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Job satisfaction refers to one's feelings towards one's job. If the employees
expectations are fulfilled (or) the employees get higher than what he / she feels satisfied. If the
job satisfaction increases organization commitment will increased. This results in the higher
productivity. The main objectives of this paper are to assess the job satisfaction: to identify the
effectiveness of job satisfaction and to find out the several factors like personal and
organizational factors influencing job satisfaction: to identify the effectiveness of job satisfaction
and to find out the several factors like personal and organizational factors influencing job
satisfaction of employees. In this study, 125 no's of respondents have been taken as sample.
Percentage analysis, weighted average, chi-square have been incorporated for research analysis.
The study helped in revealing the level of satisfaction of employees with reference to the various
factors provided in the organization. This study clearly shows that employees under organization
are more or less satisfied with the job. The organization should consider on the salary,
relationship of employees and supervisors, grievance handling and give more opportunity for the
new employees.
Employee satisfaction is a measure of how happy workers are with their job and working
environment. Keeping morale high among workers can be tremendous benefit to any
organization, as happy workers will be likely to benefit to any company. There are many factors
for maintaining high employee satisfaction, which wise employers would do will to implement.
To increase employee satisfaction, many companies will have mandatory survey or face
to face meeting either employee to gather information. Both of these tactics have pros and cons
and should be chose carefully.
Surveys are often annoying allowing workers more freedom to be honest without fear.
Interview with company management can feel intimating but if done carefully can let to workers
know their voice has been heard and their concern addressed by those in changes.
Surveys and meetings can truly get the center of data surrounding employee satisfaction
and can be great tools to identify specific problems leading to lowering morale. Many experts
believe that one of the best ways to maintain employee satisfaction is to make workers feel they
are part of the family or team.
Holding Office Events such as parties and group outings can help close bonds among
workers. Many companies also participate in team building retreats that are designed strengthen
the working relationship of the employers in the non-working related settings. Company trips,
pain ball wars and guided back parking trips are versions of this type of team building strategy,
with which many employees have founded success. Of course, few will not experience a boost in
morale after receiving more and many raises and bonuses can seriously affect employee
satisfaction and should be given when possible.
Yet money cannot solve all morale issues and of a company with wide spread problems
for workers cannot improve their overall improvement, a bonus may be quickly forgotten as
daily stress of an unpleasant job continuous to mount. If possible, provide amenities to your
workers to improve morale. Make sure they have a comfortable, learn, break, rooms which basic
necessities such as a running mates keep facilities such as clean bathroom stocked with supplies.
While professionalism is necessary for most business allowing workers to keep family photos or
small trinkets on their desk can make them fed more comfortable and nested at their workstation.
Basic consideration like these can improve employee satisfaction, as workers will feed well
asked for by their employers.
The backbone of employee satisfaction in respect for workers and the job they perform.
In every interaction with management, employees should be treated with courtesy and interest.
In easy avenue for employers to discuss problems, with upper management should be
maintained and carefully monitored. Even if management cannot meet all the demands of
employees. Showing workers that they are being heard and putting honest dedications into
compromising will often help to improve morale.
Job satisfaction refers to a person’s feeling of satisfaction on the job, which acts as a motivation
to work. It is not the self-satisfaction, happiness or self- contentment but the Satisfaction on the
job. The term refers to the total relationship between an individual and the employer for which he
is paid. Satisfaction does mean the simple feeling –state accompanying the attainment of any
goal, the end-state accompanying the attainment by an impulse of its objectives. Job satisfaction
does mean absence of motivation at work. Resource workers differently described the factors
contributing to job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. Hop pock described job satisfaction as,
any combination that cause and person truthfully to say I am satisfied with my job.
Job satisfaction is defined as: “The pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of
one’s jobs as achieving or facilities the achievement of one’s job values”. In contrast job
dissatisfaction is defined as “the un pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of
one’s job as frustrating or blocking the attainment of one’s job values or as entailing disvalues”.
However both satisfaction and dissatisfaction were seen as, “a function of the perceived
relationship between what on perceives it as offering or entailing.” Job satisfaction is denied as
the, pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as achieving simple
feeling – state accompanying the attainment of any goal, the end-state accompanying the
attainment by an impulse of it one’s job values or as entailing disvalues”. However, both
satisfactions were seen as, “a function of the perceived relation between what on perceives it as
offering or entailing.


 If job satisfaction is a worker benefit, surely the worker must be able to contribute to his
or her own satisfaction and well-being on the job. The following suggestions can help a
worker find personal job satisfaction.
 Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. This often leads to more challenging
work and greater responsibilities, with attendant increases in pay and other recognition.
 Develop excellent communication skills. Employee’s value and reward excellent reading,
listening, writing, and speaking skills know more. Acquire new job-related knowledge
that helps you to perform tasks more efficiently and effectively. This will relieve boredom
and often gets on enticed. Demonstrate creativity and initiative. Qualities like these are
valued by most organizations and often result in recognition as well as in increased
responsibilities and rewards. Develop teamwork and people skills. A large part of job
success is the ability to work well with others to get the job done. Accept the diversity in
people. Accept people with their differences and their imperfections and learn how to
give and receive criticism constructively.
 See the value in your work. Appreciating the significance of what one does can lead to
satisfaction with the work itself. This helps to give meaning to one’s existence, thus
playing a vital role in job satisfaction.
 Learn to de-stress. Plan to avoid burnout by developing healthy stress-management


 Assuring job satisfaction, over the long-term, requires careful planning and effort both by
management and by workers.
 Managers are encouraged to consider such theories as Herzberg’s (1957) and Maslow's
(1943) Creating a good blend of factors that contribute to a stimulating, challenging,
supportive, and rewarding work environment is vital.
 Because of the relative prominence of pay in the reward system, it is very important that
salaries be tied to job responsibilities and that pay increases be tied to performance rather
than seniority. So, in essence, job satisfaction is a product of the events and conditions that
people experience on their jobs.
 Brief (1998) wrote: "If a person's work is interesting, her pay is fair, her promotional
opportunities are good, her supervisor is supportive, and her co-workers are friendly, then
a situational approach leads one to predict she is satisfied with her job" .
 Very simply put, if the pleasures associated with one's job outweigh the pains, there is
some level of job satisfaction.


