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ABSTRACT
Linear programming problems arise in real-life economic situations where profits are to be maximized or costs to be minimized. The presence of redundant constraints does not alter the optimum solution(s), but may consume extra computational effort. Advantage of using neural networks to solve problems includes powerful computation and less time required. This paper shows the advantages of neural networks for solving diverse linear programming problems. The presence of redundant data consumes great computational effort. Various redundant identification methods are used to reduce the computational effort but the accuracy of the system is not concerned. For which I had developed the neural network based structure which concern both accuracy and computational effort. The training and learning of the data are done here before apply the formal methodology.
Keywords:- Linear Programming, Back-propagation, Heuristic method, neural network, redundant constraints, optimization.

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Linear Programming Problem

L.R.Arvind Babu

Assistant Professor

Department of Computer and Information Science

Annamalai University

Annamalainagar – 608002

Tamil Nadu – India

ABSTRACT

Linear programming problems arise in real-life economic situations where profits are to be maximized or costs to

be minimized. The presence of redundant constraints does not alter the optimum solution(s), but may consume extra

computational effort. Advantage of using neural networks to solve problems includes powerful computation and less

time required. This paper shows the advantages of neural networks for solving diverse linear programming

problems. The presence of redundant data consumes great computational effort. Various redundant identification

methods are used to reduce the computational effort but the accuracy of the system is not concerned. For which I

had developed the neural network based structure which concern both accuracy and computational effort. The

training and learning of the data are done here before apply the formal methodology.

Keywords:- Linear Programming, Back-propagation, Heuristic method, neural network, redundant constraints,

optimization.

computational effort, the new algorithm/method has

The most important techniques used in modeling and been developed called Hybrid Algorithm. The

solving practical optimization problems that arise in developed hybrid algorithm/method trains the

industry, commerce, and management is Linear constraint and parameter with the help of ANN

Programming. This is a mathematical models used to before applying the formal methodology.

represent real life situations in the form of linear II. MATERIAL AND METHODS

objective function and constraint. There are different

methods are available to solve Linear Programming

Problems. All methods are concentrates only on

Complex Algorithm

computational effort but the accuracy concern is very

less. When formulating a Linear Programming (LP) The Complex Algorithm for Bounded Variables (2),

model, researchers often include all possible a univariate search technique is adopted, but the

constraints although some of them may not be entering variables are arranged not only based on the

binding at the optimal solution. These redundant maximum contribution to the objective function but

constraints will not change the optimum solution but also on the type of the constraints. In the Complex

will increase the computational effort. Many bounded algorithm maximum change criterion as

researchers have proposed several algorithms (5,6,12) well as the type of constraints are used to arrange the

for identifying the redundant constraints in Linear variables in the order in which it has to enter the

Programming (LP) models. The widely used basis. The leaving variable is selected based on the

methodology for Linear Programming (LP) problems bound of the variables. This led to the reduction in

is Revised Simplex Method (3), a univariate search the number of iterations and hence in the saving of

technique. This method suffers the drawback of slow computational effort. The presence of redundant

convergence with the tendency of variable popping in constraints does not alter the optimal solution but

and out of the basis matrix. These results more they may consume extra computational effort. The

number of iterations and increase the computational identification of redundant constraint in Linear

effort and time. This results the development of a Programming Problem using various methods (5)

new algorithm, called Complex Algorithm. The have been studied and discussed about the efficiency

bounded complex algorithm (2) is found to be more of each method.

effective than revised simplex method on comparison

based on the number of iterations, computational Deduction of Redundant Constraints

time and number of multiply/divide operations. This

International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST) – Volume 7 Issue 1, Jan - Feb 2019

A simple heuristic algorithm (6) has been developed computation. Karmarkar’s Algorithm is a polynomial

to identify the redundant constraint in a class a linear time algorithm to solve large-scale linear

programming problem. This reduces the original programming problems. This approach has a great

model to a lesser dimension before solving them. The potential for solving large to very large scale linear

heuristic algorithm performs very efficiently and has programming problems which are sometimes far

the additional advantage of case of implementation. beyond the reach of the Simplex method.

