Introduction Major Groupings of Imperfect Fungi and Their Importance in the Biosphere Cytological and Morphological Features of Imperfect Fungi Factors Affecting Growth and Sporulation of Imperfect Fungi References Cited ix

x xvi xviii xxi


1 1 2 2 3 4 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 17 25 26 28 33 34 35 40




41 44 44 45 48 48 5051 52 55 59 198 212 216


The Deuteromycetes or Fungi lmperfecti (former taxonomic designations) are an anomalous, heterogeneous assemblage of asexual ascomycetes and basidiomycetes which no longer have formal taxonomic status. These fungi were traditionally considered as lesser fungi because they lacked the perfect stage—sexual reproduction. The absence of asci (ascomycetes) and basidia (basidiomycetes) prevented their assignment to a natural taxon and necessitated .artificial non-sexual characteristics to describe and classify them. This genetic inability of many imperfects to reproduce sexually is considered a primitive condition and in contemporary mycology presents a taxonomic quandary. Alexopoulus et al, 1996, provide excellent scientific rationale for excluding imperfect fungi from contemporary fungal systematics, and discuss considerations needed to develop logical and valid taxonomic approaches to determine their phylogeny (1). Consequently, the taxons which previously were recognized as taxonomically valid for the deuteromycetes (imperfect fungi), are used in this book only to facilitate their identification. The imperfects are important eucaryotic microorganisms (possessing nuclei and organelles) which affect humans and most other life forms in a myriad of ways. The need to determine their identities is paramount in research, industry, medicine, plant pathology and in many other disciplines. Imperfect fungi are identified according to their conidial or non-sexual states. Nevertheless, many imperfects possess sexual structures of known ascomycetes or basidiomycetes, whereas others produce no conidia and/or sexual structures. Roper, 1966, described a parasexual cycle in which genetic recombination can occur in hyphae (16). This observation suggests that some fungi may never have possessed sexual structures or required sexual reproduction for genetic exchange. However, while there is little data which substantiates that pansexuality occurs under natural conditions today, it could have occurred during the origin and evolution of these fungi. When sexual structures are associated with the conidial state, a valid taxonomic status can be ascribed. However, this often does not occur, and for practical purposes is not important. Although the scientific name of the sexual state constitutes a valid taxonomic designation, the imperfect name is retained for practicality and for conventional use. Therefore, to identify the imperfect fungi, it is necessary to know their conidial morphologies regardless of whether the sexual state is also present in culture or in nature. The deuteromycetes constitute an important group of fungi which require continued study despite their obscure and confounding systematic relationships both to themselves and to other fungi. Barron, 1968 (2), Hunter and Barnett, 1973 (10), Hunter « tf al., 1978 (11), and Alexopoulus et al. (1) provide additional information on many aspects of the morphology, sporulation, growth, ecology and economic importance of imperfect fungi. Scanning electron and light photomicrographs are provided on several of the following pages. They show conidia, conidiophores, and hyphal structures found on many different kinds of imperfect fungi. Compare them with like illustrations in the book to better understand how these structures are important in identifying imperfect fungi.


(3) Melanconiales . It is also the primary means used in this book to identify imperfect fungi. This provides a basis from which to begin a search (appropriate key) for the identity of an unknown fungus. Illustrative examples and accompanying descriptions of many of the diverse genera in this group are provided from pages 68 through 161. emerging from apices ot the conidiophores. While this taxonomic system is no longer valid. Descriptions and illustrations of the three species depicted in this book are provided on pages 196 and 197. or in tightly-packed groups. Details pertaining to this system are provided on pages 40-44 and related identification keys are found on pages 44-57. only in a non-taxonomic sense. with typical flaskshaped phialides and catenulate conidia.Conidia typically produced under natural conditions in an acervulus. In culture. Conidiophores may be separate. 9. and as a necessity to know their practical importance in the biosphere. albeit. The scientific names of imperfect fungi are still used. the species of the form orders can be separated into four distinct groups of fungi. and septation of conidia are important characteristics in the Saccardo System but reduced to secondary importance in the Hughes-Tubaki-Barron System. (2) Sphaeropsidales Conidiophores and conidia contained within asexual fruiting bodies called pycnidia. The form orders are as follows: (I) Moniliales Conidiophores and conidia occurring free and distributed over the mycelium. common and economically-important imperfect fungi of the four form orders will be presented. .Species in this form order are genetically incapable of producing conidia or any kind of reproductive cells. (4) Mycelia Sterilia . 18). The shape. Following the Saccardoan System. The Hughes-Tubaki-Barron System (conidial ontogeny) has also been used as a way of classifying and identifying these fungi (2. in clusters. an open saucer-shaped fruiting body. pigmentation.MAJOR GROUPINGS OF I M P E R F E C T FUNGI AND T H E I R IMPORTANCE I N T H E B I O S P H E R E The imperfect fungi or deuteromycetes have been classified according to principles established by Saccardo in Sylloge fungorum (17). Sclerotia or other survival structures occur in the mycelium. To better understand the Saccardo System. X Conidia of Trichoderma sp. Conidiophores ot Paecilomyces sp. See pages 162 through 187 for descriptions and illustrations of pycnidia-producing fungi. These fungi can be found on pages 188 through 194. it is still the best way to learn the mycology that is necessary for identifying the imperfect fungi. The use of conidial and conidiophore ontogeny for identifying deuteromycetes should be used by individuals who are well versed in mycology. conidiophores may be single or in compact groups similar to sporodochia of the Mormiaies.

conidiophore. one-celled conidia are phaeospores. the Saccardo System is still the best way for students and others to study and identify imperfect fungi. animals and humans. colored. shape. These structures can vary on different media and in their response to varying environmental conditions. sporodochium. one-celled hyaline (devoid of any color) conidia are called hyalospores. For example. There are at least 1. regardless of the presence or absence of color. conidium color and conidium morphology. In the Saccardo System. and pycnidium). and transversely septate conidia with three or more cells are phragmospores. because of its simplicity and practicality. Moniliales and Sphaeropsidales can be separated into several form families. Add hyalo to phragmospore (hyalophragmospore) and it is a hyaline. cylindricallyspiraled. Consequently. transversely septate conidium. Characteristics are predicated upon such artificial features as color. and consistency of the pycnidium in the Sphaeropsidales.Two of the spomlating form orders. time and experience will negate these factors. xi . some produce toxins. Some are pathogens of plants. Form families Moniliaceae and Dematiaceae have species which are delimited by one or more of the following Conidia In basipetal chains radiating from the apex of an Aspergillus sp.400 form genera of imperfect fungi and several thousand species. SACCARDOAN FORM ORDERS FORM ORDER MONILIALES Most species of deuteromycetes reside in this form order and are grouped into four form families (see page 7). The form family taxon is not used in Mycelia Sterilia and only one form family exists in the Melanconiales. This is the only form order in which form families are described in this book. Therefore. or color of the conidia and presence of synnemata or sporodochia in the Moniliales. Problems encountered when using the Saccardo system are variations in type of fruiting body (acervulus. Nevertheless. it is the color and morphology of the conidia which are used to separate form genera into sections. one to several cell formations are helicospores. didymospores are two-celled. what is described in the keys may differ slightly to significantly when the fungus in question is grown on different media or when it is incubated at different temperatures. while others are important in the production of antibiotics and other chemicals. The most common in nature and the most economically important are found in the form order Moniliales.

Many of the more common fungi are found in the form families Moniliaceae and Dematiaceae. by the production of S to 12 pm spherical chlamydospores on corn meal agar. (page 93) are similar to the penicillia. This seemingly obvious color difference is at times difficult to determine in culture and under the microscope. true and pseudomycelium (some imperfects are yeasts without true hyphae). Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen of humans and other animals and is responsible for the human disease aspergillosis. the manner in which the conidia are produced. but can possess yeast-like cells. Species of Aspergillus (page 95). careful use of the microscope. Geotrichum candidum (page 68) is the causative agent of geotrichosis. but differ at maturity by having the spore mass encompassed by mucilage. americana. a pulmonary disorder. Fortunately. Penicillium chrysogenum and closely related species are the sources of penicillin. presence or absence of mucilage. conidia in mucilaginous masses on penicillate branches of conidiophores. conidial number and arrangement at apex of the conidiophore. conidia produced in chains or in a head. but warns one to not always consider fungal cultures contaminated when two distinct conidial types occur in the same culture. Note that this fungus is not always filamentous. One-celled Gliocladium sp. Species of the genus Candida (page 71) are common in the Moniliaceae. Other species of Penicillium are responsible for the contamination of food and clothing. Penicillium (page 95). the pathogen of brown rot of peach and other fruits. conidiophore appearance and branching. diligence and experience in identifying these and other fungi. Monilia (page 73) cinerea var. this is unusual. An important species C. This filamentous yeast can be differentiated from other Candida spp. The reason that the fungi of these two form families are discussed together is because the only difference between the species is the color of their conidia and conidiophores. is often found as a contaminant of microbial cultures. Verticillium albo-atrum is a destructive plant pathogen that causes a wilt of some economically-important plants. Gl'tocladium spp. roseum is a good example where identification is confusing because it produces two different conidial types. One species. presence of chlamydospores and morphology. Alternaria (page 132) and Stemphylium (page 132) are routinely isolated from the air and numerous other substrates. will in time allow orje to make accurate determinations of pigmentation. those with pigmented conidia and/or conidiophores reside in form family Dematiaceae. Refer to page 68 through page 145 for numerous examples of the Moniliaceae and the Dematiaceae. along with many other pertinent fungal characteristics. a human disease which can occur orally. xii . is an opportunistic human pathogen causing oral and vaginal diseases and may become systemic. conidial morphology. These genera and several other species of the Moniliaceae are discussed here. and exogenous or endogenous production of conidia. Note that imperfects in this form order with hyaline conidia are members of the Moniliaceae. in the intestine and as a pulmonary disease. which has saved countless humans from death and serious illness for many decades. albicans. However. one being the Gliocladium type and the other that of Veriicillium albo-atrum (page 92). an important antibacterial antibiotic. G. conidia produced on conidiophore or mycelium.characteristics: conidial septation.

Aureobasidium (page 71) is a filamentous yeast.161). xiii . reside in the form family Dematiaceae. are pathogens of humans. Many of these species are also common and/or economically-important fungi. Since all conidia of one species are not always of the same cell number or size. often borne acropetally in chains. Refer to pages 146 . but can become an opportunistic pathogen of plants. These fungi produce dark cylindrical conidia. This same fungus is also known to be a major agent in the deterioration of painted surfaces. insects. but not all species of Fusarium (page 131). These multiple fused conidiophores are called synnemata or coremia and tend to be more plentiful in aging cultures.Many species having pigmented conidia and/or conidiophores. One species. The most commonly encountered fungus in the Dematiaceae is Alternar'ta (page 133). which are multiseptate and usually have rounded ends. A sporodochium is a cushioned-shaped structure made up of closely grouped conidiophores. The ends of the conidia vary only slightly making the differentiation of species between Bipolaris.151 and observe the many different types of sporodochial fungi. decaying vegetation and from diseased potatoes and tomatoes. Isolates of this fungus are readily recovered from air. Dreschlera and Helminthosporium difficult. Aureobasidium is often confused with species of Candida. Some isolates of the Stilbaceae do not form synnemata on all media making identification most difficult. Many species of Helminthosporium (page 125) are well known to plant pathologists as pathogens of grasses. plants and are Catenulate conidia conidiophore. The synnemata of P. Cladosporium (page 107) is prevalent in the air. which produces large muriform conidia. This fungus has a highly branched conidiophore and one-or two-celled conidia that occur in chains. but pigmentation appears in its hyphae which is not found in Candida. The conidia are produced on the upper portions of the synnemata. Isaria spp. A. becoming dark with age. ulmi are tall and have a rounded mass of light-colored conidia embedded in mucilage. Imperfect species which have conidiophores united in columns or clusters reside in the form family Stilbaceae (pages 152 . Species of Fusarium. of Penicillium sp. produce sporodochia. Definitive identification of sporodochial-producing fungi is often difficult because the structures often vary with cultural conditions. is well known to plant pathologists because it is the imperfect form of the fungal pathogen that causes Dutch elm disease. One species. soil. on phialides of a Arthrospores of Geotrlchum sp. Some. pullalans is saprotrophic. Pesotum ulmi. and some species are plant or human pathogens. a soilborne saprotroph. purity of a culture cannot be determined by this means. Stachybotrys (page 89). has pigmented single-celled conidia and conidiophores that slime down to form glistening beads. The conidia of Bipolaris (page 127) and Dreschlera (page 123) are nearly identical to those of Helminthosporium but differ in the mode of conidial formation. hyaline when young. (page 157) are frequently isolated from soil and grow profusely on most mycological agar media. Illustrations along with the keys are most helpful in correctly identifying species of these three genera. The presence of sporodochia in the mycelium distinguishes form family Tuberculariaceae from the other three form families of form order Moniliales.

Many of the species names come from their hosts. This fungus has dark sporodochia.e. although some are plant pathogens and others infect insects and other fungi. Zythiaceae . Sphaeropsidaceae . The pycnidia of Septoria are dark. It is easy to identify isolates to genus because of their characteristic bananashaped conidia. microconidia and macroconidia. usually having a circular opening. rather than in the basal portion. Pycnidia are easily seen at low magnifications with a compound or stereo-microscope.physical characteristics as in form order Sphaeropsidaceae. the dark pycnidia are round. Species in the genus Epicoccum (page 151) are frequently isolated from soil and decaying wood.upper half of pycnidium fully developed. Phyllosticta (page 163). Their pycnidia and conidia are so similar that distinctions are at best arbitrary. and break out through the surface of the substratum and produce endogenous narrow-elongate conidia. Leptostromataceae . erumpent pycnidia enclosing short conidiophores that produce hyaline.dark pycnidia. Sphaeropsis (page 177). they enclose short conidiophores bearing long. Many of the species of these five genera are pathogens of plant stems and leaves. Sphaeropsis is another form genus which is similar to Phoma. Obviously. or that differ from most other imperfect fungi and are exogenously produced. xiv . most being plant pathogens. the proliferation of species. ostiolate. FORM ORDER SPHAEROPSIDALES There are four form families in this form order and all of the species have well defined asexual fruiting bodies i. using the host to name the fungal species leads to confusion. have an opening. However the tremendous variability in conidial size. globose dictyospores (conidium has both oblique and transverse septa). They have conidia which are either endogenously produced (inside the pycnidium). pycnidia (page 162 through 187). erumpent. and questionable scientific designations. Therefore. which may or may not be produced on a stroma. Among the more common form genera are Phoma. Germinating parium. Excipulaceae . thin scolecospores. although we may use a particular characteristic from a given form family as part of the key composition. but the pycnidia are brightcolored and waxy. Septoria (page 183) is a form genus with approximately 1. Many members of the form order Sphaeropsidales are saprotrophic. (page 163). According to Saccardo. from which compact or loose conidiophorcs give rise to dark. the form families are differentiated as follows. leathery to carbonaceous. we do not separate pycnidia producing fungi using the four form families.abundant in the air and soil. Both have dark. Coniothyrium (page 177) and Septoria (page 183). globose. make them difficult to speciate. non-septate conidia. Problems in identifying these fungi are obvious when comparing Phoma and Phyllosticta. In this book.Pycnidia are cupped or saucer-shaped.000 species. cralamydospores of Cylindrocladlum sco- Bristle-covered pycnidia of Chaetomella s p .

microorganisms and to even other fungi. The imperfect fungi include a diverse array of fungi which occupy every conceivable ecosystem within the Biosphere. Glomerella. They are both very similar in appearance. Under certain cultural conditions. produce somatic sporodochium-like bodies. Careful scrutiny will show that species of Cylindrosporium (page 193) are difficult to differentiate from species of Gloeosporium. they should really be in one genus. Melanconiaceae. and some are pathogenic to humans. Two common form genera are Gloeosporium (page 189) and Colletotrichum (page 189). animals. an ascomycete. Papulospora. the acervulus (page 188 through 195). Another common genus is Pestalotia. FORM ORDER MYCELIA STERILIA Species placed here have no known anamorphic or teleomorphic states. Rhizoctonia and Sclerotium (page 197) are two common form genera. There is only one form family. plants. They do however. except that the latter has prominent dark setae associated with the conidiophores. Species can be either pathogenic or saprotrophic. No asexual or sexual structures are found in these fungi. There are aquatic and terrestrial species. another frequently encountered member of this form order produces bulbils (shown on page 197) which are sclerotium-like and serve in survival and reproduction. Their many spore and somatic types have led to dispersal and invasion of may environments resulting in the evolution of this highly diverse group of fungi. the setae of Colletotrichum fail to form. however. thereby making it impossible to distinguish between the two genera. xv . These diversified fungi are grouped into approximately 20 genera and because of their heterogeneity there are no form families. is the teleomorph of both form genera which indicates that. Clamp connections on their hyphae provide evidence to basidiomycetous affinities. Similar appearing species of different genera present problems even to those who are familiar with the fungi. and therefore they are identified solely by mycelial characteristics. one-celled. chlamydospores. The many species of the two genera have conidia which are hyaline. which produces multiseptate conidia with pointed ends and apical appendages (page 193). and ovoid to oblong. both containing plant pathogenic species. Species of Papulospora are saprotrophs of decaying vegetation and are pathogenic to storage structures of some plants.FORM ORDER MELANCONIALES Species in this form order are recognized by a saucer-shaped fruiting body. sclerotia or bulbils. some are saprotrophic. because of their similar anamorphic states.

intracellular characteristics of the cell(s) are of no value for identification. Woronin bodies or septal pore plugs are known to block pores. the conidia. Woronin bodies and Spitzenkorpers (8). from protists. 12). however. transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show with clarity the organelles. The pores are easily observed via TEM but not with light microscopy. Under light microscopy however. Cells of imperfect fungi. Golgi bodies. The cells of a hypha are separated from one another by crosswalls called septa. which are unique structures involved in apical hyphal growth may also be present. two or more nuclei in their septate hyphal cells and can possess mitochondria. unlike most phycomycetes which are coenocytic (lack septa and are multinucleate). but the chemical composition of the xvl . Consequently. some inclusions. whereas basidiomycetous teleomorphs have much more elaborate and complex dolipore septa. Consequently. Often. when present. since hyphae among different kinds of fungi are more alike than different. this association suggests a relationship unique to these fungi that differentiates them from other fungi and other life forms (13). Under light microscopy. This is apparent by light microscopy and by TEM. This can result in an infected fungal isolate having a cultural appearance far different from other fungi of the same species. Therefore. organelles or other inclusions. the nuclei and organelles of the imperfects are minute and difficult to observe without killing the cells and applying one or more cytological stains. metaphytans and metazoans. 5. glycogen and lipid. vacuoles. 8. Metaphytans also possess cell walls. The majority of fungal viruses do not appear to have any deleterious affect upon fungi. This of course is a major difference between metazoans and most protists which lack cell walls. 11. mitochondria and Golgi bodies are found to be closely associated in the cytoplasm. the cytoplasm of the typical imperfect fungus appears translucent and granular and lacking discernible nuclei. The hyphae and conidia of Verticillium albo-atrum and V. 7. endoplasmic reticuli with ribosomes. All imperfect fungi have septa. contain similar organelles and inclusions. External to the plasma membrane of the hyphal cell is the cell wall. Fungal hyphal cells vary in size. along with mycoviruses in the hyphal cells of Cryphonectria parasitica (14). Imperfect fungi have one.CYTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL F E A T U R E S OF IMPERFECT FUNGI The eucaryotic cellular structure. organelles and inclusions similar to. growth rate and pigmentation. Alexopoulus et al. Ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi also possess septa. and all hyphae of one fungus constitutes the mycelium. they have cells. Within the septum there may be one or several pores which provide cytoplasmic continuity between cells. One filament of the hyphae is a hypha. This is an important consideration in fungal identification. Imperfect fungi with known ascomycetous teleomorphs usually have simple septa. microtubules. like most fungi. are arranged in filaments or threads called hyphae. This structure is the septum which separates individual hyphal cells. but some can debilitate their hosts and cause changes in colony morphology. The asexual spores of deuteromycetes. nigrescens are representative of imperfect fungi since they are uninucleate and possess most of the aforementioned intracellular structures within their plasma membranes (3). especially in hyphal cells that are old or damaged. provide excellent information on fungal ultrastructure and cellular relationships of many and diverse fungi (1). There is one notable feature of the hyphae that is easily seen with the light microscope and enables differentiation of an imperfect fungus from a typical phycomycete. Newhouse et al. and nuclei within the fungal cell. However. This ultrastructural feature has been seen only in imperfect fungi and ascomycetes. color and in their extracellular matrix. composition and ultrastructure of the imperfect fungi (DeuterOmycetes) have been thoroughly investigated using light and electron microscopy (4. yet different in some respects. Light microscopy of fungal cells reveals little cytological detail. they usually cannot be used as a differentiating character. found these typical organelles. Transmission electron micrographs demonstrate that nuclei and various organelles can traverse the pores thus moving from cell to cell.

sclerotia. When the hyphae are not discernible and the cells become plant-like. some fungi form discrete microscopic and/or macroscopic somatic and reproductive structures. but also somatic) that can be determined for an unknown fungus. and Grove and Bracker. 1978 (6). One type of somatic tissue structure is the rhizomorph which results from the thickening of the hyphae. Hyphal cells of Sclerotium rolfsii possess an actin cytoskeleton (15). The more identifiable structures (mainly reproductive. synnemata and chlamydospores are other cellular structures of imperfect fungi which are easily discernible with the light microscope. xvii . their conidiophores. The conidial cells. It is the hyphae that absorb nutrients required for growth and reproduction. microsclerotia and stroma are important structures in determining the type and. Hyphae are the microscopic somatic structures of fungi which are embedded in various organic. the easier it will be to identify. sporodochia. pycnidia. Hyphae of some fungi can develop two dlifferent kinds of fungal tissues (plectenchyma). in conjunction with microtubules and microfilaments that comprise the cytoskeleton. The apical vesicles contain the necessary elements for plasma membrane extension and cell wall synthesis. the stroma. the tissue is pseudoparenchyma. acervuli. Cell growth of the filamentous fungi occurs almost exclusively at the hyphal tip. show apical vesicles which are spherical and membrane bound. While additional structures are not usually formed by growing hyphae. Transmission electron micrographs of the hyphal apex by Grove. Another somatic structure. preserve the cytoplasmic integrity of cells and also determines the shape of the hyphal cell. Complete familiarity with these structures will facilitate use of the keys for identifying unknown imperfect fungi. substrates or in soils. The imperfect fungal cell wall. More recent studies by Wessels in 1986 (19) and 1988 (20) provide evidence that the hyphal tip is elastic but ultimately becomes rigid with age. Rhizomorphs. 1970 (7). in some few instances. Many resistant and reproductive structures develop from the two types of plectenchymous tissue. the identity of an unknown fungus. Sclerotia (page 97) and microsclerotia are other structures in which the hyphae lose their typical thread-like appearance and become a mass of cells which are resistant to various adverse conditions. The organization and size of the mycelium is predicated upon substrate availability and nutrient status.microbibrils is different. These tissues develop from the apical growth of the hyphae. is formed as a mass of fungal cells that usually supports various types of reproductive structures. Prosenchyma tissue are evident by their loosely woven organization in which the hyphae are still mostly discernible. These structures are illustrated and discussed throughout this book. and are routinely used in identification.

glaucas and its close relatives are well known for their ability to grow under conditions of severe physiological drought. minimum. irrespective of the position of the culture. The exact ranges are influenced by other factors. When growing unknown. Certain frequencies of radiation are also known to enhance or be necessary for the induction of sexual structures of imperfects having known teleomorphic states. For example. There is a great variation among the responses to temperature of the imperfect fungi. paper. The conditions that favor or inhibit growth and sporulation of a given fungus are correlated with its habitat. In fact. Bispora. Like all fungi they are incapable of reducing C0 2 to carbohydrate via radiation. Penicillium. is limited in growth only by temperature and moisture. TEMPERATURE Temperature and moisture are universal factors that affect all organisms and must be favorable for them to survive. optimum. Several types of fungal responses to nutrition and environment are presented. This and other types of adaptation have led to the survival of the deuteromycetes that exist today. Cladosporium. proliferate in stored grains when the moisture content is greater than 14%. the conidiophores grow toward the white light. wood and even painted surfaces where there is no free moisture.e. In contrast there are the many imperfect species that cannot grow without liquid water or a saturated atmosphere. many deuteromycetes can grow in the absence of liquid water. and Aureobasidium are common decomposing agents of cloth. LIGHT Imperfect fungi respond to light (radiation) in a myriad of ways. Radiation also may affect the chemical composition of media thereby promoting growth patterns different from those that would occur when the media were stored in the dark.. whereas. Penicillium claviforme and numerous other fungi. Species of Aspergillus. the dissemination of plant pathogenic conidia is often limited to the growing season of the host plant.FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH AND SPORULATION OF I M P E R F E C T FUNGI The imperfect fungi are adapted to live under diverse environmental and nutritional conditions. however. clavatus. and the production of conidia at that time. Nevertheless. which obtains its nutrients from decaying wood. are used to describe the range at which individual imperfect fungi can grow. fungi it is best to select a temperature between 20 and 30 degrees Centigrade for their initial incubation. Conidia of some species often survive for years in a cold or dry environment and germinate upon exposure to favorable conditions. However. Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. phototropic growth of conidiophores has been amply demonstrated for Aspergillus giganteus. but are not photosynthetic. Another Aspergillus sp. Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are plant pathogens which cause rots of plant parts and obtain moisture from the decomposing plant cells. other fungi have more precise requirements. When cultures receive unilateral illumination. and maximum. such as for living tissue or preformed vitamins. MOISTURE Imperfect fungi are capable of growing in liquid nutrient solutions provided that sufficient oxygen is present. Spores of most deuteromycetes require moisture for germination. grow and reproduce. A. leather. they all produce some growth at mesophilic temperatures. The cardinal temperatures i. A. xvlii .

near ultraviolet.0 and 6. candles) for 15 minutes induced the production of about as many conidia as a single exposure of 24 hours at 50 ft candles or 6 hours at 100 ft.0. 8 to 11. Most imperfect fungi utilize nitrate. A. 2.Radiation has the greatest impact on sporulation of imperfect fungi. The intensity of white light necessary for sporulation by Epicoccum nigrum varied inversely with duration of exposure. HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION (pH) Most fungi grow optimally when the substrate is slightly acid between pH 5. To determine the ability of specific fungi to utilize single carbon sources. Botrytis cinerea. light is necessary) or enhanced by exposure to different wavelengths of radiation. one should use single amino acids. Spores were produced only in the zone of young hyphae at the time of exposure. White light may be as effective as any given color if the intensity is nearly equal. fructose and mannose are approximately the same for all fungi. Most species of Aspergillus synthesize all XIX . When imperfects are vitamin-deficient. most fungi can use sources of inorganic nitrogen as well. Most natural media have more than one carbon source from which a fungus can obtain carbon requirements for growth and reproduction. experiments in the laboratory must be conducted under controlled conditions. The extent of the pH change depends on the composition of the substrate as well as on the genetics of the imperfect fungus. albeit. 2. quite differently. Growth on glucose. Ultraviolet. 1 . yet there are few^ concrete examples of inhibition of imperfect fungi by visible light.0 to 8. candles. and Rhizoctonia solani. Growth on inorganic nitrogen is often less than on a mixture of amino acids or on a complex organic nitrogen source. However. the absence of light or too little of it. among these. but rather will preferentially select from what is available.5. 9 to 9. using a medium that is complete for all nutrients except carbon. ammonium and amino acids as sources of nitrogen. The red band is seldom effective for inducing sporulation.5 to 8. complete or partial.e. such as asparagine. it is usually thiamine that they are unable to synthesize.8 to 8.3. The ubiquitous nature of most deuteromycetes indicates that they possess the genetic determinants (synthesis of enzymes) to utilize carbon from many different sources. organic materials provide the nitrogen needed for growth.. 1 . pH 2. CARBON AND NITROGEN SOURCES The requirement of fungi for carbon is greater than any other nutrient. a wide band of blue-green-yellow and far red all affect fungal sporulation. however. expose fungal cultures to alternating periods of light and dark to induce sporulation. PenicilUum italicum. Such deficiencies can be determined only by cultivation in suitable synthetic media with and without added vitamins. Imperfect fungi respond to different carbon sources. 1 . A deficiency may be single or multiple. may be an important factor. If one merely desires to cultivate deuteromycetes on a laboratory medium. VITAMINS Most imperfect fungi are capable of synthesizing required vitamins from living or non-living substrates.8. In general. Fusarium oxysporum. cellulose is the most abundant utilizable source. To study the relative rate of utilization of nitrogen sources. when growing imperfects which do not sporulate in culture.4. Remember. Certain species are able to tolerate even greater ranges: Aspergillus niger. Some imperfects. Seldom does a fungus in nature encounter a pure carbon source. however. When fungi are growing on most culture media. 6 to 9.8 to 7. they alter the pH of the substrate. they will generally achieve fair to good growth over a much wider range.3. from about pH 3.0. In nature. Sporulation of imperfects is either induced (i. yeast extract or casein hydrolysate is excellent. however a source of nitrogen must also provided. oryzae. An exposure of mycelial cultures on agar to sunlight (7. It is well known that ultraviolet radiation is inhibitory.000 ft. are deficient and cannot synthesize certain vitamins.1. and their preferred source is usually associated with the niche they occupy in the ecosystem. aspartic acid or glutamic acid. blue (most common).

The pycnidial producer. Gliocladium roseum and other imperfect fungi are also able to synthesize their vitamin requirements. AND PHYSIOLOGY Information on these topics can be found on pages 1-3. species of Penicillium. Dendrophoma obscurans. if one needs to culture imperfects on synthetic or semi-synthetic media. magnesium and sulfur. Cu and Ca are frequently added to synthetic media to supply additional inorganic elements needed for optimal fungal growth. ISOLATION. Monobasic potassium phosphate (KH 2 P0 4 ) and magnesium sulfate (MgS0 4 ) will supply potassium. CULTURE MEDIA. Biotin is needed for Diplodia macrospora and for Stachybotrys atra. Botrytis cinerea. Trichophyton. Cylindrocladium scoparium. it is necessary to add certain compounds. INORGANIC SALTS AND MICROELEMENTS Natural organic compounds often furnish all of the inorganic salts necessary for growth. Mn. phosphorus. The microelements Fe. must have a preformed source of thiamine as do some species of the dermatophyte genus. However. Zn. MAINTENANCE OF STOCK CULTURES. xx .required vitamins.

Ainsworth. W. S. West Palm Beach. Fine structure of conidia and conidium formation in Verticillium albo-atrum and V. Microbiol. New York. Bot. rubrum. W. Fine structure of the chlamydospore wall in Fusarium oxysporum. Introductory Mycology. Blackwell. Howard. A. B. 6. Hunter. A. L. E. The Genera of Hyphomycetes from Soil. Eds. Laskin. and Viruses. Organismic Microbiology. C. M. 6 1 : 389-399. Cell Sci. Grove. 10.REFERENCES CITED 1. J. 1991. 16. Jersild and D. N. Bamett and T. DeVay. I. Bot. W. Trans. Deuteromycetes (Fungi Imperfecti). Alexopoulus. B. Hoch. Niederpruem. 11. Lechevalier. In: The Filamentous Fungi. cytoskeleton and endomembranes after freeze substitution. Mycologia 83:1-19. J. Ultrastructural analysis of hyphal tip growth in fungi: Spitzenkorper. B. Protoplasmic organization of hyphal tips among fungi: Vesicles and Spitzenkorpers. In: Handbook of Microbiology: (Vol. D. 1983. Cleveland. 2. Bacterio]. Baltimore. New York. and H. 8. 1953. Deuteromycetes (Fungi Imperfecti). L. nigrescens. CRC Press. Newhouse. Comparison of a virulent with a hypovirulent isolate. The parasexual cycle. MacDonald and H. 1968. Mycologia61: 240-250. B. Barry. Sussman. Mims and M. J. Williams & Wilkins. Can. Roper. Buckley. Origin and ultrastructure of the intra-hyphal hyphae in Trichophyton terrestre and T.. Br. 1). 12. Can. Buckelew. 1978. 1975. Hoch and W. 1966. J. Soc. S. E. 1996. 1978. J. 3 1 : 577-659. A. New York. Arch. A. J. P. A. S. J. Griffiths.. Using electron microscopy to study plant pathogenic fungi. and H. W. Virus-like particles in hyphae and conidia of European hypovirulent (dsRNA-containing) strains of Cryphonectria parasitica. Newhouse. 1992. Lechevalier. and H. and C. 1990. MD. Eds. N. C. C. J. (Vol. Hunter. C. John Wiley & Sons. conidia and classification. J. C. 3). L. 3. 14. Academic Press. T. Barron. MacDonald. R„ H. 9. 1981. 15. Mycol. J. Hughes. J. R.. R. 1973. J. G. The ultrastructure of Endothia parasitica. Algae. Conidiophores. Roberson. A. (Vol. 5. C. and D. Mycologia 84: 41-51. Bamett. S. R. Grove. P. Mims. 7. E. The cytology of hyphal tip growth. Eds. In The Fungi. Protozoa. J. Eds. R. Can. 1973. In: Handbook of Microbiology: (Vol. R.. Wyllie and J. F. 104: 989-1009. Smith. 2). L. J. CRC Press. Laskin. Fungi. A. 6 1 : 1-7. Bot. and A. D. L. 4. I. John Wiley & Sons. FL. G. Bracken 1970. Farley. 2). 1969. 13. 43: 117-144. The actin cytoskeleton in hyphal cells of Sclerotium rolfsii. OH. 48: 89-103. 68:90-101. XXI . and H.

The use of geranium leaves placed on the soil surface has been recommended for recovering species of Cylindrocladium from soil (310). A highly specialized medium containing antibiotics was used for isolation of Vertirtcladiella procera from diseased pine roots (428). It can also be used to obtain conidia from oozing acervuli or pycnidia. Transfers from pure cultures of these species to the plates with nematodes will assure the formation of the characteristic loops. sporulate readily in a moist chamber on pieces of wood. The common method of obtaining the oak wilt fungus from diseased trees was stripping bark from twigs. 1 A synnematous fungus (Briosia sp. the biotrophic mycoparasites are a highly specialized group in regard to nutrition. dipping in 95% alcohol. 390). Botrytis cinerea and other soft rot fungi can be obtained easily in pure culture by passage through apples or other fruits. A water agar substrate may even be useful. and are best maintained as twomem be red cultures. or close relatives (106). using a general purpose medium. especialJy common . do not require a special medium for isolation. Nematode trapping fungi may often be obtained by placing a bit of horse manure or soil rich in humus on an agar plate. leaves. Conidia may be lifted from the sporulating conidiophores by touching with a small bit of agar on the tip of a needle. Species growing in habitats with an abundance of bacteria may require the use of dilution plates or antibiotic agar (219). if present. Common species belong to the genera Arthrobutrys. such as Gliociadium roseum and species of Trichuderma. but a rose bengal streptomycin agar has been recommended (390). Dactylella. are usually isolated with a host species. Note the formation of a new conidium at the apex of the con i d i a l chain.saprophytic hyphomycetes. This simple method often results in a high percentage of cultures free of contamination. while looking through a stereoscopic microscope. should appear a few days later. or nets.PARTI PHYSIOLOGY ISOLATION Many different techniques for the isolation of fungi in pure culture have been described (246. Pathogenic fungi within plant tissue often require surface sterilization with 10% chlorox for 2 minutes before plating the material on agar (246). However. One should select and try first a method that is simple and easy. . Nematodes are usually abundant after a few days and the trapping fungi. rings. The necrotrophic mycoparasites. Conidia of Bispora sp. Wood chips were then plated on agar. and flaming (445). Monacrosporium. or other plant pans. Many species.) growing from decayed vegetation.

is preferred in critical studies of fungus physiology.5 g).469). Vitamins thiamine (100 /jg). which is a naturally occurring product in most filamentous ascomycetes and imperfects. Frequent transfer of mycelium from a culture to a fresh agar slant in test tubes is satisfactory for short periods. I to 2 g yeast extract. 220. 12. KH 2 P0 4 (1. It may be obtained in crude form by extracting from the mycelium with hot water (10. KN0 3 . This medium is easy to make. or simply frozen. in which each nutrient and its concentration is known and can be altered as desired. Conidial heads of Aspergillus niger. and distilled water (1000 ml). and the pH need not be adjusted. and water. One satisfactory synthetic medium contains glucose (5 to 10 g). Mn. and 1000 ml water. Five species of biotrophic mycoparasites require the new growth factor mycotrophein. The use of a synthetic medium. Allow mycelium to grow until it reaches the edge of the agar slant. and the effects of each nutrient can be measured. The use of screw cap tubes has the additional advantage of excluding mites. Many plant parts or products contain these nutrients but not always in quantities optimum for growth or sporulation. or agar may be added for tube or plate culture. Other natural media have been developed and used by mycologists for specific fungi. and pyridoxinc (JOO/ig) may be added routinely for the deficient species (259). A potato-dextrose (glucose) agar medium has been the favorite of many plant pathologists for many years. Many eonidia remain viable for months when collected and stored dry at low temperatures. microelements (Fe. A list of one hundred media is given in the Mycological Guidebook (390). Addition of agar and changes in concentrations may be made as desired. Long term maintenance of viable mycelium can be accomplished using screw-cap test tubes. biotin (5 fig). 138. MgS0 4 (0.2 PHYSIOLOGY CULTURE MEDIA A satisfactory general culture medium must contain all of the nutrients required by the fungus: utilizable carbon and nitrogen sources. MAINTENANCE OF STOCK CULTURES The choice of a method for keeping viable cultures over a long period of time depends on the period of time they are to be maintained and the convenience of the method (259). Some species are favored by added vitamins or growth factors.0 g). Zn) (trace). The authors prefer a general medium containing 5 to 10 g glucose. certain salts and microelements. This liquid medium may be used in flasks. asparagine or glutamic acid (1 to 2 g). . 48. Such media can be duplicated exactly. Transfer cultures after 6 to 12 mo. then screw the caps down tightly and store at about 5 UC. Mycelium of some fungi may be cultured on bits of wood or other plant tissue and stored dry- Fruiting structures of Cylindrocladium parvum growing in culture.

