnl,

t,t'(othot(vl tlv lt,t,lta'u, tn
ttt(, t0 il to haw n'{(l,tvtl,tyINL(l,c (r46tfl.ilt
la*rr,' tlvv twl.V+ut, I hi,rt awt4ytl,w.r
tlv Iuch,cnynu

Vlsrlahsil-rga krtchrerrcorr-rer
T h i se x a m p Ltea,k e nf r o mt h e t r a n s f o r m a t i oonn p a g e3 8 ,p u t si n t op r a c t i c e
t h es t u d i e m s a d eo n k i t c h e fnu r n i t u r ea,n dt h ed i f f e r e ncto m b i n a t i o on nst h e
6 0 c mm o d u L eT.h ep r o j e c t i ovni e w l, i k eo t h e rr e p r e s e n t a t i o sn hs o, w sh e r e
i t sI i m i t a t i o nb
s ,e c a u s iet i s i m p o s s i b t e
o s h o wa s p a c ea, n dt h ew a I L w s hich
d e l i m iitt ,a t t h es a m et i m e .0 n t yt h eg r o u n dp l a n sa n ds e c t i o nisn t h e i rw a y
g i v ep r e c i s e s o l u t i o ntso t h i sp r o b L e m .

However, projections have the advantage of raising

questions, like that of the partition wall now sepa-
rating the kitchen from the entry hall, which was
before the wall with the bathroom door. (This par- .","6n
tition is studied on p.42.) rr'

t l



v-r,rohznfrvntgzvrn rt t'oln
e,wfrontytt ru" d^z
rlnzLt'v,g-rwm unqhte lnalJ

PkruW ytylcor. r'lwt y yarr
rf rhaynrt,rwwwalL u ra[an
w. Awrxtraorcr lwd'w
:lqwr"tehw.wttl'urhu [ilr rf
fuawug vvcontv:tu@ whaf u
hqltW atwerhaf,u^**t,
*W*.V rl'artl,z all*g u
fr4r6l4rchi'. DFr/GryMAGtct
wHtcH ALLow,
f '/fPgA/Df C6/L/vcf
,* ,,"^*'*'
;;;: :,:::
AtDt wHtc+
A a F A / O 7p ( ) t f t E L E
fcALE ^,1oD€,L,

Crnizruel,vwwrf rlq Lt)ro Jfac

Creatlngan openparttttorr Tlnr fal,:euul.,"rg
T h er e o r g a n i s i nogf t h e s p a c ei n t h i sf L a t[ s e ep . 4 0 )
m e a n st h a tt h e e n do f t h e e n t r yh a l La c t sa t t h e s a m e
+ ; - ^ ^ - d r l L J P s l l ^P Cr r t i t i o ni n t ot h e k i t c h e n .
LllllE dJ

This partition has two distinct parts: top and bot- IHE VAR.]OV(
tom. The bottom must remain closed because it
conceals kitchen elements, equipment or storage.
On the other hand the top part can stay open or
half-open, in any case becoming the object of an
obvious change.The partition becomes the fron-
tage of the kitchen, while still being the end of
the entry hall.We can treat it with elements which
have some of the properties of a faqade, such as rf rh,e,
louvres, venetian blinds and houseplants.
n-rhz uj, rf rha

ckn kzyr,nwexan"yLe,
flw rransfvrYnafw".

l)ilot studyof the lower part with open shelves.The
uppclrpart rcfcrcnccsthe kitchen,and is presented
rs its luq:ldc.()u tlrc lcft is a staudwith a pot of
lrcrlrs,unclorr tlrc right is rrsystcnlof louvres.
Preparatorydrawing Thc top pilrt hidcsl light,cvokingthc shtrtters
rr bistt'tl.
sthl,yart ruwW frvvv"tlvfal,n
utlwg hv,twtt tlu Lmpw

oymyarr tt tt

the entrance, with storage drawers. In thc Lrppcr

part, the objective is not to indicate thc kitclrcn

a flat
I n t h i so t h e re x a m p L iet ,i s a s p a c ew i t ha d o u b t eo r i e n t a t i ownh i c hw i L b
l ,e
c r e a t e di n s w i t c h i n rqo u n dt h e k i t c h e na n db a t h r o o m .
rlv,hob ftnr. r 1,,,e 4,aci,htu yku/" vrvilz ynrrs
fl+at }nt'trtt, r,u,a,hl,7fu waLl,t
4rc fr4hqtrch.t',
*l"oh qllnwa/" werall
/ttur(, wluohngrcrurl,
/nwwwh, rct. \

Hcrc.,a.vlvna.rtr, vuw rf tlu or^otaL

yam, rhz
walkarL yarrtrtvru rhz r*ms rc tt o rrzd,
arr slqwwa: hartlad,zvis
l lu yau wutLhralu*g
rl,z yau e55lnaww wkhn"t yarrtrwnt U
w.,vi,cwrf rl'z ol,aq7e:,fvr wl'unl"thz
grtl, wdl yrue ,u a tare

a yknrurg sl,*o|". t wt)Jtt

MD(JJ4Utr hab, sevzraltcfnrc
dzod,wgrn a stlraw".

a dresslng-roorrt
ar-rda bathroor-rl
D i f f e r e nkti n d so f s p a c e sc a nb e d r a w nu p v e r yq u i c k Luys i n gr e a d y - m a dger i d s .U s et r a c i n g
p a p e ro, r a n yo t h e rp a p e trh a ti s t r a n s p a r e en nt o u g ht ,o L e t h e m a r k i n gssh o wt h r o u g h .
B e l o we, x p l o r i ndgi f f e r e nut s e ss f 6 5 n : r - ot t q i n nn r i d) t p . 8 3 ls, h o w ni n g r e yi n t h ef i r s t
d r a w i n tgo s h o wi t i n p o s i t i o n . EEFOR-E

Howoaturh.tssynu tt
uwrry vr arzd, tt t r.laryt,
plaozrhzovrnzrrf t'l^ernvtt\.4r rhzyvw,rrf tl^zgnd, tlz tedrwnJ
thretylnrzsr,r,tzrv,or,rhznyku rhzefutusnas
t'v ttraun,fl+eovrzaf d,uvvruwns

! *r
l r 'l
1 l

n* '* ' t
4 l


q- - '
i .,.

szewgrlur'gh un thz rq^a.rcl

uat['e,y^tt yku ryzrttg:, anl'
rlu :yau hastu* rzdasgrcd,fv orz4t'(4
dresl4r-rwtw.r/u :ynaer,wfrrnr rf rl,z wwan*
lw teewnse/,tt d.etgr"a Litdz rffiq orrrzr.