An available code to solve the Linear Programming Karmarkar’s algorithm transforms the original linear

using Karmarkar’s algorithm can be easily adopted programming model into another standard model

with minimal effort. Computational efficiency of named as Karmarkar’s model. This gives overview of

newly developed algorithm can be established only a simple heuristic algorithm to identify the redundant

when they are compared with the existing algorithms. constraints a priori in the Karmarkar’s model so as to

minimize the dimension of the problems. While

Identification of Redundant Constraints formulating a linear programming model, systems

analysts and researchers often tend to include

The objective function and the constraints can be inadvertently all possible constraints although some

formulated as linear functions of independent of them may not be binding at the optimal solution.

variables in most of the real-world optimization There is a possibility of including redundant

problems. Linear Programming (LP) is the process of constraints. Presence of redundancies was will waste

optimizing a linear function subject to a finite computational efforts. If these are identified and

number of linear equality and inequality constraints. eliminated from the original problem, the number of

Solving linear programming problems efficiently has iterations needed to reach the optimal solution can be

always been a fascinating pursuit for computer reduced. This process of eliminating redundancies

scientists and mathematicians. The computational from a problem is called as model reduction. An

complexity of any linear programming problem attempt is made in this work to detect the redundant

depends on the number of constraints and variables constraint of the Karmarkar’s model apriori using

of the Linear Programming (LP) problem. Quite gradient matrix of the constraints. The heuristic

often large-scale Linear Programming (LP) problems approach to detect the redundant constraint using the

may contain many constraints which are redundant or gradient method is discussed.

cause infeasibility on account of inefficient

formulation or some errors in data input. The Although radically differs from the Simplex method,

presence of redundant constraints does not alter the Karmarkar’s algorithm does share a flow of the same

optimal solutions. Nevertheless, they may consume characteristics. Karmarkar’s algorithm generates a

extra computational effort. Many researchers have sequence of points in the feasible region whose costs

proposed different approaches for identifying the approach the best cost. In the end, it jumps to a

redundant constraints (4) in linear programming vertex of no greater cost, which is the optimal. By

problems. This work compares five of such methods using the proposed heuristic algorithm optimal

and discusses the efficiency of each method by solution is reached faster. A simple heuristic

solving various size Linear Programming (LP) approach to detect the redundant constraints in the

problems and netlib problems. The algorithms of Karmarkar’s model has been developed. The

each method are coded by using a computer applicability of the gradient method to detect the

programming language C. The computational results redundancies has been explained. This works mainly

are presented and analyzed in this work. focus on the development of model reduction

algorithm on Karmarkar’s model and compares the

A Heuristic Method to deduct the redundant efficiency when it is applied. When the model

constraints reduction algorithm is applied on Karmarkar’s model

it speeds up the computation. It detects the

Linear programming is one of the most important redundancies compared with the actuals. Linear

techniques adapted to model, to allocate resources programming (LP) is the process of taking various

and solve practical optimization problems. Whenever linear inequalities together and find out the “best”

Systems Analysts model, particularly large-scale optimal solution.This linear programming problem is

linear programming problems, it is quite possible that used in various real-life applications like economic

some redundant constraints may creep in due to problem to find out the profit to be maximized or cost

inadvertency. These unidentified redundant to be minimized. Linear programming problem is

constraints when present in the model will waste define as, consider the objective function

computational effort and lower the efficiency of

International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST) – Volume 7 Issue 1, Jan - Feb 2019