The intensity of white light required to induce sporulation by one isolate of Epicoccus nigrum varied inversely with the duration (430). 1 = poor. A. and maltose are utilized most readify.PHYSIOLOGY 3 PHYSIOLOGY: NUTRITION AND ENVIRONMENT See references 141. whereas lactose and sorbose are often poorly utilized or not at all. blue). mannose. In general. The approximate cardinal temperatures are given below for selected species (218). clavatus. blue being the most effective range for most fungi. some isolates of Epicoccum nigrum (uv). Some species that respond to exposure to white light or to specific wave lenghths are: Botrytis cinerea (uv). Cyllndrocladium spp. The table lists as examples the relative amount of vegetative growth of selected species on several sugars (3 = good to excellent. Sporulation by species pycnidia is often delayed until growth reaches a maximum. most of which grow w well within a range of 25 to 30 °C.. Different species respond to different wave lengths. mannose C = galactose D = sorbose A B 14 3 7 3 14 3 14 3 14 3 7 3 4 3 5 3 7 3 3 3 E = xylose F = maltose G = sucrose H = lactose C 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 D 1 2 0 0 1 1 3 0 0 0 E 3 3 1 3 2 2 3 3 0 I F 3 3 2 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 G 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 3 3 0 H 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 0 0 Temperature is a universal factor affecting all physiological processes in fungi. fructose. near uv. 0 = not utilized) (218). Sporulation of a number of species of imperfects is either induced (light is essential) or favored (increased) by exposure of the mycelium to radiation. Some species show a decided positive phototropism of the conidiophores (e. The conidiophores grow directly toward the source of light. 162. and Trichoderma lignorum (blue). only the mycelium that is young at the time of exposure responds to radiation. Among the common carbon sources. and Penicillium claviforme). Aspergillus giganteus. 157. but there is much variation. fructose. (uv. A low concentration of available carbon usually favors sporulation. Cylindrocladium citri (blue to far red). xylose and sucrose intermediately. glucose.g. 2 = fair. regardless of the position of the culture (259). thermoides Rhizoctonia solani Trichothecium roseum Verticillium albo-atrum Minimum <20 0 10 < 5 < 5 24 2 <10 5 Optimum 35 20 30 25 25-30 38-46 25-30 30 25 Maximum 50 30 35 35 35 56 35 35 35 Visible white light may affect imperfect fungi in different ways. Dendrophoma obscurans (blue). but often in different concentrations or ratios. Aspergillus fumigatus Botrytis cierea Diplodia zeae Epicoccum nigrum Helminthosporium sativum Humicola grisea v. The same nutrients that favor vegetative growth are also generally favorable to sporulation. Note that a long exposure to intense ultraviolet radiation is lethal to fungus mycelium. . Alternaria solani Aspergillus niger Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Cordana pauciseptata Dendrophoma obscurans Helminthosporium sativum Penicillium expansum Rhizoctonia solani Thielaviopsis basicola Choanephora cucurbitarum A = days B = glucose. Helminthosporium vagans (near uv). and 259 for textbooks on fungus physiology.

Inoculate several plates of general purpose medium with conidia. Examine for conidia in 3-day-old cultures. Incubate cultures in alternate light (50 footcandles or more) and darkness for a few days. and examine for pycnidia. Biotin deficiency: Diplodia macrospora (259). Place some cultures beneath continuous light. Incubate in alternate light and darkness. and measure the length of conidia formed at the different concentrations. dried and weighed. using basal medium as control.. Place on some plates autoclaved strawberry leaflets on the surface of the agar. 2 days light — 12 hours darkness. A few demonstrations that can be easily performed in the classroom. Special light requirements for production of conidia: Choanephora cucurbitarum (11). Sugar concentration affects growth of mycelium and production of conidia: Helminthosporium sativum. Use plates of glucose-asparagine agar plus thiamine. Repeat above procedure. Place some cultures incontinuous light. Use a liquid glucose-asparagine medium (see section on media above) in small flasks (25-ml to 250-ml flasks are satisfactory). Place cultures of this fungus under white light. Examine after 4 to 6 days. nigrum may also be used to demonstrate an inverse intensity-duration relationship required for sporulation (i. Inoculate plates of general purpose agar at the center with conidia or mycelium. Wrap some in light-tight paper or foil. and 5 g/liter. continuous darkness. long exposures at low intensity compared with short exposures at high light intensity (429). Place cultures under the following conditions: continuous light. E. and prevent exchange of gases in other cultures by taping dishes closed (II). If an accurate measure of growth is desired. Examine after 7 days.4 PHYSIOLOGY USE OF IMPERFECT FUNGI TO ILLUSTRATE BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES Certain species work well in demonstrating the effects of nutritional and environmental factors on growth and sporulation. Try a range from 5 to 1000 footcandles. 5. Effect of color (wave length) of light on fruiting: Dendrophoma obscurans (32). Prepare the same medium as above.e. Epicoccum nigrum (390). are suggested below. (9). the mycelium can be collected on a cloth or filter paper. Positive phototropism of conidiophores: Aspergillus clavatus. except use biotin at the rate of 5 ^g/liter. Use a synthetic agar medium with thiamine. 20. and some in total darkness at 20 to 25 °C. Natural products may replace the light requirement for production of pycnidia: Dendrophoma obscurans. Use a glucose-yeast extract medium. and in darkness. and red filters. with glucose concentrations of 1. This can be done simultaneously with the light requirement demonstration. . and some in total darkness. Use the same basal medium as above. Petri dishes with loose-fitting lids will allow adequate aeration. and cut one or two small windows. Multiple deficiency for thiamine and biotin: Arthrobotrys musiformis. some with single directional light. some in alternate light and darkness. under blue. Examine after 4 or 5 days. Effects of white light on production of conidia: Trichoderma Ugnorum. Provide adequate aeration of some of the cultures by using loose-fitting lids. Thiamine deficiency: Dendrophoma obscurans or Choanephora cucurbitarum (11). green. To half of the medium add thiamine at the rate of 1 0 0 //g/liter. together with the species used. adding pyridoxine at the rate of 1 0 0 /ig/liter. Need for adequate aeration for production of conidia: Choanephora cucurbitarum. 2 days darkness — 12 hours light. yellow. Choanephora cucurbitarum. Observe growth daily. Use the same basal medium as above. add vitamins singly and in combination. Pyridoxine deficiency: Graphium sp. or Mektnconium JuKgenium (or other species sporulating readily). Sugar concentration affects size of conidia: Helminthosporium victoriae (or some other species of this genus) (110).

Prepare 3. Necrotrophic mycoparatism: Trichoderma lignorum. After a few days use a stereoscope to check for the presence of Arthrobotrys. Observe after a few days for rings. Nematodes can be obtained easily by placing a bit of horse manure on agar plates. If none is present. use pure culture of fungus to inoculate cultures of the nematodes. Arthrobotrys spp. Preparea medium containing pyridoxine (liquid or agar). Inoculate both media. Inoculate these cultures at the edge of the mycelium with one of the above suggested species. nets. Use of a glucose-yeast extract medium is 5-day-old cultures of several common fungi. and the remaining medium under total darkness for 10 to 14 days. and examine microscopically for destroyed host cells. Trapping and consuming small nematodes (106). or other traps and for trapped nematodes. and observe growth. . Gtiochdium roseum (10.PHYSIOLOGY 5 Destruction of pyridoxineby Ijght(9): Graphiumsp. 13). Observe daily for the parasite overgrowing the host colony. Store part of the medium under continuous bright light.

typical large. are presented according to the Hughes-Tubaki-Barron System of Classification beginning on page 41. muUispored sporangia may also be present in some genera. conidia normally present except in a few genera. This group is included here because of similarity to some genera of the imperfect fungi. but some species parasitic on plants or other fungi. Fungi Imperfeeii. as well as the morphology and pigmentation of conidia and conidiophores. In artificial culture. acervuli. Pesotum ulmi. although the perfect state is often known and sometimes also present. 8 Fruiting heads of Verticlciadielia procera. Mycelium (if present) typically septate with frequent septa. Classification and identification are based on the conidial state.g.. conidia (sporangioles) present. Synnemata and conidia of the Dutch elm fungus. The primary basis of this system is the morphology of the sporulating structures as they are known in nature. MUCORALES Mostly saprophytic. the two largest families. sporodochia. and synnemaia). Mycelium typically coenocytic. Although an alternate system of classification may be more convenient for mycologists who have studied the different methods of conidium development. ORDERS INCLUDED Conidia! Phycomycetes.PART II TAXONOMY AND IDENTIFICATION THE SACCARDO SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION The Saccardo System has long been in use for the classification of imperfect fungi. some species of imperfects fail to form typical fruiting structures (e. Moniliaceac and Dcmatiaceae. the authors recommend that others use the illustrations and key based on the Saccardo System. septa absent or infrequent. 6 .

in clusters. conidia 1-celled.and Phaeo. conidia 2-celled. MELANCONIALES Conidia typically produced in acervuli under natural conditions. Some species of Melanconiales produce structures resembling sporodochia in culture. 28 33 34 FAMILIES OF MONILIALES TUBERCULARIACEAE Condiophores typically compacted into a rounded or flat sporodochium. Single conidiophores may also be present in some cultures or may be the only conidial state present. Phragmosporae. Staurosporae. conidia filiform. conidia with transverse septa only. conidia with both transverse and oblique septations. This group does not include those fungi that do not sporulate because of unfavorable nutritional or environmental conditions.are sometimes added to each section name to indicate hyaline or darkly pigmented conidia.TAXONOMY AND IDENTIFICATION 7 SPHAEROPSIDALES Conidia produced in well defined asexual fruit bodies. Didymosporae. pycnidia. STILBACEAE Condiophores typically compacted into synnemata. Helicosporae. MYCELIA STERILIA No conidia produced. Conidia are considered pigmented if the walls appear dark either separate or in mass. or on distinct conidiophores that may be separate. Scolecosporae. often not well developed in artificial culture. In the Saccardo System orders and families may be broken into sections as follows: Amerosporae. or in tightly packed groups. MONILIALES Conidia produced directly on the mycelium. conidia stellate or branched. Usually sclerotia or other structures are formed for survival. on separate conidiogenous cells. 17 26 25 . The prefixes Hyalo. Such cultures may be identified in one of the following families. which may be more abundant in aging cultures. Only within this order (Moniliales) are families used in the identification of genera. MONILIACEAE AND DEMATIACEAE Conidiophores mostly single and separate or produced in loose clusters. r 1 0 . These two families are considered together because the only described difference is the hyaline conidia of the former and the pigmented (dark) conidia or conidiophores of the latter. resembling sporodochia of the Moniliales. This is the largest and most common order. conidia typically coiled. Dictyopsorae. respectively. in culture conidiophores may be single or in compact groups.

dome-shaped sporocladia Coemansia Martensella Kickxella Linderina Spirodactylon Martensiomyces Spiromyces Mortierella 60 2 3 7 4 5 64 64 66 6 62 64 64 64 8 12 9 10 Syncephalis Syncephalastrum Piptocephalis Dimargaris 8 7a Conidia produced in rows. MUCORALES la Conidia (sporangioles) globose. with basal rhizoids 9b Conidiophores usually branched. all fertile 10b Conidiophore branches verticillate. sporangioles do not break up into rows of spores 8a Conidiophores nonseptate. all fertile 62 66 62 62 . or sporangioles in chains. rhizoids absent 10a Conidiophore branches dichotomous. bearing a few lateral or apical sporocladia 6b Conidiophore simple. conidia radiating apex 8b Conidiophores septate. often breaking up into rows of spores 7b Conidia not in rows (chainlike).KEY TO GENERA Note that there is a separate key for each order. conidia globose to subglobose 5a Conidia borne only on upper (inner) side of sporocladium 5b Conidia borne only on lower (outer) side of sporocladium 6a Conidiophore simple. branched. simple or branched. conidia obovoid 4c Sporocladia arising from loosely spiraled branches. borne in clusters or in heads 2a Special spore-bearing branches (sporocladia) bearing conidia only on one side (upper or lower) 2b Sporocladia not present 3a Sporocladia borne on coiled or recurved branches 3b Sporocladia not on coiled or recurved branches 4a Sporocladia on coiled branches. distinctly branched 9a Conidiophores simple. conidia short ellipsoid 4b Sporocladia in umbels on recurved branches. bearing a whorl of sporocladia on an apical disc 6c Conidiophore long. borne singly on apex of conidiophores (sporangiophores) or branches lb Conidia (sporangioles) globose to elongate. bearing lateral.

conidia ellipsoid. with transverse and oblique septa C_7a /Parasitic on higher plants 7b Saprophytic on wood or bark 8a Conidiophores hyaline. with transverse septa only 6b Conidia dark. usually colored 13b Spore-bearing head compound. globose to subglobose 14a Conidia not produced in slime. bearing a head of cylindrical conidia 1 lb Fertile branches repeatedly branched. sporodochium not stalked 4a Conidial coil more or less flattened 4b Conidial coil spiral 5a Conidia thick in proportion to length 5b Conidia slender 6a Conidia hyaline or dark.MUCORALES 9 10c Conidiophore branches irregular. conidia hyaline. conidia hyaline. reniform to ellipsoid 13c Spore-bearing head simple. conidia not in compact heads 12a Conidiophores with lateral or terminal branches 12b Conidiophores simple 13a Spore-bearing head compound. some with sterile tips 1 la Fertile branches enlarged. hyaline or dark (parts of Moniliaceae. dry (4b Conidia produced in slime drop in a head J 5a Conidia borne on enlarged globose apex 15b Conidia borne on cylindrical upper portion of conidiophore Helicocephalum Rhopalomyces Mycotypha Choanephora Radiomycea Cunninghamella Dispira Tieghemiomyces 11 66 62 13 14 66 64 60 15 60 60 60 MONILIALES la Conidia more or less coiled or spirally curved. Dematiaceae and Tuberculariaceae) lb Conidia not coiled 2 10 HELICOSPORES 2a Conidiophores forming a sporodochium 2b Conidiophores single or in loose clusters 3a Conidial coil flat. sporodochium stalked 3b Conidial coil in a loose spiral. short Xenosporium Helkomina Helicotna Helicomyces Everhartia Hobsonia 3 4 150 150 5 9 6 8 7 136 136 136 136 .

pale or dark. although sometimes short V 13a Pathogenic to humans 13b Saprophytic or parasitic. circinate or wavy 17a Mycelium with clamp connections 17b Mycelium without clamp connections 18a Conidia produced on sterigmata and forcibly discharged Sporobolomyces Candida Circinotrichum Gyrothrix Itersonilia Candida 70 68 68 16 17 90 90 70 18 70 70 Chrysosporium 15b Conidia (arthrospores) formed by segmentation of hyphae. rounded 15c Conidia not arthrospores. unbranched 16c Setae present.or more-celled. 82 I4b Both filamentous and yeastlike cells at 25 °C. with large chlamydospores. rod-shaped — Geotrichum .. Histoplasma 80. mostly circinate. not forcibly discharged .10 KEY TO GENERA 8b Conidiophores pigmented. not formed by segmentation 16a Setae absent 16b Setae present. without large chlamydospores 15a Conidia (arthrospores) segment from branches of conidiophores. mostly soil or on plant parts 12 62 74 13 19 14 15 14a Filamentous in cultures at 25°C. conidiophores single or in loose clusters Moniliaceae 10b Either conidia or comdiophores (or both) with distinct dark pigment. shape variable 12a Conidiophores absent or like the mycelium. branched. or reduced to phialidcs or peglike denticles 12b Conidiophores distinct. 18b Conidia borne on sides of mycelium or formed by budding. comdiophores single or in loose clusters Dematiaceae 10c Conidiospores compacted into sporodochia lOd Conidiophores typically united into synnemata Tuberculariaceae Stilbaceae 11 105 202 225 MONILIACEAE 11a Conidia typically 1-celled. Blastomyces. globose to several times longer than wide 1! b Conidia typically 2-cellcd. mostly ovoid to cylindrical 11 c Conidia typically 3. tall 9a Conidia borne singly 9b Conidia catenulate Helicosporium Helicoon Helicodendron 136 136 136 NOT HEUCOSPORES 10a Both conidia and conidiophores (if present) hyaline or brightly colored.

20a Conidia distinct in shape from apical cells of conidiophore 20b Conidia (arthrospores) gradually become rounded from apical cells of conidiophore 20c Conidia (blastospores) globose to ellipsoid. conidiophores simple or branched 24a Dark aleuriospores (chlamydospores) present. slender. much like cells of conidiophore Oidium Ovulariopsis 68 70 20 21 Wallemia Monilia Tilletiopsis 92 72 12 22 38 23 29 24 26 21a Conidiophores (or phialides) typically simple or with few branches. if present.MONIUALES 11 19a Conidial state of powdery mildew. phialides simple 28b Conidia arthropsores. rod-shaped 29a Conidiophores or conidiogenous cells short or indefinite 29b Conidiophores or conidiogenous cells distinct. if present. phialides. usually single 24b Dark aleuriospores (chlamydospores) in short chains of truncate cells. not tightly clustered into heads 21b Conidiophores mostly branched. conidia catenulate 19b Conidial state of powdery mildew. similar to apical cells of conidiophore 20d Conidia (blastospores) elongate. simple 23b Conidia exogenous. phialides prominent. fertile portion not rachislike 30a Conidiophores not inflated or only slightly so 30b Conidiophores or fertile cells distinctly inflated at middle or apex . fertile portion rachislikc Hyalodendron Gonatorrhodiella Monocillium Basipetospora Oidiodendron Chrysosporium Tritirachium. rounded. clustered into groups or heads — 22a Conidia catenulate 22b Conidia not catenulate 23a Conidia endogenous. breaking up 24c Dark aleuriospores rarely formed 25a Dark setae present 25b Dark setae absent 26a Conidia blastospores or botryoblastospores 26b Conidia otherwise 27a Conidia in chains on slender conidiophores 27b Conidia on enlarged apex and nodes of conidiophores 28a Conidia phialospores. Beauveria Chaetochalara Chalara Chalaropsis Ihielaviopsis 90 92 25 90 90 27 28 72 78 86 70 68 68 100 30 31 37 29c Conidiophores or conidiogenous cells distinct. phialides. conidia not catenulate 19c Not conidial state of powdery mildew . nearly globose with a flat base 28c Conidia arthrospores.

12 K E Y TO GENERA 31a Conidia curved. apical and intercalary 37d Fertile cells somewhat elongated. stout 37b Fertile cells globose. conidia on short denticles Chromelosporium 38a Conidia in more or less compact heads. forked at apex 35b Conidiophores usually have branches arising from an enlarged cell 35c Conidiophores with variable short lateral branches 36a Conidiophores branched verticillately Lunulospora 138 32 34 35 33 Otpitrichum 74 36 Ovularia Sporothrix Glomerularia Umbelopsis Staphylotrichum Vertkillium 104 98 86 86 80 92 188 94 78 76 76 76 76 80 39 41 94 40 36b Conidiophores in acervuli in nature. conidia borne on short denticles 37e Fertile cells somewhat elongated. in moist heads 34a Conidiophores clustered 34b Conidiophores single. not aquatic 32a Conidia sympodulospores 32b Conidia aleuriospores 32c Conidia blastospores or phialospores. never in acervuli 37a Fertile cells globose. conidiophores short. conidia borne on long pegs or branches 37f Cephalosporium Phymaiotrkhum Oedocephalum Gonatobotrys Rhinotrichum Acladium Fertile cells elongated. apical. on long denticles. simple. single 33a Conidia blastospores. conidiophores simple 38b Conidia not in compact heads. enlarged branches of conidiophorc. conidiophores separate or in poorly formed groups Gloeosporium 36c Conidiophores simple or with few branches. cylindrical. aquatic on dead leaves 31 b Conidia globose to ovoid. single. dry 33b Conidia phialospores. in culture. conidiophores simple or branched near the apex 39a Conidia in dry heads 39b Conidia held in heads of slime 40a Simple diverging sterile arms subtending heads 40b No sterile arms below conidial heads 4!a Conidia in basipetal chains 41 b Conidial chains formed by segmentation of cells or branches of conidiophore Gliocephalotrichum Gliocephalis Aspergillus 94 94 42 44 . conidiophores slender 37c Fertile cells globose. separate 35a Conidiophores single.

phialides upright. with irregular branches 53c Conidiophores tall. with few branches 54a Conidiophore branches brushlike. separating cells not prominent 45a Rough-walled aleuriospores (chlamydospores) present 45b Rough-walled aleuriospores absent 46a Aleuriospores 1-celled. with regular dichotomous branching 53d Conidiophores short. lateral branches 53b Conidiophores tall. without attached cells 46d Aleuriospores 2-celled. loose 43b Conidia phialospores. not in columns or cushions 42b Conidiophores and conidia in tall aggregates 42c Conidiophores and conidia in slimy cushions 43a Conidia phialospores. not on inflated cells 53a Conidiophores tall. with one (or few) central axis and several equal. brushlike 43c Conidia annelospores 44a Arthrospores barrel-shaped.MGNIHALES 13 41 c Conidia not catenulate 42a Conidiophores usually separate. phialides divergent. apical cell large. smooth walled 46c Aleuriospores 1-celled. rough. smooth 47a Phialospore state verticillate (like Verticillium) 47b Phialospore state aspergilliform (like Aspergillus) Mycogone Chlamydomyces Stephanoma Botryoderma Sepedonium Metarrhizium Myroihecium Paecihmyces Pemcillium Scopulariopsis Amblyosporium Oidiodendron 45 43 94 146 94 94 98 68 68 46 48 82 86 82 47 82 82 49 57 50 51 Verticillium Calcarisporium 92 102 52 54 53 55 Botryosporium Botrytis Dichobotrys Phymatotrichum Gliocladium 76 76 78 78 92 48a Conidia produced at or near apex of phialides or branches of conidiophores 48b Conidia attached both at apex and side of conidiophore or its branches 49a Larger conidiophores (at least) verticillate 49b Branches of conidiophores irregular. with attached hyaline cells 46b Aleuriospores 1 -celled. rough walled. borne on inflated apical cells 52b Conidia single or in small clusters. separated by prominent slender cells 44b Arthrospores rod-shaped to globose. basal cell small. not verticillate 50a Phialospores in mucilaginous clusters 50b Sympodulospores in dry clusters 51a Conidia not aggregated in slime drops 51 b Conidia held in heads by slime drops 52a Conidia abundant. similar to Peniciltium .

branched 62b Conidiophores mostly simple or with few branches 62c Conidiophores none. not bulbous. not dichotomous Botryoderma Calcarisporium Chromelosporium Geniculosporium Beauveria Tritirachium Hansfordia Nodulosporium Trichoderma 92 56 74 98 100 58 60 59 100 100 100 61 86 102 80 63 66 Rhynchosporium 108 64 Genicularia Cylindrocladium Candelabrella 110 108 110 65 Diplosporium Cladobotryum 108 108 67 70 Heliscus 108 68 Genicularia 110 69 61b Conidiophores slender to stout. not brushlike 55a Conidiophore branches loose. bearing globose cells but no true conidia Cristulariella 56a Saprophytic on leaves 56b Saprophytic on wood. basal cell smooth . or rachislike 58a Conidiophores simple or verticillately branched 58b Conidiophores irregularly branched 59a Conidiophores bulbous at base. parasitic on insects 59b Conidiophores slender.14 K E Y TO GENERA 54b Conidiophore branches spreading. fertile cells somewhat inflated 62a Conidiophores well developed. conidia present 55b Reproductive structure compacted. cylindrical 64a Conidiophore branches restricted to apical region 64b Conidiophore branches not restricted to apical region 65a Conidia in loose moist clusters 65b Conidia in loose tangled chains 66a Apical cell of conidium much larger than basal cell 66b Conidial cells not differing greatly in size 67a Aquatic on submerged leaves 67b Not aquatic 68a Both cells of conidium smooth walled 68b Apical cell of conidium rough walled. not parasitic on insects 60a Conidia borne on short denticles 60b Conidia apical on branches. not on denticles 6!a Conidiophores slender. reduced to cells of stroma 63a Conidia ovoid to oblong 63b Conidia (sympodulospores) obovoid 63c Conidia (phialospores) slender. with slender branches from main axis. conidial state of Hypoxylon 57a Fertile portion of conidiophore (or sporogenous cell) zig-zag rachishke 57b Fertile portion of conidiophore (or cell) not zig-zag. globose or pyramidal.

if present. not clustered. slender. aquatic or not 75a Conidiophores branched near apex. similar to Aspergillus 69b Microconidial state. rounded at apex 78b Macroconidia spindle-shaped to ellipsoid 79a Macroconidia typically curved. not canoe-shaped 80a Conidiophores short. parasitic on leaves Chlamydomyces Mycogone 82 82 71 73 72 108 110 110 110 110 75 76 71a Conidia borne singly on short pegs or denticles at or near apex of comdiophore 71 b Conidia borne successively at pointed apex of comdiophore 72a Conidiophores tall. conidiophores single 83a Conidia ellipsoid. aquatic 74b Conidia shorter or not cylindrical. small conidia usually also present 79b Other than in macroconidia. conidia cylindrical to clavate 73a Conidia cylindrical. not catenulate 74a Conidia long.or few-celled 75b Conidiophores simple. or slightly curved 81 b Conidia ellipsoid or long attenuated 82a Conidia catenulate. conidia obovate to oblong 72b Conidiophores short. conidiophores single 82c Conidia not catenulate (phialospores). rounded at apex 83b Conidia cylindrical to filiform Septocylindrium Scolecobasidium Cylindrocarpon Fusoma Trichophyton Microsporum Fusarium Flagelhspora Anguillospora Trichothecium Arthrobotrys Dactylaria Ramularia Didymaria 138 140 77 84 78 79 116 116 130 80 81 85 82 83 128 114 130 116 84 . similar to Verticiltium 70a Conidiophores single. not branched 76b Conidia branched.MON1LIALES 15 69a Microconidial state. if present. apical 76a Conidia 2. cylindrical. mostly several-celled. staurosporous 77a Causing dermatomycoses of man or animals 77b Saprophytic or parasitic on plants 78a Macroconidia clavate. mostly simple or with few branches 80b Conidiophores tall. pointed (canoe-shaped). conidia 1 . simple or branched 81 a Conidia cylindrical. phragmosporous. conidiophores clustered 82b Conidia not catenulate (sympodulospores). conidia single. mostly saprophytic 70b Conidiophores clustered. often in short chains 73b Conidia ovoid to oblong. often bent or curved.

"conidial" branches forming a well defined globose or conical structure. pointed 96b Conidial appendages not distinctly attenuated 97a Conidia borne on phialides or phialide-Iike branches of the conidiophore 97b Conidia borne otherwise 98a Conidium with elongated axis and 2 lateral branches arising side by side 98b Conidium with 4 divergent branches arising near base of conidium Alatospora Lemonniera Ingoldia CuHcidospora Clavariopsis Actinospora Dicranidion Tridentaria Thallospora 138 140 95 97 140 140 96 138 140 98 99 142 138 . similar to a loosly formed sclerotium Cristulariella 91 a Conidiophores reduced.16 KEY TO GENERA 84a Conidium with apical appendage 84b Conidia without appendages 85a Conidiophores mostly simple. seldom branched 85b Conidiophores typically branched 86a Parasitic on grasses 86b Saprophytic or parasitic on nematodes 87a Middle cell of conidium greatly enlarged 87b Middle cell only slightly or not at all enlarged 88a Conidia ovoid to clavate to cylindrical 88b Conidia fusiform to cylindrical 89a Branches of conidiophore (phialides) verticillate 89b Conidiophores terminating in penicilliate branches 90a True staurosporous conidia formed Spermospora Cercosporella 128 128 86 95 Pyricularia 128 87 Monacrosporium 118 88 Dactylaria Dactylella Dactylium Cylindrocladium 110 128 130 108 91 74 142 92 93 94 90b No true conidia known. not evident 91b Conidiophores distinct. length variable 92a Conidial branches not greatly divergent 92b Conidial branches widely divergent 93a Conidial branches typically 2-pronged 93b Conidial branches typically 3-pronged 94a Central cell of conidium much enlarged 94b Central cell of conidium not enlarged 95a Conidia pyriform or clavate. with 3 slender branches 95b Conidia with central globose cell and 4 to 5 slender branches 95c Conidia with 3 to 4 broad cells in main axis and 2 to 4 slender appendages 96a Conidial appendages attenuated. well formed.

conidia formed as meristem arthrospores 108b Conidia other than arthrospores 109a Conidia formed as aleuriospores 109b Conidia formed as phialospores.MONILIALES 17 99a Conidial branches formed one at a time 99b Conidial branches formed simultaneously 100a Conidial branches 4 or more 100b Conidial branches 3 or less 101a Main axis of conidium broader than branches 101b Main axis of conidium about the same width as branches 102a Number of branches variable mostly arising from one side of main axis 102b Conidial branches dendroid. or annellospores 110a Conidia globose Wailemia 92 109 110 114 Ill . conidiophorelike structures may also be present 107c Conidia appearing as blastospores. cells distinct from conidia. consisting of 1 to few cells 106b Conidiophores mostly tall and well developed. budding freely 107b Dark globose cells of the mycelium breaking up to form 1.or more-celleddictyospores 106 145 156 184 107 122 Aureobasidium Torula Papularia 70 74 82 108 106a Conidiophores absent or. not normally budding. often poorly developed. if present. conidiophore cells usually distinct but short 108a Conidiophores extending slightly in length. not limited to one side of main axis 103a Conidial branches arising from different levels 103b Conidial branches arising from base of central axis 104a Conidial branches arising from near apex of main axis 104b Two conidial branches arising about midway of slender axis Tetracladium 100 103 101 104 140 102 138 140 138 138 142 140 Varicosporium Dendrospora Tricladiutn Triscelophorus Articulospora Tetrachaetum DEMATIACEAE 105a 105b 105c 105d Conidia typically 1-celled Conidia typically 2-celled Conidia typically 3. simple or branched 107a Blastospores borne directly on sides of mycelium. with a hyaline slit on one side 107d Conidia other than blastospores.or more-ceiled phragmospores Conidia typically several-celled segments. not budding. broadly ovoid to lenticular. sympodulospores.

. breaking up into single cells . not catenulate 1 1 7 c Conidia rod-shaped. conidia single. hyaline to dark. narrowly ellipsoid. annellospores dark. narrowly ellipsoid. conidia sessile.. conidia dark 1 9 9 b a No Dark 120a Chlamydospores nearly globose. no germ pore evident. collar not noticeably flared. hyaline. curved setae present. often in chains. apically on a special flat hyaline cell 112 Nigrospora Humicola Gilmaniella Botryothchwn Echinobotryum 82 84 84 84 84 113 11 lb Conidia apical. with a hyaline germ pore on one side 11 Id Conidia single on short branch. repeatedly branched II 3b Conidiophore branches few. often present in long chains 1 1 9 118a Phialides often with enlarged base with flaring collar. branched. conidia borne on slender stalks 113c Conidiophore branches few.. sympodulospores dark. not in heads 117b Conidia mostly ovoid. sympodulospores hyaline. mostly single 120b Chlamydospores formed in a row. brown. Gyrothrix Conidia ovoid to rod-shaped. conidia hyaline 118c 1 1 1 Phialides slender. ellipsoid 113a Conidiophores short. no setae present Conidia with slender appendage at each end. conidiophore branched Menispora Codinae appendage Monilochaetes 88 88 117 86 118 116b Conidia with slender appendage at each end. dark setae present 112a Conidia rough-walled. collar not flaring. borne singly. pointed at apex 1 4 d Conidia formed as Conidia slightly curved. with blunt ends. Circinotrichum Conidia slightly curved. conidiophore unbranched 1 117a 1 6 c Conidia without Conidia ovoid.18 KEY TO GENERA I !0b Conidia ellipsoid or pointed at apex II la Conidia black and shiny. little or no slime. pointed at apex 112b Conidia smooth-walled. conidia hyaline Phialophora Chloridium Gliomastix chlamydospores dark chlamydospores present present Chalaropsis Thielaviopsis 88 88 86 120 121 90 92 118b Phialides slender. in small slimy heads. not on a flat special cell 11 lc Conidiophore reduced to one cell. germ slit evident on one side Wardomyces Asteromyces Mammaria Idriella Fusicladium Spilocaea phialospores 84 84 84 102 112 106 115 90 90 116 I I4a Conidiophores separate. pointed at apex 114c 1 115a U5b 115c 116a Conidiophores compacted into stromalike layer. somewhat curved 114b Conidiophores compacted into stromalike layers. simple curved setae present.

