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266 Ostinato Forms 92 fk, String Quartet No.3, fst part. Copyright 1929 by Universat Eaton. Renewed 1986. Copyright and renewal sign Sopris one oterTe me SA Conguh aa er cocina of eg {3 Unienai Banton (London) Lid. Reprinted bY peomaion. i andante (J =70) aul ponsicetlo sud pheieglo PS r 4.9.3. G1ch, Pseaagla nC minor for organ. consequent phrase x. 9.4 Monteverdi, Lincoronszione di Poppea, aria, "Ma che dco, o Poppea" Initiating 4-measure phrase built around g, despite the pervasive unity ofthe whole a8 a melodie expression of the C minor triad ‘The ostinato is often simple in structure and comparatively neutral in expres” character—a foil for developments in other voices. On the other hand, cenit melodic configurations of ostnat, frequent inthe seventeenth and early eighteenth Centuries, are associated with particular expressive qualities. Chromatic descent is an example of such affective, iiomatic usope: see Ex. 9.5. and the eelebrated I= tment of Dido from Purcel's Dido and Aeneas. Ex. 9.18." “For discussion of the common melodie stetues of the eatiy esa, the rene 6 Ea tsfened to Nao» The Techn of Variation, Cage 3, 267 Ostinato Fo 9.8 Bach, Crcifnus from the ass in B minor ‘The ostinato theme often ends on a nontonic harmony—particularly on the ‘dominant, as in Ex. 9.5. In passacaglia and chaconne forms the theme is repeated in direct contiguity. usvally without interruption, atthe same tonal level. The melodic ‘ostinato is generally found sn the bass voice. but the pitch level may change while the tonality remains constant, and registral movement of the ostinato is a valuable source of change. if'a ~passacaglia™ treats the theme imitatively and at changing tonal levels. it may be closer to fugue than 10 true ostinato form, despite its ttle. (See the first movement of William Schuman’s Symphony No. 3. where the “ostinato” Sented one halftone higher with each appearance. moving freely {rom voice 10 voice.) FURTHER EXAMPLES OF OSTINATO THEMES , Example 9.6 is from one of the organ chaconnes of Dietrich Buxtehule (1637-1707). Ie appears atthe outset ofthe piece ina contrapuntal setting. The bass melody emibraces the span between tonic notes an octave apart. Its second statement has a nearly identical setting, the first true variation coming with the thisd. I is of jnterest that the dotted rhythms which mark che third statement are introduced au the cadence, betre that statement actually begins.