\ , 1 ' {

tJ'trc,tl^'zhtt'ha,t \tat leetut:lrrvtt'(al.t,rttotl^,clatlu'oott (

Th.eorrrtl,or wkeltkol to tl^',eLttt,h.cnhar leer"ulcd,ft arearc tfn4.shswt

T h e e f f e r -ot f n e r s n e c t i vceo m e sf r o m w h a t o u r v i s i o nm a k e so f w h a t t h e e v e
s e e s .B e t w e e nt h e e y ea n d t h e o u t [ i n e so f a n o b j e c tw e c a n d r a w t h e s i d e s
o f a n a n g l e ,t h e a n g t ea t w h i c hw e s e e t h e o b j e c t W . e c a n o b s e r v et h a t i f t h e
o b j e c tm o v e sf u r t h e ra w a y ,t h i s a n g L eb e c o m e sn a r r o w e r a, n d t o t h e e y e ,t h e
n h i e r -st e e m qt n h e s m a t L e rT.h i s i s t h e e f f e c tk n o w na s n e r s n e c t i v p

,. r/nzdrqwuVtzln",I'q: futn :u"/lifid, tt rv(

rlnelws rt' ytrsytttwr


rlw f"rrhzr aw(y 4.h,ntlzotw, rl,z:w'qll,er

T h ev a n i s h i n g

^frW r/nuu rhavan*:ltryyn5nt


z. Tlz yartttwwwrh.e,rght ts rznwed,. +,rf wtrytna !w, w{,aarv

tu rlv Lw rf
4 r y .

, --' ,ug;'I'

rl"e *holzorl,lzoru*
rf ynrahl
r'wtreussar(yhnzurraL- &Mr4(u

T h eh o r i z o n
The multiplication of parallel lines*generates a
whole series of vanishing points, aligned to each
other. This alignment is called the horizon. Thrs
line does not appear of course, but it is recom-
mended to place it in a realistic drawing as well
as in an imaginary one, because it is the principal
reference point for fixing perspective.

h c l 9 6

rlu yrunt w thz hrqvn hr"d'm vzrcbaLlcnzml't"oarc rlq #urvtr l"u erbn a tfll ft du lfr{T,
rlu yonrwnrf rl.'zvtvrver.

rlq rturw l,at eahn4 r&wvl

p o i n to n
M o v i n gt h e v a n i s h i n g ttN, rv rlu hfr,
the horizon
we move, the vanishing point of the lines
in one direction seems to move too.-We can expe-
rience this in a room by looking at the vanishing
point of the tiling. This shows that the vanishing
point is notjust an effect oflines, but also an e{fect
of our vision and our position in a space.

T h eh e i g h to f t h e h o r i z o n
Our position in a space affects both the vanishing
point and the horizon. In the drawings on thrs
page, look at the view from above and below.They
show clearly that the horizon, at the height of the
vanishing point, the convergence of the edges of
the shelves, is at eye level.And if we stand higher,
or sit lower, we can see that the horizon follows
our movement.

T h eh e i g h to f t h e h o r i z o ni n t h e d r a w i n g
Once the height of the horizon has been esta-
blished in a space,it must be shown in the drawing.
That then depends on the framing you want. If
you want to show what is above the horizon, you
will place it towards the bottom of the window

lul w wryvtu,tlzEvrt,t'thz wall tzcrws
tQfrthry t&nmet^ vdzr an/. rhr rnanu r,r'yka,
wcl'ln rfu,a*ry

Tl"i wrnaw r,src( tt soal,€,,"'

t&a^szha,hzghr w nr r*u
bt/av *wlrrlw d^an

HIN wc oqtuuri*r,aft (h4 lzbk nf t-lw ,wn, seeugrhat t1z h$tzsru,al. !y{ h,vcL, a.t,i Hcrcrhzhrrzor",'tr U kv([,tunq alu,( a ltt*fftt rl a wU ry th wal,lr, Ne
tw-rl*d,t ay thz wall; r 4,2 lvgkfi"w"rlw uilug ts ato^r z r w4tHr tlwnsetrlrat cl1.( wuhq lunlrt r/ 4n,wl t
nol^hat urttu,tvutrtlltvfst'ftfrr';r,
wvrret.rh.rnan ot,rlv.r1,7lxu ralfu tlstt rA+ilrcrv(r,hqrut h,t luatl,h ntwc
tlz Lw,z
rf th l,,arusn,

T h eh e i g h to f t h e h o r i z o np, e o p t ea n d
the sca[e
t^ f ht,tA'^wug,wt lul tlqt tl,cstarver
The horizon being at eye level of the observer mrrr lt vanl, lc,a^.tttlv l.nru,rn tr
(about 1.5 metres if he,/she is standing) it follows ar gVthvelf, tlu pturnftatNlsrvrl'.c
that if other people, positioned in the same way, rglrt wl'+ktclowtlv I'uglx rf rl,.tpryh
are shown in the drawing, their eyes will be at the ttanl#g,
sane level, aligned with the horizon. At the same
time, this perception can tell us instinctively about
the heieht of the room.