 Everyone from managers, retention agents to HR need to get a handle on employee
loyalty and satisfaction – how committed is the workforce to the organization and if
workers are really contented with the way of things for gauging their likelihood to stay
with the company. One of the main aspects of Human Resource Management is the
measurement of employee satisfaction. Companies have to make sure that employee
satisfaction is high among the workers, which is a precondition for increasing
productivity, responsiveness, and quality and customer service. The litmus test is to study
turnover and average length of service. If turnover is on the rise, loyalty levels are low
and vice versa. Comparing them to industry averages gives good idea of attrition
probabilities. Staff attendance, compliance with policies and confidence in leadership are
other indirect indicators of allegiance while excessive theft and sabotage spell obvious
lack of commitment.
 According to Heskett et al (1994), more satisfied employees, stimulate a chain of positive
actions which end in an improved company Identification of Variables Affecting
Employee Satisfaction and Their Impact on the Organization performance. In another
research it is said that employee satisfaction influenced employee productivity,
absenteeism and retention, Derek R. Allen & Merris Wilburn, (2002). The success of any
company is directly link to the satisfaction of the employees who embody that company,
that retaining talented people is critical to the success of any organization, Freeman,
(2005) .Studies shows that businesses that excel in employee satisfaction issues reduce
turnover by 50% from the norms, increase customer satisfaction to an average of 95 % &
lower labor cost by 12%., Carpitella, (2003). The more satisfied an employee is, the less
turnover and absenteeism occurs, Maloney, & McFillen, (1986). Judge, et. al, (1993), on
the other hand, mentions that employee satisfaction is positively correlated with
motivation, job involvement, organizational citizenship behaviour, organizational
commitment, life satisfaction, mental health, and job performance, and negatively related
to absenteeism, turnover, and perceived stress and identify it as the degree to which a
person feels satisfied by his/her job. In contrast, Rousseau (1978) identified three
components of employee satisfaction: they are characteristics of the organization, job task
factors, and personal characteristics.
 In the construction industry, where the quality of products is dependent on the skill of
laborers and onsite supervisors, employees play a significant role in the success and
outcome of the product and the company.
 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004 Profit and growth are stimulated directly (and
primarily) by customer loyalty. Customer loyalty is a direct consequence of customer
satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is heavily influenced by customer perceptions of the
value of services they receive. Value is created by satisfied, loyal and productive
 Employees who feel a sense of teamwork and common purpose, a strong commitment to
communication, and managerial empowerment are most able, and willing, to deliver the
results that customers expect (Employee Satisfaction”, 2005) Human Relations
perspective posits that satisfied workers are productive workers (e.g., Likert, 1961;
McGregor, 1960). Thus, organizational productivity and efficiency is achieved through
employee satisfaction and attention to employees‟ physical as well as socio emotional
needs. Human relations researchers further argue that employee satisfaction sentiments
are best achieved through maintaining a positive social organizational environment, such
as by providing autonomy, participation, and mutual trust (Likert, 1961). Employees‟ job
satisfaction sentiments are important because they can determine collaborative effort.
Consistent with this reasoning, Likert (1961) has argued that collaborative effort directed
towards the organization‟s goals is necessary for achievement of organizational
objectives, with unhappy employees failing to participate (effectively) in such efforts.
 In a unique study conducted by Harter et al. (2002), based on 7,939 business units in 36
organizations, the researchers found positive and substantive correlations between
employee satisfaction-engagement and the business unit outcomes of productivity, profit,
employee turnover, employee accidents, and customer satisfaction.
 The predominant view has focused on the situational context (e.g., supervisory support)
as a cause of satisfaction and has argued that high-performance work practices and thus a
positive working climate foster employee satisfaction (see, e.g., Bowen, & Ostroff, 2004;
Wright, Dunford, & Snell, 2001; Wright, Gardner, Moynihan, & Allen, 2005).
 Keen observation of employee reactions and conduct is by far the most obvious and
easiest technique. Casually walk around the office, watching employees working,
interacting with each other and talk to them informally. Are they smiling, energized,
cooperative and alert or listless, inactive and unhelpful? You can even employee a
professional consultant as an objective third-party to assess the work atmosphere and
compare with other companies.
 Taking simple observation to the next level by asking employees outright in attitude
surveys, focus groups and exit interviews and analyzing the results to determine staff
attitude, opinions and motivation. While satisfied employees are not necessarily loyal or
loyal ones always satisfied, it cannot be denied that job satisfaction fuels loyalty. After all
its been rightly said that, the more satisfied an employee is regarding his or her working
conditions, the more likely is he or she to develop a psychological attachment or
commitment to the organization. According to Mark graham Brown, (2006), there is a
strong link between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction and between
customer satisfaction and future revenue.
 Companies should try their best to evaluate why employees leave or what kindles their
dissatisfaction. Examine the root causes – where does the problem lie? Is it earnings or
benefits? Does it have something to do with job quality or workplace support? Or is lack
of appreciation or growth to blame. The onus is on the management to keep employees
engaged and happy, so as to persuade them to stay. In fact, this is critical to organizational