Subject to: Ax ≥ b This paper presents the linear programming problem

And x>=0 (= g j (x) ≥ b j, j=1, 2... m) Where x is the which will be solved by using neural network. The

vector of variables that is to be determined, c and b linear programming problem can be solved by

are vectors of known coefficients, A is a known various algorithms of neural network i.e. feed

matrix of coefficients, and (.)T is the transpose forward algorithm, hybrid algorithm, Hopfield neural

matrix. The expression to be maximized or network etc. But this paper presents the linear

minimized is called the objective function (cTx in programming problem which will be solved by using

this case). The inequalities Ax ≤ b is the constraints back propagation algorithm. Use of back propagation

which specify a convex polytype over which the is rear in linear programming problem solution. It has

objective function is to be optimized. These linear its own advantages and disadvantages. Based on the

programming problems can be solved by various detail literature survey and literature Gap following

methods i.e. polynomial time, interior point method, work is proposed. It contains defining linear

simplex method etc. These linear programming programming problem and solution with neural

problems can also be solved by using neural network. network approach. Back propagation algorithm is

Neural network is software or hardware simulation of used to train the network. Main Idea is to distribute

a biological neuron. This neural network is used to the error function across the hidden layers,

learn to recognize the patterns in the data. Once this corresponding to their effect on the output. Process is

neural network has been trained on the samples of the divided into three modules

data, it can make predictions by detecting similar 1.Implementation of neural network model.

patterns in future data. The typical structure of neural 2.Implementation of linear programming problem.

network is shown in below diagram. 3. Solving linear programming problem by using

neural network.

neural network model will be implemented by using

back propagation algorithm. Back propagation

algorithm is used to train the network. In first phase

neural network model will be established which will

be checked for working of back propagation

algorithm on any simple problem. The simulation

Figure.1 Shows Neural Network for Load technique is used to implement the network model.

Forecasting Step2: Implementation of linear programming

problem. In this step the linear programming problem

will be solved in MATLAB. Simple procedure will

be used like Simplex Algorithm to solve the linear

programming problem. It will be run for some

problems to prepare test cases which will be used in

training stage in final module.

Step 3: Solving linear programming problem by

using neural network. The last module is designed to

Figure.2 Shows a Typical Neural Network solve LPP by neural network. Working of the model

is explained as follows.

Consider a LP problem in the following standard

The typical neural network comprises of inputs of form:

figure (2) X1, X2, corresponding to independent Find x that

variables. A hidden layer as the first layer, and Maximizes: bTx

second layer is the output layer whose output unit is Subject to the constraints: A x<= c, x >=0 (1)

Y1 corresponding to dependent variables. In between Where x and b ε Rn, A ε Rm x n and c ε Rm.

there is hidden layer H1, H2………corresponding to The dual problem of (1) is:

intermediate variables. Find y that

These interact by means of weight variables i.e. Minimizes: c T y

W(1), W(2).The activation function in neural Subject to the constraints: A T y >=b, y >= 0 (2)

network model is defined as Mathematically, the outputs of the above primal and

dual neurons

International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST) – Volume 7 Issue 1, Jan - Feb 2019

dynamical system:

dx /dt = b – AT (y + k (dy / dt ) ) , x >=0 (3)

dy/dt = -c + A (x + k ( dx / dt ) ) , y >= 0 (4)

It can be seen that (3) and (4) are equivalent to a

system of second

order differential equations. The Euler method is Existing Load Forecasting Algorithm:

used to solve differential equations (3) and (4) which

will be solved in neural network processing.

Algorithm: Step1: If the predicted day is belonging to a summer

Input: season, go to step 4. Otherwise, it is the day on

1. Pair of Linear Programming Problems with spring, fall, or winter seasons.

solution Step2: Construct input information using the load

2. Minimum error value data during three days (which are subject to Monday

Output: through Friday) before the predicted day.

Training Stage:

1. Initialize the weights in the network (often Step3: Forecast the maximum load using the

randomly) exponential smoothing method.