128a Conidia borne on somewhat enlarged branch tips 128b Conidia borne on elongated fertile portion of conidiophore branches 129a Conidiophores with main axis and numerous lateral branches. pointed at apex. asymmetric Geniculosporium Virgaria Beltrania Selenosporella Sympodiella Periconiella Verticicladiella Verticicladium Nodulosporium 102 104 104 104 104 100 129 102 100 100 131 136 132 133 130a Conidia blastospores or appearing to be produced as such 130b Other than in conidia. Branches loosely arranged. attached at tip and sides of conidiophores Rhinocladiella 124c Conidia obconic. Conoplea 129b Main axis of conidiophore not evident. not sympodulospores 123a Conidiophores simple 123b Conidiophores branched 124a Apex of conidiophores enlarged. bearing numerous hyaline conidia on short sporogenous cells Basidiobotrys I24b Conidiophores pointed at apex. conidia dark. symmetric 129c Main axis of conidiophores not evident. rounded. dark 125a Conidiophore branches or phialides borne on side of conidiophore 125b Branches of conidiophore confined to area near apex 125c Branches of conidiophores irregular 126a Branches in whorls. without slime 127b Conidiophores repeatedly branched. formed on new growing points on conidiophores 122b Conidia formed in other ways. conidia hyaline. ovoid.. pointed setae present 121b No setae present Chaetochalara Chalara 90 90 123 130 124 125 100 104 104 126 127 128 122a Conidia. not blastospores 13la Conidia hyaline 13Jb Conidia dark 132a Dark special cells (falcs) bearing sporogenous cells 132b Without dark falcs on conidiophores 133a Dark pointed setae present 133b Without dark setae Zygosporium Haplographium 72 80 134 135 . branches compact. rod-shaped Mid. conidia dark. conidia dark. . sympodulospores. conidia not borne in slime heads . conidia hyaline in slime heads I27c Conidiophores repeatedly branched near apex. simple. conidia hyaline.. conidia somewhat curved 126b Conidia in unbranched chains.MON1LIALES 19 121a Dark.

other than in conidia 142a Conidia rod-shaped. catenulate 142b Conidia elongate fusoid. without sterile apex 140a Conidia ovoid. not catenulate 143a Conidia formed as meristem arthrospores. conidiophores irregularly branched 145a Conidia catenulate 145b Conidia not catenulate 146a Conidiophores simple. conidiophores with sterile apex 139b Conidiophore branches clustered at or near apex. rounded 139a Branches of conidiophores lateral. phialides hyaline 141a Conidiophores hyaline. phialides dark 140b Conidia oblong. conidia in slime heads 144b Conidia aleuriospores. elongate with blunt ends.20 KEY TO GENERA 134a Conidiophore with enlarged rounded apical cell 134b Conidiophores with slender apical cells 135a Conidia borne on apical inflated cells 135b Conidia borne on inflated cells at apex and intercalary cells of conidiophores 135c Conidia borne in acropetal chains of variable size and with scars 136a Conidia (phialophores) borne at apex of conidiophores 136b Conidia not phialospores 137a Conidiophores simple. few conidia large. lemon-shaped 14Tb Conidiophores dark. conidiophores simple with two dark conidia at apex 144c Conidia aleuriospores. conidiophores with thick dark septa 143b Conidia and conidiophores not as above 144a Conidia annellospores. apex of conidiophores not enlarged 138c Conidia in dry chains. unbranched 137b Conidiophores branched 138a Conidia in moist (slimy) heads 138b Conidia in dry chains. tall. segmenting into rod-shaped arthrospores 146b Conidia formed in acropetalous unbranched chains (blastospores) 146c Conidia formed in branched chains. single-celled conidia also present (blasto spores) 146d Conidia formed as rows of dark chlamydospores (aleuriospores) Lacellinopsis Lacellina Periconia Gonatobotryutn Cladosporium 78 78 74 78 106 137 143 138 139 Stachybotrys Memnoniella Aspergillus 88 88 94 140 141 Gonytrichum Chaetopsina Phialomyces 98 96 94 142 96 96 92 74 144 98 80 80 146 147 Phialocephala Thysanophora Stachylidium Arthrinium Leptographium Microclavia Staphylotrichum Ampuliferina Bispora Cladosporium Trichocladium 106 106 106 118 . dark. cylindrical. ends pointed 142c Conidia ovoid. apex of conidiophores enlarged.

stout. on flat stroma 150b Conidiophores tall 151a Conidia annellospores Spilocaea Fusicladium Passalora Scolecotrichum 106 112 112 112 154 155 151b Conidia sympodulospores 152a Conidiophores branched 152b Conidiophores unbranched } 53a Conidiophores simple 153b Conidiophores branched 154a Conidiophores short. terminal phialide Sporoschisma 130 157 158 159 156b Conidia exogenous. conidia not truly end to end Fusariella Septonema Cladosporiella 130 116 92 160 158b Conidia] chains acropetal. apical cell pointed 150a Conidiophores very short. mostly single 148a Conidiophores wavy. usually length not 3 to 4 times width Conidia with very thick wall. conidia formed from lateral pores Branches restricted to apical area where radiating sporogenous cells form Scolecobasidium Cordana Spadicoides 114 112 114 Pseudobotrytis Chaeiopsis Balanium 106 96 106 155b Several lateral branches of conidiophores end in sterile apical point 155c 156a Conidiophore branches short. formed by expansion of apical conidiophore cells Murogenella 114 .MON1LIALES 21 146e 147a Conidia formed as lateral branches through pores (porospores) Conidiophores clustered on surface or breaking out from stroma Diplococcium 114 148 153 I47b Other than in conidiophores. rarely branched 158a Conidial chains basipetal. arising from within leaf 149a Conidia on stroma. in loose clusters on surface of leaves 148b Conidiophores not wavy. other than in conidiophores 157a Conidiophores typically branched 157b Conidiophores typically simple. on short conidiophore Conidia endogenous. composed usually of 1 or 2 cells 154b Conidiophores tall. much longer than wide i 59b 160a Conidia much broader. with apical. irregular. conidia clustered at apex 154c 155a Conidiophores tall. conidia truly end to end 159a Conidia slender. slender. rounded cells Asperisporium Polythrincium 112 149 112 150 151 152 149b Conidia on stroma. slender. conidiophore with a single swollen.

no separating cell Ceratophorum 170c Conidia long. elongating after each successive conidial formation 173a Conidia produced through pores at sides of conidiophores Spadicoidcs . apical cell attenuated or hooked. upper portion divergent 163a Conidiophores short. or absent 165b Conidiophores tall. hyaline 165a Conidiophores short. consisting of 1 to few cells. compact cushion-shaped structures 162c Conidiophores clustered at base. dark phragmospores. phragmospores and dictyospores may be present Trichocladium Pithoniyces 172a Conidiophores determinate. no separating cell Clasiei'o. not elongating with successive conidial formation 172b Conidiophorcs indeterminate.sporium 171a Conidia rounded. bearing annellospores 163b Conidiophores tall. separate 162a Conidiophores in tall fascicles 162b Conidiophores in small. broadest at middle. typically consisting of several cells I66a Conidia of two kinds. separating cell at tip of conidiophore evident Camposporium Pseudotorula Dwayabeeja Cephaliophora Deightoniella Heterosporium Cercospora Stigmina Phragmocephala Cercosporidium 161 162 165 118 122 163 120 164 122 128 166 172 167 168 116 116 116 118 169 170 171 116 118 118 118 132 173 174 114 170b Conidia somewhat broader at middle. oblong 164b Conidia long. slender. narrowed toward each end. and lighter scolecospores 166b Dark phragmospores only 167a Conidia in acropetalous chains 167b Conidia not in chains 168a Conidia botryoblastospores 168b Conidia annellospores I68c Conidia aleuriospores 169a Conidia much longer than broad 169b Conidia not much longer than broad 170a Conidia long-cylindrical. showing sympodial growth 164a Conidia dark. nearly globose (may appear as a chain of chlamydospores) I7Ib Conidia broadly ellipsoid.22 KEY TO GENERA 160b Conidia formed distinct from conidiophore cells 161a Conidiophores clustered or fascicled 161b Conidiophorcs single.

to 5-celled. saprophytic 174a Conidiophores proliferating at apex. Corynespora Sporidesmium Endophragmia 120 120 118 175 176 Annellophora Endophragmia Pleiochaeta 118 118 128 177 178 181 Brachysporium 126 179 Pleurothecium 126 180 Cacumisporium Pleurographium 124 126 182 183 180b Conidia borne near apex but not on special cell of conidiophore 181a Conidia distinctly narrowed at both ends 181b Conidia straight or only slightly narrowed. parasitic on leaves 173c Conidia apical.126 185 186 Drechslera. saprophytic 173d Conidia apical.MONILIALES 23 173b Conidia apical. usually 4-celled. straight or slightly curved Helminthosporium Nakataea Dendryphion Curvulana 124 128 124 122 122. 3. simple conidiophores 182b Conidia sympodulospores 183a Conidia catenulate 183b Conidia not catenulate. leaving annulate scars 174b Conidiophores elongating sympodially 175a Conidia narrowed or pointed at apex 175b Conidia mostly ovoid with rounded apex 176a Conidia with 1 to 4 slender hyaline appendages 176b Conidia without appendages 177a Conidia in apical clusters or heads 177b Conidia not confined to apex of conidiophore 178a Conidia borne on slender pedicels 178b Conidia not borne on slender pedicels 179a Conidia hyaline 179b Conidia dark 180a Conidia borne on short hyaline projection through apex of conidiophore '. Bipolaris 184a Conidia catenulate 184b Conidia not catenulate 185a Conidial development basipetal 185b Conidial development acropetal 186a Conidium with large swollen apical cell 186b Apical cell of conidium not distinctly swollen Coniosporium Alternaria Acrospeira 134 132 132 187 . bent by enlargement of one of middle cells 183c Conidia not catenulate. borne in whorls on cells of straight. single. ends rounded 182a Conidia porospores. several-celled. several-celled. several-celled.

usually longer than conidia 187b Conidiophores poorly developed or none 188a Conidia apical. cross-shaped 191 b Conidia several celled. oblong to obovoid 195a Branches of conidium upright. single 198b Conidia (sympodulospores) apical on new sympodial growing points 199a Conidia with 2 to 3 straight or curved upright horns 199b Conidia with 3 to 4 basal cells. conidia catenulate or produced successively 196c Conidial branches separate. single 1 9 7 'a Conidiophores present. parasitic 193b Saprophytic in soil or humus 194a Conidia globose to subglobose 194b Conidia very large. ends rounded 191c I92a Conidia several-celled. conidia apical. mostly on wood 201a Conidiophores united into sporodochia (Tuberculanaceae). straight to flexuous 191a Conidia with 4 cells. or broadly ellipsoid Stemphylium Sirosporium Dictyoarthrmium Ulocladium Alternaria 188 192 189 192 132 190 132 134 134 132 134 193 194 Stigmella Pithomyces Epicoccum Berkleasmium 134 132 150 134 196 197 Dictyosponum Ceratosporella Speiropsis 144 144 142 198 199 Triposporium Diplodadiella 144 142 200 Tetrapha Tripospermum Hirudinaria Ceratosporium 142 142 144 144 190b Conidia elongate. length variable 197b Conidiophores absent or reduced to short pegs 198a Conidia (aleuriospores) apical. not cross-shaped. ovoid. each attenuated above 199c Conidia with 4 to 5 divergent arms at wide angles 200a Parasitic on leaves 200b Saprophytic. parallel. broadly elliptical. some species may be similar in appearance to Melanconiales 202 . not clustered Dactylosporium 192b Conidiophores clustered. single 188b Conidia appearing apical and lateral due to growth of conidiophore 189a Conidia sharply attenuated at apex I89b Conidia somewhat narrower or not at apex 190a Conidia subglobose. narrowly elliptical. Sporodochia may be poorly formed in culture. ends pointed Conidiophores single. or slightly divergent 195b Branches of conidium upright or lateral. distinct. often into a loose sporodochiumlike structure 193a On living leaves. widely divergent 196a Conidial branches connected 196b Conidial branches separate.24 KEY TO GENERA 187a Conidiophores well developed.

not on grain 205a Sporodochia with prominent setae or sterile hairs 205b Sporodochia without setae or sterile hairs 206a Sporodochia developing in rust pustules on plants 206b Sporodochia superficial. hyaline or dark 202b Conidia 2-ceIIed.MONIL1ALES 25 201b Conidiophores united into synnemata (Stilbaceae). free conidiophores often also present 225 TUBERCULARIACEAE 202a Conidia I-celled. on developing grain 204b Sporodochia cushion-shaped to discoid. hyaline or dark 203a Conidia hyaline or brightly colored 203b Conidia or sporodochia with dark pigment 204a Sporodochia stromalike. not in rust pustules 207a Conidia catenulate or in pillarlike masses 207b Conidia not catenulate or in pillarlike structures 208a Conidia hyaline or yellowish in mass 208b Conidia usually greenish in mass 209a Conidiophores and conidia in tall columnar aggregates 209b Conidiophores and conidia in slimy masses or loose columns 210a Sporodochia discoid. spreading. dark 202c Conidia typically more than 2-celled. flattened 210b Sporodochia cushion-shaped to hemispherical 21 la Conidiophores verticillately branched 21 lb Conidiophore branching irregular 212a On wood or bark 212b On leaves 2 J 3a On scale insects 213b Not on scale insects 214a Sporodochia erumpent from leaves 214b Sporodochia superficial on bark or wood 215a Conidia hyaline or brightly colored Hadrotrichum Strumella Tubercularia Illosporium Aegerita Dendrodochium Metarrhizium Myrothecium Hymenella Sphaerosporium Tuberculina Myrothecium Sphacelia Pucciniopsis 203 148 215 204 213 148 205 146 206 148 207 208 210 146 209 94 146 146 211 146 212 146 146 150 214 146 146 216 .

26 K E Y TO GENERA 215b Conidia with dark pigment 216a Conidia several-celled 221a Conidia globose to subglobose 221 b Conidia broadly cylindrical to ovoid. cylindrical to ellipsoid. very large 222a Sporodochia without setae 222b Sporodochia with dark setae 223a Conidiophores arising from special enlarged cells 223b Conidiophores not arising from special enlarged cells Excipularia Camptomeris Bactrodesmium Epicoccum Berkleasmium Cheiromyces Spegazzinia • Fusarium Ramulispora Bactridium 218 148 217 130 148 219 220 150 150 221 223 150 134 223 148 150 150 STILBACEAE 225a Not parasitic (or saprophytic) on insects or spiders 225b Parasitic (and probably saprophytic) on insects or spiders 226a Conidia 1 -celled 226b Conidia 2. compact upright branches 219b Conidia 4-lobed. cross-shaped 220a Conidia (dictyospores) muriform 220b Conidia (phragmospores) 3. yellowish in mass 216b Conidia slender.or more-celled 227a Conidia hyaline 227b Conidia dark 228a Comdiogenous portion of synnemata located or near apex in more or less globose head 228b Conidiogenous portion of synnemata elongate to cylindrical 229a Head composed of loosely arranged conidiogenous hyphae 229b Head composed of compact conidiogenous hyphae 226 243 227 236 228 233 229 232 230 231 . I-celled conidia also may be present 217b Conidia curved but not canoe-shaped 218a Conidia branched or lobed 2I8b Conidia not branched or lobed 219a Conidia with short. hyaline in mass 217a Macroconidia canoe-shaped.

cylindrical 239a Conidial portion in compact. short.MONILIALES 27 230a Head with numerous radiating sterile hyphae 230b Radiating sterile hyphae not present 231a Stalks of synnemata hyaline 231b Stalks of synnemata dark 232a Synnema with tall. uniform. central seta 232b Central seta absent '. borne on sympodial conidiophore 243a Phialides in globose or wedge-shaped heads 243b Phialides not in definite heads Arthrosporium Podosporium Spiropes Gibellula . more or less globose heads 239b Conidial portion with loose conidiophores. with globose head 235a Sterile hairs or setae present among conidiophores 235b Sterile hairs not present 236a Conidia 2-celled 236b Conidia 3. not so compact 240a Conidia with cross walls only (phragmosphores) 240b Conidia with both cross and oblique walls (dictyospores) 241a Conidial branches at apex.or more-celled 237a Synnemata and conidia hyaline 237b Synnemata and conidia dark 238a Conidiogenous portion of synnema only at or near apex 238b Conidiogenous portion of synnema longer. not branched. conidia pointed at apex 241 b Conidiophores in a loose fascicle. diverging near apex. borne singly at apex of conidiophore 242c Conidia dark. Heterocephalum Tharoopama Stilbum 152 156 152 Graphium. 156 234 235 Endocalyx 152 233a Conidiogenous portion of synnemata confined to compact apical region 233b Conidiogenous region cylindrical 234a Synnemata funnel-shaped with narrow base 234b Synnema slender. 152 Trichurus Doratomyees 156 154 237 238 154 156 239 242 240 241 154 158 158 154 154 154 154 158 160 244 241c Conidiophores compact at base. conidia rounded at ends Dendrographium 242a Conidia hyaline 242b Conidia dark. Peso turn 152 Menisporopsis Harpographium 152 . conidia pointed at apex Arthrobotryum Sclerographium Acarocybe hariopsis Didymostilbe Didymobotryum Briosia .

not in stromata 5b Pycnidia in stromata. without a distinct ostiole 9b Pycnidia opening by distinct ostioles 10a Pycnidia with dark setae . conidia not in heads 247b Phialides not enlarged at base. evident at least in mass 4a Pycnidia complete. angled pseudoparenchymetous cells . phialides obtuse at apex 245b Synnemata clavate. conidia covered with slime 246b Phialides not elongate. frequently evident only by pycnidial cavities 6a Pycnidia mostly ovoid. or with well developed base 4b Pycnidia not several-celled 3a Conidia hyaline. conidia in heads Isaria Hirsutella Synnematium Hymenostilbe Insecticola Akanthomyces 245 246 158 158 158 247 156 160 160 SPHAEROPSIDALES la Conidia globose to oblong or ellipsoid. with only the upper portion well developed 5a Pycnidia separate. not parasitic on powdery mildews 7a Pycnidial walls dark 7b Pycnidial wall hyaline or light colored 8a Pycnidia] wall composed of long parallel hyphae Hyalopycnis Sphaeronaema Ampelomyces 2 62 3 45 52 4 40 5 37 6 29 166 7 9 168 8 168 168 10 18 11 8b Pycnidial wall composed of short. conidia dry 247a Phialides enlarged at base. not in compact layer 245a Synnemata cylindrical. I. parasitic on powdery mildews 6b Pycnidia with long beak or several-celled (scolecosporous) 2a Conidia 1 -celled 2b Conidia typically 2-cclled 2c Conidia typically 3. phialides pointed 246a Phialides elongate.. not filiform lb Conidia filiform. or sometimes brightly pigmented in mass 3b Conidia with dark pigment. slender. at least several times longer than wide. phialides pointed at apex 245c Synnemata cylindrical to attenuated. Eleutheromyces 9a Pycnidia breaking open irregularly. in compact layer 244b Phialides usually large. not parasitic on powdery mildews 6c Pycnidial beak short or absent.28 KEY TO GENERA 244a Phialides short.

irregular. dark dictyosporous chlamydosphores present Phomopsis 164 20 Seienophoma Peyronellaea 162 164 21 22 20c Conidia globose to ellipsoid. on subiculum 14a Pycnidia large. without dictyosporous chlamydospores 21 a Conidiophores branched 21 b Conidiophores simple Eleutheromycella Dendrophoma 23 168 162 24 25 Neottiospora 166 174 26 27 22a Conidia with apical appendages 22b Conidia without appendages 23a Conidia with hyaline membraneous appendages 23b Conidia without appendages 24a Conidial appendage apical. on woody twigs 16b Pycnidia subepidermal. turned back 25a Pycnidia superficial on natural substratum 25b Pycnidia embedded in natural substratum Anthasthoopa . Dinemasporium A merosporium 172 172 13 14 Cannula Chaetophoma Sclerotiopsis 172 164 166 15 Hainesia 174 16 Dothichiza 172 17 Sporonema Plenodomus Asteromella 172 162 164 19 19a Conidia of 2 kinds: short-ovoid and long-curved or bent 19b Conidia all of one kind 20a Conidia typically lunate 20b Conidia ovoid. dark 16a Pycnidia subcortical. subglobose. opening at apex 18a Pycnidia on subiculum of radiating hyphae 18b Pycnidia not on subiculum . straight or slightly curved.SPHAEROPSIDALES 10b Pycnidia without dark setae 29 12 I la Conidia with a slender appendage at each end II b Conidia without appendages I2a Pycnidia superficial. leathery. on surface of substratum 12b Pycnidia at least partially within substratum 13a Pycnidia soft. bright colored when fresh 15b Pycnidia hard. conidia ellipsoid 14b Pycnidia not resembling sclerotia. dehiscing radiately 17b Pycnidia globose. conidia ovoid to ellipsoid 15a Pycnidia fleshy. resembling sclerotia. obconical 24b Conidial appendage slender. not on subiculum 13b Pycnidia hard. on fleshy tissue or leaves 17a Pycnidia discoid.

septate 33b Conidiophores short. dark 32a Conidia fusoid. filiform Cytosporina Cytospora Cytosporella 166 170 170 38 39 Actinopelte Leptothyrium Melasmia Leptostroma Chaetomella 174 174 174 176 176 41 Harknessia 176 . Phoma 162 162 30 3J Shanoria Dilophospora Aschersonia 172 166 174 32 Fusicoccum 170 33 34 35 Rabenhorstia Pleurostromella Dothiorella 170 170 166 36 34b Conidia borne apically and laterally on conidiophore 35a Conidia ovoid to broadly ellipsoid. seldom septate 34a Conidia borne apically only on conidiophores * Rhizosphaera Aposphaeria Macrophoma 164 162 164 28 Pyrenochaeta Phyllosticta. slender. conidiophores long. brightly colored 31b Stromata subepidermal or subcortical. ends pointed 32b Conidia not fusoid. ends rounded 33a Conidiophores tall. opening wide at maturity 38a Pycnidia borne on a short stalk or column 38b Pycnidia without stalk or column 39a Stroma present 39b Stroma absent 40a Pycnidia with prominent dark bristles (setae) 40b Pycnidia without bristles (setae) 41a Pycnidia light colored. curved 36c Conidia short. not curved 37a Pycnidia shield-shaped. pycnidial cavities irregular 36a Conidia mostly filiform. bent or curved 36b Conidia short. pycnidial cavaties globose 35b Conidia narrow. soft.30 K E Y TO GENERA 26a Pycnidia tapering below into a short stalk 26b Pycnidia not tapering at base 27a Conidia longer than 15 microns 27b Conidia 15 microns or shorter 28a Setae present on pycnidia 28b No setae present on pycnidia 29a Conidia having one or more apical appendages 29b Conidia without appendages 30a Conidia with an apical and a basal appendage 30b Conidia with short branched appendages at both ends 31a Stromata superficial. ovoid to filiform. with or without ostiole 37b Pycnidia flat.

conidia with 3 to 4 appendages 55a Pycnidia brightly colored with cushionlike stroma 55b Pycnidia brown or black. without dark chlamydospores 44c Conidia small. in stroma Aristatoma Discosia Bartilinia Aschersonia Rhynchophoma Diplodina Kellermannia Robillarda Diplodia Botryodipiodia Ascochyta Darluca Sphaeropsis Coniothyrium Peyronellaea Haplosporetta Ampelomyces 42 166 43 178 44 176 176 164 46 51 178 47 48 50 178 49 178 178 178 178 180 180 53 59 54 55 182 182 174 56 58 180 56a Pycnidia with dark spines near ostiole. without stroma 55c Pycnidia dark. ovoid to elongate 44b Conidia small. conidia hyaline . globose to ovoid. ovoid.SPHAEROPSIDALES 31 41 b Pycnidia dark. etc 48b Pycnidia not in necrotic spots 49a Pycnidia with distinct beaks 49b Pycnidia without distinct beaks 50a Conidia with an apical awl-shaped unbranched appendage 50b Conidia with 3 to 4 hyaline appendages at one end 51a Pycnidia separate. conidia with 1 appendage at each end 54b Pycnidia globose. conidiophores short 42a Parasitic on powdery mildews 42b Not parasitic on powdery mildews 43a Stromata embedded in bark or wood 43b Pycnidia not in stromata 44a Conidia large. dark dictyosporous chlamydospores present 45a Conidia hyaline 45b Conidia with distinct dark pigment 46a Pycnidia in rust pustules. parasitic on rusts 46b Not parasitic on rusts 47a Conidia without appendages 47b Conidia with appendages 48a Pycnidia in necrotic spots on leaves. not in stroma 51 b Pycnidia clustered in stroma 52-d Conidia with transverse septa only (phragmosporous) 52b Conidia dictyosporous or staurosporous 53a Conidia with apical appendages 53b Conidia without appendages 54a Pycnidia flattened.

conidia dark when mature 57a Conidia single on conidiophores 57b Conidia grouped at apex of conidiophores 58a Conidia dark 58b Conidia hyaline 59a Conidia dictyosporous. cylindrical. filiform-fusoid 65b Conidia dark. irregular. straight 64a Pycnidia clavate or with long beak 64b Pycnidia globose or flattened 65a Conidia hyaline. etc 68b Pycnidia not in necrotic spots 69a Pycnidia with setae near ostiole 69b Pycnidia without setae 70a Conidia 1 -celled. yellow to light brown 67b Conidia hyaline 68a Pycnidia in necrotic spots on leaves. straight or curved Stagonospora 180 57 Hendersonula Prosthemium Hendersonia Dothistroma 180 186 184 180 60 61 Dichomera Camarosporium Tetranacrium Prosthemium 186 186 182 186 63 64 72 Cytosporina Dothistroma 166 180 65 66 Sphaerographium Cornularia 184 186 67 70 Phaeoseptoria 184 68 69 Rhabdospora Chaetoseptoria Septoria Phlyctaena 184 184 182 186 71 184 71a Pycnidia flattened. bent or curved 63b Conidia several-celled.32 KEY TO GENERA 56b Pycnidia without spines. 2-celled. elongate 66a Pycnidia with distinct ostiolc 66b Pycnidia opening by wide mouth or slit 67a Conidia pigmented. Leptostromella . not gelatinous 62c Pycnidia gelatinous or with gelatinous stroma 63a Conidia 1 -celled. several-celled. bent or curved 70b Conidia several-celled. conidia hyaline 56c Pycnidia without spines. conidia not segmenting . opening by a slit. globose to ellipsoid 59b Conidia staurosporous 60a Pycnidia within a stroma 60b Pycnidia not in a stroma 61a Conidia typically with 4 equal radiating arms 61b Conidia with 3 to 5 equal arms 62a Pycnidia in dark hard stroma 62b Pycnidia not in stroma.. 1.

with one appendage at each end 8c Conidia typically 2-celled. on grass 72b Conidia several-celled. on wood or bark 73a Stroma elongate.SPHAEROPSIDALES 33 71b Pycnidia globose or cupulate. 1. stalked 73b Stroma rounded to irregular. without appendages 8b Conidia equally 2-celled. not stalked 74a Stromal tissue waxy 74b Stromal tissue cartilaginous Phleospura Ephelis 186 184 73 Chondropudium 186 74 Mkropera Gelatinosporium 182 182 MELANCONIALES la Conidia 1-celled. opening by a wide mouth 72a Conidia I-celled. not filiform lb Conidia 2. phragmospores 8a Conidia unequally 2-celled. didymosporous or phragmosporous lc Conidia several-celled. not filiform. stroma not smutlike. short. hyaline. hyaline branched appendages 4b Conidia without appendages 5a Dark setae present in acervulus 5b Dark setae absent 6a Conidiophores arising from a stromalike base 6b Stromalike base absent or poorly developed 7a Conidia several-celled. didymospores 7b Conidia 3. dark. several-celled Id Conidia dictyosporous or staurosporous 2a Conidia with distinct dark pigment 2b Conidia hyaline 3a Conidia produced laterally on conidiophore 3b Conidia produced apically on conidiophore 4a Conidia with apical. stroma smutlike. with basal appendages 9a Conidia hyaline 9b Conidia with distinct dark pigment 10a All cells of conidia dark Coryneum Marssonina Myculeptodiscus Polynema Sepioglueum Sphaceloma Gloeosporium Colletotrichum Pestalozziella Catenophora Melanconium 2 7 12 14 190 3 188 4 188 5 188 6 188 188 8 9 190 190 192 190 10 194 .

forming a globose or pyramidal reproductive structure. hyaline. hyphae becoming dark brown Rhizoctonia Sclerotium Papulospora Cristulariella 74 2 196 196 196 .34 K E Y TO GENERA 10b End cells of conidia hyaline. some phragmospores may be present 14b Conidia straurosporous 15a Conidia catenulate 15b Conidia not catenulate 16a Conidia hyaline 16b Conidia with distinct dark pigment Phragmotrichum Steganosporium Entomosporium Asterosporium Cylindrosporium Cryptosporium Monochaetia Pestalotia Seimatosporium Libertella 11 192 192 192 190 13 192 190 15 16 194 194 194 194 MYCELIA STERILIA la Entire "conidiophore" (except stalk) closely branched. mycelium hyaline 2c Dark brown bulbils or small clusters of compact cells present. dark sclerotia in culture and often on leaves 1 b Conidiophorelike structures absent 2a Sclerotia variable in form. middle cells dark I la Single beaklike appendages at apex of conidia II b With 2 to 3 appendages at apex of conidia 1 lc Conidia with single apical and basal appendages 12a Saprophytic on wood or bark 12b Parasitic on leaves 13a Conidia becoming septate 13b Conidia remaining 1-celled 14a Conidia dictyosporous. pale to dark brown or black. dark hyphae 2b Sclerotia rounded. variable in size. black. usually formed on loosely woven.

formed by fragmentation of the mycelium Geotrichum 3d No true conidiophores or conidia present. 2 3 66 66 62 4 35 68 53 5 9 12 15 6 8 176 7 162 162 170 166 10 . reproduction by sclerotia or similar structures 4a Conidiophores contained within a pycnidium 4b Conidiophores compacted into an acervulus or sporodochium in nature. unbranched 8a Pycnidia formed as irregular cavities in a stroma. bearing an apical cluster of elongate sporangioles that break up into 1-celled spores Syncephalastrum 2c Conidiophores (sporangiophores) very slender. dichotomously branched. hyaline. coenocytic mycelium and sporangioles that segment or otherwise appear as conidia I b Having septate mycelium and other characteristics of the imperfect fungi 2a Conidiophores (sporangiophores) unbranched except near apex where loose heads of dark spores are borne Choanephora 2b Conidiophores (sporangiophores) unbranched. with dark pigment 6b Conidia small. but may be evident as loosely arranged structure in culture 4c Conidiophore stalks compacted into synnemata 4d Conidiophores separate. conidia typically and predominately with 2 or more cells 3c Conidiophores indefinite or absent. conidia typically I-celled. simple. bearing a cluster of slender sporangioles that segment into short rod-shaped spores. conidia rod-shaped with truncate ends.SIMPLIFIED K E Y TO SOME SELECTED COMMON GENERA la Having characteristics of the Mucorales. conidia small 8b Pycnidia rounded.. no pigment present 7a Conidiophores with a few upright branches 7b Conidiophores short. not in a stroma 5b Pycnidia embedded in a stroma 6a Conidia relatively large. not tightly clustered in any manner 5a Pycnidia separate. conidia large 9a Conidia held together in moist. regular. occasionally 2-celled 3b Conidiophores distinct or reduced to pegs. Piptocephalis 3a Conidiophores distinct although short or reduced to pegs in some genera. slimy masses 35 Dendrophoma Phoma or Phyllosticta Cytospora Dothiorella Sphaeropsis * .

lemon-shaped to oblong. usually narrowed at apex and base. with youngest at the apex of chain 17b Conidia basipetal. slimy heads 13b Conidia in dry clusters. some may be 2. with pointed apex. not in a close head 22a Conidia in small clusters held together by slime Scopulariopsis . dark setae present 10c Conidia hyaline. variable in shape. more evident in mass 10b Conidia hyaline. conidia hyaline. with the youngest at the base of chain 18a Conidia dark. saprophytic 15a Conidiophores branched or bearing a cluster of branches or phialides near or at the apex Graphium. without slime 10a Conidia with dark pigment.. conidia dark.. and 1 -celled 18c Conidia 3-celled 1 8b Conidia dark. parasitic on buds of Azalea or Rhododendron 14b Conidial portion elongated. conidia hyaline 13a Conidia held in moist.36 SIMPLIFIED K E Y TO SOME S E L E C T E D C O M M O N GENERA 9b Conidia dry. not on swollen apex of conidiophore . mostly 1 -celled.. uniformly ovoid to short cylindrical 19a Conidiogenous cells (phialides) borne on apex or swollen apex of conidiophores 19b Conidiogenous cells borne on slender branches. 20a Conidiogenous cells bearing annulate scars of previous conidia 20b Annulate scars not present on conidiogenous cells 21 a Conidiogenous cells (phialides) closely arranged in a brushlike head 21 b Conidiogenous cells divergent. or fruit. setae absent I la On leaves. ovoid to subglobose. ovoid 12a Both stalks or synnemata and conidia hyaline 12b Both stalks of synnemata and conidia dark 12c Stalks of synnemata dark. ovoid. twigs." II b On wood or bark. 106 146 13 14 152 152 156 152 154 16 26 17 22 18 19 Cladosporium Perkonia Monilia Aspergillus 106 74 72 94 20 98 21 PenicilUum Paecilomyces 94 94 23 15b Conidiophores typically simple or only occasionally branched 16a Conidia remaining together in chains of two or more 16b Conidia not remaining together in chains 17a Conidia acropetal. not slimy 14a Conidial heads rounded. uniformly globose. Pesotum Stilbum Isaria Briosia Doratomyces Melanconium Colletotrichum Gloeosporium Spilocaea Tubercularia 11 190 188 188.

. apex elongating as new conidia are produced 29b Conidiophores determinate. not elongating as new conidia are produced 30a Conidiogenous portion of conidiophore zig-zag. hyaline Cephahsporiwn 33b Conidiophores or phialides slender or somewhat inflated. conidial states of powdery mildews 28b Not conidial states of powdery mildews 29a Conidiophores indeterminate.. or club-shaped Chromelospohum 26a Conidia (chlamydospores. shiny. often somewhat inflated 35a Conidia typically and uniformly 2-celled. 33a Conidiophores or phialides slender. no falcs present Chalara 32c Conidia ovoid to globose. not verticillate 24a Conidia formed successively at apex of conidiophore.SIMPLIFIED K E Y TO SOME SELECTED C O M M O N GENERA 37 22b Conidia dry. seldom with fewer or more cells 35b Conidia typically has more than 3 cells. rod-shaped. no pigment in walls Chhridium Phialophora . globose 25b Apical conidiogenous portion and branches distinctly enlarged. aleuriospores) terminal. falcs absent . slender. not held in slime 23a Conidiophore branches verticillate. globose 26b Conidia otherwise 27a Conidia black. which continues to elongate Verticiliium Thchoderma Nociulosporium 24 92 92 100 25 Botrytis 76 80 27 28 Nigrospora Sepedonium Oidium 82 82 68 29 30 31 Beauveria Sporothrix Oedocephalum 100 98 76 32 72 90 33 94 34 88 88 36 43 37 24b Conidia formed in a head on the more or less swollen apex of the conidiophore 25a Apical sporogenous cell of conidiophore or branches slightly enlarged. cylindrical. rough-walled 28a Parasitic on plants. sometimes variable 36a Conidia hyaline. held together in small apical clusters by slime. with some dark pigment 34a Conidiophores tall. smooth 27b Conidia with yellow pigment. single. often catenulate. not rachislike 31a Conidia produced simultaneously on swollen apex of conidiophore 31b Conidia produced single or successively at apex of conidiophore or phialide 32a Conidia exogenous. elongating to appear rachislike 30b Conidiogenous portion of conidiophore limited. ovoid to globose. often 3 or more branches arise from the same level 23b Conidiophore branches irregular. borne singly or in pairs on a dark hook (falc) of conidiophore Zygosporium 32b Conidia endogenous. uniform in width 34b Conidiophores short or sometimes absent.

cells nearly equal 50b Conidia.38 SIMPLIFIED K E Y TO SOME S E L E C T E D C O M M O N GENERA 36b Conidia with dark pigment in walls 37a Conidiophores compacted into an acervulus in nature 37b Conidiophores separate. with both cross and oblique walls 44a Conidia with slender appendages. conidia in short acropetalous chains 42b Conidiophores rather stout. with one median cell larger than others Hipolaris Curvuhria Helminthusporium Dendryphiopsis Cladosporium Coryneum Pestalotia Bispora Polyihrincium Helicomyces Trichothecium Dactylaria Arthrobotrys Diplodia Spilocaea Marssonina 41 190 38 108 39 40 108 110 110 180 106 42 106 112 136 44 52 192 45 46 51 194 47 106 48 120 49 124 50 126 122 . not on sympodial growing points 40a Conidia ellipsoid-elongate. apical on sympodial growing points 39b Conidia produced basipetally in irregular groups. cells equal 40b Conidia ovoid to elongate. cylindrical Cyiindrocladium 38b Conidiophores simple. without branches 49a Conidia produced through pores on sides of conidiophores 49b Conidia borne apically on new sympodial growing points 50a Conidia straight or slightly curved. with cross but not oblique walls 43c Conidia dictyosporous. conidia apical. not in chains 48a Conidiophores with several upright branches 48b Conidiophores simple. conidia long. apical cell somewhat larger 41a Conidiophores and conidia borne in a typical pycnidium 41b Conidiophores and conidia in an acervulus or a stroma in nature 41c Conidiophores separate or in loose clusters 42a Conidiophores slender. not in chains 43a Conidia spiral or in coil 43b Conidia phragmosporous. not clustered or compacted 38a Conidiophores branched. some conidia with 1 or 2 cells 47b Conidia single. conidia ovoid or ellipsoid 39a Conidia borne singly. zig-zag in appearance. at least at apex 44b Conidia without appendages 45a Conidia dark 45b Conidia hyaline 46a Conidia borne in acervuli in bark 46b Conidia not borne in acervuli 47a Conidia in acropetalous chains. with a sterile terminal branch and swollen apex.

simple or branched. conidia long. no conidia formed. 1-celled conidia usually present Fusarium 5 Id Conidiophore tall. branched. dark. simple. clustered. slender. conidia long. larger conidia typically canoe-shaped. conidia with pointed apex and rounded base 52a Conidia borne in acervuli in bark 52b Conidia borne typically in small sporodochia 52c Conidia borne on separate conidiophores 53a Conidia attenuate or pointed at apex. often loose Rhizoctonia 54c Large conidiophorelike structures present on leaves. no conidia formed. sclerotia more or less globose. cylindrical Cercospora Cylindrodadium 128 108 130 128 194 150 53 51c Conidiophores short. attenuated 51b Conidiophores hyaline. often in chains 53b Conidia rounded. borne singly 54a No conidiophores.SIMPLIFIED K E Y TO SOME SELECTED C O M M O N GENERA 39 51a Conidiophores simple. sclerotia mostly flattened or irregular. many branches compacted into globose or pointed structures CristularieUa . hyaline. compact Ahernaria Stemphylium Sclerotium Pyrkularia Steganosporium Epicoccum 132 132 196 196 74 54b No conidiophores.

40 . It may not be helpful in identifying those genera in which the mode of conidial formation is unclear or indefinite. pigmentation. Shape. it is well established and accepted by many mycologists and can be applied accurately to most of the Moniliales. but do not believe the time has come to shift to that system for the identification of genera by the student. sections. and genera of the two largest families (Moniliaceae and Dematiaceae) is included for the convenience of those who can easily recognize and distinguish the types of conidia. The authors do not dispute the validity of the more recent system of classification proposed by the Kananaskis Conference (1971) and followed by Ellis (1971). The following key to series. and septation of conidia are reduced to secondary characteristics. In these cases. is not complete for all genera of imperfect fungi.THE HUGHES-TUBAKI-BARRON SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION This newer system is based primarily on the development of the conidia and to a lesser extent on the development of the conidiophores. followed by Barron (1968). Although this classification. use of the key based on the Saccardo System is recommended.

Series ARTHROSPORAE Arthrosporae.riaceae and Stilbaceae. Geotrichum lb Conidia (arthrospores) developing in basipetal succession by meristemic growth of the special portion of conidiophore.. (Examples: Geotrichum. . are excluded from this key. Scries MER1STEM ARTHROSPORAE Meristem Arthrosporae. mature conidia usually with truncate ends. hanging together in chains . . (Examples: Oidium. as well as some genera in which there is inadequate knowledge of conidial formation. Oidium 41 .ALTERNATE K E Y TO S E R I E S A N D GENERA (Moniliaceae and Dematiaceae) Tubercula. but not necessarily. conidia usually. . . ellipsoid or cylindrical . resulting in a gradual change from conidiophore to conidium. Basipetospora) . Amblyosporium). . Conidia (arthrospores) formed by segmentation of vegetative hyphae or branches of nonmeristcmatic conidiophores.. .