Through review of literature, we can classify the variables in mainly two broad categories
I. Organizational Variables
II. Personal Variables
Identification of Variables Affecting Employee Satisfaction and Their Impact on the Organization
1. Organizational Variables:
The organization determinants of employee satisfaction play a very important role. The
employees spend major part of their time in organization so there are number of organizational
variables that determine employee satisfaction of the employees. The employee satisfaction in
the organization can be increased by organizing and managing the organizational variables or
organizational factors.
Fallowing these 10 variables comes in this category:-
1. Organization Development
Organizational development is an ongoing, systematic process to implement effective change in
an organization. Its objective is to enable the organization in adopting-better to the fast-changing
external environment of new markets, regulations, and technologies. It starts with a careful
organization-wide analysis of the current situation and of the future requirements In other words
we can say that Organization development is the process through which an organization develops
the internal capacity to most efficiently and effectively provide its mission work and to sustain
itself over the long term. This definition highlights the explicit connection between
organizational development work and the achievement of organizational mission. Fallowing
these points come under this category:
2. Policies of Compensation and Benefit
This is the most important variable for employee satisfaction. Compensation can be described as
the amount of reward that a worker expects from the job. Employees should be satisfied with
competitive salary packages and they should be satisfied with it when comparing their pay
packets with those of the outsiders who are working in the same industry. A feeling of
satisfaction is felt by attaining fair and equitable rewards.
Fallowing these points come under this category:
 Wage and salary.
 Reward and penalties.
3. Promotion and Career Development
Promotion can be reciprocated as a significant achievement in the life. It promises and delivers
more pay, responsibility, authority, independence and status. So, the opportunity for promotion
determines the degree of satisfaction to the employee. Fallowing these points come under this
 Opportunity for promotion.
 Equal opportunity to grow despite being male or female
 Training program.
 Opportunity for use skills and abilities.
4. Job Satisfaction:
Job satisfaction is the favourableness or un-favourableness with which employees view their
work. As with motivation, it is affected by the environment. Job satisfaction is impacted by job
design. Jobs that are rich in positive behavioural elements- such as autonomy, task identity, task
significance and feedback contribute to employee’s satisfaction. Fallowing these points come
under this category:
 Job design
 Task identity
 Recognition
 Responsibility
 Empowerment
 Quantity of task.
 Difficult level of task
5. Job Security
Job security is an employee's assurance or confidence that they will keep their current job.
Employees with a high level of job security have a low probability of losing their job in the near
future. Certain professions or employment opportunities inherently have better job security than
others; job security is also affected by a worker's performance, success of the business and the
current economic environment. Fallowing these points
Come under this category:
 Facility of transfer
 Accessible / reasonable target
 Leaves

6. Working Environment & Condition

Employees are highly motivated with good working conditions as they provide a feeling of
safety, comfort and motivation. On contrary, poor working condition brings out a fear of bad
health in employees. The more comfortable the working environment is more productive will be
the employees. Fallowing these points come under this category:
 Feeling safe and comfort in working environment.
 Tools and equipment.
 Working methods
 Security guards and parking facility.
 well ventilated with good light fans and air- conditioning.
 Neat and clean office place, rest area and washrooms.
7. Relationship with Supervisor
A good working relationship with your supervisor is essential since, at every stage, you need his
or her professional input, constructive criticism, and general understanding. Fallowing these
points come under this category:
 Relationship with immediate supervisor.
 Communication between employees and senior management.
 Treatment to employee.
8. Work Group
There is a natural desire of human beings to interact with others and so existence of group in
organization is a common observable fact. This characteristics result in formation of work group
at the work place. Isolated workers dislike their job. The work groups make use of a remarkable
influence on the satisfaction of employees. Fallowing these points come under this category:
 Relationship with the group members.
 Group dynamics
 Group cohesiveness
 Need for affiliation.
9. Leadership Styles
The satisfaction level on the job can be determined by the leadership style. Employee satisfaction
is greatly enhanced by democratic style of leadership. It is because democratic leaders promote
friendship, respect and warmth relationship among the employees. On contrary, employees
working under authoritarian and dictatorial leaders express low level of employee satisfaction.
Fallowing these points come under this category:
 Prefer democratic style of leadership
 Friendship, respect and warmth relationship.
10. Other Factors
There are some other important variables which affect the level of employee satisfaction in
organization. Fallowing these points come under this category:
 Group outgoing (feel like a part of family).
 Encouragement and feedback.
 Use of internet and other technology for doing job.
II. Personal Variables:
The personal determinants also help a lot in maintaining the motivation and personal factors of
the employees to work effectively and efficiently. Employee satisfaction can be related to
psychological factors and so numbers of personal variables determine the employee satisfaction
of the employees.
Fallowing these 5 variables comes in this category:-
1. Personality
The personality of an individual can be determined by observing his individual psychological
condition. The factors that determine the satisfaction of individual and his psychological
conditions is perception, attitude and learning. Fallowing these points come under this category:
o Competencies and personality of employee are suitable for job.
o Perception, attitudes and learning of employee.
2. Expectation
The expectation level of employees affects their satisfaction level. If one receives more outcome
than expected then he will be highly satisfied and vice-versa. Fallowing these points come under
this category:
 Expectation of employee from the job.
3. Age
Age can be described as noteworthy determinants of employee satisfaction. It is because younger
age employees possessing higher energy levels are likely to be having more employee
satisfaction than older age employees. Fallowing these points come under this category:
o Young employees possessing high energy level so feeling more satisfied.
o Old employees resist accepting new techniques.
 Gender
 Education
 Age
 Expectation
 Personality
 Personal
 Variables
4. Education
Education plays a significant determinant of employee satisfaction as it provides an opportunity
for developing one’s personality. Education develops and improvises individual wisdom and
evaluation process.
The highly educated employees can understand the situation and assess it positively as they
possess persistence, rationality and thinking power.
 Highly educated employees possess rationality and thinking power.
 Education develops individual wisdom and evaluation process.
5. Gender Differences
The gender and race of the employees plays important determinants of employee satisfaction
Women, the fairer sex, are more likely to be satisfied than their counterpart even if they are
employed in same job. Fallowing these points come under this category:
 Generally women are more likely to be satisfied than men.


