Social Race vs.

Biological Ancestry y Social race/Ethnicity o Peer/self-defined based on  Physical appearance and genetic heritage  Geographic origins  Cultural practices/ linguistics/ ethnic identity Biological ancestry o Defined on the basis of the preponderance of metric and non-metric skeletal traits which are distributed along broad geographic-population lines Human History o Homo sapien (appeared ~ 300 000 years ago) o Out of Africa (migrated out ~ 100 000 years ago) o Asia (migrated out ~ 45,000) o Europe (35,000) o America (15,000) o Columbus (1492) o Linaeus 1700s  Binomial classication system  Geographic, phenotypic and behavioral descriptions Blumenbach 1800 s  Head shape, skin color, hair form y System that is still In use in some area y Samuel Morton 1850s y Cranial capacity to promote biological determinism o Scientifi Racism Crania Americana 1930s-1940s Reconciled Darwinian evolutiokn with Mendelian genetics  Begin to realize that populations cannot be partitions into discrete races Problems with the Race concept  Does not reflect the fluid interbreeding patterns (gene flow) of populations  Humans rarely mate within a single group for long  Few moderately distinct breeding populations y Cultural and geographic barriers to inter-group mating are breaking down over time. Clinal variation  Broadly-dispersed species will vary in genotypic and phenotypic characters gradually  Patterns may be driven by selection or an artifact of genetic drift, and are modified by gene flow Livingstone (1992)

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DISCORDANT VARIATION There are no races, only clines

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Why determine Race ? o Race has long been debated, both as a term and as a part of physical anthropology o The average person perceives that variability does exist and at some level they classify based on that perception (Gill, 1990) Forensic anthropologists are Applied anthropologists o Interact with lay persons o Within a social context o Provide a service  Help establish personal identity  Narrow down the number of ante-mortem records searched Terms (Hefner) o Ancestry  A lineage, or those that compose the line of natural descent o Race  A geographically and culturally determined collection of individuals who share a common gene pool and are similar in many characteristics. o Ethnic groups  A group of with certain recent who share similar language + culture Ancestry o Variation in physical features allows an estimate of a person s ancestry with some degree of specificity. o Knowledge of the frequencies and distributions of phenotypic features allows us to decide if the immediate ancestors of unknown skeletal remains come from a broad geographic area Determination of Ancestry o Requires normative data for the population o Can include both metrics and non-metrics o Is the most difficult biological parameter Differences between populations o Usually less than within populations  Genetic variation is greater within a population o May be size / shape related o May relate to frequencies of specific traits Ancestry in FA o Ancestryimplies broad, geographically-defined biological populations  Europe, Africa, Asia, the Americans, Oceania, etc. o To be of value, the ancestry categories used must reflect every use of our society  If we determine that an individual s ancestry is European, it would be inferred that the individual would have been racially classified by others as white . o MIDFACE is diagnostic Non-metrics

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o Considers the preponderance of data o Examines frequencies in a given population o Seeks to understand the function of traits Advantages of non-metrics o No expensive, delicate equipment o Easy and quick to perform o Can be performed on fragmented remains o Sex does not need to be known Disadvantages of non-metrics o Inter-observer error o Not clearly defined  Possible intra-observer error o Rudimentary statistics  Simple trait frequencies Non-metric traits o Inter-orbital breadth o Orbit shape o Nasal aperture o Nasal bone shape o Midface prognathism o Zygomatics European o Narrow nasal aperture o Nasal still present o Minimal inter-orbit bones Asia o Nasal aperture (moderate widith) o Circular orbits o Tented nasal bones o Intermediate interobital breadth o Edge to edge bite o Flaring cheeks African o Wide nasal perture o Rectangular orbits o Great interporbital breadth o Quonset-hut nasal bones o Prognathic fact o Tall skull Post-cranial

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Skull based so post-cranial is very limited and rudimentary  Anteroral femoral curvature Metric analysis o Early work quantified the non-metric traits o Now complicated statistical analysis with probabilities and typicalities Race and ethnicity o Discussion  Birth and death certificates  Ethnicity of census  o

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