KEP7, reAcrvC
Thevlew fronnthe front
T h i si s t h ev i e wf a c i n gy o u ,t h e m a i np a r t ,u s u a t [tyh ew a t If r o mt h e b o t t o m ,
s h o w ni n e t e v a t i oann dt h e s i d e si n p e r s p e c t i vTeh. ew a L i[s n o td i s t o r t e bd y
p e r s p e c t i v- et h e s i d e ss t a yp a r a t l e t[ h, e p r o p o r t i o nasr e k e p ta n dw e c a n
choose w h i c hs c a l et o u s e .

errnral lLMs

wqll at flrc, zh/,)

This view presents all the advantages of perspec-

tive, and in an architectural drawing of the interior
it allows us to show the floor, the side walls and all
the elements seen here - furniture and the arran- 1i

gement of detaiis - in a much more realistic way

than a projection.
Moreover, if we take a photo, keeping che axis
of the object horizontal and perpendicular to the
wall, we get a frontal view.
have the impression of being in the space
shown, while with the projection view we were
outside. In principle there is no longer the problem
of walls in front hiding things, walls which have to
be deleted or made transDarenr.

T h ep r i n c i p l e o
s f a f r o n t a Iv i e w The probtemof depth
At this stagcthcrc rcrnainsone problem:how to
dcflrrcthc dcpth. Irr cftc.ct,trothingallowsus to
drrrwthc lirrcsin firlnt of or bclrindthc backwall
if'thcy ru'cpirlltllclto it.Tlrcy ilrc;lt 0 ccrtairrdis-
tlncc,l.lovclncdlry pctspcctivc, urrdwc rrccdr way
of'fixirrgthis rlistlrrt'c.lrr tlrc tillklwing pagcsyou
w i l l f i n d r l nc x i t ( ' n
t t c t h o do t ' d o i r r gt h i s . T h cp r i n -
ciplc is sirrrplc, lrut,if georrretryis llot your thing,
tlrr.cxplilrratirlrr nriglrtsceilrrilther0lrstraet. lf you
wiulf to rltawcxtrctpclspcctivcs you lrirvcto apply
it, lrtrtfirr ske.tchlrook sturlies, wlriclrwc urcrnairrly
itttr.rcstcd irt ltclc,it is crrouglrkr uudcrstirrrcl the
, rl*oh rf dw yar'zlfrvnrht,tvtrcm priut'iple,iurdtlrcrrapplyir by guesswork, in order
z v,tedzfinz tll l,tgk nf rhz hortzy*,whrrh
to rvoid obviorrrerlon of pcrccpti()n.
orrrtsfrnl,trc rl,e gt lzvdaf rl,z tturvcr,

g. wt,olnutz
n yuskbrufwtl'z vanuhwg lvtnt rwrl,zhrt<vruaentre,
ffi w rghr, whbl,orrreslrnlsrc tl,,e,yrs:utlz,
Wrurwlrrf thz ntyrvt, + .
4J w{ t4w earh,cr(ftt I r). wa aa.tufh.avd.rawLvrlv va^ukog
linz: *ht"ol, dznaroqrz d^z :tte wal"h,t{

To draw the depth
Here is how to go about drawing the depth of
a frontal view. If you prefer you can just do this
first exercise, which explains the method. It's very
simple - let's start with a small example.

3. Pla,ae ywt D (a,h.fflarvarutkry /vw) w

r Dr4wa taoL-wallfta,olwsansoah. rl,e lwtzw"tv tlu rgk, sa"tared,a( da,Jraha
Drawu+(h.ehravt, rl,z eq"alto thar w\t tt* 4rc,fkc{d, u. relarwn,
lwti- o,
nnd,yvun A ahtr,E ft fl,a frnf rf rl,z *all,. tt rlrz wall r/nu dutaloa u waJwzd, rn
tlu hort<uru t'vtl,z saha saala


Drawrha , exrenit4T ft ^hrLl"Lf,

rNcfJ oA, ft rr\4k4(h.aI A

z. Draw (h.a oA an^d,

exrenl't;r fvward,J

TA/€f F
vtEv{f tN
r'/AY, AND
lo lKtp THtr

wHy rf rf A feV,AR.E3
vrttfhntgwtrg a dar^nMfrafwtu, rcrefl",atwhzw
oo w eqrwLtv rlw durahta rf th+ vtservzr -frvyn
rh'ehonzuuo teorws tlw var*:hug /w,t vf al)
s. Drawrh.elqrkwal li*.t A, E,, rhanB E,, rhz Las wh,bharc q( +r" tr rlug,o"nl, ykru.
yw l,avt,nqrlarl onrvwtlvgrorwl tt Jlvqft,
A'E t^4}4Jnruargh vf +r" ah"d, tr ooruitt resrh+
fttuoh4d,tr rhe taal" wall, fu<l*L rf a sV,wre. tl", FWry enntLes ^s to
find,rhz d.efd."frvwilz wtkL.
M a s t e r i n tgh e d e p t h
You see then that points O and D show your posi- ,",.
tion in the space: point O gives your height and !; *3
't"i;' q
your position laterally; point D gives your distance. ),t
Mastery of the distance is a little tricky. If you
are placed too near (ifD is placed near O) the sides P - 7

are very distorted. If you are too far away (if D

; , G

is further from O) you risk being simply outside '1"

rf.yw wve lil)1r o, rh,c*awug w ahargrc,tL,
the room. Moreover, in that case,point D is often
outside the drawing - annoying because you need
4Jil4 yenytorlvtl,ilJ wlituywJcf Mlru,r
a wider piece of paper that the area being drawn. \ rr f'wrlvr 4w7yfrvrn&v,o
w4,rl4 o,,lw aH lrawhg 4 \tHlcotut vwN
see a similar problem when taking photographs ^4aMrfu w4l'l''
which necessitatewide angle shots to compensate
for the absenceofdistancc.
Here too, there are practical limits which we
get round by showing transparent walls.We can also
choose to show only the part near the back wall, 'lr -+
without trying to give too big a view of the sides.