Purpose or benefits of employee satisfaction include as following,
 Enhance employee retention.
 Increase productivity.
 Increase customer satisfaction.
 Reduce turnover, recurring and training cost.
 Enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty
 Energetic employers
 Improve team work
 Higher quality products and or services due to more competent, energized employees.
 Brand of organization in business field and comparison with leading competitor.
 Mission and vision of organization.
 Potential development of organization.
 Rewards And Penalties
 Benefits
 Wages and Salary
 Opportunities for promotion.
 Training program participated or will do.
 Level of sharing etc...
 Relationship with co-workers
 Treatment of Employee etc.
 Tools and equipment.
 Working methods
 Working environment


 Level of assignment for employee.
 Level of coaching
 Capacity of career development.
 Quantity of task.
 Difficult level of task.
 Expectations of employee are suitable for policies of organization.
Salary is a fixed amount or compensation paid to an employee by an employer in return for
work performed. An employee who is paid a salary is expected to complete a whole job in return
for the salary.
Overtime allowance in extra cash compensation for the hours that employees work in excess.
Decision making involves the selection of a suitable action from among two or more possible
alternatives in order to arrive at a solution to a problem.
 Grievance handling means help to solve a problem of the person who is in trouble and
went some kind of help.
 It is to help such a person is a way that can give him justice to his satisfaction.
 Competencies and personalities of employee are suitable for job.
Employee welfare aims at providing such service facilities and amenities, which enables a
worker to perform their employee well. An employee welfare facility consists of canteen, rest
rooms, housing facility, medical facility, educational facility and transportation facility. This
study helps to find out the various accretions facilities they are provided by the company.
The process of working a group of people in order to achieve a goal.
Training is the format and systematic modification of behavior. Which occurs as a result of
education, introduction development and planned experience.
It is the probability that an individual will keep his or her job. A job with a high level of job
security in such that a person with the job would have a small chance of become employees.
Communication is a process in defined and shared between diving organisms. Communication
requires a sender, a message and need not be present as aware of the seniors intent to
communicate at the time of communication thus communication can occurs across vast distances
in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating panics share an area of
Employees work schedules vary from full fill time lo part time to job shares. All work schedules
have one thing in common; the employee is doing work under an employer. Today's employers
understand that flexibility is what employee requires in their work schedules. If they don't
employers should beware

 Ostroff (1992): has Studying a sample of 364 schools, investigated the relationship
between employees’ attitudes and organizational performance. Ostroff found that
aggregated teacher attitudes such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment were
concurrently related to school performance, as measured by several performance
outcomes such as student academic achievement and teacher turnover rates. Across 12
organizational performance indexes, the magnitudes of the correlations between teacher
satisfaction and performance ranged from .11 to .54, with a mean of .28. When the unique
characteristics of the schools were statistically controlled for, teacher satisfaction and
other job-related attitudes continued to predict many of the organizational performance
outcomes. Results were strongest for teacher satisfaction; thus, organizations with more
satisfied employees tended to be more effective than organizations with dissatisfied
employees. This study indicates that satisfaction is an important social process factor that
fosters organizational effectiveness. The major limitation of this study pertains to the
nature of the study sample; all organizations were secondary schools. The extent to which
similar relationships would hold for organizations in other types of industries
(manufacturing, service, etc) and occupations cannot be determined.