Series ANNELEOSPORAE 52 Annellosporae. Spilocaea Conidia (blastospores) developing as buds from simple or branched conidiophores. Scopulariopsis) . Microsporum) Series ALEURIOSPORAE 10 Aleuriosporae. Spilocaea. often thick-walled and pigmented but may be hyaline. often forming simple or branched acropetalous chains . often not easily deciduous or deciduous by means of a special cell at apex of conidiophore. Aitreobasidiutn. Series B L A S T O SPORAE 59 Blastosporae. successive scars appear as faint anncllations at apex of conidiogenous c e l l . ... Monilia . or directly from vegetative cells or previous conidia. Montlia. (Examples.. . (Examples: Humicola... Cladosporium) . Nigrospora Conidia (anncllospores) produced successively on apex of conidiogenous cells or conidiophore which increases slightly in length by pereurrent proliferation through previous conidial scars. . (Examples. . Sepedonium.ALTFRNATF K H Y TO S C R IP S AND GENFRA Conidia (aleuriospores) usually single and apical on conidiophore or sporogenous cells. accessory conidial states often present ..

single or in some genera produced on successive new growing points formed by sympodial proliferation .. Stemphvfium) . (Examples: Oecfotvphalum. Boirviis. increase may be slight but conidia are of different ages.. mature conidia easily deciduous revealing small denticles on sporogenous cells .. Bipo/an's Conidia (syrnpodulospores) developing at tips of conidiophores or conidiogenous cells (not from pores in outer wall) and forming successively on new growing tips by sympodial proliferation.AlTERNATE KEY TO SERIES AND GENERA 43 Conidia (blastospores) produced on well differentiated swollen cells which bear many conidia simultaneously. (Examples: Helminthosporium. Bipolarts.. Sporothrix . Batrytis Conidia (porospores) developing through pores in outer wall at apex or side of eonidiophore.. Scries P O R O SPORAE 90 Porosporae.. .. Ccrcospora) Series S Y M P O D U L O SPORAE 102 Sympodulosporae. forming clusters or heads. solitary or in simple or branched aeropetalous chains. Tri! irachium. Gonuiohoirvs). Series BOf RYOBLASTO'SPORAE Botryoblastosporae. . (this key includes some genera placed by some authors in the Porosporae) . . (Examples: Fusiclactium.

(Examples: Chalara. powdery mildews 7b Saprophytic or weakly parasitic. 151 Chahra ARTHROSPORAE 2a Conidiophores poorly developed or none 2b Conidiophores distinct and well developed 3a Conidia truncate at both ends... dark Oidium Ovulariopsis Basipetospora Trichothecium Coniosporium 8 9 68 70 70 108 134 . Verticillium. formed by segmentation of mycelium 3b Conidia rounded with truncate base. conidia often collect in droplet of mucilage or slime at apex or remain attached in basipetal chains. in a few genera the simple conidiophore proliferates percurrently and forms new phialides . Series PHIALOSPORAE.. which ordinarily does not increase in length. formed by segmentation of mycelium 4a Conidiophores simple 4b Conidiophores branched 5a Conidia globose 5b Comdia cylindrical with truncate ends 6a Conidiophores stout.. Phialosporae. Phialophora. branched only near apex 6b Conidiophores slender with both apical and lateral branches Wallemia Ampulliferina Amblyosporium Oidiodendron Geotrichum Chrysosporium 3 4 68 68 5 6 92 106 68 68 MERISTEM ARTHROSPORAE 7a Parasitic on plants. hyaline 9c Conidia dictyosporous. not powdery mildews 8a Conidia in basipetal chains 8b Older conidia falling off before new one is formed 9a Conidia 1-celled.44 ALTERNATE K E Y TO S E R IE S AND GENERA ti Conidia (phialospores) formed successively from open apex of conidiophore or conidiogenous cell (phialide). Aspergillus) . hyaline 9b Conidia 2-celled.

to several-celled 10b Conidia typically 1. poorly developed. shiny black. dark 20b Conidiophores mostly short.. stout. conidia rough-walled or with attached smooth cells 15a Conidia with attached small smooth cells 15b Conidia 1-celled. simple. or missing 17b Conidiophores usually well developed 18a Conidia with broad truncate base and pointed apex 18b Conidia ovoid to obclavate with rounded apex 18c Conidia globose to broadly ellipsoid 19a Conidia 1-celled. simple hyaline 20c Conidiophores well developed. without attached smooth cells 15c Conidia with large apical rough-walled cell and smaller smooth basal cell 16a Basal cell of conidia rounded 16b Basal cell wedge-shaped 17a Conidiophores short. slender (scolecosporous). not in clusters at apex of conidiophores 14a Conidiogenous cells slender. subglobose. I. globose to oblong 10c Conidia typically 3. in small groups at apex of forked conidiophores 13b Conidia 1. Nigrospora 19b Conidia 2. macroconidia tuberculate 12b Pathogenic to man. branched 21a Setae present 21b Setae absent 22a Conidia with small hyaline cells attached Stephanoma Sepedonium . situated on a flat hyaline vesicle .ALTERNATE KEY TO SERIES AND GFNERA 45 ALEURIOSPORAE 10a Conidia long.or 2-celled. light to several-celled 1 la Conidia hyaline or subhyaline (with slight pigment) lib Conidia with distinct dark pigment 12a Pathogenic to man. radiating from swollen cell 14b Conidiogenous cells short. conidia smooth Umbelopsis Botryoderma Glomerularia Histoplasma Blastomyces Anguillospora 140 II 24 12 17 82 80 13 86 14 86 86 15 82 82 16 Mycogone Chlamydomyces 82 82 18 22 Echinobotryum Asteromyces 84 84 19 82 20 21 Endophragmia Trichocladium Balanium Botryotrichum Humkola Stephanoma 118 118 106 84 84 82 I4c Conidiogenous cells slender. slender.or more-celled 19c Conidia I-celled. not on vesicle 20a Conidiophores 2-celled. macroconidia smooth 12c Saprophytic or parasitic on plants or fungi 13a Conidia 1-celled.

not attenuated 34a Conidiophores clustered. not clustered • . ovoid to clavate 31 b Conidia several-celled. with broad enlarged middle cell Microsporum Monacrosporium Fusoma animals Xenosporium Wardomyces Staphylotrichum Microclavia 23 84 80 80 25 34 38 136 26 29 116 27 28 116 118 128 30 . hooked or pointed 33b Apical cell of conidia rounded. Phragmocephala Bactrodesmium 32 118 150 31 Trichocladium Pithomyces Murogeneila Camposporium . Endophragmia. poorly developed. ellipsoid. especially at apex 33a Apical cell of conidia attenuated. broadly ellipsoid wall not unusually thick 31c Conidia several-celled. wall very thick 32a Conidia cylindrical 32b Conidia narrower at ends. with distinctly enlarged middle cell Daciylella 29a Conidia ovoid to ellipsoid to oblong 29b Conidia much longer than wide 30a Conidiophores tall. sometimes in loose sporodochia 34b Conidiophores single. clustered 30c Conidiophores usually short. Ceratophorum Clasterosporium 118 132 114 116 33 118 118 35 36 28b Conidia cylindrical to long and sometimes several-celled (phragmosporous) 24b Conidia with cross and oblique septa (dictyosporous 24c Conidia (or propagules) branched (staurosporous) 24d Conidia curved or coiled (helicosporous) 25a Conidia hyaline or subhyaline 25b Conidia with distinct dark pigment 26a Parasitic on plants 26b Causing dermato mycoses of man or 26c Saprophytic or trapping nematodes 27a Macroconidia spindle-shaped or ellipsoid 28a Conidia 3-celled. thick. simple 24a Conidia typically 3. slender. single 31a Conidia mostly 2.46 ALTERNATE KEY TO SERIES A N D GENERA 22b Conidia without attached hyaline cells 23a Conidiophores short. branched 23b Conidiophores tall. single or clustered 30b Conidiophores short. repeatedly branched 23c Conidiophores tall. simple.

AlTFRNAi'E K F Y TO S F R IE S AND GENFRA 47 35a 35b 36a 36b 37a 37b 38a 38b 39a 39b 39c 40a 40b Conidia globose or subglobose Conidia large. symmetrical or nearly so Conidia with few branches distinctly asymmetrical Main axis of conidia distinctly swollen. slender Main axis of conidia short. much enlarged Apical cell of conidia not enlarged. in fresh water on decaying leaves Branches of conidia developed one at a time Branches of conidia developed simultaneously Conidia with 3 slender branches on slender main axis Conidia with 3 slender branches on thick main axis Conidia with 2 branches arising from primary axis Conidia with 3 or more branches arising from primary axis Branches of conidia long. arms not widely divergent Not aquatic. with 4 slender radiating arms 41 b Main axis of conidia 2-celled. tapering to Branches of conidia slender but not tapering to fine point Branches of conidia more or less upright Branches of conidia widely divergent. conidia triangular or with several upright branches Conidiophores reduced to a short peg. elongate to obovoid Apical cell of conidia darker. most septa transverse Conidia globose to ovoid. radiating arms Triposporium . without swollen cell Epicoccum Berkleasmium Acrospeira 150 134 132 37 132 134 39 49 Pithomyces Stigmella Cristulariella 74 40 43 41 42 41a Central cell of conidia globose. with 3 slender radiating arms 42a Alb 42c 43a 43b 44a 44b 45a 45b 46a 46b 47a Alb 48a 48b 49a 49b 50a Main axis of conidia long. with large cell Main axis of conidia slender or short. equally pigmented Conidia broadly ellipsoid. most septa oblique Conidia hyaline or subhyaline Conidia with distinct dark pigment Propagule with many branches compacted into a large globoid or conical structure. no true conidia produced Conidia with few branches. arms widely divergent Main axis of conidia short. irregular fine point Actinospora Clavariopsis Tetrachaetum Triscelophorus Tridentaria Thaltospora 140 140 140 138 140 142 44 45 46 Articulospora Culicidospora 142 140 47 48 fngoldia Tricladium Tetracladium Dendrospora 138 138 140 140 50 51 144 Conidiophores distinct. with 3 short. parasitic on higher plants Aquatic. conidia with 2 to 3 upright or spreading "horns" Conidia triangular.

conidia in moist heads 54b Conidiophores short. arising from epidermal cells 57b Conidiophores clustered. conidiophores short 56b Saprophytic or with external mycelium. not cuplike Deightonielh Stigmina Endophragmia Annellophora Leptographiwn Spihcaea Ceratosporella Scopulariopsis 53 55 98 54 98 106 144 56 57 58 118 120 118 118 BLASTOSPORAE 59a Conidiophores arising from basal globose mother cells. not in heads 55a Conidia with 2 or more upright branches 55b Conidia unbranched 56a Mostly parasitic. not as above 60a Conidia 1-celled 60b Conidia 4-celled. distinct 63b Conidiophores absent Helkodendron Helkoon Arthrinium Dictyoarthrinium 60 61 74 134 62 63 66 136 136 64 65 . increasing in length only in basal region 59b Conidiophores. mycelium within several-celled 53a Conidiophores hyaline 53b Conidiophores dark 54a Conidiophores tall. arising through stomata 58a Conidiophore apex with distinct cuplike structures 58b Conidiophore apex with conidial scars or rings. simple.48 ALTERNATE K E Y TO S E R I E S A N D GFNLRA 50b Conidia with several close upright branches 51a Mostly parasitic on leaves 51b Mostly saprophytic on wood Dictyosporium Hirudinaria Ceratosporium 144 144 144 ANNELLOSPORAE 52a Conidia typically 2-celled 52b Conidia mostly 3. branched. conidiophores short 57a Conidiophores single. if present. cross-shaped 61a Conidia more or less coiled (helicosporous) 61 b Conidia branched (staurosporous) 61c Conidia neither coiled nor branched 62a Small conidia produced by budding of large conidia 62b Conidia not budding 63a Conidiophores present. with thick dark septa.

conidia variable. in short chains 72d Conidiophores subhyaline. conidia !-celled. slender 73a Conidiophores dark. single. conidia ovoid. apical on long denticles Olpitrichum 74a Conidia all or mostly 1-celled 74b Conidia mostly 2-celled 74c Conidia 3. conidia in moist heads 72b Conidiophores hyaline.ALTERNATE KEY TO SERIES AND GENERA 49 64a Conidia hyaline. budding 69a Mycelium and conidia hyaline 69b Mycelium and conidia with dark pigment 70a Conidia several-celled (phragmosporous) 75a Conidia variable. 1-ceIIed 70c Conidia with distinct dark pigment 71a Conidia borne in acropetalous chains 71 b Conidia not in chains ! Haplographium Candida Aureobasidium Trichothecium Rhynchosporium Itersonilia 70 68 108 69 70 70 108 71 74 72 73 80 72 72 72 72 138 74 75 77 72a Conidiophores dark. mostly ovoid to ellipsoid 75c Conidia uniformly globose . conidia elongate. globose to conical. conidia 2-celled. ultimate cells globose. Cladosporium Papularia 78 106 82 76 . simple or loosely branched 67a Mycelium with clamp connections. conidia globose to broad ellipsoid. conidia forcibly discharged 67b With neither clamp connections nor forcibly discharged conidia 68a Parasitic on grasses. not clustered Hyaiodendron Tilletiopsis Zygosporium Lunulospora 73c Conidiophores hyaline. no true conidia produced Cristulariella 66b Conidiophores poorly formed or reduced to pegs or short conidiogenous cells 66c Conidiophores distinct. with slender divergent arms 64b Conidia dark. in long branched chains Manilla 72c Conidiophores hyaline branched. not budding 68b Usually saprophytic. conidia lunulate. some typically lemon-shaped 75b Conidia uniform. conidia uniform globose to short ellipsoid. conidialike. 2 to 3 on each swollen dark cell 73b Conidiophores hyaline. branches more or less upright 65a Conidia with 3 to 4 upright to spreading branches 65b Conidia with 4 to 5 widely divergent branches Varicosporium Speiropsis Tetraploa TYipospermum 138 142 142 142 74 67 70 66a "Conidiophores" (propagules) compactly branched. 2-celled 70b Conidia hyaline or subhyaline.

1-celled 84a Conidiophores short. conidia variable lib Conidiophores mostly simple. Conidiophores branched. with several clusters of conidia 88a Conidiophore branches many. well developed 85a Conidiogenous cells globose or with globose lobes 85b Conidiogenous cells or fertile portion of conidiophore elongated to irregular 86a Conidiophores simple or with few branches 86b Conidiophores with several branches. at least near apex 87a Conidiophores determinate. hyaline. apex of conidiophore not enlarged 76c Setae absent 11a. lateral on main axis 88b Conidiophore branches regularly dichotomous 88c Conidiophore branches irregular 89a Conidiophore branches dichotomous near apex 89b Conidiophore branches irregular Oedocephalum Gonatobotrys Botryosporium Dichobotrys Botrytis Chromelosporium Aciadium Phymotolrichum Gonatobotryum Gonatorrhodiella Cephaliophora 82 83 78 78 116 84 78 85 86 89 87 88 76 76 76 78 76 80 76 . cylindrical 80b Conidia catenulate. phragmosporous 83b Conidia hyaline. dark. conidia hyaline 83a Conidia dark. apex of conidiophore globose 76b Setae present.50 ALTERNATE K F Y TO S E R IE S A N D GFNERA 76a Setae present. cells strongly rounded 80c Conidia not catenulate Pseudotorula Dwayabeeja Septonema Torula Gonatophragmium 116 116 116 74 122 BOTRYOBLASTOSPORAE 81 a Conidia in simple or branched chains of 2 or more 81b Conidia not catenulate 82a Conidiophores tall. conidia dark 82b Conidiophores variable. with a single head of conidia 87b Conidiophores proliferating percurrently. reduced to 1 or few cells 84b Conidiophores tall. conidia uniformly ellipsoid LaceHinopsis Lacellina Periconia Cladosporium Bispora 78 78 74 106 106 79 80 78a Conidia borne on special globose cells 78b Conidia not borne on special globose cells 79a Conidia catenulate 79b Conidia not catenulate 80a Conidia catenulate.

apical 101a Conidia several-celled fragments 96b Conidia not catenulate 97a Conidiophores indeterminate. obclavate. Sporidesmium Helminthosporium Spadicoides 120 124 114 96a Conidia in acropetalous chains. ellipsoid to obovoid . conidia mostly severalcelled 94b Conidiophores not dichotomous near apex 95a Conidia mostly 3-celled 95b Conidia 4. catenulate 91a Conidia long-beaked. conidia not catenulate 93c Conidiophores mostly simple 94a Conidiophores dichotomous near apex. branched. conidia several-celled Spondylocladiella Dendryphiopsis Torula Dichotomophthora Ulocladium Stemphylium Dendryphion Diplococcium Allernaria 91 93 114 132 92 132 132 124 94 96 120 95 120 120 74 97 98 100 Curvularia 122 99 Drechslera 122 126 148 101 Corynespora. straight or slightly curved 99a 99b Mid-cells of conidia larger than end cells. germ tubes only from end cells Bipolaris Exosporium 100a Conidiophores clustered. conidia catenulate 93b Conidiophores tall. branched. extending sympodially 97b Conidiophores determinate 98a Conidia bent by enlargement of one cell 98b Conidia not bent by enlarged cell. conidia apical 100b Conidiophores single.AUERNATL K E Y TO S F R Ifc S A N D GENERA 51 POROSPORAE 90a Conidia with transverse and oblique septa (dictyosporous) 90b Conidia with transverse septa only (phragmosporous) 90c Conidia 2-celled. often breaking up into 1. cylindrical to obclavate 101b Conidia often less than 4-celIed. conidia apical and lateral 100c Conidiophores single. germ tubes originate from any cell Mid-cells of conidia not distinctly larger than others. or ovoid 91 b Conidia not beaked. globose to broadly ellipsoid 92a Conidiophores elongating sympodially 92b Conidiophores elongating percurrently 93a Conidiophores tall.

conidia! cell not attenuated 114c Conidiophores dark. conidia pale to dark 106a On living plants in nature. with some 1-celled 112b Conidia mostly with 3 or more cells 113a Conidia filiform to cylindrical or long ellipsoid 113b Conidia shorter.122 128 . principally on leaves. ovoid to pyriform or short ellipsoid 114a Conidiophores hyaline. some conidia nearly straight 104b Saprophytic on wood or bark. pale brown to dark 108a Conidia predominantly 1-celled 108b Conidia typically 2. conidial cell not distinctly attenuated 115a Conidia broader near base. not in moist heads 11 la Conidia catenulate in acropetalous chains 111b Conidia not catenulate 112a Conidia mostly 2-celled. 102a Conidia coiled. Cercosporidium Pyricularia Ramularia Septocylindrium Verticicladiella Verticicladium Idriella Helicomina Heiicoma Helicomyces Helicosporium 103 106 105 104 136 136 136 136 107 122 123 108 116 109 Ill 102 110 104 104 112 113 110 128 114 115 128 128 128. not hygroscopic 103b Conidia thin in proportion to length. conidia uniformly coiled 105a Conidiophores and conidia hyaline I05b Conidiophores dark. helicosporous I02b Conidia not coiled 103a Conidia thick in proportion to length. hygroscopic 104a Parasitic on higher plants. conidia with attenuated apical cell 114b Conidiophores hyaline. often parasitic on them 106c Saprophytic on various substrata 107a Conidia hyaline or subhyaline 107b Conidia distinctly pigmented. simple I09b Conidiophores tall. cells unequal Spermospora Cercosporetta Cercospora. mostly parasitic 106b Closely associated with other fungi.52 ALTERNATE K E Y TO S E R I F S AND GENERA SYMPODULOSPORAE Note: The key to this section includes some genera described as producing porospores and in which the conidiophores commonly extend by sympodial several-celled 109a Conidiophores relatively short. repeatedly branched near apex 110a Conidia collecting in moist slimy heads 110b Conidia dry.

mostly ovoid 122c Conidiophores and conidia dark. cells unequal I I9a Conidiophores distinctly wavy in appearance \ 19b Conidiophores often irregular but not distinctly wavy 120a Conidiophores usually arise from beneath cutical layer Fusicladiwn Polythrincium Asperisporium 112 119 112 120 112 112 128 128 102 130 92 124 139 125 135 137 126 131 127 128 120b Conidiophores emerging through stomata or from surface of leaves Scolecotrichum. conidia 3. slender 123a Conidia hyaline to subhyaline (slightly pigmented) J23b Conidia with distinct dark pigment 124a Conidia typically 1-celled 124b Conidia typically 2-celled 124c Conidia 3. conidiogenous cells may be verticillate 129a Conidiophores hyaline. cells nearly equal Didymaria 110 104 117 118 121 116a Conidiophores tall. cells equal 118b Conidia smooth. conidia long. rarely branched 126a Conidiophores branched only near apex 126b Conidiophore branches lower or lateral on main axis 127a Conidia in moist heads of slime I27b Conidia dry. rarely simple 125b Conidiophores typically 4-celled. Passalora 121a Conidia with 1 to 4 hyaline appendages on apical cells 121b Conidia without appendages 122a Conidiophores and conidia hyaline. dark. slender Tritirachium Selenosporella Verticicladiella Verlicicladium Pleiochaeta Nakataea Calcarisporium Dactylium Cladosporietta 104 104 129 130 100 102 .to several-celled (phragmosporous) 118a Conidia rough-walled. conidia 1-celled 122b Conidiophores and conidia hyaline. simple several-celled 125a Conidiophores variously branched. conidia 2-celIed 117b Conidia 3. not in moist heads 128a Conidiophore branches verticillate on main axis 128b Conidiophore branches irregular. conidia ovoid I29b Conidiophores pigmented. branched near apex and bearing a number of conidiogenous cells Periconiella 116b Conidiophores and conidiogenous cells not as above ! 17a Conidia mostly 1.ALTERNATE K E Y TO S E R I F S A N D GENERA 53 115b Conidia oblong.

single. hyaline. on short denticles 136b Conidia in loose clusters. not enlarged 13la Conidia catenulate 131b Conidia not catenulate 132a Fertile area of conidiogenous cell slender. at least at apex . one side flat or concave Virgaria Selenosporella Beltrania 104 142 102 143 144 100 . conidia cylindric to fusoid 138c Conidiophores tall. conidia cylindric to clavate 138b Conidiophores tall. dark. in clusters 135a Apical cell of conidium equal to or smaller than basal cell. rounded 136a Conidia in loose clusters. conidia fusoid Hamfordia Geniculosporium Sympodiella 98 100 100 104 -132 133 134 130b Fertile area of conidiogenous cell somewhat enlarged. both sides rounded 143b Conidia asymmetric. single. dark. greatly enlarged at apex 134c Conidiophores hyaline. only slightly enlarged at apex 134b Conidiophores pigmented. slender. tapering toward both ends 141b Conidia otherwise 142a Conidia oblong-elongate I42b Conidia mostly globose or ovoid 143a Conidia symmetric. sometimes elongated 135b Apical cell of conidium larger or wider than basal cell. hyaline. hyaline. bearing at apex several divergent conidiogenous cells Pseudobotrylis 139b Conidiophores and conidiogenous cells not as above 140a Conidia 1-celled I4()b At least some conidia 2. rachislike 132b Fertile area of conidiogenous cell not slender or rachislike 133a Base of conidiophore enlarged. not enlarged 130c Fertile area of conidiogenous cell much elongated.54 ALTFRNATE K E Y 10 SERIfS AND GFNERA 130a Fertile area of conidiogenous cell slender. Nodulosporium Beauveria Tritirachium Sporothrix Basidiobotrys Ovularia Dactylaria 100 100 98 100 104 110 136 Arihrobotrys Candelabrelta Genicularia Dkranidion 110 110 110 138 138 Dactylaria Dactylella Pleurothecium 110 128 126 106 140 141 147 139a Conidiophores tall.or more-celled 141a Conidia biconie. saprophytic 134a Conidiophores slender. mostly on insects 133b Base of conidiophore not enlarged. on long pegs 136c Conidia single on sympodial branches of conidiophore 137a Conidia forked.. with 2 parallel prongs I37b Conidia not forked 138a Conidiophores short.

mostly ] . growing on decaying vegetation 151b Not normally aquatic 152a Conidia or branches long. at least at apex Noduhsporium Conidiophores simple or branched. oblong or T-shaped Conidia staurosporous. some phragmospores present Scolecobasidium Diplocladiella Speiropsis several-celled 154b Conidia typically I-celled 155a Conidiophores with dark pigment 155b Conidiophores (or conidiogenous cells) hyaline 156a 156b 156c 157a Conidiophores tall with lateral branches and sterile apex. conidia endogenous in end-to-end chains Sporochisma Conidiophores repeatedly 3-celled Conoplea Rhinocladiella 100 145 102 104 147 148 146b Conidiophores tall. several-celled. with 3 or more branches Conidia dictyosporous. conidia not catenulate Chaetopsis 96 130 130 Conidiophores with few branches near apex. conidiogenous cells somewhat enlarged. short. Y-shaped. appearing wavy Conidiophores or branches more or less straight. conidia catenulate but not end to end Fusariella Conidiophores 2-celled. with 2 pointed arms Conidia staurosporous. ovate. slender. unbranched 153b Conidia each with 4 slender arms 154a Conidia typically 2. not wavy Conidiophores or conidiogenous cells. slender Heliscus Flagellospora Lemonniera 152 154 153 108 138 138 155 159 156 157 152b Conidia unbranched 153a Conidia long. well developed 147a 147b 147c 148a Conidia 1.ALTERNATE KEY TO SERIES AND GENERA 55 144a 144b 145a 145b 146a Conidiophores branched irregularly. one sterile branch typically with swollen apex Cylindrodadium 108 . conidiogenous cells not enlarged at apex Conidiophore branches somewhat spiral. Sirosporium 114 142 142 134 149 148b Conidia typically phragmosphorous 149a Conidia often catenulate Heterosporium 122 150 149b Conidia not catenulate 150a 150b Conidia attached by slender pedicels to apex of conidiophores Conidia attached directly to hyaline apex of conidiophores Brachysporium Cacumisporium 126 124 PHIALOSPORAE 151a Normally aquatic.

moist. simple or branched 168a Conidia in dry chains. not in slime heads 158c Conidia ovoid. dark. without appendages 162a Apical collarette of phialide small. without sterile branches 158a Conidia mostly cylindrical. covered with flask-shaped phialides. single or in short chains 165b Aleuriospores cylindrical.56 ALTERNATF KEY TO SCRIES AND GENERA 157b Conidiophores simple or irregularly branched. conidia catenulate 170c Conidiophores branched. ovoid. conidia catenulate 171a Conidia cylindrical. 2-celled. in small slime heads 158d Macroconidia typically canoe-shaped. hyaline. at least in mass 161a Conidia crescent-shaped. or hooked. several-celled. straight. 1-celled. phialides or conidia otherwise 160a Conidia hyaline or subhyaline 160b Conidia distinctly pigmented. not rod-shaped 164a Dark aleuriospores (chlamydospores) also present 164b Dark aleuriospores absent 165a Aleuriospores rounded. breaking up into 1-celled fragments 166a Tall dark setae present 166b Dark setae absent 167a Conidiophores short or mostly reduced to a single phialide 167b Conidiophores well developed. conidia single or catenulate 170b Conidiophores branched. mostly rod-shaped 163b Conidia produced at apex of phialide. conidia in dry chains Aspergillus 159b several-celled 158b Conidia ovoid. aggregated into dry columns . 2-celled. inconspicuous 162b Apical collarette of phialide large. slimy heads 169a Conidia dry. no slime present 168b Conidia in small. oblong. dark. not in moist heads 169b Conidia held together in moist slimy heads 170a Conidiophores mostly simple. typically with hyaline apical appendages 161b Conidia globose. 2. microconidia 1-celled Cylindrocarpon Cladobotryum Diplosporium Fusarium 158 130 108 108 130 94 160 161 178 162 163 Menispora Codinaea 88 88 164 167 165 166 Chalaropsis Thielaviopsis Chaetochalara Chalara 90 92 90 90 168 169 Monocilliwn Cephalosporium 86 94 170 172 Monihchaetes Thysanophora 86 96 171 Metarrhizium 94 159a Apex of conidiophore much enlarged. flaring 163a Conidia produced well within phialide (endogenous).


171b Conidia globose, ovoid or rod-shaped; conidiophore "brush" compact 1 7 lc Conidia fusiform to lemon-shaped; conidiophore "brush" loose 172a Conidiophores simple or reduced to short, 1-celled phialides 172b Conidiophores variously branched, at least at apex 173a Conidiophores dark; coiled setae absent 173b Conidiophores (phialides) hyaline; coiled setae present, unbranched 173c Conidiophores (phialides) hyaline, with coiled branched setae 174a Conidial masses large, only at apex of conidiophore 174b Conidial masses small, at apex of conidiophore 175a Conidiophores hyaline, apex often enlarged, branches Aspergillus-Iike 175b Conidiophores hyaline, branches Penicillium-like 175c Conidiophores dark, branches Penicillium-like 176a Conidial mass subtended by sterile arms 176b Conidial mass not subtended by sterile arms 177a Conidiophores hyaline, branches (or phialides) verticillate 177b Conidiophores hyaline, branches irregular 177c Conidiophores dark, branches arising at points on main axis 178a Conidiophores mostly reduced to phialides 178b Conidiophores well developed 179a Phialides slender, tapering upward; collarette not evident 179b Phialides cylindrical to inflated; collarette often flaring

Penkillium Paecilomyces

94 94 173 174

Chloridium Circinotrichum Gyroihrix

88 90 90 175 177 176

Gliocladium Phiahcephala Gliocephalotrichum Gliocephahs Verticillium Trichoderma Gonylrichum

92 96 94 94 92 92 98 179 180

Gliomastix Phiahphora

86 88 92 94 181 88 88

180a Upper portion of conidiophores branched; phialides long, slender; conidia dark, in small, moist heads Stachylidium 180b Upper portion of conidiophores branched; conidia dry, dark, lemon-shaped, catenulate Phialomyces 180c Conidiophores unbranched; short thick phialides at base of simple conidiophores 181a Conidia in moist slimy heads, not catenulate 18lb Conidia not in slimy heads, catenulate Stachybotrys Memnoniella


171b Conidia globose, ovoid or rod-shaped; conidiophore "brush" compact 1 7 lc Conidia fusiform to lemon-shaped; conidiophore "brush" loose 172a Conidiophores simple or reduced to short, 1-celled phialides 172b Conidiophores variously branched, at least at apex 173a Conidiophores dark; coiled setae absent 173b Conidiophores (phialides) hyaline; coiled setae present, unbranched 173c Conidiophores (phialides) hyaline, with coiled branched setae 174a Conidial masses large, only at apex of conidiophore 174b Conidial masses small, at apex of conidiophore 175a Conidiophores hyaline, apex often enlarged, branches Aspergillus-Iike 175b Conidiophores hyaline, branches Penicillium-like 175c Conidiophores dark, branches Penicillium-like 176a Conidial mass subtended by sterile arms 176b Conidial mass not subtended by sterile arms 177a Conidiophores hyaline, branches (or phialides) verticillate 177b Conidiophores hyaline, branches irregular 177c Conidiophores dark, branches arising at points on main axis 178a Conidiophores mostly reduced to phialides 178b Conidiophores well developed 179a Phialides slender, tapering upward; collarette not evident 179b Phialides cylindrical to inflated; collarette often flaring

Penkillium Paecilomyces

94 94 173 174

Chloridium Circinotrichum Gyroihrix

88 90 90 175 177 176

Gliocladium Phiahcephala Gliocephalotrichum Gliocephahs Verticillium Trichoderma Gonylrichum

92 96 94 94 92 92 98 179 180

Gliomastix Phiahphora

86 88 92 94 181 88 88

180a Upper portion of conidiophores branched; phialides long, slender; conidia dark, in small, moist heads Stachylidium 180b Upper portion of conidiophores branched; conidia dry, dark, lemon-shaped, catenulate Phialomyces 180c Conidiophores unbranched; short thick phialides at base of simple conidiophores 181a Conidia in moist slimy heads, not catenulate 18lb Conidia not in slimy heads, catenulate Stachybotrys Memnoniella




HELICOCEPHALUM Thaxt. Conidiophores upright, long, slender, simple, nonseptate; conidia produced in a spiral, forming a head held in a slime drop, 1-celled, ellipsoid, hyaline or slightly pigmented; saprophytic on dung or decaying wood. Illustration: (A) H. sarcophilum; redrawn from Thaxter (438); (B) H. oiigosporum; original, from material on decayed wood. Other reference (98). RHOPALOMYCES Corda. Mycelium sparse; conidiophores upright, slender, simple; conidia borne on enlarged tip of conidiophore, which is hexagonally aerolate, 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid; saprophytic on plant material, or destroying nematode eggs. Illustration: R. strangulatus; redrawn from Thaxter (436). (A) conidiophore and head of conidia; (B) head of conidia enlarged; (C) conidia. References (36). CUNNINGHAMELLA Matr. Mycelium white, extensive in culture, nonseptate; conidiophores (sporangiophores) simple or branched, with enlarged tips bearing heads of conidia (sporangioles); conidia hyaline, 1-celled, globose; common saprophytes in soil. Illustration: C. elegans; original, from pure culture. (A) simple conidiophore and head of conidia; (B) branched conidiophore; (C) detail of tip of conidiophore showing denticles; (D) conidia. References (70, 171). MYCOTVPHA Fenncr. Mycelium at first nonseptate, later becoming septate, hyaline; conidiophores (sporangiophores) erect, tall, simple, septate; head of spores cylindrical; conidia (sporangioles) i-celled, borne singly on short denticles; saprophytic. Illustration: M. microspora; original, from culture. (A) group of conidiophores; (B) head of conidia enlarged; (C) conidia. Reference (132). MORTIERELLA Coemans. Mycelium typically appressed to substrate, fine; conidiophores (sporangiophores) hyaline, simple or branched, typically tapering upward; conidia (sporangioles) globose, hyaline, single, apical; typical multispored sporangia present in some species, absent in others; common in soil, saprophytic. Illustration: Mortierella sp; original from culture. Reference (136).


ovoid to fusoid. Illustration: 7 . rodlike sporangioles. producing branched haustoria. bearing cylindrical. apex enlarged. at intervals bearing sporocladia that produce conidia only on the lower (outer) surface. conidiophores upright. repeatedly dichotomously branched. septate. septate. tips more or less swollen. parasitic on other Mucorales. virginiana. conidia hyaline. consisting of short chains of cells formed by budding. 256). Mycelium sparse. slender. Conidiophores (sporangiophores) upright. principally Mucorales. (A) conidiophore and sporangioles. Conidiophores (sporangiophores) erect. vertkillata. septate. PIPTOCEPHAL1S de Bary. Illustration: D. (D) conidia. sparingly branched. with prominent rhizoids at the base. smooth subglobose to ovoid. immersed in liquid at maturity. several repeatedly. erecta. parasitic on other Mucorales. producing branched haustoria. Illustration: C. (C) chains of spores breaking apart. Conidiophores (sporangiophores) erect. each cell giving rise to a whorl of 2-spored sporangioles. Illustration: P. redrawn from Linder (268). conidia finally separating. Conidiophores (sporangiophores) erect. branches septate. septate. (A) general habit of nearly mature fertile hypha. conidia finally separating. Other reference (17). pycnosperma. parasitic on other Mucorales. sporangioles break up into short conidia at maturity. (A) habit of sporangiophores. (B) sporocladia and conidia. bearing rodlike sporangioles which break up to form short conidia. (D) conidia. (A) upper portion of sporangiophore. nonseptate. References (22. (C) branchlets with 2-spored sporangioles. redrawn from Thaxter (440). Other reference (22). 1-ceIIed. (B) enlarged branch apex. deciduous. dry at maturity. haustorial parasites on other fungi. (C) branchlet with several 2-spored sporangioles. becoming irregularly cymosely or verticillately branched and producing fertile terminal heads. DIMARGARIS Van Tieghem. conidial heads composed of many sporogenous branchlets. (B) heads of spores. redrawn from Benjamin (23). at first simple. simple below. Illustration: S. sterile branches absent. (D) haustorium of parasite in host mycelium. straight or bent near the apex. ellipsoid or rod-shaped. giving rise above to fertile branch systems. irregularly branched.62 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA SYNCEPHALIS Van Teigh. . TIEGHEMIOMYCES Benjamin. the ends consisting of fertile cells bearing whorls of 2-spored sporangioles. (A) conidiophores. (B) formation of separate spores. from a culture on Mucor. COEMANSIA Van Tiegh and Le Monn. redrawn from Benjamin (23). saprophytic on dung. and Le Monn. (B) branch of sporangiophore. producing branches." caHfornicus. original.


enveloped in liquid at maturity. saprophytic. redrawn from Benjamin (23). saprophytic. Conidiophores (sporangiophores) borne singly or sometimes in pairs near the ends of stolons that terminate in rhizoid systems. (A) apex of conidiophore with conidia! head. MARTENSELLA Cocmans. simple. 268). conidia produced on the upper surface of sporocladia. l-celled. Illustration: M. producing pseudophialides on one side (resembling Coemansid)\ pseud ophialides ellipsoid. hyaline. . redrawn from Benjamin (24). septate. bearing lateral or apical sporocladia. Conidiophores (sporangiophores) erect or ascending. (B) group of sporocladia. conidiophores dark brown. terminating tn primary vesicles bearing radiate stalks and secondary vesicles. SPIRODACTYEON Benjamin. conidia short-ellipsoid. redrawn from Benjamin (22). saprophytic. I-celled. (C) sporocladium bearing conidia. (B) sporocladia and conidia. conidia borne on tertiary stalks. branched. conidia obclavate. KICKXEELA Coemans. aureum. embreei. (D) conidia. from soil. Conidiophores long. (C) single branch void of conidia. sporocladia borne successively on the lower surface of the coils. saprophytic on dung.64 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA RADIOMYOES Embree. reniform to oblong-ellipsoid. subglobose to ellipsoid. borne in umbels on recurved branchlets. pterosporus. saprophytic in soil. (A) diagram showing habit of growth. not enveloped in liquid at maturity. (B) sporocladium and ctfnidia redrawn from Benjamin (22). conidiophores simple with an apical disk bearing sporocladia. L1NDERINA Rapcr and Fennell. Illustration: K. becoming irregularly cymosely branched. Other reference (127). (B) single branch of conidial head. MARTENSIOMYCES Meyer. l-celled. saprophytic on horse dung. (A) conidiophore. with narrowed apices. hyaline. conidia hyaline. conidiophores upright. conidia borne on upper surface of sporocladia. corticii. Mycelium sparse. sporocladia stalked. alahastrina. hyaline. Illustration: L. giving rise above to coiled. each bearing a single conidium (sporangiole). (B) a single sporocladium. bearing several domelike sporocladia with pseudophialides and conidia on the upper surface. (C) sporocladium. (A) conidiophores. Other reference (268). redrawn from Raperand Fennell (348). (A) conidiophore. septate. (B) group of sporocladia. Illustration: S. septate. Conidiophores (sporangiophores) erect or ascending. Other references (22. producing laterally pseudophialides that bear single sporangioles (conidia). Mycelium sparse. Illustration: R. (D) conidium. redrawn from Jackson and Dearden (240). (A) conidiophore. Illustration: M. conidia hyaline. elongated. pennispora. fertile branches.


cornuta. (A) terminal portion of fertile hypha. each producing a row of nearly spherical conidia. bearing a head of rod-shaped sporangioles. curcurbitarum. original. parasitic on flowers and fruits. Illustration: S. Illustration: C. abundantly branched. each branch bearing a head of conidia (sporangioles). saprophytic. conidia subglobose to globose. (A) conidiophore and head of spores. wall of sporangiole dissolving to release conidia. References (23. or saprophytic. saprophytic. brown or purplish. (A) portion of conidiophore. (B) enlarged fertile branches. CHOANEPHORA Currey. enlarged. from pure culture. each segment giving rise to 2 to 3 short. Other references (26). tips enlarged. (B) portion of fertile head showing conidia. conidia 1-celled. minuius. D) portion of head of conidia. each of which forms a loose cluster of conidia (sporangioles) on terminal globose enlargements on denticles. 335. bearing a head of cylindrical sporangioles that produce rows of short conidia. redrawn from Thaxter (438). septate. (B. (D) conidia. Illustration: D. fertile branches enlarged. 474. (D-G) stages in formation and release of conidia. 475). and branched at the apex. redrawn from Benjamin (23). principally curcurbits. extensive and growing rapidly in culture. References (136. conidiophores (sporangjophores) erect. branched. conidiophores (sporangiophores) long. Illustration: S. (A) conidiophores. Mycelium growing rapidly. stout sporocladia. branched. SPIROMYCES Benjamin. 439). from culture. Conidiophores arising from substrate hyphae. DISPIRA Van Tiegh. sporangia typical of the Mucorales also formed in culture. Conidiophores (sporangiophores) erect.66 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA SYNCEPHALASTRUM Schroet. Mycelium white. . 172. original. parasitic on other Mucorales and one species on Chaetomium. C) heads of sporangioles and developing conidia. (B. the sterile branches slender and spiral. racemosum. forming a loose spiral as they develop upward. ellipsoid.