tf.yM trwt 0fnn*,erfrvbj,.ywnrt

^\ fut^fu walJ,

)uf4.Ate hrLhi' Durarta


Torilovebacka partitlonwall
H e r ei s a s i m p L ae p p t i c a t i oonf w h a th a sj u s t b e e ne x p t a i n e O
d .nthe left:a r oom
i n w h i c hw e p r o p o s teo m o v eb a c kt h e p a r t i t i ow n a [ [t o a c e r t a i nd e p t hI P ) .A n d
o n t h e r i g h t :h o wi t w i t [l o o k .


t. Dr4wrhz :ynu u"ehvarww,tt ag|ucwsonlapkq rl'rzyru^acyal vanhhug z. FrtuwA, tnarLrff a tl,wrth47thar, q"al r, p, t7w,eq^ued,
o phoatlz yrirt vf d,utahteD, oD nrrzsyrntug toJ1* /,istqhta d'utaht{rfu nrfl,tnn lvu n wve,
frtnr WA
frvntl'Z wa.U,. Drawd^zyruouyaLvan*:lu"*gLws ftwardao, ah/, vM fwturdr D
frvnrfu tntttn trf rha wall qr A

3. Draw Pa, AD qt P,
oru:ses 4 DrawvwrhlgrvawL tlv lw A p , whbh w rlu tau tf r/,t
Mw l4rfl,rwt'wall, ayylyq.1rlu pru^rtyhtryhrwtl ttuft(tt t(.

s , Draww rl'a vt al lias frrw du ta:e w,nl thg

wfth rh.evqhtJ Li,yw:.
tnteruzor 6. Ptt^rvotl,q Lavsrc lrrger rcedz/"(LcfrharcqJdnttcd,ILM)

to blockoff acorner
w e c a nm o d i f yt h e p r o j e cftr o mp 5 8 b yc r e a t i n a g c o r n e rf o r a h o m ec i n e m a ,
I i b r a r yo, f f i c ee t c .T od o t h i sw e h a v et o m a k ea n e x t e n s i ofnr o mt h e n e w
p a r t i t i own aL[.

r/u aitcql drawug wtthrhe

txfztuwr, shwr" u" dtfcd, LLwt


? i i$ *_-*_|+p._-

t, v'lehavetog, taol-ft d,,'t,uuttul ,Lxol o771^,,^11 2. Pkcr e (fir uanyh Fr r,ttr\, ltawn rc dU pah al,aunfir
(wkh vrq,yart orntwrwgnf rlw A*l fcoa^sarhu wd) rl'wlnr yaruDaaarnlt4T n du kprh rf rlv uruunn rc tc
cnatl,aa to ffiLa 4pownft waJu{whtJ. trufaor, w tlrz rrwdz.Pkq p rn du l,orta,till,n wW fnnfu rglr.l,atl,
pn/corwa dtawagr,rnly th":gn,,,M fk" f rhaltrttiwrv otrn4rrf rl,,clnr ani,t.Ert47P'fxrwan{
ft du rrrilfu rf fl,l
wal h'awrutva l:Wwwsoah. pvw rf ,Lurarwt. Yw havcP',

3. onaeJowhavcl,rawn tn tlw taalptal{ tf dta 86 cAr5:prrl

rfu atr^ylxcl,lgtcor
4u wOr coryPuf€.
cxf(ruwLL,drawtntl',e ve aLh,rws, ft tht rHF L€NC
"! DE,PTH/ /.ND
Ll ^rHtcH ,uHtcH qtvEt
pra.tVaLvanul",y Lr,nzs.rhln draw th daryw,al * THE^'DTH,.] f'
7H€ A/€r4/g,(.f6ryf
ftwqrrlJo wluphwdlgwcyo'nrhz -frontnf tl'e t^:c tO,v,
ewu:|tty drawug wutlne, Lwwrf th,efinr .
lryvur ttward,:rh.ekru vf ftglr

the space 4 HOME CINEM,A

W ec a nc r e a t ea n e x t e n s i o[ns e ep . 6 0w ) i t ht h e i d e ao f
p t a n n i nag p a r t i c u l asrp a c eb: o o kc o r n e rc, h i [ d ' sr o o m ,


rh.cextcwwwu rcdtcc/"tv 4.t4.rfuftnyvt tyvtre wtd,(,

wlrol"vrvu o ynrtn[y isalfteahl, Jc,lq.r4fc,
a how
cwt^4 arqr frtn rhz ,ctt' rf rlv n*n"

Tlw taol- vf thz n*tn w nsed,frrylaowg a wfn aL,/ shalvct.

r/w syau tatthJ4.rc^q"d,tl,a cxrerulm"/Ltlray rlw yarr u"frtnr
a v{U tlttv, ornf4uu
4.h1, a wrL s^rfnu ar.l, a yarrttww rlu,ch
or(4fu a reaL l"ftth avfr4htl,


rlw erer,.tnww wwrylzrc!abscd, vwrl,z d,ovrstdz

I'a"lett"^)- fu*. rlw kolt- nf thz ,*rn w
turr,ed,brtr atuvffic{.

a soaceunderthe eaves
H o wd o y o ud r a wt h e p e r s p e c t i voef s L o p i nwga t t sa n da
L i t t l fel i g h to f s t e p s ?I n t h i se x a m p l iet i s n o tt h ee n dp a n e l J / t J
I h'( ry4ct rcrv( ctrr/(flLcn. I h'( lnrc
t h a tw i l . bl .e u s e df o r t h e e L e v a t i obnu, ta n i m a g i n a rpyt a n
vf rcfurrr,ct,u ynirlucl' ty tlw
of reference d n t h ef i r s tg r o u n dp L a na n ds y m b o L i s e d
s i,t u a t e o
b yt h ed o t t e d[ i n eT. h ep o i n tD c a nt h u sb e p [ a c e q d u i t en e a r
tho O lqoa n 5Rl ec. thic. nrnio/-t i c c_i ,f r. l_
r ta
aAI e oIi nncsi rtl o
a eiIhnae S
c np- a c e

m a r k e do u tw i t ht h e d o t t e dL i n ea, n ds o t h e r ei s n o tm u c h
d a n g eor f d i s t o r t i o n .

i ".:.