 Ryan, Schmitt, and Johnson (1996) has Investigated similar relationships between
aggregated employee attitudes, firm productivity, and customer satisfaction. The authors
measured these relationships at two points in time from 142 branches of an auto finance
company. Results indicated employee morale was related to subsequent business
performance indicators, customer satisfaction sentiments, and turnover ratios. These
researchers attempted to study the causal relations among the variables; however, their
attempts lead to mostly inconclusive findings. Interestingly, they did find evidence
suggestive of customer satisfaction as a causal influence on morale (a finding that is
opposite of the directionality assumed by the literature). Although a tentative finding,
Ryan et al. (1996) discussed several possible explanations for it. For instance, the
customer satisfaction index was monitored closely by unit managers and success or
failure likely translated into management practices that influenced employees’ job
attitudes. Moreover, the researchers speculated that the particular setting may be unusual
in that customer satisfaction might be inversely related to the amount of contact with the
organization (e.g., customers without problems with the processing of their payments are
likely to have less interaction with company representatives than customers with such
problems). Similar to Ostroff’s (1992) study, the major concern with Ryan et al.’s (1996)
research is that the data were all from one organization which limits the general inability
of the findings.
 Harter et al. (2002) has the authors conducted a met analysis of studies previously
conducted by The Gallup Organization. The study examined aggregated employee job
satisfaction sentiments and employee engagement, with the latter variable referring to
individual’s involvement with as well as enthusiasm for work. Based on 7,939 business
units in 36 organizations, the researchers found positive and substantive correlations
between employee satisfaction-engagement and the business unit outcomes of
productivity, profit, employee turnover, employee accidents, and customer satisfaction.
More importantly, these researchers explored the practical utility of the observed
relationships. For example, business units in the top quartile on the employee engagement
measure yielded 1 to percentage points higher profitability. Similar findings were found
for productivity. Specifically, business units in the top quartile on employee engagement
had, on average, from $80,000 to $120,000 higher monthly revenue or sales. Based on
these data, it seems clear that aggregated measures of employee satisfaction and
employee engagement are meaningfully related to business outcomes at a magnitude that
is important to many (if not all) organizations. In comparison to prior studies, the strength
of Harter and his colleagues’ research is the large number of participants (n = 198,514),
business units (n = 7,939), and firms (n = 36) included, thereby providing a level of
precision and statistical power rarely found in scholarly (i.e., non-proprietary) research.
 Schneider et al. (2003) has Report analyses of employee attitude survey data aggregated
to the organizational level of analysis. These authors explored the relationships between
several facets of employee satisfaction and organizational financial (return on assets;
ROA) and market performance (earnings per share; EPS) using data from 35
organizations over a period of eight years. Thus, in contrast to previous studies,
Schneider and his colleagues’ study was able to make some inferences about directional
causality (i.e., are employee attitudes a stronger cause of organizational performance than
the reverse). Their results showed consistent and statistically significant positive
relationships (over varied time lags) between attitudes concerning satisfaction with
security, satisfaction with pay, and overall job satisfaction with financial (ROA) and
market performance (EPS). Although these findings are consistent with applied
researchers’ and managers’ implicit beliefs, their study was not without some surprises.
One of the more surprising findings was related to overall job satisfaction and the
performance criteria. Results demonstrated that the causal directionality flows from
financial and market performance to overall job satisfaction. This latter result does not
deny the fact that there were significant relations going from overall job satisfaction to
ROA and EPS; nevertheless, the reverse direction relationships tended to be stronger in
magnitude. Moreover, the relationship between satisfaction with pay and the performance
indicators appeared to be reciprocal in nature. The obvious strength of this research study
is the longitudinal nature of both the aggregated employee data and the financial and
market performance data. By collecting longitudinal data on both sets of variables, these
researchers were able to examine and begin to disentangle a set of very important but
complex relationships.
 Harter, Schmidt and Hayes (2002) has Mentioned that 7,855 articles having being
published between 1976 and2000, on job satisfaction. Cole and Cole in their study
mentioned that majority of the research examining the employee satisfaction-
performance relationship has been conducted on the micro level of analysis and a handful
of studies have explored the relationship between aggregated employee job satisfaction
attitudes and organizational (unit level) performance (Ostroff 1992; Ryan, Schmitt and
Jonson 1996; Harter, 2002; Schnieder, Hanges, Smith and Salvaggio 2003; Bowen
and Ostroff 2004; Wright, Dunfold, and Snell 2001; Wright, Gardner, Moynihan and
Allen 2005). Cole and Cole mentioned that the current understanding of how aggregated
employee attitudes influence and are influenced by important business outcomes is
limited and they based on the evidence to date) concluded that employee satisfaction is
related to meaningful business outcomes and these relationships generalize across
companies (and industries). They have also mentioned at their study that there is potential
for longitudinal research in the area of aggregated employee satisfaction and this
longitudinal study would suggest not only some directionality from employee attitudes to
business outcomes (as well as the reverse) but a reciprocal relationship in some cases.
 Khan (2001) In his study mentioned that there is deliberate feminization of the
workforce of the garment Industry in Bangladesh and there are three reasons behind this
deliberate feminization. These are: (1) Garment factory owners perceived that like the
poor women workers of other Asian NICs who had been socially and economically
oppressed for so long and who have low aspirations wages, teen age girls and young
women from rural areas of Bangladesh have low aspiration wages. so, they appointed
mainly unskilled teen age girls or young women mainly from the rural areas; (2) Since
they are already in a susceptible socio-economic condition, as compared to their male
counter parts, will agree to work for extra hours and if situation demands it will be easier
to dismiss them; (3) most garment factory owners perceived them as docile, trustworthy
and manageable. The author also mentioned in his study that most Bangladeshi garment
factory owners have failed to see any causal relationship between lab or standards and
productivity outcomes. Therefore, many of them have become cost effective mainly by
lowering labour standards and taking opportunities for low-wage employment due to the
profusion of a young female labour force
 Maryam,Saeed,Hashmi,AhsanHashmi and Raazia rshad(2014) Has empowerment on
job satisfaction in context to banking sector of Pakistan. This study is unique in a way
that it has studied the impact of psychological empowerment on job satisfaction at three
managerial levels i.e. Top level, middle level and lower level. Primary data has been
collected from employees working in different banks in four major cities of Pakistan. The
study has used survey approach for data collection. Scale from previous studies has been
used to measure psychological empowerment and job satisfaction which consists of 12
items and 16 items respectively. The study documents that Psychological empowerment
positively affects job satisfaction for senior, middle and lower level managers in banking
sector of Pakistan.
 Adeniji, Anthonia Adenike(2011)This study attempts to establish the relationships that
exist between the different variables of organizational climate and job satisfaction among
academic staff in some selected private Universities in South-West Nigeria. It also sets to
ascertain if those related factors in organizational climate can cause satisfaction among
academics thereby impacting on their academic excellence; and to determine if there are
differences in the way senior academics and junior academics perceive the existing
organizational climate. A total of 384 copies of questionnaires were administered to
selected five (5) private Universities in the South-West Zone of Nigeria but a total of 293
questionnaires were returned fully and appropriately filled. The study made use of both
descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequencies, means, and standard deviation,
including Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, Multiple Regression and
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to obtain results. The results indicate that there is a
significant positive relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction
among academics in Southwest Nigeria at F= 453.524, df= 292, significant at 0.000 and
at a correlation of 0.671, also significant at 0.01 level (2-tailed) . That the climates of an
organization and job satisfaction vary together. Not only that, in the overall analysis that
was done on the perception in the way junior and senior academics experience their
organizational climate, it was found that there is a significant difference in the way both
the senior and junior academics experience their organizational climate at F= 430.768.
Further study research was recommended in comparative study on private and public
University academics to view their perception of organizational climate in relation to
their job satisfaction.
 Newstrom and Davis (1997) Has job satisfaction is a set of favourable feelings and
emotions with which employees view their work. Schermerhorn, Hunt and Osborn (1994:
144) see job satisfaction as the degree to which individuals feel positive or negative about
their jobs. According to this definition, the individual expresses satisfaction as he
interacts with his work environment and attaches meaning to what is happening around
 Bester, Richter and Boshoff (1997) Has We are said job satisfaction is the match
between what the employee wants from the employer and the job and what he receives. It
is the extent to which the job meets the individual‘s needs, expectations and
requirements. It is further indicated that if employees are happy, it would lead to higher
productivity, improved physical health and promotes a more positive attitude towards the
organization. This results in staff remaining at the same institution instead of leaving
 Marriner ,Tomey (1996) has job satisfaction as a match between the employee‘s interest
with the organizational goals. Job satisfaction includes aspects like satisfaction with
work, supervisor, work conditions, pay opportunities and practices in the organization. In
practice, 25 the views of these authors are appropriate as employees generally feel
satisfied when they receive good pay and good supervision. Gibson, Ivancevich and
Donnelly (1997) and Luthan (1998) identify dimensions that are associated with job
satisfaction, namely salaries, job promotion opportunities, supervision and co-workers.
 Hulin, Roznowski and Hachiya (1985) Has Subsequently elaborated upon by Hulin
(1991), proposed a model of job satisfaction that attempted to integrate previous theories
of attitude formation. According to the model, job satisfaction is a function of the balance
between the role inputs, what the individual puts into the work role (e.g. training,
experience, time and effort), and role outcomes, including what is received (pay, status,
working conditions and intrinsic factors). The more outcomes received relative to inputs