(C) conidia. conidia (arthrospores) 1-celled. conidiophores sparsely branched only on upper portion. (B) stages in development of conidial branches. original. conidia (arthrospores) 1-celled. saprophytic.. Reference (15).68 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA ^ • GEOTRICHUM Link. hyaline. spongiosum. branches segmenting into rod-shaped or rounded conidia. AMBLYOSPORIUM Fres. (B) conidia. References (313. hyaline or yellow-orange in mass. 1-celled. conidiophores upright. bearing a number of irregular branches near or at the apex. CHRYSOSPORIUM Corda. common in soil. Illustration: Chrysosporium sp. from agar culture. saprophytic. rebranched irregularly. single or in short chains. 332). . OIDIODENDRON Robak. usually with a broad basal scar. Mycelium white. B) mycelium with conidiophores and conidia. remaining in chains. conidiophores erect.. formed by segmentation of hyphae. j^ 1-celled. terminal or intercalary. mostly erect and branching irregularly. septate. catenulate. (C) conidia. mostly saprophytic. original. parasitic on higher plants. conidia (aleuriospores or arthrospores) hyaline. barrel-shaped. Reference (50). original from culture. from culture. Carmichael (51) describes conidia as aleuriospores. (B) segmenting branch. conidiophores absent. See Bisby (35) for relation of Oidium Link. conidia (arthrospores) hyaline. and Acrosporium Nees. simple. upper portion increases in length as conidia are formed. Some basidiomycetes form conidia in this manner. conidia (meristem arthrospores) cylindrical. (A) branched conidiophore. (A. -V original from culture. original. (B) conidial state of Polyporus adust us. Conidiophores poorly differentiated. Oidium Sacc. (A) conidiophore and conidia. short cylindrical with truncate ends. produced in basipetal chains. candidum. original. lower portion unbranched. (C) conidia. white. {?'-. (A) portions of conidiophores and conidia. Illustration: O. hyaline. saprophytic in soil or often growing on fleshy or woody basidiomycetes. Illustration: (A) G. Illustration: A. IHustration:0. globose to pyriform. septate. Mycelium pale to yellow-orange. • f . griseum. much like vegetative hyphae. ' r. producing powdery mildews. from fresh material. Mycelium external on host. hyaline or subhyaline. Reference (51). 1-celled. Mycelium hyaline to brown. monilioides (Erysiphe graminis). from culture. from which conidial chains are formed by segmentation.. .OIDIUM Sacc.


erysiphiodes (conidial state of Phyllactinia corulea). forming a sterigma bearing a single conidium (blastospore). mostly common saprophytes. original. Illustration: B. Illustration: C. 59). Mycelium and conidiophores as in Oidium. rubra. (C) lateral production of conidia. not extensive. References (17. bearing abundant conidia laterally. redrawn from Tubaki (446). Illustration: O. (A) hyphae with conidia produced on sterigmata. Conidiophores simple. hyaline when young. becoming dark with age. Reference (57). saprophytic. Mycelium forming clamp connections. Reference (45). rubra is conidial state of Monascus rubra. (A) mycelium with clamp connections.70 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA SPOROBOLOMYCES K A u y v e r and van Nicl. single at apex or sometimes in short chains. C. ovoid. original from culture. (B) budding cells. l-celled in simple basipetal chains. B) hyphae and conidia. B) hyphae and conidia. conidia (meristem arthrospores) l-celled. conidia (blastophores) hyaline. (B) conidia. l-celled. l-celled. (B) conidia and secondary conidia. BASIPETOSPORA Cole and Kendrick. forming short chains by budding. ITERSONILIA Derx. 63). from culture. References (17. (A. Illustration: S. salmonieolor. (A. some cells producing sterigmata. conidia asymmetrical. ovoid to fusoid. Cultures usually pink. albicans is described as causing moniliasis of man. redrawn from Salmon (363). B. frequently considered as a filamentous yeast. Mycelium. original from culture. hyaline. with truncate base. saprophytic or weakly parasitic. conidia (blastospores) subhyaline to dark. each bearing an asymmetrical conidium that is discharged forcibly. conidia (meristem arthrospores) globose. aerial hyphae simple. Illustration: /. (A) conidiophore bearing single conidium. smooth. (Pullularla) pullulans. Mycelium not extensive. black and shiny in old cultures. perlexans. original. resembling vegetative hyphae elongating slightly at apex as conidia are formed. . from culture. CANDIDA Berkhout. (D) conidia budding. AHJREOBASIDIUM Viola and Boyer. Illustration: A. common in soil. imperfect state of certain powdery mildews. albicans. produced apically or laterally on mycelium. and Har. reproduction principally by budding (blastospores). OVULARIOPSIS Pat. (A) stages in development of chain of conidia. hyaline to pale brown. saprophytic. (B) conidia. producing other conidia by budding. pyriform to clavate. hyaline. saprophytic or pathogenic on plants. discharged forcibly.


bearing one to a few conidia at the apex of the branches. hyaline. Conidiophores erect.72 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA TILLETIOPSIS Derx. dark. acropetal. but one species parasitic on powdery mildew. hyaline. from culture. short cylindric to rounded.. conidiophore branched. saprophytic. masonii. from culture. variable in length. brown at base with hyaline or subhyaline apex. and reflexed. curved. Some species are imperfect states of Neuropspora and are common saprophytes. MONILIA Pers. thick-walJed. mycelium fine. abundant in culture. from culture. becoming catenulate by acropetalous formation of new conidia. chains often branched.. ex Fr. saprophytic or parasitic. Mycelium white. conidia (blastospores) frequently in small clusters. common on surface of leaves. conidia (blastospores) 1-celled. 462). ovoid to cylindrical or oblong. Reference (315). others. conidia (blastospores) 1-celled.. (A) conidiophores showing falces and conidia. Illustration: (A) M. catenulate. (B) conidia. original from culture. HYALODENDRON Diddens. This genus is like Cladosporium except for lack of pigmentation. globose to ellipsoid. cause brown rots of fruits. Colonies restricted. original. mostly imperfect states of species of Ceratocystis. References (188. (Neurospora) sitophilia. conidiophores erect. gibbum. each bearing 2 short hyaline conidiogenous cells. ZYGOSPORIUM Mont. from pure culture. . main'axis usually simple. its cells differing little from the older conidia. Illustration: Z. Illustration: Hyalodendron sp. 1-celled. bearing special cells (falces). gray. original. 149). saprophytic. americana (Monilinia fructicola). original. (C) Z. whose perfect states are Molinilia (Sclerotmia) spp. or tan in mass. (A) conidiophore and conidia. I-celled. Similar to Sporobolomyces in appearance. References (17. original. hyaline. conidia (blastospores) pink. mostly on wood. (B) M. simple or branched. conidiophores short or indefinite. Illustration: Tilletiopsis sp. in acropetalous branched chains. white to cream colored. variable in shape. Mycelium white or gray. (B) conidia.


1-celled. (B) conidiophores and conidia. dark. as well as large black sclerotia. blastospores) 1. often with slight germ slit on one side. branched or absent. mostly hyaline except for thick dark septa. original from fresh material on dead stem.. Conidiophore-like structures hyaline. fertile portions of conidiophore not swollen as in Acladium\ conidia I-celled. cells irregular. causing targetlike spots on living leaves. E) C. from culture. arising from globose conidiogenous cells. (D) conidium. simple. consisting of basal stalk and much branched upper portion that forms a globose or pyramidial head. at nearly right angles. conidia (porospores. (B) conidiophore enlarged. References ( several-celled. 414). Conidiophores dark. (D) A. which bears a loose head of comdia. Conidiophores stout." See Subramanian (409) for his views. (A) group of conidiophores. Conidiophore mother cells subspherical. Illustration: Periconia sp. 409. PERICON1A Bon. simple or irregularly branched in upper portion. (A. OLPITRICHUM Atkinson. conidia not produced. saprophytic on plant material. conidia (blastospores) dark. C. 118. macrosporum. saprophytic. Illustration: (A-C) A. entire structure disseminated as a propagule. in acropetalous chains. 401). herbarum\ original from culture. ARTHRINIUM Kunze ex. CRISTULARIELLA Hochn. parasitic or saprophytic. microconidia from culture. References (62. original. References (282. Illustration: O. tall. conidia (meristem blastospores) dark. borne singly on the denticles or branches. 1-celled. Niedbalski et al. pyramidalis. globose or ovoid to ellipsoid. conidiophores simple. . simple. saprophytic or parasitic on other fungi. Illustration: (A-C. (314) consider the entire branched structure as a conidium. Fr. cuspidatum. (C) conidia. aphaerospermum. denticles medium to long. ovoid. (C) phialide state. branches compact and dichotomously or trichotomously rebranched. (A) cluster of conidiophores. method of branching irregular. globose. Illustration: T. broadly fusoid. depraedans: original from fresh material on Acer leaves. Reference (365). hyaline to pale brown. small phialides and microconidia produced in culture. stout. determinate. thick. showing basal conidiophore mother cell. cells rounded. Relation to Adadium is not clear but separated here because of loose branching and long "denticles. References (17. somewhat enlarged at apex. (D). dark. often as extensions of the denticles. 464). (E). 120. 125). upright.74 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA TORULA Pers. in dry chains. increasing in length near base. curved to cuspidate. Barron (17) describes conidia as porospores. redrawn from Ellis (120). B) conidiophores and conidia. attached on side and apex of conidiophore. Conidiophores short. although ultimate cells resemble conidia. (C) tip of conidiophores bearing conidia.


1-celled. original. hyaline. (C. Conidiophores tall. bearing clusters of conidia simultaneously on short Aj&cnticles. Isolates are variable. usually saprophytic on plant materials or in soil. Illustration: R. OEDOCEPHALUM Preuss. bearing a head of dry conidia formed simultaneously. Conidiophores simple. these branches producing two or more secondary branches that are enlarged at the tips and bear heads of conidia. branched irregularly in _. References (17. sometimes tall. original. (B) chain of fertile cells with prominent denticles. [-celled. conidia (blastospores) hyaline to pale brown. mostly on decayed wood. Reference (17). (G) conidia. 1-celled. black irregular sclerotia often present. resulting in a row of fertile cells. slender. drawn from herbarium material. percurrent with terminal and intercalary. and from Gonatorrhodiella in having conidia not in chains. ovoid. Some species are conidial states of Discomycetes and one species is the conidial state of Fames annosus. denticulate cells bearing conidia simultaneously. hyaline or pigmented. conidia (botryoblastospores) hyaline or gray in mass. This genus differs from Gonatobotryum in being hyaline throughout. Illustration: Oedocephalum sp. borne on denticles. conidiophores erect or suberect. conidiophores and conidia. slender. G. upper portion. teneltum. (C) conidia. B) mycelium. RHINOTRICHUM Corda {Oidium Link). saprophytic. 1-celled. lateral branches of nearly equal length. Not Rhinotrkhum Auct. simplex. Conidiophores tall. original from culture. globose to ovoid. saprophytic on decaying plant material. somewhat inflated (not globose). simple or irregularly branched in upper portion. (A) entire conidiophore. from culture. Illustration: B. is not clear. determinate. hyaline or slightly colored. conidium-bearing cells sometimes enlarged. conidia (blastospores) 1-celled. septate. conidia (botryoblastospores) hyaline. from decayed leaf in greenhouse. fertile cells irregular. from culture. 469). 448). globose to ovoid. The relationship to Olphrichum Atkinson and Rhinotrkhum Auct. 295). 409. simplex is a mycoparasite. hyaline. ovoid. See Hennebert (167) for recent classification. (A) young conidiophore and conidia. Illustration: Botryosporium sp. (C) phialide state.. original. References (17. (A. Conidiophores erect. saprophytic or parasitic on other fungi.76 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA ^ S* BOTRVTIS Pers. B) conidiophores and conidia. (C) portion of conidiophore void of conidia. (E) conidia. Illustration: G. ovoid to subglobose. simple or sparingly branched. 267. some producing Aspergilius-Wke heads of microconidia. ACLADIUM Link ex Pers. References (17. composed of elongated axis and numerous. 1 6 7 . (A) conidophores and conidial heads. curtisii. original. hyaline. enlarged and globose at the apex. original. (B) enlarged apex of conidiophore void of conidia. borne singly on short or medium denticles. often extending percurrently. 35. cinerea. conidia (botryoblastospores) hyaline. from culture. (D) conidia. Conidiophores stout. causing "gray mold" on many plants or saprophytic. GONATOBOTRYS Corda. 294. 427. (A. . References { 1 7 . (B) cluster of conidia. 1-celled. inflated.. 414). (B-F) stages in development of conidiophore branch and production of conidia. globose to ellipsoid. saprophytic or closely associated with other fungi. apical cells enlarged or rounded. simple or branched. Mycelium often forming a loose or dense substratum. (A) conidiophore with clusters of conidia. Reference (409). BOTRYOSPORIUM Corda. Illustration: A. D) upper portion of conidiophore showing enlarged conidiogenous cells. conidia (botryoblastospores) borne singly on the teeth.


redrawn from Subramanian (397). . intermixed with setae. D) conidiophores and conidia. brown. Reference (167. saprophytic. frequently associated with Hypoerea. G. G highlei is parasitic on TV coccinea varfaginaia. conidiophores and conidia. Setae erect. with inflated or lobed tips. bearing loose heads of dry conidia. LACELLINOPSIS Subramanian. References (255. (C) mature conidia. becoming cupulate after detachment of conidia. (A) habit of setae and conidiophores. tall. (A) rope of hyphae. (C) conidia. (C) conidia. (A) B. with globose fertile apex. conidiophores and conidia. pale. conidia (botryoblastospores) hyaline. simple or sparingly branched. (B) G. septate. brown. conidiophores determinate. (B) apex of branch showing denticles. apiculatum bears conidia in branched chains of several conidia. stout. globose or ovoid.) PHYMATOTRICHUM Bon. 459). in simple or branched acropetalous chains. Hypomyces. 1-celled. GONATORRHODIELLA Thaxter. redrawn from Subramanian (396). hyaline. septate. conidiophores determinate intermixed with setae. ovoid to short cylindrical. conidia (blastospores) 1-celled. Original from culture. from culture. nearly sessile or on short denticles. branched setae often present on mycelium. saprophytic or causing leaf spots of Hamamelis. shorter. large black sclerotia produced in soil. Conidiophores tall. (A) upper portion of conidiophore. Illustration: P. 432) places this genus in the newly formed genus Phymatotrichopsis. Illustration: L. Setae simple. abundans (conidial state of Trichophaea abundans). septate. Baniecki. ovoid to ellipsoid. 459). Illustration: L sacchari: (A) tip of seta. Conidiophores dark. produced on mats on surface of soil. then collapsing. graminkola. Conidiophores stout. the cause of beech bark disease in New England. simple or branched. globose or ovoid. conidia (botryoblastospores) dark. simple.78 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA DICHOBOTRYS Hennebert. tall. (A) conidiophores and conidia. proliferating to form successive conidiogenous nodes. Hennebert (167 394. globose. conidia (botryoblastospores) hyaline. Illustration: G highlei. LACELLINA Sacc. produced at or near the apex in acropetalous chains. Reference (6). Illustration: D. (B) cluster of conidia. original. (B) conidiophores and conidia. conidiophore and conidia. upright. (B) tip of seta. 1-celled. globose. colored. from culture. 1-celled. hyaline. conidia (botryoblastospores) nearly globose. terminal fertile cells somewhat inflated. produced acropetally in chains. redrawn from photographs by J. Illustration: original. omnivorum. causing root rots. stout. 437. slender. with inflated apex and intercalary cells that bear loose dry heads of conidia. or Nectria. (C. forming a head of dry conidia on an inflated terminal cell. dichotomously branched twice or more from upper half. brown. upright. conidia (blastospores) 1-celled. typically simple. fuscum. appiculatum. Conidiophores rather short. saprophytic or parasitic on soil. simple. Other references (138. (B) mycelium. producing conidia simultaneously. 1-celled. GONATOBOTRYUM Sacc.


expanded at apex into an obconical or ellipsoid structure. saprophytic in soil. Mycelium superficial.S. Other references (59. (B) fertile branch with conidia. dermatitidis. (A) conidiophores and conidia. (Ostracoderma state of Peziza ostracoderma). 1-celled. common in greenhouses. branched irregularly in upper poriton. from fresh material on decaying wood. conidiophores stout. and Roll. producing several clublike divergent branches that are covered by conidia on slender short denticles. original. tall. conidiophores determinate dark. saprophytic on wood or soil. References (275. conidiophores simple. thick-walled conidia (aleuriospores). Stevens. and Broome. apical cell bearing 2 (sometimes 3) large. entire apparatus penicillate. redrawn from Deighton (80). (B) portion of mycelium. rarely deciduous. dark brown but paler above. hyaline. determinate. brown. Mycelium white to cinnamon. from culture. from culture.. budding cells (blastospores) found in lesions. HAPLOGRAPHIUM Berk. Illustration: M. STAPH YLOTRICHUM Meyer and Nicot. (A) hyphae and thick-walled cells (aleuriospores) produced in culture. conidiophores erect. Illustration: Haplographium sp. (A) conidiophore and conidia. 1-celled. conidia (aleuriospores) thick-walled. Mycelium dark. original. original. 311). hyaline. causing blastomycosis. overgrowing and probably hyperparasitic on microthyriaceous fungi on leaves. B) redrawn from DeLamater (86). growing rapidly. Illustration: S. 129). (B) bud-cells produced in tissue. . (Q conidia. (A. (A) conidiophores and conidia. 1-celled. conidia (blastospores) terminal. Reference (17. bispora.80 DESCRIPTIONS A N D I L L U S T R A T I O N S OF GENERA CHROMELOSPORIUM Corda. apical and single on branches. Mycelium hyaline to lightly pigmented. subglobose with flattened base. 1-celled. ollare. ovoid to oblong. (C) drawn from a photography by Salvin (364). conidia (botryoblastospores) globose. saprophytic. erect. light brown. hyaline or nearly so (tan in mass). pathogenic in man. filamentous at room temperature. main axis unbranched but dichotomously branched near apex. collecting in slimy heads under moist conditions. thick-walled. 168). bearing an apical cluster of pale to hyaline short branches. Illustration: C. References (17. erect. usually composed of 2 cells.) MICROCLAVIA F. simple. Illustration: H. (C) budding cells on media at 37 °C. conidia (aleuriospores) globose. BLASTOMYCES Cost. pale. yeastlike at 37 °C.coccosporum. Mycelium white in culture.


main cell large. Illustration: J V . 125). simple or branched. Conidiophores indefinite. hyaline. ovoid. References (124. S. redrawn from Howell (178). conidia (blastophores may appear to be aleuriospores in culture) I-celled. References (46. redrawn from Howell (178). probably imperfect state of Hypomyces. phaeospora has brown conidia. (A) verticillate conidiophore and conidia. small. often with a light band seen in side view. smooth wedge-shaped basal cell. (B) stages in the development of tuberculate aleuriospores. sphaerica. hyaline or slightly colored. conidia (aleuriospores) single or in loose cluster. growth yeastlike. (B) conidiophore and phialides. (B) aleuriospores. (A) hyphae and aleuriospores. and is a biotophic mycoparasite. tetracoccum. original. chrysospermum\ original. 1-celled. from culture. with large tuberculate apical cell and small. saprophytic. Conidiophores poorly developed in culture. Illustration: S. redrawn from Howell (178). MYCOGONE Link. 180) PAPULARIA Fr.. C) from culture. mostly simple. (B) hyphae and aleuriospores. 1-celled Vertitillium-like. a Verticillium-Yike state is usually also present. with verticillate conidiophores bearing hyaline. (C) tip of conidophore showing hyaline vesicle. Conidiophores slender. hyaline. hyaline or bright yellow. B) conidiophores and conidia. hyaline. spherical aleuriospores formed in culture at room temperature. thick-walled. tuberculate. References (17. parasitic on plants or saprophytic. may be imperfect state of Hypomyces. situated on a flattened. phialospore state may be present. (C) smooth-walled conidia developed below the surface of the agar. 1-celled. 452). conidia (aleuriospores) single. conidia (aleuriospores) shiny black. pathogenic in man. globose. HISTOPLASMA Darling. I-celled conidia (Verticillium-like). capsulatum. . The outgrowths on the aleuriospores separate this genus from Sepedonium. Other reference (129). perniciosa. broadly lenticular or globose. CHLAMYDOMYCES Bain. hyaline or brown. with several cell-like hyaline swellings. probably imperfect state of Hypomyces. ampullosporum\ original. parasitic on mushrooms. mostly simple. basal cell smooth. from culture. Illustration: Papularia sp. at 37 °C. Compare with Mycogone. the apical cell globose and warted. Illustration: M. 1-celled. conidia borne on slender branches. globose. (A. (A) hyphae and tuberculate conidia.82 DESCRIPTIONS AND I L L U S T R A T I O N S OF GENERA STEPHANOMA Wallr. short branches of mycelium. simple or branched. original. Conidiophores short. Conidiophores much like mycelium. (B. imperfect states of Hypomyces. 2-celled. Illustration: H. parasitic on fleshy fungi. (C) S. phialospore state may also be present. parasitic on other fungi. hyaline. Illustration: S. globose. tuberculate. Conidiophores much like branches of mycelium. from culture. apical. Cultures similar to Blastomyces but large. (A) conidiophore and phialides. hyaline or brightly colored. dark. 72). conidia (aleuriospores) apical on pedicels. Compare with Arthrinium and see Ellis (120) for synonymy. causing histoplasmosis. conidia (aleuriospores) 2-celled. phialospore state also produced. References (17. NIGROSPORA Zimm. Two species illustrated are similar except for the verticillate conidial state. not differing much from branches of the mycelium. borne on short phialides on swollen head. parasitic on mushrooms. hyaline vesicle (cell) at the end of the conidiophore.) SEPEDONIUM Link. Reference (17.


Redrawn by permission of the National Research Council of Canada from the Canadian Journal of Botany. MAMMARIA Cesati. mostly simple. atrum. References (64. Conidiophores. Hyphae hyaline to brown. conidia (aleuriospores) ovoid or somewhat flask-shaped. globose or subglobose. irregularly branched. conidia (aleuriospores) 1-eelled. pale brown. from culture. Illustration: Gilmaniella sp. gray to grown. Illustration: M. from culture. produced singly at apices of branches. (A) conidiophores and conidia. from decayed wood and from culture. (A) mycelium with short conidiophores. conidia (aleuriospores) apical. saprophytic on wood or soil. I-celled phialospores. globose. simple or bearing very short branches. conidiophores short. tapering to a pointed apex. 164. truncate at basal scar. cruciatus. conidia (aleuriospores) single. 166). clustered. (A) mycelium producing conidia. obclavate to pyriform. 1203-1216 (1962). Conidiophores. hyaline. (A) conidiophores with aleuriospores. globose. 1-celled. (B) philiades with phailospores. BOTRYOTRICHUM Sacc. (C) seta. original. often stout to inflated. (B) stages in development of conidiophore and conidium. borne singly. hyaline. with a prominent germ pore. simple. 1-celled. brown. conidia (aleuriospores) 1-celled. with a thick wall. (B) phialides and chains of small conidia. 95). echinobotryoides. branched repeatedly. Conidiophores hyaline. conidia (aleuriospores) borne directly on aerial hyphae or on conidiophores. saprophytic. Illustration: E. B. References (75. 91. (A) conidiophores and conidia. piluliferum also produces simple phialides and hyaline. IHustration: A. original. conidia (aleuriospores) 1-celled. (C) conidia. WARDOMYCES Brooks and Hansford. piluliferm. 1-celled. brown. dark. redrawn from Hennebert (164). smooth or rough. and March. from culture. dark. Illustration. some species also produce simple phialides and phialospores in chains. EC HI NOB OTR YUM Corda. 40. 166). in groups or clusters. dark. with prominent longitudinal germ slit. Illustration: W. (A) conidiophores and conidia. in chains. frequently in soil. anomala. conidiogenous cells sessile or with short stalk. Conidiophores consisting of short. single. often much like vegetative hyphae. Illustration: H. 1-celled. pp. . Setae in loose tufts. GILMANIELLA Barron. Conidiophores erect or repent. bearing a loose cluster of conidia. simple or rarely with short branches. HUMICOLA Traaen. ovoid to pointed. Original. original. ovoid to ellipsoid. Reference (16). (C) mature conidia showing germ pore. short.fuscoatra.471). saprophytic. original. redrawn from Hennebert (17. inflated as conidia are formed.84 DESCRIPTIONS A N D I L L U S T R A T I O N S OF GENERA ASTEROMYCES Moreau. branched. (B) mycelium bearing two types of conidia. saprophytic. B. short. wall smooth or rough. References (40. dark. Reference (166). saprophytic. apical. borne on long denticles. dark brown or black. saprophytic. (B) conidiophores and conidia. brown to black. formed in clusters at hyphal tips. or nearly absent. from culture. dark. (B) conidiophores and conidia. undifferentiated hyphae.


conidia (aleuriospores) globose. (B) conidiophore and conidia. Illustration: B. (A. Conidiophores dark. forming aerial"ropes" in culture. corni. saprophytic. slender. conidia (phialospores) dark. from culture. MONOCILLIUM Saksena. hyaline or dark. globose.86 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA GLOMERULARIA Peck. Illustration: M. hyaline. (C) conidia. saprophytic. infuscans. parasitic. (B. (C. 92). parasitic on leaves. erect. conidiophores short. lateritium. hyaline. borne singly at the apex or produced in chains under conditions of high humidity. D) redrawn from Taubenhaus (431). often with prominent scar. (A) habit on leaf. GLIOMASTIX Gueg. indicum. MONILOCHAETES Halst. (B) conidiophores and conidia. References (42. hyaline. conidiogenous eells subglobose or obpyriform. (A-D) stages in development of conidiophores and conidia. (B) conidiophores (phialides). hyaline. Illustration: M. Illustration: U. sometimes missing. often septate. Conidiophores hyaline. redrawn from Papendorf and Upadhyay (321). C) conidiophores and conidia on sweet potato. Conidiophores simple. slender. This fungus may prove to be a Mortierella. simple or divided. B) redrawn from Harter (160). sessile or on short sterigmata. conidia (aleuriospores) terminal or lateral. saprophytic in soil. UMBELOPSIS Amos and Barnett. murorum. conidia (aleuriospores) I-celled. tapering toward the apex. conidia (phialospores) hyaline or becoming pigmented in age. 17). from herbarium material on leaves of Cornus canadensis. ovoid to ellipsoid. but because of its similarity to the imperfects it is included here. saprophytic in soil. formed in basipetal chains without slime or aggregated in slime droplets. 1-ceiled. mostly short. septate. from culture. globose to ovoid to ellipsoid. original. older conidiophores typically with a swollen apex bearing 2 to several long cylindrical branches. (A) mycelium and branched conidiophores. original. Mycelium hyaline to dark. smooth. C) conidiophores and conidia produced in culture. redrawm from Saskena (362). somewhat unequally clustered forming few-spored heads. (A. usually simple. I-cclled. hyaline. Mycelium hyaline. conidia (phialospores) i-celled. . versiformis: original. (A) mycelial rope. from soil. each with a single apical conidium. (A) mycelial rope bearing conidiophores. BOTRYODERMA Papendorf and Upadhyay. variable. conidiophores mostly reduced to simple phialides. 1-celled. septate. consisting of a pedicel and a swollen vesicle terminating in a single phialide that bears a long chain of conidia formed basipetally. hyaline. Conidiophores borne in groups in spots on living leaves. Illustration: G. (B) conidia. References (2. smooth. Illustration: G. broadly ellipsoid to globose.


phialides mostly terminal. (Bisporomyces van Beyma). 140). catenulate.318. phialides slender. I-celled (sometimes septate). (B) conidiophores with slime heads. simple. simple. independent or a sterile portion of conidiophore. (A) habit sketch. original. The genus Margarinomyces is often included under Phialophora. probably closely related to Stachybotrys. borne apically in slimy masses. CHLORIDIUM Link. short phialides. ciliate.452). aleuriospores (where present) 1-celled. STACHYBOTRYS Corda. saprophytic. conidia (phialospores) dark. drawn from photography by Zuck (480). original. (D. conidia (phialospores) hyaline. simple. References (33. somewhat curved with an inconspicuous collarette. E) Phialophora sp. forming conspicuous collarettes that are cupulate. 34. Illustration: Codinaea sp. phialides cylindrical to inflated. saprophytic. hyaline. saprophytic on plant material or soil. sometimes proliferating. (B) ciliate conidia. (E) conidia. saprophytic. frequently in pairs at the end of the conidiophore or held together in small heads by mucus. Setae (if present) straight. frequently proliferating at the apex after producing an apical head of conidia. straight. from culture. conidia (phialospores) hyaline. (B. Reference (17). thick-walled. terminal. Illustration: (A-C) Phialophora sp. Conidiophores dark.. MENISPORA Pers. or branched. globose to ovoid. 215). on decaying wood. short phialides. flaring. atra.281. Conidiophores subhyaline to dark. often with flaring collarette at apex. not catenulate. original. from herbarium material on dead leaves of Nyssa. (B) M. from culture. (D) conidia. (C) conidia. (B) conidophores (phialides). dark. bearing at apex a cluster of thick. simple or branched. 480). MEMNONIELLA Hohn. from culture. with a distinct collarette at apex.88 DESCRIPTIONS AND I L L U S T R A T I O N S OF GENERA PHIALOPHORA Medlar. simple. borne in moist heads at the apex of the phialides. saprophytic. original. (A) rope of mycelium with slime heads of conidia. C) conidiophores and clusters of conidia. original. parasitic or saprophytic. (B) conidiophores and conidia. bent or coiled. conidiophores and conidia. Illustration: C. conidia (phialospores) dark. . conidia (phialospores) 1-celled. 1-celled. Conidiophores erect. from culture. 312. References (47. 461. Conidiophores short or reduced to phialides. globose. Illustration: S. 1-celled (sometimes to 4-celled). extruding from phialide in moist heads. Illustration: Memnoniella sp. original. I-cellcd. dark. References (280.. or funnel-shaped. Setae straight or slightly bent. determinate bearing at apex a cluster of thick. (A) group of conidiophores with slime heads. Reference (34). (A) conidiophores showing collarette. conidia of some species have a slender hyaline appendage at each end. 1-celled. References (174. (D) aleuriospores. original. from fresh material on over-wintered acorn. chlamydosporis. conidia (phialospores) subhyaline to dark. (Margarinomyces bubaki). septate. (C) conidia. CODINAEA Maire (MENISPORELLA Agnihothrudu). globose to ovoid. (D) mycelium bearing phialides. conidiophore and ciliate conidia. with a slender seta at each end. conidiophores dark. narrowly fusiform to curved. from culture isolated from soil. dark. cobaltina. Illustration: (A) M..


(B) phialides and conidia. Mycelium typically dark. (B) habit of conidiophores. (B-D) Chaiara sp. Compare with Gyrothrix. slender phialides slightly larger near the base and tapering upward. . maculiforme. setae simple. conidia (phialospores) hyaline. original from pure culture. original. often hanging together in chains. cylindrical. setae erect. redrawn from Pirozynski (330). Illustration: C. (C) conidia. dark. producing conidia endogenously. conidiophores and conidia. saprophytic on leaves. phialides cylindrical with swollen rounded base. Conidiophores usually pigmented or subhyaline. 1-celled. obclavate.. circinata. in chains. quercina (Ceratocystis fagacearum). Compare with Circinotrkhum. hyaline or subhyaline. original. repeatedly branched. conidia (phialospores) 1. thick-walled. conidiophore typically has some dark pigment but may be hyaline under some cultural conditions. straight or flexuous. CHAETOCHALARA Sutton and Pirozynski. (A) hyphae producing aleuriospores. CHALARA Corda. (A) branched seta. Illustration: (A) C. cladii. pointed setae and to hyaline to brown phialides. 169). redrawn from Sutton and Pirozynski (427). (A) seta. somewhat variable in length. from pure culture. cylindrical. straight or curved. Mycelium partly immersed in leaves. Saprophytic on leaves and twigs. hyaline. dark. (B) conidia and phialide. hyaline. (-celled. broader and darker at the base. narrowly ellipsoid. bearing setae and phialides.. Illustration: Chalaropsis sp. Hyphae subhyaline to brown. from fresh material on rotted wood. cylindrical. simple. arising from superficial mycelium. Saprophytic on leaves or twigs. narrowly ellipsoid. parasitic or saprophytic. conidia (phialospores) hyaline. the apical cell (phialide) sometimes tapering upward slightly and producing conidia endogenously. brown. parasitic or saprophytic. (B) enlarged phialide.90 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENFRA CIRCINOTRICHUM Nees ex Persoon. (A) phialides and seta. arising from the mycelium. aleuriospores present. (C) enlarged conidiophore showing deep collarette. 2-celled. Illustration: C. straight or curved. unicellular or basal portion septate. single or in short chains. CYROTHKIX (Corda) Corda. Illustration: G. verrucose. obclavate. similar to Chaiara except for the production of aleuriospores. redrawn from Piro/ynski (330). wider at base and tapering toward apex that is paler and circinate. conidia (phialospores) hyaline. CHALAROPSIS Peyron. ovoid. Mycelium subhyaline to brown. often in chains. (B) phialides and conidia. References (17. often aggregated. pale to brown. phialides short. conidia (phialospores) hyaline. giving rise directly to brown. aggregated into apical clusters. emerging through stomata. (D) chain of conidia.


albo-atrum. conidia (phialospores) hyaline. from pure culture. basicola. Mycogone. roseum also produced a Verticillium state. much branched. length variable. (A. > jC ' s\f Illustration: V. STACHYLIDIUM Link. (C. (B) phialides with heads of conidia. conidiophores closely clustered. hyaline. from pure culture. 1-celled. Conidiophores slender.92 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA THIELAVIOPSIS Wctn. TRICHODERMA Pers. very common. ovoid. (B) chains of aleuriospores. forming a compact "brush" as in Penicillium. small. parasitic or saprophytic. dark in culture. Illustration: Stachylidium sp.359). upright. held in heads by slime. Reference (354). . some species reported as parasites on other fungi. long-cylindrical to filiform. 1. References (125. usually easily recognized by its rapid growth and green patches or cushions of conidia.236. phialides and phialospores like Chalaropsis: also forming thickwalled aleuriospores that eventually break apart. simple. conidial states of species of Ceratocystis. conidiophores simple.237. original. (A) phialide and phialospores. produced successively apically and collecting in mucilaginous droplets. G. phialides single or in groups. original from culture. original from culture. (E) conidia. (C) conidia. (A) branched conidiophore. (D) Verticillium state of Gliocladium roseum. References (44. with phialidelike lower portion with dark collarette. branched. conidiogenous cell protruding. saprophytic on vegetable material. Also see Verticillium states of Gliocladium roseum. at least some of the branches or phialides f^ verticillate. original. vascular parasites causing wilts on higher plants. 1-celled. parasitic on other fungi. Stilbum. upper portion branched bearing whorls of phialides. becoming septate and fragmenting to form arthrospores. the upper portion bearing penicillate branches. becoming globose. conidia (phialospores) hyaline or brightly colored in mass. cercosporicola. acropetal. See VertiriUium figure D. associated with and possibly parasitic on Cercospora.. Illustration: T. 276). saprophytic on soil or on wood. viride. CLADOSPOR1ELLA Deighton. Conidiophores. orange-brown to dark brown. cylindrical. Illustration: G. Conidiophores dark. etc. Colonies small. 193). base often somewhat swollen. borne singly or in small moist . (A) conidiophores growing in moist atmosphere. (B) conidiophore in water mount. References {298. slender. pale olive to pale brown. Illustration: C. (A) conidiophores and heads of conidia as seen in dry mount. deliquescens. conidia subhyaline to brown in mass. (C) hyphae producing both kinds of spores. slow-growing. B) large conidiophores showing extensive branching. D) phialides showing production of several-celled. not verticillate. ^VERTICILLIUM Nees. saprophytically. Illustration: T. 1-celled. or growing . GLIOCLADIUM Corda. 1-celled. 1-celled. Illustration: W. borne in small terminal clusters. conidia (phialospores) ovoid to ellipsoid. Sepedonium. 350. common in soil. WALLEMIA . original. sometimes proliferating percurrcntly.lohan-Olsen. Mycelium slow-growing.^>*' clusters apically. Conidiophores hyaline. pale olive-brown. Y Stephanoma. ovoid. (B) conidiophores and conidia in water. with distinct conidial scars. original from culture. saprophytic. from culture isolated from soil. original. seba. from culture. variable. 379). conidia (phialospores) subhyaline to brown. Conidiophores hyaline. conidia (sympodulospores) catenulate. References (17.