D e s i g n i nag p t a t f o r mf o r a b e d

9l*:t rhzlugk rf rh'eykrfvrm (roonD,ktlryo^

ylnu vrurtr'zlofr, vr,tfu,d.rttzd,
hr^t T/u txrtutntL
I gK_
P u rhzrzsnt'hardu ykrftrn algu wkl'"rhz
{,rsrs l,ghrnwtlzrgl"t.

l-Hrr qE7au6,
,; ^ ,:;;:,
D e s i g n i nag s m a t lf t i g h to f s t e p s D e s i g n i nag s k y t i g h t _*)
€NADtFr ,r
The secondconversionis the creationofa second ro .,"b r,
6xACr w/DtH
dormer window on the right-hand wall, at the Of .?'Hg
bottom of the room, which we imagine as being
lF nrAD€,
one-third the size of the remainingpanel,ar:d in
the centre.Flereis the method for dividing a panel
into three equal parts;it appliesequally well to a
panelseenin perspective.

Orawtlnz Wr d.t4,v.nL:rf
rhz y^anzl*hbl'" seyararetrhz
first' d.rrmtr ww,ltt
l t t t J
fM {ttd N4.U t h$( d,!4r,hau
gweywrhz n^d/.li rf d,,4
yarcL oraw tl'e wel,i"an LLrre.
Thz fia (soowv) alhw5fsy3 ref: ul vtt,d.r.vtAz
rhz I'211ka"d.rec,rlrcwdrawtrcd^zvan*:lr"r.g
[ , ah.d,ty wva^,:vf ilc llgrnnL wd,z bfr, Draw thz d't"yrna[:
d,wtnzrl,z l,ortz-nffqktw rhra tn or(4rt t-lz rLsers rf tl,a z daa-yxpr^tPt
tl" t@ rf d',evnn*:lwg yruntsar-d,fl'a yaral,hL tl"ns orc'atzl'

Lws aLlnws 'LJtr d.r4wtlu:tqs

ah als ,r/l
At rfu. yrwtt f a,tercectwn
d.rawfia z vertaal,s
wl"uL *il dlvtd,erh4
yanzLin tl,rce

A few strnpleconstructior-t
H o wd o y o ue s t a b l i s he q u a Id e p t h s ? To dividea wa[[ Howto dealwith an irregu[ar-shaped
How do you divide the vanishing line AB into a Itt enough to draw the vertical lines linking T space
given number of equal parts (here 5)? to H.
In this space, the right-hand wall has been rota-
ted so that it is no longer perpendicular to the
wall below, but turns at an angle. In this case the
edges of the panel do not meet at the vanishing
point O, but at a new vanishing point P. It's there
no matter which horizontal generates a vanishing
point on the horizon. This prepares us for the
:* the oblique view in which our gaze, turned to
4 L 3 + 5 , . . ,
\-/# !*/ the side, brings about the displacement of the
vanishing points.
Dr4,w4,Lu.,z to tl''z lro1zuruJf4rfuV 4(
A, ar"d,rnqrL *r r zqrwLVttwhf,J.

2. )rwv fhz lasr yrwrt r ft

ltLhi' E, arj, ext'enj, tt
ft tl^z /.ffqstu lav, orenllg varu,slu"rg yrut c

r/u *qll aatulz d.wtdad,

da,retfowvlug flrm n
5. frrtn p tt tlv yri,tt: t, z, s 4,h/, +
Draw l,|,ttzs verrbaLlu.z.
rlrese vnntslttt'g Ltr'z:d,i,vtdzAE zqunlfo

Howdo you draw a circte? or projectionview?
The drawing of a circle is always bounded by a Note that a detailfar awayfronr thc vurrishirrgpoint
square and appears as an ellipse. Note that the large looks like a projection- thc vlrrislrirrglirrcsurc
axe and the small axe of the ellipse do not merge almostparallel.In fact, snrallolrjcctsoficrr irppr,rrr'
with the axes of the souare. asif pro.1ections.
Itt why asscrrrbly instrtrt'tiorrs
often illustratedon this principlc.



+! r.. -f*AlFq.M"*"*::1r,n*

*',;.1 1.---*.,,*,-"'',, *,.lTp

i 6l
dowr-ra partitionwail
D i f f e r e nkti n d so f s p a c e sc a nb e r a p i d Lsyk e t c h e od u t b y m e a n so f a r e a d y -
m a d eg r i d .W o r kw i t ht r a c i n gp a p e ro, r a n yo t h e rp a p e fr i n ee n o u g h toshow
t h eg r i du n d e r n e a t h .

v'ttrl'"rlz l,'elyrf rhzgnn,w
rcJe s+ rhz tkol'-vwrhzrgl.r
hasteewt-qlzr, d.lwnahd,tl.,a
WW cnkryzd,frwr.!rw{
tlnavte*vf rhz*LyW, at rl,a tao[-

Creatinga mezzanine
or overhang
Grid 1 (seep.82) allows the study of a more com-
plicated conversion, to take advantage of extra
space that has just been created at the end of a



8EtrOP.,E cvrurnv(wwLua:l^alVns vis,nnlise rlnzr,tw tl4ot. rfu puvqht d rhtrerwttwn:a phrftrmrn rlte
Tl"i wasrcr vi,,
w"thz frrr lsroL. Wzuttu*u€fhtr ani a Jfakvnil/khkr, f lq lnr
0nrl^rlett Ltft ttly, tur wdlk ,l,l4y tailr wt
fy rlv pkt'vrn,N€pn\ffr{ rfurf'ftorff rlu
f^F,rt tMztau)'1,€,

r^/!wa7 Jftuttl,4t't rf rfu |kffirw, ft avhJd,er

thzb vumL twv4of wv44.(rwnL.