invested, the higher work role satisfaction would be, all else equal. According to Cornell
model, the individual‘s opportunity costs affect the value individuals place on inputs. In
periods of labour oversupply i.e. (high unemployment), the individual will perceive their
inputs as less valuable due to the high competition for few alternative positions, and the
opportunity cost of their work role declines (i.e. work role membership is less costly
relative to other opportunities). Therefore, as unemployment (particularly in one‘s local
or occupational labour market) rises, the subjective utility of inputs falls- making
perceived value of inputs less relative to outcomes- thus increasing satisfaction. Finally,
the model proposes that an individual‘s frames of reference, which represent past
experience with outcomes, influenced how individuals perceive current outcomes
received. The fewer or less valued, the outcomes received in the past and as current
employment opportunities erode, the same outcomes per inputs would increase job
satisfaction (i.e. more was received than had been in the past). Again, the reverse scenario
is also true. Although the breadth and integration of the Hulin model is impressive, direct
tests of the model are lacking. One partial test (Judge&Hulin 1993) of the model was not
particularly supportive; therefore, more research on it is needed.
 DR. K. SUNDAR; P. ASHOK KUMAR(2011) has Job satisfaction occupies a place of
pivotal importance in human resource management. Many studies undertaken in this field
have also established its efficacy in achieving organizational goals. Since an organization
with a happy work force is considered to be a hallmark of efficiency. To secure the
enormous advantage flowing from it, a study of job satisfaction assumes importance. In
view of this, an attempt is made to measure the impact of demographic factors on job
satisfaction among the employees of different cadres of Vellore division, Tamil Nadu,
India. The study is expected to uncover areas of satisfaction as well as dissatisfaction
among the respondents. It may show a clear direction along which the authority should
move so that with a satisfied and committed work force, the LIC can accomplish its
organizational goals more effectively. The present study is confined to employees
working in Vellore division. The present study is based purely on primary data. It has
been collected through a questionnaire designed for the study. The proportionate
systematic random sampling method has been adopted for the study. The conclusion will
be given.
 Guzzo.R (1992) A study on “How job satisfaction and job performance are and are not
linked”, has found that most employees derive job satisfaction where challenges involved
are moderate‟. They have also perceived better pay and promotional policies to be
contributing to job satisfaction.
 Sundar. K (1994) has the firm opinion that though a variety of causes contribute to job
satisfaction, the right to be consulted supplies the sinews of psychological energy and a
happy of mind. In his study of 200 workers in National Textile Mills, Coimbatore, he has
established that “the participative system has done a lot in improving two-way
communication, in bettering the superior-subordinate relations, and in increasing job
 KaifiAzami (2003) In this study on job satisfaction at Shaf leather products, Periamet
Limited, Chennai”, found that very poor pay offered inter alia by the company
significantly dampened job satisfaction of workers though the workers were satisfied
with the majority of the aspects of job satisfaction. He suggested that the scale of pay
may be restructured in a way to provide adequate comfort to improve the living and
working conditions of the employees.
 Orisatoki, Rand Oguntibej (2010) has Reveal that managers who want to maintain a
high level of job satisfaction among their workforce must try to understand the needs of
each employee. For example, managers can enhance worker satisfaction by placing
people with similar backgrounds and experiences in the same workgroups. Also,
managers can enhance job satisfaction by carefully matching workers with their preferred
type of work.
 Arunima, Shrivastava and Poojapurang (2009) have made an empirical study on job
satisfaction between private and public sector banks. They have concluded that while
public sector bank employees are highly satisfied with job security, fringe benefits and
the work environment, their counterparts in private sector banks are dissatisfied with the
aforesaid variables.
 Karimi (2008) Has Work-to-family interference has significant and negative effects on
job satisfaction among 387 Iranian male and female employees. The results showed that
high levels of work family interference are associated with low job satisfaction and with
work roles; the individual‟s job satisfaction is lower.
 Chen, et. al.,(2006) Has Employee satisfaction has been a focus for research and practice
for thelast two decades in particular (Greasley, et. al., 2005) and considered to be a
critical issue for organizational performance. A number of scholars and management
“gurus” stressed the importance of employee satisfaction and its influences on
organizational performance as much as customer satisfaction.
 Bernal, et. al, (2005) Has the concept of employee satisfaction is a multi-dimensional
and inter disciplinary term that has been attracted the attention of researchers and
practitioners from different disciplines such as psychology, human resource management,
organizational behavior, TQM and so for it. In literature there are a large number of
studies that analyze the term from many different perspectives and its relationship with
various organizational variables (Lund, 2003). However there is no universal definition of
employee satisfaction that exposes all these dimensions at the same time.
 Judge, et. al, (2005) Has Most of the definitions emphasize the importance of
employees’ job-related perceptions that link the expectations of them and what they
receive in return. Some researchers focus on the overall job satisfaction or even life
satisfaction of employees 15 whereas some others underline a variety of satisfaction
facets such as satisfaction with pay, promotion, supervisor, or co-workers.
 For example Locke, et. Al (1969) describes job satisfaction a pleasurable or positive
emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job and job experiences. According
to this, employee satisfaction is a “function of the perceived relationship between what
one wants from one’s job and what one perceives it as offering” (Locke, 1969).
 Judge, et. al, (1993) Has On the other hand, mentions that employee satisfaction is
positively correlated with motivation, job involvement, organizational citizenship
behavior, organizational commitment, life satisfaction, mental health, and job
performance, and negatively related to absenteeism, turnover, and perceived stress and
identify it as the degree to which a person feels satisfied by his/her job.
 Cranny, et. al, (1992) Has Suggests that employee satisfaction encompasses a lot of
different facets. Hence overall employee satisfaction describes a person’s overall
affective reaction to the set of work and work-related factors whereas the facets of job
satisfaction involve workers’ feelings toward different dimensions of the work and work
 Rousseau (1978) Has Identified three components of employee satisfaction: they are
characteristics of the organization, job task factors, and personal characteristics.
According to Rousseau’s identification the characterization of the organization and the
job task factors can be regarded as work factors in job satisfaction, while personal
characteristics can be regarded as non-work factors of job satisfaction (Hagihara, et. al,
 Silvestro(2002) Has Human Resource Management (HRM) literature underlines the
importance of employee satisfaction as well. The relationship between “appropriate”
HRM practices and positive employee attitudes including employee satisfaction, loyalty
and productivity have been widely analyzed (Edgar and Geare, 2005). It is also suggested
that treating employees as a valuable asset improves their commitment and loyalty which
leads to higher performance and quality.
 Zembylas and Papanastasiou (2006) Has who studied the sources of job satisfaction
and dissatisfaction in Cyprus, it is claimed that teachers derive satisfaction from such
aspects as: “working with children and seeing them grow and achieve, making a
contribution to the society, working collaboratively with colleagues and achieving
personal professional growth”. They also found that pay, working time and vacation
influence job satisfaction although they were not of great significance. Rasku and
Kinnunen (2003), then, found that Finnish secondary school teachers expressed more job
satisfaction than their counterparts in other European countries in which the study was
conducted. Their satisfaction was a result of the fact that they are assured their wellbeing
through working.
 Dinham & Scott, (2000) Has Research findings indicate that “both hygiene’s [SIC] and
motivators or work-related needs of employees are predictors of job satisfaction among
Nigerian teachers” (Ololube, 2007, 6). His findings are contrary to Herzberg‟s Two
Factor Theory which differentiates “satisfiers” from “dissatisfies”. This implies that both
“hygiene” and “motivators” influence job satisfaction among employees. Other
researchers also argue that teachers in the United Kingdom and Australia derive their job
satisfaction from aspects such as: “student achievement, helping students to modify their
attitude and behaviour, positive relationships with students and others, self growth,
mastery of professional skills, and feeling part of a collegial, supportive environment.
 Hollenbeck, Wright and Garhart (1996) Has Job satisfaction is a pleasurable feeling
that results from the perception that one‟s job fulfils or allows the fulfilment of one’s
own job values. They continue by saying that job satisfaction has to do with what a
person consciously or unconsciously desires to obtain. Bowen et al; 25 (2007) in citing
Locke (1976) agree with this definition of job satisfaction when they write that job
satisfaction may be viewed as the pleasurable or positive emotional experience resulting
from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. Fogarty (1994) is of the view that job
satisfaction refers to the extent to which persons gain enjoyment or satisfaction from their
efforts at work.
 Robbins, Water-Marsh, Cacioppe and Millet (1994) have Job satisfaction as the degree
to which people like their jobs. They maintain that it is a general attitude towards the job,
the difference between the amount of rewards employees receive and the amount they
believe they should receive. According to them, a person with a high level of job
satisfaction holds positive attitudes towards the job, while a person who is not satisfied
with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. This idea is also supported by
Bowen et al; (2008) as they state that positive attitude towards one‟s job are associated
with high level of job satisfaction. Wilson and Rosenfield (1990) believe that 26 the
converse is also true. On his part Spector (1997) sees job satisfaction as one factor that is
important for business effectiveness, good company reputation and low turnover. Begley
and Czajka (1993) see job satisfaction as an indicator of emotional well being or
psychological health.
 Bowen et al(2008) has the concepts of job satisfaction and motivation are clearly linked
and invariably used interchangeably in practice Bowen et al; (2008). They further explain
that job satisfaction describes or measures the extent of a person‟s contentment in his or
her job whiles motivation explains the driving force(s) behind the pursuit or execution of
particular activities or a job. Herzberg as cited in Dinham and Scott (1998), explains that
both phenomena are linked through the influence each has on the other. He continues to
give examples by saying that lower order needs otherwise known as hygiene factors and
higher order needs also known as motivators as also concerning satisfaction and
dissatisfaction flowing from these and the need to engender long term career satisfaction.