Conidiophores upright. conidia (phialospores) hyaline. penicillate. (B. bearing phialides at the apex or radiating from the apex or the entire surface. (B) phialides and conidia. 1-celled. . branched near the apex. redrawn from Misra and Talbot (288). GLIOCEPHALIS Matruchot. original. conidia (phialospores) produced in basipetal chains. 329). compacted into columns. Reference (128). original from culture. 1-celled.. diagrammatic. Conidiophore and phialides slender. globose. hyaline or slightly pigmented. conidia (phialospores) in dry basipetal chains. References (108. or saprophytic in soil. Microconidia of certain species of Fusarium are similar. in pairs. CEPHALOSPORIUM Corda. hyaline. terminating in a globose or clavate swelling. C) conidiophores with conidial heads. This genus is much like Gftocephahtrichum. in moist heads. hyaline. (D) conidia. in dry basipetal chains. (A. conidia (phialospores) 1-celled. original from culture. saprophytic. Illustration: Penicillium sp. METARRHIZIUM Sorok. simple. (A) habit sketch. (B. (A) conidiophores with chains of conidia. pp. slender. ovoid to fusoid. Illustration: P. Conidiophores tall. Redrawn by permission of the National Research Council of Canada from the Canadian Journal of Botany. original. C) types of conidiophores. in dry basipetal chains. GLIOCEPHALOTRICHUM Ellis and Hesseltine. B. conidia (phialospores) hyaline or brightly colored in mass. original. or in whorls. often variously colored in mass. 319). simple. Illustration: Cephalosporium sp. saprophytic.. Compare with Myrothecium. long-ovoid to cylindrical. (A) conidiophore and slime head. saprophytic from soil. (C) phialides. simple or sparingly branched. B) conidiophores. (A) sporulating fungus on insect larva. collecting in a slime drop. conidia (phialospores) 1-celled. from culture. mostly simple. ASPERGILLUS Link. 1-celled. bearing at the apex a series of primary and secondary branches that terminate in phialides. fertile area subtended by a few long sterile divergent arms. PHIALOM YCES Misra and Talbot. from culture. Illustration: Aspergillus spp. 1-celled. References (349). C) phialides. 1-celled. macrosporus..94 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA PAECILOMYCES Bainer. References (325). stout. Conidiophores hyaline. and chains of conidia. (A. some species causing vascular wilts of trees. bulbilium. (D) conidia.. olive-green in mass. 42. forming a sporulating layer. (B) conidia. but without sterile arms. mostly globose or ovoid. parasitic on insects. original. (D) conidia. branched. 139. (A) conidiophores and conidia in slime heads. oblong-elliptical. from culture. in dry basipetal chains. 111). Illustration: Gliocephalis sp. (B. References (349). ending in a group of phialides. PENICILLIUM Link. Conidiophores arising from the mycelium singly or less often in synnemata. from culture. (D) branches.. a single apical whorl of phialides. verrucose. phialides. Illustration: M. conidia (phialospores) hyaline. Illustration: Paecilomyces sp. Illustration: G. References (17. C) conidiophores. Conidiophores tall. phialides single. dark. 1287-1290 (1964). References (41. lemon-shaped. anisoplae. original. Conidiophores and branches more divergent than in Penicillium. saprophytic or parasitic.


96 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA CHAETOPSINA Rambelli. Illustration: T. thick-walled. (C) portion of tall conidiophore. aggregate into a large head in slime. main axis slender with long sterile apex. (B) conidia. small cylindrical. Conidiophores dark brown. dry. bactrospora. Reference (17). phialides in more or less compact layer. pp. Illustration: P. oblong-cylindrical. branches with phialides arising about the middle or lower portion of conidiophore. Conidiophores dark. . from culture. (B) enlarged conidiophore showing phialides and sterile tip. from culture. with a single stipe bearing an apical. 2-celled. minutely roughened. (B) mycelium with short conidiophores. subhyaline to pale brown. longispora redrawn from Kendrick (248). (A) group of conidiophores. redrawn from Hughes (93. 1-celled. (A) habit of conidiophores and spines. sticking together in bundles by means of slime. sometimes swollen at the base. original. Illustration: C. fulva. subglobose to elongate fusoid. griseus. complex fertile head. 1-celled. Illustration: C. composed of 3 or 4 series of branches. proliferating sympodially after producing a cluster of phialides. single or clustered. inflated below and tapering upward with a long neck. in basipetal chains. tapering upward to a sterile point. saprophytic. bearing one to several penicilli on a single stipe. original. conidia (phialospores) hyaline. Reference (249). saprophytic on wood and bark. (B) conidiophore and conidia. septate. (C) enlarged phialides. held in a droplet of slime around the axis of the conidiophore. mostly solitary. bearing numerous primary side branches and secondary branches (phialides) that elongate and form polyphialides. long. (D) enlarged phialides. (A) habit of conidiophores. stout. PHIALOCEPHALA Kendrick. 1-celled. Conidiophores dark. Redrawn by permission of the National Research Council of Canada from the Canadian Journal of Botany 39. saprophytic. conidia (phialospores) hyaline. Conidiophores erect. apical phialides with conspicuous collarettes. 817-832 (1961). 193). conidia (phialospores) hyaline or subhyaline. (A) portion of conidiophore bearing phialides and chains of conidia. (E) conidia. (D) conidia. otherwise simple and ascending. CHAETOPSIS Grev. THYSANOPHORA Kendrick. globose to cylindrical.


lower portion dark but variable in shade. conidiogenous cells elongated. hyaline. from culture. conidia (anellospores) hyaline. globose. (B) conidiophores bearing conidia. 369). saprophytic in soil. macrodadium. bearing a loose cluster of dry conidia at apex. conidia (phialospores) hyaline or subhyaline. borne on short. saprophytic on leaves. globose to ovoid. Reference (193). Reference (187).. Illustration: Scopulariopsis sp. branched. Conidiophores dark. Conidiophores mostly simple. from culture. Illustration: Leptographium sp. hyaline. (B) short simple conidiophores. sometimes terminating in a long. ovoid.98 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA GONYTRICHUM Nees. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline. (A) conidiophores bearing conidia. bearing conidia near the apex on blunt denticles. mostly saprophytic. HANSFORDIA Hughes. globose with a truncate base. (C) conidiogenous cells showing annellations. (C) conidia. from culture. phialides borne in groups on short lateral branches along main axis of conidiophore. Conidiophores mostly branched or producing at the apex a cluster of conidiogenous cells that proliferate percurrently before producing succeeding conidia. original. from culture. conidia (annelospores) hyaline or subhyaline. produced in basipetal chains. (A) portion of conidiophore bearing conidia in chains. isolated from soil. saprophytic. Probably conidial state of Ceratocystis. (A) conidiophores and conidia. on a dry mount. held together in rather large heads by slime. parasitic on trees or saprophytic. slender sterile tip. References (303). colonies other than green or blue. SCOPULARIOPSIS Bain. schenckii (Sporotrichum schenckii) causes sporotrichosis in humans. 148. Conidiophores hyaline or pigmented. from culture. original. original. (D) conidia. slender. Illustration: Hansfordia sp. mostly tall. the upper portion with penicillate branches. Illustration: Sporothrix sp. original. (B) conidia. ovoid. SPOROTHRlX Hektoen and Perkins. single or in clusters. (A) conidiophores showing denticles and conidia. conidiogenous cells slender. LEPTOGRAPHIUM Lagerb and Melin. S. erect to repent. References (17. collecting in small heads. References (77. ovoid or fusoid. branched above repeatedly and irregularly. 1-celled or septate. prominent denticles. new growing points arising sympodially. (B) conidia. Conidiophores upright. (C) branch of conidiophore and phialides. leaving annellations at the tip. (A) habit of conidiophores.129). tapering and often curved.. . 1-celled. (B) conidiogenous cells showing annellations.. Illustration: S. conidia (sympodulospores) 1-celled. original. upper branches hyaline. 1-celled..


(E) single conidiophores. (A) conidiophores and conidia of Hypoxylon . Reference (243). saprophytic. saprophytic on wood. Conidiophores erect or suberect. l-celled. with an enlarged globose or clavate apex.100 DESCRIPTIONS A N D I L L U S T R A T I O N S OF G E N E R A NODULOSPORIUM Preuss. (D) conidia. (A) conidiophores. ovoid to obovoid with truncate base. Conidiophores upright. both original. Illustration: (A) V. References (242. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline. serpens. in some species inflated at the base. Illustration: T. from culture. conidia (sympodulospores) l-celled. saprophytic. redrawn from Chesters and Greenhalgh (53). GENICULOSPORIUM Chesters and Greenhalgh. hyaline to pigmented. original. Note similarity to Beauveria. l-celled. 357). (B. branches originating from lower portion and giving a subdichotomous appearance. borne singly on small denticles. parasitic on insects. conidia (sympodulospores) apical on new growing points. l-celled. dark. BASIDIOBOTRYS Hohn. conidiophores single. Reference (274). bassiana. nigra. bearing conidia apically. l-celled. simple or forked. (B) conidia. Reference (7. 243). C. globose or ovoid. conidiogenous cells slender or short and thick. (B) Virgaria sp. from culture obtained from dead Nitidulid beetle. Conidiophores erect.. conidia (sympodulospores) apical on sympodially formed new growing points. (Conidial stage of Hypoxolon punctulatum). branched. fusoid. D) clusters on conidiophores. Reference (404).. with main axis becoming indistinct. simple or verticil lately branched. irregularly grouped or in vcrticillatc clusters. from culture. branched. BEAUVERIA Vuill. original. slender. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline to subhyaline. Illustration: G. tapering to a slender fertile portion that appears zigzag after several conidia are produced. Conidiophores dark to subhyaline. Illustration: Basidiohotrys sp. l-celled. Jong and Rogers suggest that this fungus should be placed in Xylocladium Syd. album. from herbarium material on bark of Betula. 242. (A-C) conidiophores and heads of conidia. original from culture. dark.. original. (B. Conidiophores erect. elongate-clavate. apical region of branches bearing conidia on new sympodial growing points. septate. Illustration: Nodulosporium spp. (A) infected beetle. fertile portion. conidial states of Xylariaceae. attached irregularly or verticillatcly. VIRGARIA Nees. Illustration: B. rounded to ovoid. giving a geniculate appearance. References (21. zigzag. in succession on new denticles. conidiogenous branches tapering to a rachislike. (F) conidia. . long. or scantily upright-branched. TRITIRACHIUM Limber. asymmetrical. produced on tiny denticles on short thick conidiogenous cells that cover the apex of conidiophore. dry. slender. conidial state of Hypoxylon spp. simple. caused sapwood rot of hardwood trees. from culture isolated from oak wood. Mycelium white or slightly colored with a white fluffy to powdery appearance. globose or ovoid. 274). conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline. sp. hyaline or subhyaline to distinctly pigmented. (E) sporogenous cells showing development of conidia. imperfect state of Hypoxylon. C) conidiophores and conidia of Hypoxylon atropunctatum. hyaline.


conidiogenous cells slender. saprophytic.102 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA CONOPEEA Pers. dark. from culture. (A) apex of conidiophore bearing conidia. Illustration: /. Conidiophores hyaline. References (8. (D) conidiogenous cell with cluster of conidia. nonseptate. 466). conidiophores brown. mostly oblong. with prominent scars. branched. apical or lateral. pale toward the apex. conidiophores erect. (A) branched conidiophore. parasiticum. original. 1 8 7 . from herbarium material on wood. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline or subhyaiine. (C) chlamydospore. (D-F) C. primary branches usually become slender conidiogenous cells. Similar to Calcarisporium but with dark conidiophore. (B) branches with conidia. principally parasitic on other fungi. the larger ones verticillately branched. (A) conidiophore. (B) branches with apical denticles. conidia (sympodulospores) lunate to falcate. original. new growing points formed sympodially. branches spirally coiled (appearing wavy). original. SELENOSPORELLA Arnaud. CALCARISPORIUM Preuss. (C) conidia. (Streptothrix Corda). 1celled. tall. Illustration: Selenosporella sp. (D) tall conidiophore. produced in clusters near the apex of the conidiophore. conidia (sympodulospores) single. on short denticles. believed to be parasitic on strawberry roots. aleuriospores brown. sessile or on short peglike structures. Conidiophores brown. (B) conidiophore with detached conidia. simple. lunata. 1DRIELLA Nelson and Welhclm. slender.. longcylindrical. (F) conidiogenous cell showing blunt denticles. (C) conidia. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline. (A) branched conidiophore with clusters of conidia. tall. several-celled. Mycelium dark. arbwscula.. (C) conidia. forming loose cluster. ex Mcrat. 1-celled. 465. Illustration: Canopied sp. Illustration: (A-C) C. from fresh materials on decayed wood. original. Mycelium hyaline to brown. may be somewhat curved. borne singly on wartlike teeth on apical portions of the conidiophore branches. drawn from photographs by Nelson and Wilhelm (307). growing loosely on decaying vegetation. I-celled. from culture. bearing several groups of conidiogenous cells verticillately. with pointed ends. narrowed above. branched. (B) conidiogenous cell. Description from Ichinoe (221). saprophytic. .


Conidiophores dark. frequently on wood. 1-celled. (A. trijidium. in slime droplets. apical on new sympodially formed growing points. (A) conidiophore with head of moist conidia. ovoid or oblong. borne single on denticles or ovoid separating cells. tall. hyaline or subhyaline. upper sporebearing portion becomes elongated by sympodial growth. branched verticillately above. Illustration: V. Conidiophores in clusters. attached apically and laterally. Conidiophores brown. PERICONIELLA Sacc. indica. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline. . parasitic or saprophytic. ovoid or globose. 1-celled. on pine needles. SYMPODIELLA Kendrick. Conidiophores solitary. Illustration: O. BELTRANIA Penzig. Redrawn from Subramanian (395). (B) conidia. conidia (sympodulospores) 1-celled.104 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRAIIONS OF GFNERA RHINOCLADIELLA Nannf. Illustration: S. (C) conidia. original. pp. simple. (B) portion of conidiophore bearing conidia. conidia (sympodulospores) apical on new growing points. Reference (122). often curved. V. not in slime droplets. saprophytic. branched only near apex. conidia (sympodulospores) 1-celled. Other reference (191). Illustration: B. redrawn from Hughes (187). redrawn from Kendrick (247). (A. Illustration: Rhinocladielta sp. producing conidiogenous cells and conidia apically and on new sympodial growing points. 1-celled. simple. mostly I-celled. Original. Illustration: V. Compare with Verticicladium and Leptographium. VERTICICLADIUM Preuss. Reference (386). VERTICICLADIELLA Hughes. brown with a paler middle band. Sec Pirozynski (331) for descriptions of related genera. conidia (sympodulospores) biconic. velutina. redrawn from Kendrick (250). saprophytic. See Hughes (210) for synonymy with Ramularia Unger. ovoid to clavate. Conidiophores upright. brown. conidia apical on new sympodial growing points. from herbarium material on Brajijum stellatifolium. (B) seta. ovoid to oblong-ellipsoid. in unbranched chains. Setae brown. 771-779 (1962). (A) conidiophores. Conidiophores simple. from fresh material on decayed wood. Redrawn by permission of the National Research Council of Canada from the Canadial Journal of Botany. (B) conidiophores enlarged. saprophytic. with blunt ends. 40. B) conidiophores and conidia. procera causes a root rot of white pine. (A) habit of conidiophores. (C) conidia. upper portion branched. or branched in some species. acicola. cylindrical. pointed. conidiophores simple or less often forked. hyaline. dark. original. Illustration: P. single or in clusters. Reference (17). subhyaline to dark. avicularis. mostly simple. apical on sympodially formed new growing points. dry.. brown. peniciliaia. drawn from herbarium material on Polygonum aviculare. conidia (sympodulospores) 1-celled. dark. brown. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline. C) conidiophores and conidia. OVULARIA Sacc. differs from Verticicladiella in its dry spores. penicillate.


dark. conidia (sympodulospores) dark. erect. conidia (annellospores) dark.or 2-celled. simple or sparingly branched. Illustration: A. brown. original. pp. Mycelium dark. pomi (Fusicladium dendriticum. C) conidiophores. persimplex. tapering at the base. oblong to ellipsoid. on decaying wood. conidiophores short. ovoid to oblong. AMPULLIFERINA Sutton. 609-616 (1969). 205). typically 2-celled. thick-walled. References (17. 1-celled. CLADOSPORIUM Link. truncate at both ends. (A-D) from fresh material on wood. punctata. broadly ovoid to pyriform or angled and pointed. Mycelium subcuticular on the host. with a pore. dry. (B) C. saprophytic on fallen leaves. clustered or single. (A) redrawn from Subramanian (403). and Badura. Illustration: B. (A. 2-celled or less often 3-celled. slender. although t S/ >-? 1-cetled conidia may predominate. pp. saprophytic on wood. markedly annulate near the tip due to the new conidia being pushed out through the apical conidial scars. (A) section through stroma. original. (B) conidiophores and conidia from fresh material on apple leaf. (D) conidia. E) conidiophores and conidia. ^ SPILOCAEA Fr.106 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA BISPORA Corda.or 2-celled. conidia (blastophores) dark. Conidiophores tall. . C) redrawn from Morris (299). Conidiophores dark. variable in shape and size. conidial states of Venturia. conidia (arthrospores) 2-celled. redrawn from Sutton (421). BALANIIJM Wallroth. 1. Redrawn by permission of the National Council of Canada from the Canadian Journal of Botany. Redrawn by permission of the National Research Council of Canada from the Canadian Journal of Botany. smooth. Compare with Fusicladium. P$k$ conidiophores dark. upright. black septa. some typically lemon-shaped. produced in acropetalous chains. from herbarium material on tomato leaf. simple. bearing at the apex a number of slender divergent conidiogenous branches arising from the same level and bearing conidia on somewhat enlarged denticulate tips. redrawn from Hughes and Hennebert (214). dark brown. forming a stoma that bears upright conidiophores. Illustration: S. dark brown. original. original. short. conidia (aleuriospores) 2-celled. formed by fragmentation. saprophytic.fulvum. herbarum. (B. conidiophores dark. Superficial mycelium brown. brown. short. simple. terrestris. from fresh dead plant material. References (17. dichotomously branched. stygium. conidia (blastophores) dark. catcnulate. saprophytic. hyphopodia lateral. Venturia inequalis). parasitic on higher plants. V*i* Illustration: (A) C. 90). with a truncate base. simple. Conidiophores solitary or in small groups septate. ovoid to pyriform. (A) mycelium with hyphopodia. parasitic on t higher plants or saprophytic. cylindrical. branched variously near the apex. (B) conidiophore with chain of conidia. Illustration: P. Illustration: B. thick. (E) from culture. often in simple or branched acropetalous chains. 39. with thick. 1. ovoid to cylindrical and irregular. (C) conidia. 47. PSEUDOBOTRYTIS Krzem. terminating in short conidiogenous cells. 1505-1508 (1961). (B.


scoparium. (B) conidia. held together in groups or chains. References (227. small. usually bearing 3 short. hyaline. chiefly on grasses. singly. saprophytic. or successively by slight growth of conidiophore apex. conidia (phialospores) produced successively at the apex and held together in loose clusters. Illustration: D. terminating in groups of phialides that taper toward the apex. from culture. yellow-brown sclerotia produced. 2-celled. Conidiophores long. imperfect state of Hypomyces.. RHYNCHOSPORIUM Heinscn. 58). redrawn from Tubaki (450). conidia (meristem arthrospores — may appear to form as blastospores) hyaline or brightly colored. saprophytic or parasitic on fleshy fungi. (C) conidia. borne singly but held together in bundles by mucilage. Illustration: R. bearing one or more phialides. each terminating in two or three phialides. original. (A) conidiophores. 302). saprophytic. not end to end. Conidiophores erect. simple. apical protuberances. slender. well developed. (B) sporogenous cells. broader at the apex. septate mycelium. References (37. CYLINDROCLADIUM Morgan. saprophytic or weakly parasitic. conidiophores simple or sparingly branched. (B) conidiophore with elongated branch and terminal vesicle. hyaline. original. branching irregularly or verticillately and repeatedly. ovoid or ellipsoid. parasitic. redrawn from Ranzoni (346). conidia (phialospores) hyaline. parasitic on roots or saprophytic. bearing conidia apically. secalis. . conidiophores reduced to cells of stroma. conidia (blastospores) hyaline.108 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS Of GENERA CLADOBOTRYUM Corda. cylindrical. 2-celled. regularly and repeatedly dichotomously or trichotomously branched. Submerged. frequently unequal. submerged conidia (phialospores) hyaline. mostly 2-ceIled (sometimes more). septate. HELISCUS Sacc. hyaline. typically with a slender elongated sterile branch terminating in a globose or ellipsoid swelling. 2-celled. Mycelium subcuticular at first.or several-celled. loose stroma. References (17. from leaf spot on rye. 254). original. held together in irregular or tangled chains. Conidiophores erect. and often with a short lateral beak on the apical cell. (A) conidiophore. ultimate branches (phialides) tapering upward. ovoid to oblong. 2. (A) hyphae from stroma showing conidiogenous cells. DIPLOSPORIL'M I. Reference (49). Illustration: Cladobotryum sp. (B) phialides. later developing into a superficial. (C) conidia. hyaline. Conidiophores upright. irregularly branched. Illustration: T. original from culture. aquatic. aquaticus. Illustration: C. (C) with branched. (A) conidiophores. (A-D) successive development of conidia. not catenulate. septate. Illustration: H. 39. from culture. roseum. 2-celled. flavum. producing leaf spots. aquatic. often arising from aerial mycelium. conidia (phialospores) hyaline. TRICHOTHECIlfM Link.


denticulate and sometimes enlarged at the apex. with prominent conidial scars. References (61. [04). Illustration: R. from herbarium material. Species formerly placed in Arthroboirys. conferta. oblong. hyaline. DIDYMARIA Corda. (C) conidia. (A) conidiophores. redrawn from Rifai and Cooke (355). cystospora. original. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline. simple.110 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA ARTHROBOTRYS Corda. from fresh material on decaying wood. borne singly. Illustration: D. New growing points formed sympodially or irregularly. simple. borne on peglike denticles in loose dry clusters. Conidiophores arising from leaf surface in loose groups. short. (A) conidiophores on surface of leaf. frequently curved or bent. Conidiophores more or less several-celled. Reference (355). (A) conidiophores bearing conidia on elongated denticles. 2. sometimes little differentiated ^ L . 2-celled. unequally 2-ceIled. hyaline. Illustration: Dactylaria sp. hyaline. hyaline or subhyaline. Illustration: A. CANDELABRELLA Rifai and Cooke. Conidiophores long. erect. conidia (sympodulospores) apical and on new sympodial or irregular branches. (B) conidiophores.i\ fr°m t n e mycelium. branching sympodially. trapping and destroying nematodes or saprophytic.106. from culture. RAMULARIA Sacc. cylindrical or clavate. (B) conidia.. original. saprophytic or parasitic on nematodes. (A) habit on leaflet. short. 159). Mycelium hyaline. (C) conidia. \ saprophytic or parasitic on nematodes. unequally 2-celled. causing leaf spots. conidia (sympodulo( spores) hyaline. Conidiophores growing out through stomata of host leaves. (B) conidia. saprophytic or destroying nematodes. GENICULARIA Rifai and Cooke. tall. septate. from herbarium material on strawberry leaf. simple. terminated by a small candelabrumlike branching system of the conidiophore apex. (B) conidia. clustered. formed singly on new extended sympodial branches from below previous conidium. unequally 2-celled. obovoid. oligospore. frequently in short chains. hyaline. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline. from culture. ovate-oblong. with large rounded apical cell. lulasnea (Mkosphaereliafragahae). original. original. Conidiophores erect or ascending. sometimes longer and single at apex. Illustration: G. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline. References (61. parasitic on plants. slender. hyaline. See Bhatt and Kendrick (31) for synonymy of Diphrhinotrichum. obpyriform to ellipsoid. original. (B) group of conidiophores. parasitic on leaves. typically 2-celled. musiformis (Arthrobotrys musiformis). but many 1-celled and a few 3-celled. septate. Compare with Candelabrella. (A) conidiophores bearing conidia and showing prominent denticles. cylindrical. slightly enlarged at the apex and spore-bearing regions. Illustration: C. '^x\ DACTYLARIA Sacc. . conidiophores slender. straight. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline.


although l-cclled may predominate. POLYTHRINCIUM Kunze and Schum. pirina (conidial state of Venturia pirina). . Illustration: P. regularly bent. Similar to and may belong to Cercosporidium. simple or sparingly branched. conidiophores dark. 475). bearing a small. conidiophorcs emerging in tufts from stroma. C) clusters of conidiophores. pigmented. 2-celled. rough. 2-celled. original. conidia (sympodulospores) dark. graminis: original. simple. (C) conidia. conidiophores dark. bursting through the epidermis. (B) conidia. dark.11 2 DESCRIPTIONS AND IUUSTRATIONS OF GENERA PASSALORA Fr. 209). Illustration: A. denticulate with conidial scars. typically 2-celled. parasitic. redrawn from Hughes (205). (B) conidiophores. (A) section through stroma and cluster of conidiophores. (D) enlarged apex of conidiophore showing conidial attachment. upright. unequally 2-celled. conidial scars prominent. crowded conidiophores. ASPERISPORIL'M Maubl. conidia (sympodulospores) dark. Mycelium dark. conidia (sympodulospores) dark. Illustration: P. original. 2-celled. FUSICLADIUM Bon. ellipsoid to obpyriform. conidia (sympodulospores) dark. References (78. Conidiophores in loose clusters. 2-celled. Compare with Spihcaea. on same side of conidiophore. the apical cell broader and rounded. Conidiophores in dense clusters on host leaves. bacilligera. Mycelium as in Spihcaea. caricae. simple. parasitic. (A) habit of conidiophores on leaf. formed terminally and at apex of sympodial new growing tips. saprophytic. from herbarium material on leaves of Dactylis. (B) wavy conidiophores and conidia. (C) conidia. trijolii (conidial state of Cymadothea thfolia). Illustration: S. often pointed. (B. produced at apex of sympodially formed new growing tips of conidiophorcs. (A) conidiophore with cluster of conidia. slender. bearing short. with enlarged basal cell. (B) conidia. short. (D) conidia. Stroma subepidermal in the host. compact head of conidia. from fresh material on white clover leaf. (CJ conidia. Illustration: F. References (17. parasitic on leaves. parasitic on higher plants. 205). original. easily deciduous. young conidia produced successively at apex of sympodial new growing lips. ovoid to broadly ellipsoid. CORDANA Preuss. dark. (A) conidiophores bearing conidia. References (17. (C) conidiophores. parasitic. (A) cluster of conidiophores. Mycelium internal. (A) cluster of conidiophores arising from stroma. Reference (78). simple. redrawn from Hughes (205). SCOLECOTRICHUM Kunzeex Fr. ovoid or oblong.199. from herbarium material on pear leaf. conidia (sympodulospores) subhyalinc to dark. Some species are conidial states of Venturia. conidia (sympodulospores) dark. from culture. Illustration: C pauciseptata. bearing conidia terminally on sympodial new growing points. giving a wavy appearance caused by successive sympodial growth at apex.


conidia (sympodulospores) olive-brown. (A-D) S. usually formed in acropetalous chains. (A) mycelium and conidiophores. determinate. 4-celled. . (C) conidium. (B) portion of simple conidiophore. (A) sessile conidia and conidia produced on short conidiophores. sometimes 1-cellcd.. saprophytic on wood or bark. (B) conidiophores with prominent denticles. Illustration: M. Illustration: D. conidiophores erect or ascending. (A) branched conidiophore. differs from Spadkoides in branched conidiophores and catenulate conidia. Illustration: Scolecobasidium sp. saprophytic. several-celled. (C) enlarged apex of conidiophore showing conidial attachment. bina. brown. Reference (119). erect. conidia (porospores) mostly 2-celled. ovoid. frequently branched. Conidiophores variable in length or absent. DIPLOCOCCIUM Grove. cylindrical or 4-celled in different species. saprophytic on decayed wood. from fresh material on decayed wood. I-celled or frequently 2. References (14. brown. Conidiophores (or conidiogenous cells) arising from aerial hyphae or ropes of hyphae. conidia are murogenous (originating as expansions of the entire conidiophore tip). (B) conidiophores bearing catenulate conidia. 17). (C) conidia. developing through minute pores in wall or upper portion of conidiophores.114 DFSCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA SCOIXCOBASID1UM Abbott. SPADICOIDES Hughes. redrawn from Ellis (119). ovoid to ellipsoid I. Conidiophores mostly simple. ovoid to elliptical. MtJROGENEl-LA Goos and Morris. original. relatively short. terricola. irregular in shape. from fresh material on decayed wood. ohovata. (D) conidia. dark. saprophytic in soil. (B) conidia. redrawn from Goos and Morris (153). conidia (porospores) develop singly through pores in apical or lateral wall or conidiophore. terminal. conidia (alcuriospores) single. short. (A) conidiophores with attached conidia. Differs from Diplococcium in the simple conidiophores and conidia not in chains. Mycelium partly superficial. original. single or in groups. produced on prominent denticles at apex of conidiogenous cells. Illustration: (F-F) S. dark. spicatum.


bearing simultaneously a dense cluster of conidia on all sides. redrawn from Thaxter (440). from herbarium material of leaves of Catamagrostis scabra. SEPTONEMA Corda. hyaline. with apical rounded conidiogenous cell. simple. Conidiophore short. (A) conidiophore. redrawn from Subramanian (407). conidia (aleuriospores) hyaline. 143. simple. with enlarged. conidia (botryoblastospores) lightly pigmented. redrawn from Hughes (196). tropica. rubricosa. . on sides of hyphae. original. (A) conidiophore and phragmospores. catenulate in acropetal simple chains. determinate. bearing apically a single. Illustration: S. Illustration: M. obovoid to elongate. l-celled. violaceum. filiform appendages. apical cell frequently with I to 3 hyaline. (A) microconidia. Conidiophores short. redrawn from Subramanian (407).142. References (59. 4-celled (blastospores) in acropetalous chains. redrawn from Tubaki (450). B) conidiophores and conidia. Illustration: C. References (450. and long. FUSOMA Corda. single. saprophytic or parasitic. several-celled. causing dermatomycoses in man. usually 4or several-celled. B) conidiophores with catenulate conidia. fusoid to cylindrical. Conidiophores dark. Illustration: T. 202). Much like Pseudoforula but differing in that conidia (blastospores) are not in chains. determinate. thin-walled. redrawn from Georg (143). TRICHOPHYTON Malmsten. 144). pale brown. heterospora. several-eel led. microconidia also formed on sides of hyphae. cylindrical with rounded ends. conidia (blastospores) subhyaline to dark brown. (B) both types of conidia. References {175.1 16 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA CEPHALIOPHORA Thaxt. typically 3. 194. (B) macroconidia. saprophytic on dung or decaying plant materials. PSEUDOTORULA Subram. Microconidia hyaline. Conidiophores straight or bent. causing dermatomycoses of animals and man. slender. (B) development and separation of conidium. macroconidia (aleuriospores) fusoid. Illustration: C. (C) scolecospores. (C) scolecospore. original. torulose. small. parasitic on higher plants. rounded apical cell. sundara. branched. several-celled. (A-C) conidiophores and conidia. secedens. Illustration: D. clavate with rounded apex. narrower at the base. severalcelled. (A) conidiophores and conidia. from culture. Conidiophores dark. (A. Conidiophores slender. (B) phragmospores. References (129. Illustration: P. large macroconidium. macroconidia (aleuriospores) large. Illustration: F. several-celled scolecospores. brown. brown. conidia of two types. antennatum. Reference (477). (A. simple. MICROSPORUM Gruby. 129). 347). hyaline. cylindrical to fusoid. conidia (aleuriospores) apical. CAMPOSPORIUM Harkn. gypseum. DWAYABEEJA Subram.


determinate. short. several-celled. References (17. determinate. fusoid to cylindrical. parasitic on higher plants. conidiophores dark. saprophytic. mostly 3. 117). cells unequally colored. Conidiophores tall. apical. (A) conidiophores arsing from epidermis of host. Illustration: C.. somewhat narrower at the ends. obclavate to fusoid. saprophytic on dead plant material. ovoid to ellipsoid to clavate. (A) sessile conidia. caricinum. single. determinate. compare with Dacty/ella. Conidiophores short or absent. Illustration: Monacrosporium sp. conidia (aleuriospores) dark. drawn from herbarium material on Hicora leaves. brown. Conidiophores simple. Conidiophores pigmented. Illustration: D. simple. Illustration: T. (B) apex of conidiophores showing annellations. mostly 2. parasitic. cookei.211). apical cell hyaline. Conidiophores brown. conidia (aleuriospores) 2. hyaline. several-celled. mirabilis. more than 3-celled. 3. single. Reference (17). redrawn from Hughes (205). B) conidiophores and conidia. MONACROSPORIUM Subr. ovoid to pyriform. 184). conidia (aleuriospores) dark. (A. simple. Conidiophores dark. apical. catuulense. 3. 3-celled. Illustration: C. original. mostly single. (B) conidiophores and conidia. saprophytic. B) conidiophores. Illustration: A. (E) several-celled. conidia (anncllospores) brown. original. conidia (aleuriospores) dark. hyaline. from culture. 114. (C) several-celled. Compare with Endophragmia. CLASTEROSPORIUM Schw. (B) conidia. PHRACiMOCEPHALA Mason and Hughes. fascicled or in synnemata. Illustration: P. . (A) conidiophore bearing apical conidia. TRICHOCEADIUM Har/. single. Reference (60). brown to black. short. from herbarium material on leave of Carex. ENDOPHRAGMIA Duvernoy and Maire. (D) several-celled. DEIGHTONIEEEA Hughes. Illustration: E. References (4. often curved or hooked. (A) clustered conidiophores with attached conidia. slender. bearing hyphopodia. usually fusoid with one cell (near middle) larger. saprophytic in soil or wood or parasitic on nematodes. elongating by successive proliferations through the conidial scars. upper portion distinctly annellated. often proliferating pcrcurrently. hyphopodia and conidia. (B) conidia. (B) several-celled. conidia (aleuriospores) single. uncinalum. solani. anmdinacea. Reference (117). (A. saprophytic on wood. slender. References (158. conidia (anncllospores) dark. simple. mycelium superficial on leaves. original. taxi.118 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENFRA CERATOPHORUM Sacc. (A) conidiophore and conidium. References (113. ovoid to long cylindrical. ANNEEEOPHORA Hughes. usually simple. redrawn from Mason and Hughes (283). (B-D) stages of development of a conidium. 114). from decayed wood. redrawn from Hughes (192). short. (A) conidiophores showing annellations. Mycelium superficial. original. Conidiophores arising from within epidermal cells. conidia (aleuriospores or blastosporcs) dark.