T h i sv i e wi s a t s oc a L [ epde r s p e c t i vwei t ht w ov a n i s h i n g
p o i n t sb, u t d o n ' tw o r r y :t h e d r a w i n gi s q u i t es i m i [ a tr o
t h ef r o n t a l v i e w .




r fu runfh,l,col
&ortlatw ft tccth.t nry
i wol,uf',aatuw:t/'wc rtll havea
yrtrctyal varukta ynnr (hzre
The view here has already been shown on page
prz) an*lur vaul,+nqyrtrr
66, in'how to deal with an irregular shaped space'.
qllcari owrlv hfl - ee,. Flere, our gaze is slightly turned towards the left. In
this view, the left-hand parts of the room seem fur-
ther away from the centre. They thus seem smaller
and this perception is most marked on the vertr-
cal, the left-hand angle. The two lines of the panel
at the end, at ground level and at the junction
with the ceiling, now seem to converge towards a
vanishing point PF1. In a frontal view these lines
were parallel; now they are convergent. And they
are still parallel in realiryl This is an application of
the fundamental principle of perspective: objects
further away seem smaller to us.

rigorous construction of this kind of pers-
pective necessitatesa ground plan, an elevation
or a section and a geometric device which is a
little complicated and whrch is not shown here.
Nowadays, in professionalpractice this classicpers-
pective is done by computer (seep,80).
Using the oblique view here starts with a
sketch of the ground plan of your interior space
or an imaginary space,in which the first elements
are placed by guesswork. It's what we call in the
following pages'building by eye'.We also use some.
tricks of the trade which are enough to obtain a
good result.
Here too, the grids enable you to make some
sketches (seep 86)


a roonfrby eye
To desinn hv eve fotlow the a p p r o a cshu g g e s t ehde r e s: e t t i n gt h e b o u n d a r i e s , P t a c i n gt h e h o r i z o n
p o s i t i o n i nt hge h o r i z o an n dd r a w i n g
i n t h e p r i n c i p a[ r[ n e s . The horizon, as you know, is at eye level.To posr-
tion it weil, aim for a point that you are certain
is at eye level, then measure it, remembering that
the eye level of someone standing h 1.5-1.6 metres
high, and 1 metre for someone sitting down. Aim
for this point and mentally trace the horizontal line
that passesthrough it. Imagine drawing a red line
on the wall at this height.That's the horizon exactry
(so long as you don'r change height!).When you
are drawing, think of putting the horizon, accor-
ding to the composition you want.

r/<t krexwa rf t'l"ct*n varuhug yrwm are

TtryenT',b"1,ar ) Yw o4lvJ€{l,ut'vrtwntfrrt^uu
vwtl.',estdzsqh/, ql'aad,:yn olnteffcr tt ol.qusa
wdzrqft argLe,nsug a Ltttlzg^+s*vr!-
r/u bn<vr" wrhz ,wyn
Lsnt- gu l,evtL,
t^r vn rl'z
lU( L(i ar thal"Al,o.yry-^..-ri
S e t t i n gt h e b o u n d a r i e s oluusc,aoorrd,tlg tt wl^ai-
Mark out the boundaries of the spaceyou want to J . eutral/y,
show and study:left, right, above and in front of
tf u anuy,/,fl4 wrLdAz,
you.ty to avoid too wide an angle - 90" is about
the widest angle that our eyes can take in. For the
record, an angle of 75" corresponds in photogra-
phy to an objective with a focus of 24mrn, i.e. a
very wide angle.

H o wd o y o up l a c et h e h o r i z o ni n t h e d r a w i n g ?

fyw arcLovkug rhahorer,*ll tz qr rta txt"n

uyward,t, fl* arcd.rawu11 fwrnt"ftN4r flwr hvel,du krawwdl k l,rryl,ry fu lflt.
vfdu ygz fNvratl'ar uf.y* arc lwl,i4qcrwrThe,ly
6yLsNwarrh,yraN ol,a:y7trg
Lu'l rlt'vuw- wl willt+tanst
r1,,4 rht hnr, w p, ?e,)

I l,t lwt at,Trvwlhvclart rf.runhdi,cwty

'lt^rtuf^ry,tt u nitr fv I,tluat fh,emrnoe,ts*
P l a c i n gt h e a n g l e sa n dt h e l i n eo f t h e l,avcy^t tn rl,r wrrbalt nf rlv oor*, ^rlla
ceiling aw|,rl,,elqrwrcnhrf rh4qLlt*tq.

When you are standing in a room, the most

f obvious lines are the vertical lines of the corners
I and the horizontals which mark our the ceiling,
like the cornices. Draw these three (or five) lines,
being careful with the horizontals of the ceiling,
for you still don't know their vanishing point.

wt'*hlbh h,nz:yo* q.rc^JrlV ft fihl,
tlavug wvrL2d,
P t a c i n gt h e v a n i s h i n g rhz varu;h"ryyrr,nt,firn (hzvrtznt-q(wr,
Now is the moment to put in vanishing points, to
left and right. One often feels it would be easy to
vf t'lw l.,"wsrlrg havea d,rectww rwwr,
place them by eye, directly. Experience teaches that ft ^l'iplLd.'py
araall yarailzL,
fu azfi**".
this impression is wrong, and leads to mistakes.
What I am giving here is an absolutely reliable way \\\\%

of placing the vanishing point:

Take a pencil and hold it horizontal, parallel to

the lines where you are looking for the vanishing
point.Think of the lines behind you - on the floor
or carpet under your feet, or under the furniture -
which are often parallel to the first vanishing lines.
Now think of the line from your eye which is
going in the same direction. It's one of the family
of lines for which you are searching the vanishing
point. Ifyou are looking in this direction you are
aiming at the vanishing point.
Bring up the pencil to your eye, without chan-
ging direction, as if it were a blowpipe with which
you are sending a dart towards the point.The point
you are aiming at is the vanishing point.
You will probably be surprised to see that the
point is not at all where you would have placed
it by guesswork, but still further. You will also
see that using guesswork you don't put it at the
right height on the horizon, but a little above.
Generally speaking, one the horizon a little
too high. flavurg wrrLzd'wrt t-lw van+:hug

/rtnt,JlvL rww tn4yww fhqr, ns wt,t'h

rlv, hraw,yw 4rc,Jra7 ft f^t 4
red,yr,arlpvwrh,ewall wurl, alv a:rl,N

1nr wharxt( Jutrut tt tz. Tl"enyrw

t^t4J(lW ,r rh' 14fff, nv rlz h+rWn

p o i n ti s n o t o n t h e p a p e r
l f t h ev a n i s h i n g
Very often the vanishing point is outside the com*
position, and so outside the drawing, or even the
sheet of paper. But that doesn't mean outside your
vision, even ifyou have to turn your head slighdy
to the side. Nevertheless, in so doing you are chan-
ging the line of sight and the drawing. In this case
you have to be able to draw the lines without
the vanishing point. In general we get by using
guesswork, but I am going to show you a trick
for making another vanishing line, or at least for
checking that your drawing is not too inaccurate.

crA17t oF coNtTzvcT-ioN

, lfarf wLtlLa vahuhu4 l,ttu,F 4h.d,thz \tttzslL F, lt z Dr4wa.scoml,vt I Lu"z,rhewerccnl, tt I t\.Lt I onw du l4l*h srvl *ttw ^ vltxo^l htv h"w
d, vatulwg ti*v, frcn:rw yratt A, d.raw a rzxargh uLft,rcleatwt, fftr" dq ^t'llh f d'4 F!firgh 4r Fl,4Ftt* f t*t".
rl,a vertpaLL1*ta yasu rhro41l"a. iler1rfttfdv @l*h,

4 Draw AB whiol" orffi{l thu wd,nn [u^t la^t f fln ruoralgh,

r oraw thz,vawl, da"g,rnaL 6 Fwth rl,,cttwt 'orwn fujvuurg A an/,A'

T \ ' f f I I I

W o r kw i t ht r a c i n gp a p e ro, r p a p e rt h i ne n o u g ht o s e et h e m a r k i n g su n d e r n e a t Th .h et h r e ee x a m p l essh o w
h o wd i f f e r e nvti e w so f a r o o mc a nb e m a d eu s i n gr e a d y - m a dger i d s g , i v i n ga c o r n e rv i e w t, h e
v a n i s h i nI qi n e sa n dt h ed i m e n s i o n s .

rhz argLevf rhzgrd, otresyvnl,s

tt rlnz z Egmd,d^zarylerf dvgnn 4,r(qrr
ovrnzrrf rhr rwyw.Awarolrugyl.,atfuz* rc tlu lCt anl,qrzrtrzd
hal tuw crcqrzd,
nada ft lzad,thrn'gl, ft qqd+arrwm. ft rhz ta,ak-

'. EU rhz arylz rf t-lwgrtd,4 rca$rloasturc

ortnrtd,to rl,e hfr

Taklngouta partition
s l r o w ts; t k i t r g r r rI rpt r l t i t i t r rw
r r r liln l b c d r o o u r .
W t ' t l t u r l r c t h c s p l r ' cg r r i r r ewdl r e r rt l r ct w o r o o r l l s
i t l e. j o i t r c t Al , t ' o t ' r t ci t l u s [ r c r ' nk c p t .r u l l k i r r gt h e
r r l r,l j o i r rb t r w e e r ft l t c t w o r ' c i l i r r g s .


it 1
A vlow frorrrabovo I

U n t i In o ww e h a v ea t w a y a s ssumed a h o r i z o n t av Ii e w a, l L o w i nugs t o s e e
r e a I v e r t i c a[ i[n e sa n dd r a wp a r a t | . ea| 'nsdv e r t i c a l sT.h i si s t h ev i e wt h a t
c o r r e s p o n tdost h e m o s tu s u a t s i t u a t i ao n ds i m p l i f i edsr a w i n g inperspect
l f t h es i g h t[ i n ei s c h a n g eddr a m a t i c a LuLpyo,r d o w n t, h ev i e wi s
transformed H.o wd o e ct ,h o n o r c n a r - t jcyhea n g ew h e nt h ev i e wi s n o t
hori z on t a[ ?

tf weaocxht^at'e tha
dzylr, n va^t':h.trgyrtnt
vf rl,'z varrtoalluwsovma

i rri. u,66r
FkaM A&ovE,
tT rc THE
i v7-O 7-nF
rhz vtewu :fl)L l^.tt<vnta.L,
*tth d^z lwrt<vwar rh,ercy rf rl.,z
d'rawwg,wlu"ol" ahws^J fr vwht4fr, rl,.t vte, ftua.rd,Jdv tmnyn H)N<DNTAL
L/vEf /A/ A.
anda hrgh-angle
W i t ht h e h i g h - a n g L
v iee w t, h e e f f e c its e x a c t Lt h
y e s a m eu p w a r d s .
T h ed r a w i n gs h o w st h e s a m ep r o g r e s s t o n .

flntut'^1 vteru*kl"thz lonzvt ykul, rhz sa,^a,vtew,tl'zgn<t t'urya/,nTwar/"r,1lu

hru(lvre tr i a,'tafizrhz bnwwg.) verttoqLk"a: tpyautnarwcrtt,



I lu vuwoalhrl.
tctwhal,v'wthraol.t fu varuh.,r,y yrunt
* rlq nft u'nlt,ril.t ynnt d tk ilryLruww
tLtvr4ll/, at

'7 If 7H€



Drawtngon the connputer Next, go up the tool palette and click on square 2.
Click on the screen,slide across,then click again to
let go.You have drawn a rectangle.