 Deeprose (1994) Has Argues that recognition has a significant impact on employees‟
motivation and productivity. Effective use of recognition results in improved performance
of the organizations. Employees take recognition as part of their feelings of value and
appreciation and as a result it increases employees‟ morale, which eventually increases
efficiency of organizations. It is for that reason, Danish and Usman (2010) affirm that
when rewards and recognition are properly implemented, a good working atmosphere is
provided that motivates employees to achieve high performance. Deeprose (1994, p. 3)
mentioned “Good managers recognize people by doing things that acknowledge their
accomplishments and they reward people by giving them something tangible.” Alam,
Saeed, Sahabuddin and Akter (2013) investigated the impact of employee recognition as
a factor that predicts their contribution. The result shows a correlation between monetary
rewards and employee contribution. However, Murphy (2007) used an online survey to
study the effects of monetary and non-monetary incentives on labor turnover. The results
of the study revealed that no significant difference was found in labour turnover. Zaman
(2011) examined the relationship between extrinsic rewards, intrinsic rewards and
motivation among employees of three non-profit organizations in Pakistan. The study
used 127 samples and the results show that extrinsic rewards correlate directly with
employee motivation while intrinsic reward does not make any significant impact on
employee motivation.
 The organization must satisfy people’s needs and influence these feelings for obtaining
their co-operation and support. Proactive attitude of people towards their jobs, good
communication system and individual objectives are some of the factors of job
 This study is on the impact of company policies, working conditions and on the job
satisfaction of employees.
 It concentrates on the effect of factor in general and considers only the perceptual
element of employees.
 The study is conducted to assess the job satisfaction needs of the employees in
 The study helps to know their preferences and problems of the employees.
 Employee commitment is essential to increase the productivity.
 If the job satisfaction increases it will increase the employee commitment, further it will
lead to increase in the productivity.
 It is very essential to study about the job satisfaction.