Illustration: D. (B) conidium. References (118. several-celled (pseudoseptate). each lobe bearing a single conidium. single or sometimes in short chains. conidia (porospores) terminal. Compare with Helminthosporium. 199. from h e r b a r i u m material on leaves of Phntanus several-celled. single or in groups. 3. Illustration: (A) S. (B) conidia. stout. straight or bent. conidiogenous cells short. single. 4. portulacae. (A) conidiophores and conidia. (A) conidiophores showing short. redrawn from Linder (265). original from culture. 6-celled. Conidiophores brown. ovoid to elongate-ovoid. leaving annellate scars. stubby. branching. elongated. conidia (porospores or blastospores) dark. single. plantani. redrawn from Mehrlich and Fitzpatrick (285). Reference (206). determinate or in tufts. terminally branched. S. conidia (porospores or blastospores) dark. cylindrical. (C) from pure culture isolated from decayed wood. brown. conidia (annellospores) dark. (C) conidia. often on hymenomycetes. original. SPORIDESMIUM Link. simple. 4. STIGMINA Sacc. Conidiophores dark. parasitic on leaves. slightly or conspicuously swollen at apex. saprophytic on wood. 455). tropicale. branched. parasitic or saprophytic. (A. determinate. Mycelium internal in leaf. 1. References (118. 304). mostly 3-celled. botrytioides. redrawn from Luttrell (273). (C) S. dendritically branched. proliferating terminally through scar of previous conidium. cassiicoia. redrawn from Luttrell (273). oblong. often arising in clusters from stromalike tissue and protruding through stomata of leaves. rather short. single or in small groups. sderotivorum. fusoid. Conidiophores dark. (A) section of leaf through clusters of conidiophores. (B) conidiophores with developing conidia. brown.120 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA DENDRYPHIOPSIS Hughes. dichotomous to subdichotomous. brown. ultimate branches producing solitary apical conidia. (B) enlarged portion of conidiophore and conidia. formed through small pores in apex of condiogenous cells. Illustration: S. obclavate to long. conidia (aleuriospores) severalcelled. original. conidiophores emerge through leaf epidermis. ovoid to ellipsoid. . atra. colorless exospore and prominent. sderotivorum is parasitic on sclerotia and has a secondary Selenosporella conidial state. Conidiophores simple. borne singly. (C) conidia. upright. folliculatum. with a thick. saprophytic or parasitic. saprophytic. (A) several-celled. Illustration: C. straight or slightly curved. (B) S. stubby sporogenous cells. (D) Selenosporella state. dark basal scar. parasitic on Portulaca. References (119. simple. SPONDYLOCLADIELLA Linder. Illustration: 5 " . conidia (porospores or blastospores) dark. B) from fresh material on decayed wood. 119. Illustration: / ) . 468). DICHOTOMOPHTHORA Mehrlick and Fitzpatrick. CORYNESPORA Gussow. Conidiophores 8-lobed. producing conidia apically and proliferating through previous spore scars.


lunata. redrawn from Deighton (78). conidia (porospores) dark.-fusiform. conidial scars conspicuous. Passalora and Cercospora. Illustration: (A-C) D. . brown. personatum. 373). cylindrical. Reference (238). sympodulospores) typically 3. avenaciwn. redrawn from Luttrell (272). conidiophores densely fasciculate. 308. HETEROSPORIUM Klotzch. Illustration: C. with one of the central cells enlarged. cylindrical to obclavate. conidia (sympodulospores) single and apical on new sympodial growing points. on living leaves. bearing conidia on short pegs on swellings or nodules. (D) D. carbonum. conidia. (B) conidia. original. producing conidia singly at apex through small pores. (E) D. bearing conidia apically or on new i>Vsympodial growing points. (B) apex of conidiophores. typically bent. (A) clusters of conidiophores. few. Illustration: C. causing leaf spots or saprophytic. . usually simple. brown. wall often echinulate or verrucose. Conidiophores brown. Illustration: G. parasitic or saprophytic. Compare with 5-celled. 398). conidia (porospores) dark. cylindrical. CERCOSPORIDIUM Erie. cylindricalclavate. end cells lighter. References (121.122 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA . 322. GONATOPHRAGMIUM Deighton. Conidiophores dark. from culture. several-celled. mostly simple. redrawn from Cejp and Deighton (52).CLIRVULARIA Boedijn. Compare with Fusicladium. Compare with Bipolaris. Formerly included under Helminthosporium. mostly pale brown. pale brown. gracile. conidia (blastospores. (D) conidia. 309. parasitic or saprophytic. (A-C) conidiophores and conidia. parasitic on leaves. 273. DRECHSLERA Ito. conidia. from herbarium material on Iris leaf. (B) conidia. mostly simple. Stroma present. mori. (B) conidiophore showing scars. References (96. Conidiophores brown. continuing growth sympodially from a point below apex and then forming a second spore on new several-celled. 372. (C) germinating conidium. (A) conidiophores. Illustration: H. single or in acropetal chains. 4-celled. (C) conidia. maydis. several-celled (phragmosporous). Conidiophores well developed. (A) section through stroma. causing leaf spots. germinating from any or all cells. (A) conidiophores and conidia on leaf. conidia (sympodulospores) mostly 2. original. 3. more or less T .


from culture obtained from decayed wood. produced on successively new growing points on hyaline projection of the conidiophore and aggregating in moist head.124 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA HELMINTHOSPORIUM Link ex Fr. References (151. (A) conidia and conidiophores. bearing an apical head of conidia. single. (D) conidia. Conidiophores erect.. (D) H. brown. Conidiophorc apex has been interpreted by some as a phialide. original. at first hyaline. phragmosporous. simple. with prominent basal scar. parasitic or saprophytic. References (96. See Barron (17) and Reisinger (353) for opinions on the genus Dendryphiella. produced apically through pores in the conidiophores and new sympodial growing points. (C) conidia. catenulate. 372. spore scars prominent. often appearing in whorls. septate. mostly 4-celled. original from culture. velutinum (Spondylocladium atrovirons). tall. straight or curved. conidiophores single or clustered. Illustration: H. CACUMISPORIUM Preuss. subhyaline to brown. 272. from decayed wood. dark. (B) conidiophores. Shoemaker (372-373) restricts the genus Helminthospohum to lignicolous species and classifies grarainicolous species in Bipolaris and Drechslera. simple. 206). erect. conidia (porospores) several-celled (phragmosporous). saprophytic.. 273. upright. pseudoseptate. conidia (sympodulospores or phialospores) dark. (C) conidiophores and conidia from culture. Mycelium dark. saprophytic on wood. solani. original. . (A) conidiophores and conidia arising from stroma. redrawn from Luttrell (273). stromata often present. 375). conidia (porospores) develop laterally through pores beneath septa while apex of conidiophore is still growing. often in stubstrate. Illustration: Cacumisporium sp. (B) enlarged apex of conidiophore showing pores. oblong to fusoid. DENDRYPHION Wall. Illustration: Dendryphion sp. branched variously on upper portion. (B) conidial attachment at apex of conidiophore. (A) conidiophore and conidia. obclavate. (C) enlarged apex of conidiophore with conidia. Conidiophores dark. 373. dark.


mostly 3-to 5-celled. 372). septate. pale at apex. sorokinianum (B. Illustration: Pleurophragmium sp. saprophytic on wood or herbaceous stems. producing conidia through apical pore. erect. (A-C) redrawn from Luttrell (272). hyaline. narrower and paler at apex. 194). (D) original. chiefly on grasses. conidia (sympodulospores) pale brown. sativum). (C) cluster of conidia on conidiophore. ovoid to obovoid. Reference (123). (A) conidiophore and conidia on leaf. germinating by one germ tube at each end. mostly lateral. broadly ellipsoid to subclavate with rounded apex. straight or curved. basal cell and apical cell may be nonpigmented. new growing points produced sympodially and producing new conidia. Stroma sometimes present. B) B. dark. conidial scars.1 26 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA BIPOLARIS Schoemaker. where known. flat or on raised circles (described by Ellis as borne on denticles). nigrum. from fresh material on decaying wood. part of which remains attached to the fallen conidium. mostly simple. Compare with Spiropes. typically 4-celled. Ellis (124) places this genus in Drechslera. elliptical. PLEUROPHRAGMIUM Constantin. Illustration: (A. Conidiophores brown. parasitic. . septate. resuming growth sympodially and forming conidia on successive new tips. 121. brown. conidia (sympodulospores) dark. (A) habit of conidiophores. several-celled (phragmosporous). (B) conidiophore showing scars. conidia (porospores) brown. BRACHYSPORIUM Sacc. Reference (17. attached to apical cell of conidiophore by a slender pedicel. original. Conidiophores brown. obovatum. (C) germinating conidium. (A) habit of conidiophores showing slime heads. from pure culture. ellipsoid or slightly curved. Conidiophores single or in loose 4-celled. saprophytic on wood and bark. (B) simple conidiophore. conidiophores single or in groups. pale near apex. Illustration: P. fresh material on decayed wood. 152). Illustration: B. (C. simple. D) B. fertile area recurved to produce a curved cyme.. conidia (sympodulospores) in moist heads. 273. perfect stage. solitary or in small clusters. new growth sympodial. References (17. all original. simple. recurvaium. PLEUROTHECIUM Hohnel. (D) conidia. original. Formerly included under Helminthosporium. Cochliobolus. (B) conidiophores and conidia. (C) enlarged apex of conidiophores showing numerous scars. phragmosporous. unequally 3. from fresh material on decayed wood. References (96.


ellipsoid. Illustration: P. (D) conidiophore and conidium of D. Illustration: A. 82. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline. mostly 5-celled. conidia (sympodulospores) obpyriform to nearly ellipsoid. 61). zea-niaydis conidia. redrawn from Luttrell (272). hyaline. (VAKRABEEJA Subram. original. slender. grisea. (B) conidia. commonly causing leaf spots. slender. (B) conidia. conidia (sympodulof^jspores) several-celled. cylindrical to ellipsoid. conidia (sympodulospores) dark. parasitic on higher plants. Illustration: C persica. arising in clusters and bursting out of leaf tissue. slender. several-celled. setosa. original. fusoid to cylindrical. bearing conidia successively on new growing tips. Conidiophores hyaline. original. bearing 1 to 4 long. Illustration: P. straight or curved. attenuated. short. mostly simple. References (55. Conidiophores hyaline or nearly so. lepiospora. Illustration: V. (A-C) conidiophores and conidia. from leaf of Setaria. fusoid. References (79. Illustration: (A-C) D. (B) apex of conidiophore. severalcelled. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline or gray. (A) conidiophores and conidia. from prepared slide of section through leaf. (A. Illustration: S. 84). 386). several-celled. single. simple. oblong. from material on decaying wood. slender. (B) conidia. SEPTOCYLINDRIUM Bon. compare with Cercospora. hyaline. aromaticum. avenae. conidia (sympodulospores) 3. (A. sigmoidea. (C) C. 81. B) conidiophores and conidia. with prominent denticulate conidial scars near apex. References (60. (A) cluster of conidiophores. straight to curved. from herbarium material on peach leaf. hyaline appendages. original. long (^^cylindrical to filiform. PLEIOCHAETA Hughes. on plants. aleuriospores) hyaline. saprophytic or parasitic on nematodes. parasitic on grasses. from culture. mostly 3. Compare with Cercospora. cylindrical to filiform. light brown. . original. .to 3-celled. catenulate. parasitic. simple. apii. 385. with distal cell elongated. brochopaga. Conidiophores hyaline. chiefly on grasses. causing " leaf spots. phragmosporous. (A) conidiophores and conidia. grouped. CERCOSPORELLA Sac. Reference (81). parasitic on higher plants. apical. parasitic on higher plants or saprophytic. (A) conidiophores and conidia. from culture. Conidiophores long. parasitic on plants. new growth sympodial. Conidiophores tall. CERCOSPORA Frej^Xonidiophores dark. 2. DACTYLELLA Grove. cylindrical. conidia (sympodulospores. attached at the broader end. oblong to 4-celled. 2.128 DESCRIPTIONS A N D I L L U S T R A T I O N S OF GFNERA NAKATAEA Hara. Illustration: C. original. Conidiophores simple. borne singly at apex or in a loose cluster on prominent denticles.SPERMOSPORA fewcelled. parasitic. redrawn from DuPleissis and Truter (107). from herbarium material on leaves of Acorum calamus. PYRICULARIA Sacc. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline. . the middle cell thick-walled and darker. original. sometimes slightly curved. 83.) Conidiophores simple. Compare with Ramularia. B) conidiophores and appendaged conidia. simple.


conidiophores variable. slightly curved or bent at the pointed ends.. B) conidiophores and conidia. Compare with Cladobotryum. Thick-walled chlamydospores common in some species. borne in basipetal chains. not end to end. (B) conidia. parasitic on higher plants or saprophytic on decaying plant material. (A) conidiophores with attached conidia. conidia (phialospores) mostly 3. (D) conidia.. conidia (phialospores) dark. from culture. sometimes in chains. Mycelium extensive and cotton-like in culture. and simple. 173. Illustration: F. 3. Illustration: D. short. and endoconidia. branched verticillately. dendroides. saprophytic on decaying vegetation. typically canoe-shaped. Mycelium. DACTYLIUM Nees. Illustration: Fusarium spp. cylindrical. Reference (38). upright. conidia typically not curved. See Barron (17) for a discussion of Dactylium. or stout. oblong or slightly curved. Reference (182). Reference (258). (A) hyphae with simple conidiophores. ovoid or oblong. original. from culture. bearing conidia terminally on slender phialides. (C) a loose sporodochium formed by branched conidiophores. Illustration: Cylindrocarpon sp. sometimes placed in the Tuberculariaceac because some species produce sporodochia. purple. CYL1NDROCARPON Wollen. slender. typically branched. drawn from photographs by Pollack (336). Illustration: S. A large and variable genus. original. conidia (phialospores) dark. or yellow in the mycelium on medium. conidiophores.130 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA - \ . slender. branched irregularly or bearing a whorl of phialides. produced successively and aggregating in . 3. (B) variable conidiophores. phialides usually with conspicuous collarette. and Dr. macroconidia several-celled. some conidia intermediate. hyaline 3. \ FUSARIUM Link. Conidiophores pigmented. often with some tinge of pink. single or grouped into sporodochia. (A. (A) conidiophore and developing conidia. . saprophytic or parasitic. original from culture. SPOROSCHISMA Berk. 4-celled. variable. principally of two kinds. mirabile. conidia (phialospores or sympoduiospores) borne singly or in small clusters on slightly elongating branches. (C) conidia enlarged. cylindrical. saprophytic or parasitic on fleshy fungi. curved. often held in small moist 4-celled. Conidiophores dark. (B) chain of conidia. Imperfect states of Necfria. stout. Conidiophores slender. bearing conidia endogenously. original. simple. borne singly or in chains. conidia (phialospores) hyaline. Conidiophores erect. ''terminating in slender phialides. cylindrical.j-small 4-celled but often variable. microconidia I-celled. 183).to 4-celled. References (370. from culture. each conidium attached at the side of the conidium below. References ((25.or 3-celled. conidial states of Hypomyces. 2. simple or branched irregularly. FUSARIELLA Sacc. saprophytic on plant material. hyaline. obstipa. 444). Resembling Fusarium but larger.


1 32 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA ALTERNARIA Nees. References (376. . Illustration: P. (A) dark dictyospores. Conidiophores indeterminate. conidia (porospores) dark. hyaline conidia (phialospores). conidiophore often /(? proliferating through ofd conidial scar. borne singly and producing chains of small. peglike. mostly several-celled (dictyosporous). Conidiophores short. rather short or elongate. darker. hyaline phialides present. Illustration: IJlocladiwn sp. ovoid. mostly 3. borne singly. from culture. ULOCLADIUM Preuss. mirabilis. (B) simple conidiophore showing apical pore.or 4-celled. original. chartarum. and conidia. and Br. (B) conidiophore showing conidial scars. arising laterally from mycelium. obclavate to elliptical or ovoid. saprophytic. with cross and longitudinal septa. (A) conidiophores and conidia. simple. Compare with Alternaria and Stemphylium. original. both original. variously shaped. STEMPHYL1UM Wallr. conidia (aleuriospores) apical. Conidiophores dark. terminal conidium. (E) A. (A) conidiophores showing development of conidia. redrawn from Wiltshire (473). cells arranged irregularly. subhyalinc. or ovoid. (C) conidiophore proliferating through conidial scar. * Illustration: 5 " . broadly ellipsoid. apical. dictyosporous. parasitic or saprophytic. mostly broadly elliptical. single. short to " long. Reference (376). apical cell enlarged. conidia (aleuriospores) single. short conidiophores. (A) conidiophore and chain of conidia. Illustration: (A-D) Alternaria sp. and on new sympodial growing points. apical. 377). variable in shape. dark. dark. determinate or sympodial. usually detached by fracture of wall of conidiophore. (B) phialides and chains of small conidia. sarcinaeforme. mostly simple. References (239. (B) conidia. saprophytic. septate.. or successive conidia on new growing tips. (A) mycelium. mostly simple with darker terminal swelling. simple. (C) conidia.. (C) proliferating conidium. from culture. from culture. ACROSPEIRA Berk. (B) c o n i d i o p h o r e . conidia (porospofes) dark. PITHOMYCES Berkeley and Broome. 306. frequently borne acropetally in apical simple or branched appendage. oblong to pyriform or irregular. Conidiophores dark. variable. parasitic or saprophytic on plant material. mostly simple. often constricted at major septum. usually without constriction at major septum. typically with both cross and longitudinal septa. bearing a single. original. from culture. 376). sympodial. conidia (porospores) dark. (D) conidia. frequently globose. Illustration: A. solani. commonly vcrrucose or echinulate. Conidiophores short. Reference (17).


apical and lateral on conidiophore. DACTYLOSPORIUM Harz. granulosum. saprophytic on decaying wood. cross-shaped. Conidiophores simple. straight or flexuous. marcopus. elongate. obovate to cylindrical. (C) conidia. STIGMELLA Lev. simple. apical. SIROSPORIUM Bubak and Serebianikov. parasitic on leaves. Reference (198). developing basipetally. each bearing I to several conidial scars. (B) habit on wood. from herbarium material on decayed wood. conidia (sympodulospores) brown to subhyaline. References (113. conidia (meristem arthrospores) dark.J 34 DESCRIPTIONS AND MUSI RATIONS Oh GENERA DICTY0ARTHR1NRIM Hughes. large. redrawn from Hughes (203). Illustration: S. cells irregular in shape. dark septa. arising from a stroma. conidiophores arising from hyphae or cells of stroma. 199). dark brown. antenniforme. (B) conidia. bearing terminal chains of conidia. densely clustered. straight or curved. (A. septate. or cylindrical to obovoid. oblong to obovoid. from herbarium material on leaves of Crataegus. (C) chain of conidia. quadralum. Reference (293). composed of several cells or reduced to a peg. single. short. Illustration: B. (= SIRODESM1UM deNot) Conidiophores dark. Illustration: D. (B) mycelium and conidiophore. from herbarium material on decaying wood. (A) conidiophores and conidia. Conidiophores clustered forming a loose sporodochium. original. (A) conidiophore and comdia. redrawn from Ellis (118). containing many cells irregularly arranged (dictysporous). each bearing a terminal conidium. conkinnum. ovoid. short. dark. bearing conidia successively on new growing tips. dark. globose. with thick. conidia (aleuriospores) dark. Conidiophores much like Arthrinium (meristematic at base). with cross and longitudinal or oblique septa. paler at the tip. . original. CONIOSPORIl'M Link. B) conidiophores and conidia in section of leaf. sometimes with longitudinal walls. simple or branched. saprophytic. BERKLEASMIUM Zobel. saprophytic on wood. Illustration: D. conidia (aleuriospores) dictyosporous. Conidiophores dark. simple. (A) conidiophore and conidia. subhyaline. phragmosporous or dictyosporous. borne in single chains. Mycelium immersed in leaves or superficial. original. simple. elliptical. conidia (mcristem blastospores) 4-celled. stroma may be present. crowded. References (204). Illustration: S. upright. saprophytic. conidia (sympodulospores) apical. sometimes inequilateral. subhyaline to brown. (C) conidia. brown. Illustration: C. redrawn from Subramanian (396). crataegi. single or successively on new growing tips that develop to side of previous conidium.


Conidiophores hyaline. muileri. Mycelium. and conidia. conidia (aleuriospores) dark. Illustration: Ilelicosporium sp. conidiophores. slender. Illustration: (A) H. HELICOON Morgan. mostly simple. Mycelium. bearing conidia terminally. roseus. (B) H. Illustration: H. References (85. septate. mostly simple. original. References (30. Illustration: H. younger spores formed on the sides of the other spores. typically curved or coiled but with some straight conidia. branched. berke/eyl.. elongate. simple or branched. apical. septate. septate. coiled. slender. coiled to form an ovoid or ellipsoid conidium. saprophytic on decaying plant material. (A) conidiophores. conidia (sympodulospores) hyaline or dark. parasitic on higher plants. conidiophores. HELICOMYCES Link. redrawn from Linder (263). redrawn from Olive (316). (B) conidia. simple or branched. Conidiophores tall. and conidia. saprophytic on wood and bark. Illustration: (A) H.453). bearing conidia terminally or laterally. 263). septate. coiled to form a large ovoid or ellipsoid spore. The genus differs from Helicoma in being parasitic and in producing a large number of straight conidia in addition to curved or coiled one. upright. gigantium. comparatively short and stout. conidia (symposulospores) hyaline or subhyaline. slender. caperoniae. hyaline or dark. conidiophores. Reference (289). septate. . redrawn from Glen-Bott (146). Illustration: X. and conidia. and Sacc. bearing conidia apically or laterally. conidial filaments thin. HELICOMIINA Olive.290. septate. thaxieri. rather stout. multiseptate. Illustration: //. 289). conidia (sympodulospores) dark. (B) conidia. XENOSPORIUM Pen/ig. auratum. Conidiophores hyaline. tightly coiled. septate. Conidiophores dark. tightly coiled in one plane. 290).136 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GFNERA HELICOSPORIUM Nees. References (147. 289. HELICODENDRON Peyron. References (221. redrawn from Linder (265). redrawn from Linder (264). saprophytic on decaying wood. Conidiophores dark. 290. produced terminally and laterally. 453). simple or branched. References (30. rather tightly curled. original. redrawn from Linder (264). slender. septate. saprophytic on decaying wood. scandens. Conidiophores dark. saprophytic on decaying plant material.289. conidia (biastospores) subhyaline to brown. brown. conidia (biastospores or sympodulospores) hyaline or dark. simple or branched. from culture. smaller. variable in length. saprophytic on decaying plant material. (B) H. conidia (sympodulosporcs) hyaline to pigmented. having both transverse and longitudinal septa. (A) conidiophores. Conidiophores long. from herbarium material on maple wood. borne singly. HFXICOMA Corda. Mycelium. hygroscopic.


conidiophores simple. several-celled. slender. hyaline. decaying leaves. References (228. apical. Illustration: L. septate. redrawn from Ingold (223). No sharp distinction between conidiophores and conidia. consisting of a curved. 346). conidia (phialospores) hyaline. Reference (97). branched above. Illustration: T. septate mycelium. aquatic. redrawn from Ingold (225). with 4 slender. splendens. apical. (B) portion of conidiophore and mature conidium. ending in phialides that bear single conidia. slender. on submerged rotting leaves. Conidiophores hyaline. slender. conidiophores simple or sparingly branched near the apex. branched. long. saprophytic on wood. branched. saprophytic on decayng leaves in water. redrawn from Ingold (223). 346). simple or with a few branches. Illustration: L. . INGOLDIA Petersen. hyaline. conidium consisting of a main elongated axis with 2 or 3 laterals on one side. hyaline. References (327. LEMONNIERA DeWild. 1. References (231). ultimate branches bearing a few phialides. aquatica. Illustration: V. new growing points produced sympodially. conidia apical. and a single attenuated secondary branch. VARICOSPORIUM Kegel. 1-celled. fiagelliform. consisting of (1) an elongated main axis continuous with the conidiophore and (2) elongated branches forming a whorl of 3 slender divergent branches arising from the lower part of the main axis. redrawn from Tubaki (449). single or in loose masses (sporodochium-like). 327. cylindrical. redrawn from Petersen (327). the two branches usually arising from adjacent cells. two attenuated branches. Illustration: D. redrawn from Ingold (223). Submerged. curved. septate. Conidiophores hyaline.138 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA FLAGELLOSPORA Ingold. craginiformis. conidia (blastospores) hyaline. 328). produced singly at apex or on new growing points on small denticles. bent. redrawn from Ingold (223). saprophytic on submerged. conidia single. slender. Conidiophores long. Conidiophores long. conidia single. Illustration: F penicillioides. slender. slender. hyaline. saprophytic on submerged decaying leaves. apical. ultimately septate. with branched. (B) conidia. hyaline. from decaying wood and from culture. branched. fragile. conidia single. widely divergent arms. Submerged aquatic with septate several-celled. References (224. branched. saprophytic on submerged decaying leaves. elodeae. (A) conidiophores and conidia. slender. elongate to filiform. curvula. original. saprophytic. attenuated axis. Reference (327). each lateral is septate and branched again. Conidiophores hyaline. aquatic or in soil. LUNULOSPORA Ingold. the branches bearing single conidia apically. Illustration: I. TRICLADIUM Ingold. saprophytic on submerged leaves. typically lunate. conidia (sympodulospores) 5-celled. DICRANIDION Hark. bearing conidia apically. TRISCELOPHORUS Ingold. (B) conidia. hyaline. (A) apical portions of conidiophores and immature conidia. (A) portion of conidiophores and conidia. Reference (449). Illustration: T. curved. branched near the apex. monosporus.


hyaline. slender. saprophytic. with 4 or 5 slender. Reference (346). branched. on submerged rotting leaves. consisting of 4 long branches diverging from a common point. slender. (B) conidia. Conidiophore hyaline. tapering branches. aquatica. elongate-clavate. branched. DENDROSPORA Ingold. subapical cell swollen and curved. redrawn'from Petersen (328). conidia single.140 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA TRIDENTARIA Preuss. . redrawn from Ingold (223). septate mycelium. the basal cell obconidcal. apical. TETRACHAETUM Ingold. trifurcate. redrawn from Tubaki (449). conidia produced under water. 327). rarely 2. Conidia single. divergent. on decaying leaves in water. liberated by the breakdown of a special short separating cell. tapering upward. Illustration: C. TETRACLADIUM DeWild. conidia apical. slender. redrawn from Ingold (223). saprophytic on submerged decaying leaves. hyaline. 101). hyaline. original. saprophytic on submerged decaying leaves. Illustration: 77 setigerum. apical. simple. Submerged. References (223. the three branches from the upper cell widely divergent at angles of about 120°. septate. CULICIDOSPORA Petersen. simple. septate. prongs septate. slightly divergent. conidiophores hyaline. slender. conidia hyaline. single branched. hyaline. conidia single. Illustration: C. saprophytic on submerged twigs. apical. aquatic. longissima. radiating. ACTINOSPORA Ingold. erecta. slender. conidia single. slender. finally septate. from culture isolated from decayed wood. simple or branched in upper portion. parasitic on nematodes or on soil rhizopods. bearing a single conidium apically. Conidiophores hyaline. apical. (A) conidiophores and conidia showing tightly closed prongs as seen in a dry mount. long. CLAVARIOPSIS DeWild. hyaline. conidiophores simple or sparingly branched. 346). apical. redrawn from Tubaki (449). slender. Reference (87). septate. septate branched. several-celled. several-celled. aquatic with septate mycelium. gravida. or saprophytic on decayed wood. forming apical conidia singly. the main axis narrowly clavate. ANGUILLOSPORA Ingold. septate. the main body globose or ovoid. Reference (223). redrawn from Ingold (226). upper portion dichotomously branched. giving rise to three unequal. Conidiophore long. Submerged. Illustration: D. each consisting of one main axis with several secondary and tertiary branches arising irregularly. References (100. saprophytic. 2-celled. (A) conidiophores. Illustration: T. separating from the conidiophore by the breakdown of a special separating cell at the apex. slender. conidia hyaline. main axis pyriform. with one branch of the conidium (before liberation) continuous with the conidiophore. branched. redrawn from Tubaki (449). simple. with 2 straight hyphalike branches on the subapical cell and one on the apical cell. Conidiophores hyaline. aquatic. conidi hyaline. aquatic with branched. several-celled. megalospora. (C) two mature conidia and one very young conidium.or 4-pronged. References (228. hyaline. Illustration: 77 implicans. Illustration: A. Illustration: A. elegans. single. hyaline. Submerged. conidiophores simple. 5-celled. (B) conidiophores and conidium as seen in water mount.


on submerged leaves. redrawn from Ingold (225). No well developed conidiophores present. brown. conidium single. Conidiophores absent. septate. upper part sparingly branched. Conidiophores absent. conidia develop as direct outgrowths from branching hyphae. saprophytic. References (327. branched. dichotomously branched. conidiophore simple or branched near the apex bearing a few phialides. central cells dark. hyaline. D) conidia developing from hyphae. redrawn from Tubaki (450). with branched. Illustration: T. (B) conidium. B) conidia. conidia hyaline. and basal cells hyaline. aristita. consisting of a basal cell and 3 to 5 somewhat divergent arms. produced in a white mass inside the ovary of the host. aspera. producing apical and lateral conidia. the three branches slender and about the same diameter as the main axis. slender. apical. Illustration: S. Conidiophores hyaline. pointed arms radiating from the basal cells. apical. Reference (17. Illustration: A. . DIPLOCLADIELLA Arnaud. conidia borne directly on mycelium. saprophytic on decaying submerged leaves. each arm consisting of an acropetalous chain of cells. apical on the conidiophores. aquatic. original. Illustration: D. from culture. (C. redrawn from Olive (316). (A. septate appendage. THAIXOSPORA Olive. consisting of 4 arms diverging from a common point. each of which develops into a long. myrti. 346). straight. Illustration: (A. (A) conidiophores with attached conidia. Conidiophores erect. simple. conidia (sympodulospores) consisting of two septate. the conidium consisting essentially of a curved main axis (forming two arms) and 2 laterals inserted about the middle of the main axis. attenuated. pale brown. borne directly on cells of the mycelium and consisting of a stalk and two pairs of divergent. (C) 7' eliisii. (B) conidia. B) T. Illustration: A. redrawn from Tubaki (449). pedatospora. 234). systemic parasitic on higher plants (Veronica peregrina). apical. staurosporous. (B) branched conidia. each consisting of 3 to 4 initial cells. TETRAPLOA Berk and Vr. inflata. acuminata. slender. many-celled. Illustration: T. conidia (blastospores) subhyaline to dark brown. (A) conidiophores bearing conidia. SPEIROPSIS Tubaki. Submerged. TRIPOSPERMUM Speg.OSPORA Ingold. hyaline. septate. pointed septate arms. conidia branched.142 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA ALATOSPORA Ingold. saprophytic. saprophytic. slender. scalaroides. slender. saprophytic. redrawn from Tubaki (450). septate. redrawn from Ellis (112). Conidiophores erect. (A) stages in development of a conidium from a hypha. branches not formed simultaneously. smooth or rough. ARTICUI. septate mycelium.


HIRUDINARIA Ces. conidia with several close septate branches arising from different points (branches do not all arise separately from a basal cell). Conidiophores dark. slender. from herbarium material on Crataegus leaves. conidiophores reduced to short lateral swellings on the mycelium. tapering upward. fuscescens. Illustration: G stipitata. simple. Mycelium mostly superficial. References (73. macrocarpa. Reference (190). original from material on decayed wood. usually short. dark. septate. (B) conidia. conidia consisting of 2 or 3 straight or curved arms (horns). DICTYOSPORIUM Corda. (A) much reduced conidiophores emanating from the mycelium. Conidiophores dark. Illustration: H. sometimes arranged in sporodochia. redrawn from Ellis (125). 190). simple. Illustration: C. brown. original.. saprophytic. (A) conidiophores. redrawn from Hughes (186). . saprophytic. simple or branched. several-celled. (B) conidia. bearing a single branched conidium apically. conidia dark. Reference (186). slender. parasitic on leaves. each arising separately from a basal cell. Conidiophores consisting of a short cylindrical cell. (B) Dictyosporium sp. conidia (annellospores) dark. upright. composed of 2 or more septate branches. some with an apical conidium. bearing a single conidium apically. or saprophytic on plant material. (B) conidia. dark. Illustration: T. redrawn from Ellis (125). near Hirudinaria morphologically. (A) mycelium showing short conidiophores and developing conidia. elegans. with three septate arms radiating from a central cell. bearing single conidia successively by protrusion of conidiophore through old conidial scars. redrawn from Hughes (201). CERATOSPORIUM Schw. TRIPOSPORIUM Corda. Conidiophores dark. toruloides. conidia consisting of 2 (less often 3) straight or curved arms (horns) tapering upward. Illustration: (A) D. parasitic on leaves. subhyalinc. (B) conidia. (A) conidiophores.144 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA CERATOSPORELLA Hohn. saprophytic on wood or bark. several-celled.


Illustration: S. roridum. 1-celled. light colored. original. malifoliorum. bearing apical chains of conidia. conidia hyaline. B) sporodochia. B) sporodochia on wood. Sporodochia somewhat flattened or discoid. (B) conidia. conidia hyaline. dark. collecting in a dry mass (not in slime) on sporodochium. 1-celled. bearing terminal conidia. Sporodochia cushionlike. bearing conidia terminally. dry in mass. dark. conidiophores hyaline. (D) conidia. conidiophores dark. Reference (76). from dried material on twigs. (A. original. ILLOSPORIUM Mart. B) sporodochia and masses of conidia. HYMENELLA Fr. the genus is often placed in the Dematiaceac. (C) conidiophores. saprophytic. 454). repeatedly branched. original. original. conidiophores hyaline. (A) sporodochia on leaf. conidia dark. from herbarium material on leaves of Vicia. from herbarium material on leaf on Viola. 337. (C) conidiophores and conidia. parasitic on leaves. simple. ovoid to elongate. (B) conidiophores and conidia. Sporodochia cushion-shaped. coryneoidea (conidial state of Urnula craterium). sometimes with marginal hyaline setae. 339. conidia dark. repeatedly irregularly branched. . ovoid to elongate in a dry mass on the surface of the sporodochium. original. ovoid to oblong. conidiophores subhyaHne to colored. conidia hyaline. (A. light. elongate. (A.1 4 6 DESCRIPTIONS AND I L L U S T R A T I O N S OF GtNERA TUBERCULARIA Tode. 1-celled. (B) section through sporodochium. (A) sporodochia on twig. branched. original. conidiophores hyaline. verticillately branched. MYROTHECIUM Tode. 1-celled. ovoid to oblong. Sporodochia rather large. from herbarium material on bark of Liriodendron. I-celled. borne singly. ovoid to oblong. Reference (205). and bearing conidia terminally. parasitic or saprophytic on leaves. ovoid or oblong to irregular. from herbarium material on oak. conidia hyaline. (C) conidiophorc. saprophytic on decayed wood. from dried material on apple leaves. original. Sporodochia cushionlike. light colored. phialides bearing conidia apically. Sporodochia cushionlike. original. mostly saprophytic on wood. microsporum. cushion-shaped to hemispherical. (C) conidiophores and conidia. Sporodochia yellowish when fresh. B) sporodochia on bark. bursting out of bark. forming a palisade and arising from a stromalike layer. Illustration: D. (C) conidiophores and conidia. conidiophores dark. Illustration: T. STRUMELLA Fr. Illustration: M. from herbarium material on wheat straw. globose to ovoid. Illustration: H. 1-celled. parasitic or saprophytic on wood. nearly spherical. Sporodochia cushionlike. HADROTRICHUM Fr. collecting on the surface of the sporodochium in gelatinous material. light to orange in color. (B) side view of sporodochium. saprophytic on bark. 338. Illustration: IT blasdalei. rubellum var. (C) conidiophores and conidia. Illustration: /. sparingly to moderately branched. (A) sporodochium. conidiophores short. conidia I-celled. compact. References (133. DENDRODOCHIUM Bon. conidiophores hyaline. SPHAEROSPORIUM Schw. parasitic or saprophytic. hyaline or yellowish. Illustration: S. conidia subhyaline to dark. branched. breaking out through the bark. frequently as a secondary invader. (A. (D) conidia. (A) sporodochia. cerealis. lignatile. hyaline. vulgaris (Conidial state of Neclria cinnabarina). dry in mass. large with prominent scars of attachment. from fresh material on decayed wood.




