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Fluid Mechanics-I Lab (MEEN 2217)

Lab Report 06

Title: To calculate the Reynold’s number 0f


laminar and turbulent flow using Reynold
apparatus.

Abdullah Pervaiz

ME172072

20-01-2019

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Abstract:
The goal of this trial was to decide the interim of the Reynold's number where move through a
glorified straight, smooth pipe with consistent weight progressed from laminar stream to fierce
stream. This examination was completed using a model like Reynold's own structure. Color was
infused into a flood of water coursing through a get pipe and out into a store to show if there
were any unsettling influences inside the stream. Water leaving the base valve was gathered in a
one liter graduated chamber for a time of around thirty seconds and the going with volume and
specific time was recorded. The Reynold's number was determined for three distinctive stream
rates around the change which was noted by the development of the color in the stream and
whether it was a straight or blustery and separated line. The accumulation of numerous volume
and time datum took into consideration a normal volume stream rate that was increasingly
illustrative of the real volume stream rate than one lot of information could have delivered,
prompting progressively exact outcomes. The acknowledged Reynold's number of 2300 was
inside the test interim of determined Reynold's numbers for the progress from laminar to violent
stream.

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Table of Contents
1. Introduction ............................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2. Theory ....................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.1 Reynold,s number................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.2 Laminar flow ....................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.3 Turbulent flow ..................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
3. Apparatus and Diagram ............................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
4. Experimental Procedure ..............................................................................................................8
5. Results and Observation ............................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
6. Specimen calculation...................................................................................................................9
7. Discussion .................................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

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1. Introduction:
The first person to mention that there may be in fact two types of viscous flows was an
engineer named G.H.L Lagen in 1839. He deduced an equation that described the difference in
pressure, taking into account the entrance effects and some unknown constant.
𝐿𝑄
∆𝑝 = (𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡) + 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡
𝑅4

He observed that after increasing the volume flow rate in a pipe past a certain point, his equation
no longer held true. What he did not know is that the constant in his equation related to the viscosity
of the liquid.
In 1883, an engineering professor by the name of Osborne Reynolds discovered that the constant
in Lagen’s equation was in fact:
𝜌𝑉𝑑
𝑅𝑒 =
𝜇
A flow can be Laminar, Turbulent or Transitional in nature. This becomes a very important
classification of flows and is brought out vividly by the experiment conducted by Osborne
Reynolds (1842 - 1912). Into a flow through a glass tube. He injected a dye to observe the nature
of flow. When the speeds were small the flow seemed to follow a straight-line path (with a slight
blurring due to dye diffusion). As the flow speed was increased the dye fluctuates and one observes
intermittent bursts. As the flow speed is further increased the dye is blurred and seems to fill the
entire pipe.
The significance of the Reynolds number is that it relates given values (density, velocity,
length/diameter, and viscosity) to the type of flow that the liquid will experience. The larger the
Reynolds number, the more turbulent the flow.

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2. Theory:
2.1 Reynold’s numbers:
Reynolds number is the ratio of a fluid's inertial force to its viscous force. Inertial force involves force
due to the momentum of the mass of flowing fluid. Think of it as a measure of how difficult it would be
to change the velocity of a flowing fluid. Viscous forces deal with the friction of a flowing fluid. Think of
pouring a cup of tea versus pouring cooking oil. The cooking oil has a higher viscosity because it's
more resistant to flow
Reynold’s number = internal forces / viscous forces

2.2 Laminar flow:


The flow of a fluid when each particle of the fluid follows a smooth path, paths which never
interfere with one another. One result of laminar flow is that the velocity of the fluid is constant at
any point in the fluid.

2.3 Turbulent flow:


Irregular flow that is characterized by tiny whirlpool regions. The velocity of this fluid is
definitely not constant at every point.

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Derivation

(1)
Inertial force F = ma (2)

Viscous force = τ

(3)
The negative sign shows that the velocity profile is decreasing.

Put above equations 2 & 3 in equation 1

(4)

u = velocity

µ = viscosity

The equation (4) is the general equation of Reynold’s number.

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3. Apparatus:
1. Reynold’s apparatus
2. Hydraulic bench
3. Stop watch.

2.4 Diagram:

Figure 5 Osborne Reynolds Apparatus

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4. Experiment and Procedure:
1. First of all the device is associated on the highest point of the water powered seat.
2. The water is permitted to fill the endeavor cylinder and expel all the air molecule from
the cylinder.
3. Adjust the stream rate with the assistance of volumetric stream rate technique and remain
fluctuate in the premise everywhere throughout the test.
4. Set the intensity of the siphon.
5. Adjust the spill out of the Rota meter.
6. We can compute the real stream rate 10 litters of water from the recipe
𝑉
𝑄=
𝑡
7. Adjust stream of water through hole meter with the assistance of given spill out of
controller valve and evacuate all the air which is caught between the funnels.
8. Measure the weight change between two segments in the opening meter utilizing stream
of fluid.
9. Repeat the entire trial for the following perusing. The qualities are placed in given table

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5. Results and observation:
Diameter of pipe = 14 mm = 0.014 m

No. Hydraulic Bench Actual flow rate Velocity Reynold’s Phenomenon


number
of (Qact) ‘V’
Volume Time ‘Re’
‘m3/ sec’ ‘(m/ sec)’
Obs.
‘(m3)’ ‘Sec’

1 0.0005 110 4.54 × 10-6 0.0291 415.76 Laminar

2 0.0005 75 6.52 × 10-6 0.042 559 Laminar

3 0.0005 17 2.94 × 10-5 0.1910 2673.85 Turbulent

4 0.0005 14.84 3.37 × 10-5 0.219 3063 Turbulent

6. Specimen calculation
The water is converted from dm3 into mm
1 dm3 = 0.001mm

0.5 dm3 = 0.001×0.5 = 0.0005

Actual flow rate = Qact

For calculating velocity V we can use the formula

Area is calculating as

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𝐴 = 0.000153
As

Put the value of V in equation 4

𝜌 = 1000

𝜇 = 1.00038 × 10−6

7. Discussion:
Through this experiment, we determined that the Reynold’s number is truly dependent on
velocity. While we were not able to fully determine its dependency on the other factors such as
density of the water, diameter of the pipe, or viscosity, we observed that the Reynold’s number
generally increased with increasing velocity. This makes sense because the Reynold’s number
maintains a linear relationship with velocity in the equation. Also, the faster the liquid is moving,
the higher tendency it will have to develop turbulence.

8. Reference:

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