T h e r ea r e n u m e r o uds r a w i n ga i d sa v a i L a b lees, p e c i a l f. ol .rys t u d y i n ign t e r i o r

d e s i g n0. n ew a yi s t o t a k es o m ep h o t o a s n dt h e nt r a c ea n o u t L i noef t h e
p l a n n em d o d i f i c a t i o nHse. r ei s a n o t h e r w at yh a ta t l o w ys o ut o v i s u a I i syeo u r
i n t e r i oirn 3 D ,b ym a k i n ga m o d e oL n t h ec o m p u t e r .

Now click on square 3 - the cursor become a little

block with an arrow. Go back to the rectangle
SketchUp Firststeps which becomes greyish, click on it and then, hol-
This is a modelling software program for Macs or Start by exploring thc diflt'rcrrt ding down the button, slide towards the top - a
PCs, perhaps the most impressive and user-frien- menus. Later, you clrrr corrsrrlt miraclel
dly, used by thousands ofstudents and professionais the help and dowrrloltl tlrc
alike.And what's more, itt free.Tap Sketchup into instruction videos.Yru will scc
your search engine and fo11ow the instructions. the ground, bounded by rrxcs,tlrc
Download the free version and start. menu bar and the palcttc of it'orrs
opposite (if not, unclcr l)isplly,
choose tools).Here is how to rrst'
Exp[oration them for the first tinrc:
You are presentedwith talking icons, and many aids
are available.We show here a smail, simple example
to show you what it can do, but remember that rn Click on 1 (at the bottonr) rrrrtl For more fun click on the little box opposite (in
spite of its apparent simplicity it is in facr extre- then on the screen, :rrrd tlrcrr, the menus at the top) or go toWindows, Shadows,
mely sophisticated.You can make a model, modify holding down the nrousc lrtrttorr click on'apply shadows'- another miracle.
it, view it from every angle, add colours and mate- you can move about youl sl)il('c.
rials, study shadows according to time and place, The little hand enablcs yorr to
etc.The online aids are very good - they will help move things sideways.Ytxr lcuvt'
you savea lot of time and discover possibilitiesyou a tool by clicking on thc sprrc'c
misht not other-wise know about. bar or on the black arrow ut thc
top of the palette.

These exercises will show you how SketchUp

works.You won't have understood everything, and
you need severalhours to get used ot it. (Start by
printing the'memento'in the Help menu.)

Makinga modelfor your projects
When you have grasped the main principles,
especiallythe possibilityof grouping elementsor
objects and stipulatingtheir dimensions(seethe
little box below to the right ofthe screen)you can
Lrsethe sofrwarefor various tasks,seeingthe result
nlore or lesscomolete and realistic.

rla yLrntrx5 vywLft, :k* rhz or(4(wv vf 4rv

extcnsww Tges eo-e,)

fou eAN LrrvK

tH/f w , ?-H Yo'rt DAA6//'G/
ur,ry6 A p6^/r,L
fK.icAr 70 ca€A7E
THF' rr;rLDrvc
At wrTHn pHoro.
Gndsfor tsonnetnc ectlons
(.R-/D r
You can use the grids by means of a scanner and
printer, or photocopier.The lines are thick so that a' arytz vuw,fnvourwgthzgrv"nl,
they show up under tracing paper or a 60gm paper.
The two grids show the different angles, which
you will recognise. If you slide them under your
paper, they will give you the main outlines.
The dotted horizontal lines are the markers.
Starting from the bottom, they indicate rhe height
of a bench or chair, then that of a table The top
marker (on grid 2) indicates 2.5 metres, the stan-
dard height of a ceiling.
The squaresare assumedto be 1 metre (grid 2),
but you can use them as 50cm (grid 1) or any other
m e r \ u r e w h i c h s u i t sy o u .

vwwfqvtwW th'e,(l,avarwtu
rf tl,a tw,aua"vv^11

Grrds fror-rtal

- i l b l i : *

rd' slnows a l,aryz,,*m, t^f rcft (h4f rlw ,ttd,rloa nff rc.ttu(tv(
-JM a4,t/v
naLz ,,r tl,.e wtdtl"Jw w4t1i',Lt'vwlu,ol"oaserlne ydzs are,d,rawn r art u,4 lt or't
tl'e vnrus Lwvsrturl,z flsvr

' " t t t t t -

, t o
t ,
t t "

I a t r
I h
a tr
, a I
r a t
t t tt;_t
t i
a t i f ,t
_ _,


' t c r r
urlos IoI oollqueuews
C&D FOL TwO vANl(H,^/G PO,N?-f

ntv4td Mrild,( rht drawwg

"*i- - + - L *

t - i I
I _-l
l - a I

: t
, I
{ I a

a J
t ,
r l I I I t I
\ l I I I

: : f

-* '.* - j L r . i - . * - q * r '
t?*'{ t
* -
', I
\ a I
t \ I
f )d a
GAID FO& ()^.16VAN,f H,NG Po/N7-

It(vr416/ M4r{r fh4 cui'rc,. T/4i vbewtJ abJ(,tv thar

f rh.efrrffal vLw

b > - - b + : , t i - l -

- --

t - . 5 - L 5 r . a a - -
* ? G t _
- '
i l
* t - l - - - . 1

* r t f

, t t
t l -.-r-l

Drawingfor lnteriorDesignersis a practicalguideaimedat helpingbuddlngInterlor
designerslearnhow to draw professional ls accesslble,
beautifully and practical.
illustrated Guidance is givenon drawingperspectlve, floor
plans,drawingfurnitureand renditions of rooms.Fittedwith sketches and drawlngs,
this is the idealguideto producingsuccessfuIhanddrawings of interiordeslgns.

GillesRoninis anarchitect
at theSchoolof Architecture
at ParlsMalaquis.