2. Do Step4: In case that the predicted day belongs to a

For each example data (e) in the training set summer season, the temperature sensitivities are

i. O= neural-net-output (network, e); computed using the variations of the load and

ii. T = output for e temperature between the predicted day and its one

iii. Calculate error (T - O) at the output units previous day.

iv. Compute delta_wi for all weights from Hidden

layer to output Step5: Forecast the maximum load with the

layer; temperature sensitivities calculated in step. After

v. Backward pass Compute delta_ wi for all weights taking the above steps, the normalized value of the 24

from input hourly loads is calculated from the data obtained

layer to hidden layer; from the load during the previous three weeks of the

vi. Backward pass continued predicted day. Thereafter, the 24 hourly loads of the

vii. Update the weights in the network until dataset day are forecasted from the normalized value.

classified Proposed Hybrid Algorithm:

III. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE Step 1: If the predicted day / time are belonging to

PROPOSED METHOD class-1 environment, go to step 4 otherwise, it is

class-2 environment.

Learning or Training of Neural Network Step 2: Construct input information using the input

parameters and constraints using any formal or

The property that is of primary significance for a conventional methods like complex algorithm and or

neural network is the ability of the network to learn identifying redundant constraints before the predicted

from its environment, and to improve its performance day or time.

through learning. The improvement in performance

takes place over time in accordance with some Step 3: Forecast the appropriate parameters.

prescribed measure. A neural network learns about its Step 4: In case that the predicted day or time

environment through an interactive process of belongs to a class-1 situation, the value of parameters

adjustments applied to its synaptic weights and bias may vary.

levels. Ideally, the network becomes more

knowledgeable about its environment after each Step 5: Forecast the appropriate parameters with the

iteration of the learning process. Therefore, Learning physical sensitivities calculated in step 4. After

is defined as a process by which the free parameters taking the above steps, the normalized value of

of a neural network are adapted through a process of parameters is calculated from the data obtained.

simulation by the environment in which the network Thereafter, the parameters for any class of situation

is embedded. are forecasted from the normalized value.

International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST) – Volume 7 Issue 1, Jan - Feb 2019

IV. RESULT

The Implementation of the hybrid model improves

the accuracy of bounded variables in Linear

Programming Problem model by suggesting the

training and learning of parameters and constraints.

The Training is possible in applications by applying

Artificial Neural Network. The Hybrid Algorithm

must be optimal in both computational effort and

accuracy. All the above methodologies concentrated

only on achieving best computational effort.

Figure: 6 Error between actual and predicted

V. CONCLUSION

Method that improves the accuracy of bounded

variables in Linear Programming Problem model by

suggesting the training and learning of parameters

and constraints. The Training is possible in

applications by applying Artificial Neural Network. I

believe, the proposed algorithm shows increased

performance in accuracy. The Hybrid method must

be optimal in both computational effort and accuracy.

Figure: 4 Error rate in Linear All the above methodologies concentrated only on

Programming Problem Model achieving best computational effort and reduce time

whereas; accuracy of these systems may go down due

to reducing number of constraints and number of

iteration. To achieve optimality in computational

effort and also in accuracy, I proposed a structure

called Hybrid method with training model for

optimization of parameters in a real time Linear

Programming Problem.

International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST) – Volume 7 Issue 1, Jan - Feb 2019

Vol.29, No.10, pp.1209-1222.

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“Pre-solving in linear programming”, short-term load prediction for power-system

Mathematical Programming Series, Vol.2, automatic generation control”, IEEE Trans.

No.7, pp.221-245. Control System Technology, Vol.9, No.2,

[2] Arvind Babu L.R., Samueeullah A.M. and pp.254-260.

Palaniappan B., 2007, “Complex Algorithm [14] Hasan Ghasabi-Osokei, Nizam Mahdavi-

for bounded variables”, Acta Ciencia Indica, Amiri, 2006,”An Efficient Simplified Neural

Vol. XXXIII M, No.2, pp.633-636. Network for Solving linear and quadratic

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Neural Network System for Prediction and

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[5] Arvind Babu L.R. and Palaniappan B., 2009,

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LPP Using Various methods: A

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[6] Paulraj S., Chellappan C., and Natesan T.R.,

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term load forecast”, IEEE Transaction

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