Job Satisfaction is a very essential aspect in every organization. Jobs should be designed in such
a way that the all the employees feel satisfied with their job. Job satisfaction plays a vital role in
motivating the employees to perform their jobs more perfectly and in a good manner and also
can achieve their goals and in turn it increases the productivity, less attrition rates, absenteeism
 The main objective of the study is to assess the job satisfaction of the employees in
 To identify the employees relationship with their supervisors and co-workers.
 To assess the satisfaction level of employees on working conditions and environment.
 To know the security and the safety measure taken by the organization.
 To identify the level of grievance handling procedure in the organization


 The findings are based on the answers given by the employees, so any error or bias may
be affect the validity of the finding
 The period of study was too short. So it was not possible to collect the relevant
information with in that period.
 The research was carried out in a short span of time, where in the research could not
widen the study.
 This is subjected to the basis and prejudices of the respondents; hence 100% of accuracy
cannot be assured.

Methodology can properly refer to the theoretical analysis of the methods appropriate to a field
of study or to the body of methods and principles particular to a branch of knowledge. In this
sense, one may speak of objections to the methodology of a geographic survey (that is,
objections dealing with the appropriateness of the methods used) or of the methodology of
modern cognitive psychology (that is, the principles and practices that underlie research in the

The data needed for the study is collected from the employees, through questionnaire. Analysis
and interpretation has been done by using the statistical tools and data presented through tables
and charts.


The study was based on survey method. The aim of the study is to find satisfaction levels of

Descriptive research design

Descriptive research methods are used when the researcher wants to describe specific behaviour
as it occurs in the environment. There are a variety of descriptive research methods available,
and once again, the nature of the question that needs to be answered drives which method is
used. Traditionally, descriptive research involves three main categories: observation, case
studies, and surveys. Let's take a closer look at each of these individually.

A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. Convenience
sampling method used in selected samples.


This study on employee satisfaction was conducted during the period of 4 months.


The sample size of this study is 100 respondents.


The data collected for the study consists of both primary and secondary data.

In this study primary data were collected through personnel interview using questionnaire. The
questionnaire was administered to 100 employees of MOKSHWA SOFT DRINKS AT

Secondary data for this study was collected from Books, Periodical and websites.


In this study the researcher have used a questionnaire consisting of twenty multiple choice based


 Percentage Analysis,
 Hypothesis Testing,
 Chi-Square Test

is used as statistical tools for the analysis.


 Graphical Representation tool such as Bar Graphs and Pie Charts have been used for the
data analysis.
 Previously published records, statistics, research reports and documents.