TIJBERCUIJNA Sacc. Sporodochia small, breaking out in or near rust pustule; conidiophores hyaline, simple, bearing single conidia terminally; conidia hyaline, 1-celled, globose or ovoid to irregular; parasitic on rusts. Illustration: T. persincia; original, from herbarium material on Euphorbia marginala. (A) section of sporodochia; (B, C) conidiophores and conidia; (D) aeciospore of rust. Reference (179). SPHACELIA Lev. Sporodochium stromalike, spreading; conidiophores hyaline, simple, in a compact palisade; conidia hyaline, small, ovoid, 1-celled, produced in a sugary "honey dew"; parasitic in ovary of grain; conidial state of Claviceps. Illustration: S. segetum (Claviceps purpurea); original, from prepared slide. (A) section through young sclerotium; (B) portion of A, enlarged; (C) palisade of conidiophores and conidia. VOLUTELLA Tode. Sporodochia discoid, with marginal dark setae; conidiophores usually simple, in a compact palisade; conidia hyaline, 1-celled, ovoid to oblong; parasitic "or saprophytic. Illustration: V. frucii; original, from herbarium material on apple fruit. (A) erumpent sporodochia on apple fruit; (B) conidiophores, conidia and setae. PUCCINIOPSIS Speg. Sporodochia dark, cushion-shaped; conidiophores dark, simple, in a layer, bearing conidia apically on successive new growing tips; conidia dark, typically 2-celled, ovoid to oblong; parasitic. Illustration: P. caricae; original, from herbarium material on leaves of Carica papaya. (A) sporodochia on leaf; (B) section of sporodochia; (C) conidiophores and conidia. Reference (266). RAMULISPORA Miura. Sporodochia small, arising from substomatal stromata and pushing through stomata; conidiophores hyaline, simple or branched, short; conidia hyaline, filiform, septate, with short lateral branches, produced in gelatinous material; superficial sclerotia present; parasitic on leaves. Illustration: R. sorghi; redrawn from Olive et ai (317). Stroma, conidiophores, and conidia in stoma. EXCIPULARIA Sacc. Sporodochia superficial, scattered, dark, with setae; setae simple, dark, septate, pointed; conidiophores short, simple, subhyaline; conidia several-celled, dark brown, fusiform, apical, single; saprophytic. Illustration: K narsapurensis; redrawn from Subramanian (403). (A) sporodochium; (B) conidia; (C) seta. BACTRIDIUM Kunze. Sporodochia cushion-shaped to hemispherical, bright-colored (yellow); conidiophores long, simple or branched, hyaline; conidia apical, single, hyaline or containing yellow pigment, several-celled, very large, cylindrical to long-ellipsoid; saprophytic, on decayed wood. Illustration: B. flava; original, from fresh material on wood. (A) sporodochium; (B) conidiophores; (C) conidia. EXOSPORIUM Link ex Schlech. Mycelium immersed, dark; stromata and sporodochia usually present, often well developed; conidiophores usually grouped, erect, brown; conidiophore growing out laterally or obliquely below conidial scar, splitting side wall, then forming new conidium through pore at apex of new growing point; conidia single, pseudoseptate several-celled, with prominent scar; mostly saprophytic. Illustration: E. tiliae; (A) sporodochium; (B) conidiophores and conidia; redrawn from Luttrell (272). Reference (117).



1 50


EPICOCCUM Link. Sporodochia dark, more or less cushion-shaped, variable in si?e; conidiophores compact or loose, dark, rather short; conidia dark, several-celled (dictyosporous), globose; mostly saprophytic, or weakly parasitic. Illustration: E. nigrum; original, from fresh material on decayed wood. (A) sporodochia on decayed wood; (B) conidiophores and conidia. Reference (366). SPEGAZZINIA Sacc. Sporodochium small, dark; conidia of two kinds: (1) 4-ccllcd, spiny, borne apically on a long slender conidiophore; (2) 4-celled, smooth, borne on a short conidiophore; saprophytic on vegetable material; both conidiophore and conidia dark. The smooth conidia and sporodochium are apparently lacking in some species. Illustration: S. ornata; redrawn from Bessey (27). Reference (74). CHEJROMYCES Berk, and Curt. Sporodochium dark; cushionlike to hysteroid; conidiophores dark, short, simple or branched; conidia dark, branched into three or more upright arms, which do not all arise from the basal cell; saprophytic on wood. Compare with Dhtyosporium. Illustration: C. stelhtus; (A) hysteroid sporodochia; drawn from photograph by Damon (71); (B) original, from herbarium material on decayed wood. BACTRODESMIl'M Cooke. Conidiophores short, clustered (sometimes into sporodochia), simple or branched, hyaline to pale brown, narrow at base, septate; conidia several-celled, pale to dark brown, apical cells often darker, apical, single; saprophytic. Illustration: Bactrodvsmium sp.; original, from fresh material on decayed wood. (A) habit on wood; (B) conidiophores bearing conidia emerging from a piece of wood; (C) apical portion of conidiophores showing conidial attachments. Reference (114). EVERHARTIA Sacc. and Ellis. Sporodochia somewhat stalked, with an expanded top, dark at the base; conidiophores slender, hyaline, branched; conidia hyaline, apical, septate, flat, curved or bent; saprophytic on wood. Illustration: E. lignatilis; (A) sporodochium; (B) conidiophores and conidia; redrawn from Thaxter (437). References (263, 289). HOBSONIA Berk. Sporodochia wartlike, light colored; conidiophores hyaline, slender; conidia hyaline, many celled, apical, coiled in a loose spiral; saprophytic on plant material. Illustration: //. mirabilis; (A) portion of sporodochium; (B) conidia redrawn from Under (263). Reference (289). CAMPTOMERIS Syd. Sporodochia irregular, dark, poorly developed or lacking in some species;. conidiophores dark, arising from special enlarged cells; conidia dark, 3- or more-celled, elongate, leaf parasites on Mimosa. Illustration: C. leuvaenae. (A) sporodochium from above; (B) vertical section through sporodochium; (C) branch of sporodochium bearing three conidiophores; (D) conidia; redrawn from Bessey (29). Reference (199). AECERITA Pers. Stroma covering scale insects; sporodochia somewhat spherical, somewhat colored, superficial; conidia spherical, 1-celled; on scale insects. Illustration: A. wehberi; original, from herbarium material on citrus leaf (A) stroma covering scale insect on citrus leaf; (B) section through stroma; (C) two sporodochia showing sterile hyphae and conidium-like cells. Reference (131).









fertile branches thick. as in Graphium. flattened. Mode of conidial development variable in different species.152 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS Of GENERA HETEROCEPHALUM Thaxt. auranriacum. bearing a head of conidia. Synncmata with long. enveloped in slime. cylindrical stalk composed of a central large strand surrounded by cortical hyphae. ovoid. (A) young synnema. on bark and wood. Some species are imperfect states of Ceratocystis. from dried material. redrawn from Hughes (198). Reference (301). hyaline. Reference (301). ENDOCATYX Berk. (B) conidia. 1-celled. Reference (65). (C) conidiophores and conidia from water mount. cylindrical. PESOTUM Crane and Schok. pale brown. simple. from culture obtained from oak wood. commonly causing blight of Azalea and Rhododendron /lower buds. hyaline. spore-bearing head ovoid to sub-globose. in chains. redrawn from Thaxter (437). conidia 1-celled. curved. small. mostly simple. (A) synnemata. (B) conidia. Illustration: B. Illustration: //. (A) synncmata showing spores in head of slime. fertile head with loose interwoven sterile hyphae and long slender spinelike hyphae surrounding the spore mass. and Br. azalea. original. dark. brown. Reference (301). Illustration: P. borne on short blunt denticles. Synnemata tall. MENISPOROPSIS Hughes. phialides. conidia sessile or on short branches of conidiophore. conidia (sympodulospores) 1-celled. . Synnemata hyaline or bright-colored. Synnemata dark. 1-celled. (D) conidia. GRAPHIUM Corda.. (B) portion of synnema. saprophytic on dung or soil. terminating in phialides. hyaline. parasitic. conidiophores slender. Illustration: M. stipe cylindrical. produced in slime. References (17. bearing a rounded. STILBUM Tode ex. simple or branched near base. bearing oblong conidia that reproduce by budding. original from culture. slender. verticillatefy branched. ovoid or irregular. theobromae. or saprophytic. (C) synnema showing sporulating head. Illustration: E. Reference (301). from culture. Synnema composed of a central emerging seta and an external shorter cortex. redrawn from Hughes (207). Synnemata expanding upward into a funnel that is filled with conidia. hyaline conidiophores and conidia similar to Hyalodendron. globose to ellipsoid. (A) synnema with central seta. Fr. single conidiophores hyaline. Illustration: Graphium sp. (A) habit of synnemata. (B) two synnemata as seen under low magnification. conidia 1-celled. conidia dark. Reference (301).. (B) synnema and conidial head enlarged. ulmi (Graphium ulmi). (D) conidia. collecting in dry masses. parasitic. formerly placed in genus Graphium. with a germ slit. original. terminal mass of hyaline conidia embedded in slime. (C) single conidiophore. dark brown to black. Illustration: Stilbum sp. saprophytic. thwaitesii. saprophytic. often as vascular pathogens causing wilts of trees. on twigs. recently described as the conidial state of Ceratocystis ulmi. Single conidiophores resemble Veriicillium. (C) phialides and conidia. conidia hyaline. (B) upper portion of mature synnema. hyaline conidiophores also produced in abundance. Synnemata mostly erect. BRIOSIA Cav. (A) synnemata on blasted Rhododendron flower. (D) short. 301). with a short filiform appendage at each end. original.


saprophytic. ARTHROSPORIUM Sacc. solitary or compacted into synnema with dense. (A) habit on stem. usually becoming 2-celled. Synnemata erect. from culture isolated from stump of Liriodendron lulipifera. conidia (annellospores) mostly dark. dark. original from herbarium material on dead bark. (C) conidia. Illustration: Didymostilbe sp. cylindrical-ovoid. or rounded spore-bearing head. Henn. stilboideum. (B) conidiophores.154 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GFNERA DIDYMOSTILBE P. Reference (301). Illustration: A. apical. (B) synnema dry. conidiophores septate. (B) separate conidiophores. upper part of conidiophores branched penicillately. parasitic. compositum. rigidum. 2. contained in droplets of slime. short conidiophores produced abundantly in culture. with a long. producing masses of dry spores apically on conidiogenous cells. conidia dark or pale. Illustration: D. cylindrical. Illustration: D. (D) synnema showing conidiophores. redrawn from Subramanian (404). Synnemata dark. B) synnemata. redrawn from Subramanian (405). (C) conidia. from herbarium material on stems of Ampelopsis quinquefolia. Illustration: /. conidia hyaline to dark. simple or branched. (C) conidiophore and conidia. black. original. free ends of hyphae become conidiophores. conidia mostly 4-celled. (C) conidia. produced in slime. conidia hyaline. saprophytic. Synnema with dark. Synnemata light. Illustration: S. (F) conidia. from water mount. (A) synnemata showing heads of conidia embedded in slime. DORATOMYCES Corda. References (195. conidia mostly 4-celled. Illustration: P. Reference (301. conidiophores hyaline. often curved. clustered. dark. ARTHROBOTRYDM Ces. Synnemata dark. (A) synnemata. (B) conidiophores. original. saprophytic on wood. longfusoid to falcate. ISARIOPSIS Fres. hyaline to subhyaline. conidiophores diverging. 3. (A. elongated head of conidiogenous cells and chains of conidia. apical fertile portion. single. bearing conidia at apex. principally on wood. (B) synnema. bearing conidia at or near the tips. Synnema 4-celled. (A) synnema. coposed of loose conidiophores. apical. 1-cellcd. 303). conidia several-celled. Reference (301). (A) synnema with conidia. saprophytic. I-celled. stalk cylindrical. from culture.or more-celled. cylindrical to obclavate. (A) synnema. from herbarium matrcrial on bark. Hyphae dark. .. (B) enlarged apex of synnema with conidiophores bearing catenulate conidia. dark. Similar to Trichurus but without spines. cylindrical. with an expanded.subhyaline. original. with long spore-bearing upper portion. ovoid. (C) synnema moist. griseola. PODOSPORIUM Schw. cylindrical stipe. Reference (301). Reference (301). interseminatum. diverging. conidiophores dark. . branched. original. radiating. in short acropetalous chains. (E) branched conidiophore from synnema. stemonitis (Stysanus stemonitis). DENDROGRAPHIUM Massec. ovoid. (C) conidia. saprophytic. with a globose sporulating head. ovoid to elongate. (C) conidia. conidiophores enlarged. 301).


conidium-bearing portion expanded. from herbarium material on bark. catenulate. septate. fascicuhtum. 2-celled. more or less falcate. 1-celled. not produced in gelatinous material. globose. stalk slender. (C) conidia. saprophytic. the upper spore-bearing portion capitate to elongate. conidia dark. (A) synnemata in culture turning toward source of light. conidiophores subhyaline to brown. B) synnemata. (D) sporogenous cells bearing conidia. saprophytic or parasitic on insects. TRICHURUS Clem. (C) conidia. or branched hairs on spines present among the conidiophores. Reference (301). fibrous. (C) conidiophores and conidia. Illustration: /. 1-celled. HARPOGRAPHIUM Sacc. Synnemata with well-defined stalk and head. black. trina. References (301. (A) synnema. conidia hyaline. oblong or cylindrical. Illustration: //. original. dark. branched 1 to 3 times. Reference (301). Reference (301). ovoid. cylindrical to clavate. (B) conidiophores and conidia. terrophilus. original. with apical hyaline fertile cells.1 56 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA ISARIA Hers. long. bearing conidia apically. cylindrical stipe and subglobose head. original. Some species are imperfect states of Cordyceps. Synnemata dark brown. . cookei: original from herbarium material on dead stems. hyaline. 430). dry. Synnemata dark. the hyphae with thick stubby tips. conidia borne on small denticles. from culture. (C) conidiophores and conidia. (A) synnema. conidia dark at maturity. conidiophores divergent. hyphae becoming free to form conidiophores. ovoid. I-celled. (A. DIDYMOBOTRYUM Sacc. Similar to Doratomyces but with spines. saprophytic on bark and wood. Illustration: T. (B) portions of synnema showing conidiophores and spines. Illustration: D. simple. conidia hyaline. (B) portion of synnema. from culture. (C) redrawn from Subramanian (405). and Shear. (B) synnema. redrawn from Subramanian (403). Illustration: T. (A) habit of synnemata on wood. Synnemata light colored. cretacea. Synnema with tall. saprophytic. THAROOPAMA Subram. Reference (301). 1-celled.


(B) synnema of S. phialides produced as terminal cells of lateral branches in a compact layer. composed of compact hyphae. septate. (A) synnema. obovoid or cylindrical. 2. aterrimum. HYMENOSTILBE Petch. upper fertile portion compact composed of branching hyphae terminating in phialides that form a compact layer. conidia hyaline. . brown. M. (A) portions of synnemata showing unusual form of development. black. borne singly. brown. Illustration: A. slender synnemalike structures. redrawn from Ellis (123). Illustration: 5". pale to brown or black. often overgrowing and apparently parasitic on Meliolineae or other tropical leaf ascomycetes. conidia solitary. (A) drawn from photograph. conidia hyaline. cylindrical or somewhat attenuated above. Synnemata nearly cylindrical. (B) redrawn from drawing. dry. (C) conidia. Reference (301). Illustration: A. capensis. brown. 1-celled. conidiophores diverging outward. verrucosa. parasitic on insects. head composed of short. obtuse or narrowed on short sterigmata. sympodular. conidia 2. (A) synnemata of fungus on spider. catenulate. (B) phialides and conidia. hairy or velvety. conidiophores erect. variable but often obclavate. single or clustered into synnemata. produced on short. both from Mains (278). Synnemata light colored. pale to dark brown. conidia several-celled. SPIROPES Cifcrri. Synnemata light colored. Colonies covering surface of leaflets. Reference (301). japonicus. conidiophores simple. pale to dark brown. closely compacted hyphae. ellipsoid. l-cclled. INSECTICOLA Mains. (B) conidiophores and conidia. Colonies effused. stipitate. bearing near the apex small truncate denticles that bear single conidia. branched to form tall. lateral branches. dictyosporous. synnema forms as hyphae branch and grows downward. 3-celled. synnemata tail. (A) synnemata on dead moth. subcylindric to clavate. phialides in a layer covering the synnema. redrawn from Hughes (197). obclavate. straight or curved. 120). (A) drawn from photograph. (A) synnemata on infected several-celled. conidiogenous area simple. Mycelium superficial. composed of longitudinal. smooth. (B) conidiophore branch. parasitic on insects and spiders. and conidia. Illustration: /. each with a head. redrawn from Ellis (115. Reference (301). parasitic on insects or spiders. phialides. (B) phialides and conidia. Illustration: //. (B) conidiogenous cells. Reference (301). (A) drawn from photograph. acute at the apex. conidia hyaline.B. (B) redrawn from drawing. smooth. smooth. 1-celled. Illustration: (A) separate conidiophores of 5". (B) redrawn from drawing. thick fertile cells on short branches. Reference (301). ACAROCYBE Sydow emend. clavate. branches closely appressed. clavate. both from Mains (278). both from Mains (278). acuieata. pale brown. Ellis. with numerous conspicuous conidial scars. on living leaves. catenulate.158 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA SCLEROGRAPHIUM Berk. slender. AKANTHOMYCES Leb.


redrawn from Speare (381). sclerotia spherical.160 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA GIBELLULA Cav. (C) single conidiophore and conidial head. several spores held together in clusters. saussurei. (F) sclerotium. bearing prophialides and phialides that compose a globose or broadly wedge-shaped head. Illustration: G. brown when mature. Synnemata simple or branched. (D) phialide and conidium. 286. parasitic on spiders. (C) phialides and conidia. phialides mostly at ends of branches. inflated below. (B) portion of synnema showing conidiophores and comdial heads.jonesii. (E) phialides. conidial states of Torrubiella. hyaline. produced successively. HIRSUTELLA Pat. conidiophores brownish. covered with slime. abruptly or gradually narrowing to long slender sterigmata. tapering to a pointed tip. 279. Synnemata. redrawn from Speare (382). Reference (279). parasitic on insects. 301). (A) synnema producing sclerotia. Synnemata light to brown. apex enlarged. (C) sclerotium germinating and producing synnemata. simple or with numerous branches arising nearly at right angles (some species lack synnemata). 1-celled. (E) cluster of conidia in mucus. (A) synnemata on mummified spider. conidia hyaline to pale brown. becoming brown with thick-walled cells. Illustration: H. terminal cell or cells hyaline. 301). (F) conidia. suffulta. (A. (B) synnema producing conidia. redrawn from Speare (382). composed of loose. longitudinal hyphae. oblong to cylindrical. . parasitic on insects. B) portions of synnemata. References (135. single or in short chains. References (277. slender. (D) portion of conidial head. conidia hyaline. covered with slime. phialides arising laterally on synnema or from mycelium on host. Illustration: S. cylindrical. conidia fusoid to ellipsoid. SYNNEMATIUM Speare.


Pycnidia dark. producing spots. (D) conidia. hyaline. (B) top view of pycnidium. Reference (52). (C) pycnidia produced in culture. pezizoides original. (C) conidia. (D) pycnidium and conidia. parasitic or saprophytic. typically lunate or less often boomerang-shaped. Illustration: P. B) pycnidia and exuded masses of conidia.162 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA PHYLLOSTICTA Pers. 1-celled. (A) side view of pycnidium. especially near the ostiole. irregular in shape. original. (C) conidiophores. Illustration: P. SELENOPHOMA Marie. Illustration: S. with a short papillate ostiole. Reference (417). Like Phyllosticta. erumpent or with a short beak piercing the epidermis. (A) habit of pycnidia. erumpent. immersed. oblong. 1-celled. lingam. B) pycnidia on flax stem. 1-celled. PLENODOMUS Preuss. (B) section through pycnidia. from culture. hetae. Like Phoma and Phyllosticta but conidiophores are branched.. immersed. (B) pycnidium. (B) section through pycnidium. 1-celled. Pycnidia dark. original. (D) conidia. (A) surface view of erumpent pycnidia on sweet potato stem. ovoid to elongate. occur commonly in the literature but morphologically they are alike. from culture. lenticular to globose. (C) conidia. 1-celled. minima. obscurans. from herbarium material on Fraxinus wood. parasitic. APOSPHAERIA Sacc. Illustration: P. (A. 1-celled. original. Pycnidia dark. (C) conidiophores. immersed in host tissue. hyaline. Illustration: D. parasitic. (D) conidia. (A. saprophytic on wood. linicola. PYRENOCHAETA de Not. from section of host. from dried material. Compare with Phoma. bent or curved. original. causing spots on grasses and some other hosts. all redrawn from Vanterpool (457). conidia hyaline. ostiolate. /PHOMA Desm. . (B) section of leaf and pycnidium. (C) conidiophores. destruens. conidiophores simple or rarely branched. ostiolate. on various plant parts. principally on leaves. parasitic. conidia hyaline. (C) conidiophores and conidia. (D) conidia. conidia small. Pycnidia dark. original. Illustration: Pyrenochaeta sp. (A) leaf spot and pycnidia on leaf of maple. Pycnidia brown. (A) group of pycnidia. DENDROPHOMA Sacc. Illustration: (A-C) P. rounded. conidiophores short. parasitic. opening irregularly at the apex. drawn from photographs. ovoid to elongate. globose. ostiolate. from culture. conidia hyaline. (D) P. erumpent with a few simple bristles. conidia small. conidiophores short. Reference (386). elongate to globose. nearly globose. Both generic names. Phoma and Phyllosticta.


from egg plant fruit. globose. and Har. from culture. RHIZOSPHAERA Mang. ostiolate. Imperfect state of Diaporthe.. and Vogl. B. without ostiole. ovoid. (A) leaf spots and habit of fungus. ASTEROMELLA Pass. saprophytic or parasitic. single to crowded. erumpent. References (150. pini. erumpent. (C) section of pyenidium. globose. (B) lop view of pycnidia and radiating hyphae. (D) mature conidia. original. conidiophores short. from dried oak leaves. somewhat globose. C) habit of pycnidia on leaf. (E) conidiophores. Pycnidia dark. Pycnidia dark. conidia 1-cellcd. 342). nearly globose. dark. 1-celled. ^PHOMOPSIS Sacc. curved or bent (beta conidia). over 15 microns long. from herbarium material on leaves of Gentiana puberula. (D) conidia.MACROPHOMA Berl. immersed. conidia hyaline. and filiform. (C) conidia. original. conidia hyaline. enlarged. (C) conidia. parasitic. ovoid. Pycnidia superficial. in dense or loose clusters. simple. original. (D) chlamydospores. chlamydospores many-ceiled. (D) pyenidium. ovoid to fusoid (alpha) conidia. (A) fruit spot showing pycnidia. Illustration: P. ovoid to cylindrical. causing spots on various plant parts. parasitic on leaves. and Thum. conidia hyaline. 443). ostiolate. conidia 1-celled. small. dark. original. may be a stage in the development of Botryodiplodia or DothiorellaAncludcd here because the name commonly occurs in the literature. original. Pycnidia dark. confluens. very small. ovoid to ellipsoid. small. globose to irregular. ovoid to broadly ellipsoid. (B) group of pycnidia. andrewsii. from herbarium material on leaves of Abies balsamea. from herbarium material on dead stems of Spartina. conidiophores simple. I-celled. with irregular septations. showing clusters of pycnidia on stem.. Pycnidia dark. Illustration: Peyronellaea sp. (C) alpha conidia. short or elongate. (B) pycnidia. ostiolate. apical or intercalary. of cellular texture. smooth. (E) conidiophores and conidia. Illustration: R. (A) habit. conidia hyaline. . Illustration: Macrophoma sp. (A) habit of pycnidia in culture. (A. original. conidiophores simple. Illustration: A. l-cellcd. (Diaporthe) vexans. parasitic. References (340. . Illustration: C. seated on an olive-colored subiculum. (B) section through pyenidium. located in a mass of radiating dark hyphac (subiculum). CHAETOPHOMA Cooke.164 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GtNtRA PEYRONELLAEA Goidanich. rounded. superficial to partly immersed. Pycnidia brown to black. of two types. hyaline or later becoming subhyaline to dark. (B) pycnidia. saprophytic on plant material. with conspicuous ostiole. (C) conidiophores and immature conidia. hyaline. with ostiole at apex. (D) beta conidia. 1-celled. (A) leaf spot and pycnidia. tapering below to a stalk.


original. Stroma black. globose. Pycnidia dark. conidia 1-cclled. dark. original. conidiophores simple. Pycnidia dark. ovoid to oblong. original. simple. parasitic on Erysiphaceae. conidiophores short. which later becomes everted and funnellike. conidia 1-celled. alepecuri. (B) section of pycnidium. redrawn from Cunnell (67). CYTOSPORINA Sacc. filiform. (B) section through stroma. (B) pycnidia in stroma. parasitic or saprophytic on wood. (C) conidiophores. 1-celled. globose. (C) conidiophores. conidia hyaline. from herbarium material on Andropogon trachycaulum. conidia hyaline or subhyaline to dark. 1-celled. Illustration: A. concava. fleshy or membranous. from herbarium material on Galas aphylla leaf. some bearing pycnidia of the parasite. conidiophores erect. — DOTHIORELLA Sacc. Reference (413). arranged more or less in a circle in the stroma. original. clavate or fusoid. from dried material on oak twigs. formed by the rupture of the outer wall. cylindrical. AMPELOMYCES Ces. filiform. hyaline. grouped in a well-developed stroma. Pycnidia large. (Cicinnoholus Ehrenb. usually stromatic. hyaline. hyaline. SCEEROTIOPSIS Sperg. cushion-shaped or tubercular. short. Pycnidia separate. within plant tissue. smooth. DILOPHOSPORA Desm. hyaline walls. in the form of an inverted. pycnidia distinct. evanescent. ellipsoid. (B) conidiophores showing developing conidia. 356). (A) section of pycnidium. ostiolate. conidia 1-celled. (C) conidia. (B. ostiolate. with short. globose. hyaline. (A) habit of pycnidia on leaf. (A) habit of pycnidia and stromata. (A) habit of pycnidia in bark. Illustration: D.. caricina. Illustration: C.166 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA NEOTTIOSPORA Desm. Illustration: Dothiorella sp. (D) conidia. (B) section through stroma and pycnidia. . (A) hyphae and conidiophores of Erysiphe. Illustration: S. appendage mucoid. without a pore. saprophytic. original. branched slender appendages at both ends. References (270. angular at both ends. hollow cone with thin. curved or bent. (A) habit of pycnidia in leaf.) Pycnidia dark. each with a single appendage. from herbarium material on bark of Prunus serrulata. conidia 1-celled. ovoid to broadly ellipsoid. sunken. from herbarium material on Erysiphe on leaf of Grindelia. ludibunda. innate. breaking out. C) pycnidia enlarged. with ostiole. (C) conidia with appendages. simple. hyaline. (D) conidia. saprophytic on bark. rounded. without ostiole. (D) conidia. developing inside conidiophores of powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphaceae). stroma subcortical. membranous. quisqualis. Illustration: N. (C) conidia with appendages. separate.


walls and neck composed of small irregular cells. Pycnidia superficial. conidiophores long. conidiophores simple or branched. cylindrical or ovoid. septate. (A) habit of pycnidia in culture. superficial or crumpent. 1-celled. Illustration: E. base spherical. Illustration: S. on other fungi. hyaline. subcylindrical neck. superficial. on other fungi. ovoid to elongate. Pycnidia dark. cylindrical-ellipsoid. bearing conidia apically and laterally. (C) conidiophores. Seeler. (A) habit of pycnidia. lining neck as well as base of pycnidium. conidiophores hyaline. redrawn from Seller (367). light-colored (shiny white) membranous. mycophila. original.168 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GF.NFRA ELEUTHEKOMYCELLA Hohn. ellipsoid. soft-leathery. (B) cells of pyenidial wall. soft leathery or gelatinous and translucent when wet. from culture. (E) conidia. wall of pycnidium and neck composed of parallel hyphae fused laterally. conidia 1-celled. and sterile hyphae. with a long beak. (B) pycnidium showing parallel hyphae. fimbriate at the apex. hyaline. apical appendage. B) pycnidia. (D) conidia. smooth. Reference (326). (C) cells of pyenidial wall. hyaline. EEEUTHEROMYCES Fuckel em. (A. Pycnidia single. (D) conidiophores. conidia 1-celled. with a filiform pedicel and a slender. subulatus. (B) section showing single pycnidium enlarged. (A) pycnidium embedded in host fungus. from herbarium material on dead braches of Acer. Pycnidia single. Illustration: E. light-colored. conidia. SPHAERONAEMA Fr. acerinum.. eonidium 1-celled. with a globose base and a long. on basidiomycetes. (D) conidia from pycnidium. black. conidiophores simple. attenuated at apex and at base. simple or branched. conidia hyaline. (C) conidiophores and conidia. (C) conidiophore. chiefly saprophytic. (E) conidia borne directly on mycelium. with ostiole. HYALOPYCNIS Hohn. septate. redrawn from Seeler (367). . Illustration: Hyalopycnis sp. original.


borne at the apex and on sides at the septa of the conidiophore. (AJ habit of pycnidia. 1-celled. conidia 1-celled. (B) section through stroma. short. stroma. Pycnidia in spherical or flattened. ^ . CYTOSPORELEA Sacc. (A) habit of pycnidia. subepidermal. Illustration: P. cavities irregular. elongate-curved (allantoid). erumpent. (C) conidiophores. Pycnidia tufted thickly or hairy. tiliae. parasitic or saprophytic on wood. (B. conidia hyaline. with or without ostioles. (D) conidia. often circularly split at the top. Illustration: C. original. original. opening separately or with a common pore. conidiophores filiform. C) sections of stroma and pycnidia. (Vaha) leucosioma. Illustration: C. (CJ conidiophores and conidia. deiitiscens. RABENHORSTIA Fr. wider at base. (D) conidia. Pycnidia within a superficial or erumpent. hyaline. Pycnidia borne in black. 1-celled. vtCYTOSPORA Ehrenb. original. stroma nearly globose. (A) habit of stromata. from herbarium material on dead branch of flex opaca. (E) conidia. (D) conidia. conidiophores simple. on stroma. septate. (D) conidiophores. divided into several cavities. tuberculate stroma. (C) conidiophores and conidia. (A) habit of stromata.170 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OT GENERA PEEUROSTROMELIA Petr. simple or branched. (B) section through stroma. (C) conidiophores. incompletely separate. (BJ section through stroma and pyenidium. conidiophores slender. ovoid to oblong. original. (A) habit of pycnidia in bark. conidia hyaline. from herbarium material on dead branch of Tilia. from herbarium material on twigs of Prunus domestica. Mostly imperfect states of Vaha. conidia hyaline. from herbarium material on dead twigs of Castanet* deniata. carnea. conidia hyaline. saprophytic on branches. 1-celled. similar to Cytospora except for shape of conidia. ovoid to oblong. original. Pycnidia forming irregular cavities within erumpent. tuberculate. Illustration: R. globose. fusoid. FUSICOCCUM Corda. or saprophytic on wood. upper part truncate. conidiophores long. conidiophores slender. parasitic or saprophytic on wood. I-celled. parasitic. from herbarium material on bark of Primus. dark stroma. simple. septate. erumpent. one to several per stroma. Illustration: E Uicinum. (B) section through stroma. simple or branched. subcortical stroma.


I-celled. smooth. cup-shaped. or somewhat fleshy when wet. ovoid to oblong.. original. Pycnidia superficial. (A) habit of pycnidium on leaf. conidia 1-celled. bamhusarum. Stromata black. branched. Pycnidia mostly globose-ovoid. later dehiscing radiately. dark. hyaline to subhyaline. (A) habit of pycnidia. conidiophores simple or branched. without bristles. typically branched. and Ramakr. gaping. slender. Illustration: D. cylindrical or clavate. gaping at the top with a large mouthy often brightly colored when fresh. (E) conidia. somewhat disc-shaped. conidia 1-celled. from herbarium material on Populus sp. (A) habit of pycnidia on wood. pointed. (C) top view of pycnidium.172 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA SPORONEMA Desm. subcupulate. (B) pycnidium. with long dark setae. conidia hyaline. hyaline. with one or more locules. from herbarium material on Thuja plicata. original. on leaves. (B) section of pycnidium. populae. ovoid to cylindrical. black. conidiophores slender. AMEROSPORIUM Speg. conidiophores crowded. hyaline. from fresh material on dead grass stem. (B) pycnidium. cylindrical to ellipsoid. saprophytic. conidia 1-celled. nearly smooth. . (D) conidiophore. elongate or allantoid. DOTHICHIZA Lib. membranous-leathery. rather firm and solid. (D) seta. DINEMASPORIUM Lev. conidiophores simple. enlarged. Illustration: Dinemasporium sp. carbonaceous. (C) seta. (C) conidiophores. References (412). conidia 1-celled. superficial. (C) conidiophores. Illustration: A. Illustration: C. (A) habit of pycnidia on leaves. dark. from herbarium material on Carex leaves. globose to oblong. SHANORIA Subram. original. opening wide at apex. mostly simple. (B) side view of pycnidium. redrawn from Jones (241). thujae. Illustration: S. dark. surrounded by long. erumpent from bark. caricum. with a filiform subapical appendage at each endIllustration: S. lined with conidiophores. at maturity dehiscing by an irregular longitudinal rupture. slightly membranous. Reference (262). (A) habit of stromata in leaf. subhyaline. saprophytic. (D) conidia. original. superficial. conidia 1-celled. at first closed. irregularly dehiscent. conidiophores rod-shaped. phacidioides. Pycnidia black. hyaline. (B) section through stroma and pycnidia. (E) conidia. Pycnidia subglobose. conidiophores simple. with a slender appendage at each end. (D) conidia. black setae. Pycnidia subepidermal. (C) conidiophores and conidia. CATINULA Lev. redrawn from Shanor (368).




ANTHASTHOOPA Subram. and Ramakr. Pycnidia immersed, with membranous wall, without stroma; conidiophores produced from surface of a cushion-shaped mound of tissue at base of pycnidial cavity; conidia f-celled, hyaline, concave-convex in outline, each with an apical, hyaline, mucoid appendage turned backwards and closely appressed to the concave side of the conidium; saprophytic. Illustration: A. simba; redrawn from Subramanian and Ramakrishnan (410). (A) section through pycnidium; (B) conidia with appendages. HAINESIA Ellis and Sacc. Pycnidia fleshy to gelatinous, bright-colored, globose at first, opening and becoming discoid, erumpent; conidiophores long, slender, branched; conidia hyaline; l-celled, oblong to fusoid or somewhat allantoid; saprophytic. Illustration: H. rubi; original, from herbarium material on leaves of cultivated Rubus. (A) habit of pycnidia; (B) section through open pycnidium; (C) conidiophores and conidia. ASCHERSONIA Mont. Pycnidia in brightly colored, hemispherical or cushion-shaped stromata, somewhat sunken, opening by wide pores or ruptures that join to form irregular cracks; conidiophores slender, branched; conidia hyaline, usually 1-cclled, but sometimes reported as being septate, fusoid; saprophytic or some species parasitic on insects. Illustration: A. aleyrodis; original, from herbarium material on Aleyrodes citri on leaves of citrus. (A) habit of stromata covering insects; (B) section through stroma and pycnidia; (C) conidiophores; (D) conidia. ACTINOPELTE Sacc. Pycnidia superficial, borne on a stalk or columella, dimidiate, shield-shaped, black, coalescing or scattered, ostiole variable; conidiophores simple; conidia hyaline, less often brownish, I-celled, ovoid, oblong or fusoid; parasitic on leaves. Illustration: A. (I\eptothyrium) dryina; original, from fresh material on leaves of Quercus coccinea. (A) habit of pycnidia in leaf spot; (B) pycnidium, top view; (C) pycnidium, lower surface showing conidiophores and conidia; (D) conidiophores and conidia. Reference (435). MELASMIA Lev. Pycnidia in a broad, black, flattened stroma that is superficial or nearly so, dimidiate; conidiophores simple or branched; conidia hyaline or subhyaline, i-celled, allantoid or fusoid; parasitic on leaves; imperfect state of Rhytisma. Illustration: M. hypophylla; original, from herbarium material on leaves of Gleditsia triacanthos. (A) habit of pycnidia; (B) section through pycnidium; (C) conidiophores; (D) conidia. LEPTOTHYRIUM Kunze. Pycnidia superficial or erumpent, dimidiate, shield-shaped, dark, with or without ostiole; conidiophores simple; conidia hyaline, l-celled, ovoid, oblong or curved; parasitic on leaves, fruit, etc. Illustration: L. lonicerae; original, from herbarium material on leaves of Lonicera invoiucrata. (A, B) habit of pycnidia; (C) pycnidium breaking open; (D) conidia.







LEPTOSTROMA Fr. Pycnidia black, separate, dimidiate, subsuperficial, flattened to elongate, more or less cleft lengthwise; conidiophores short, simple, 1-celled; conidia hyaline, 1-celled, ovoid, elongate or allantoid; parasitic or saprophytic; probably imperfect state of Hysteriaceae. Illustration: L. actaea; original, from herbarium material on Cimicifuga racemosa. (A) habit of pycnidia; (B, C) pycnidia enlarged; (D) section of pycnidium; (E) conidiophores and conidia. CONIOTHYRIUM Sacc. Pycnidia black, globose, separate, erumpent, ostiolate; conidiophores short, simple; conidia small, dark, 1-celled, ovoid or ellipsoid; parasitic or saprophytic. Illustration: Coniothyrium sp.; original, from fresh material on rose stems and culture obtained from rose. (A) habit, necrotic spot, and pycnidia; (B) pycnidia in culture; (C) conidiophores and conidia. HARKNESSIA Cooke. Pycnidia globose, conical, thin, white, porous-lacerate at the apex, bursting out through the leaf tissue; conidiophores filiform; conidia dark, 1-celled, ellipsoid to ovoid, drawn out into a hyaline pedicel (conidiophore); saprophytic on leaves. Illustration: H. eucalypti; original, from herbarium material on Eucalyptus leaves. (A) habit of pycnidia; (B) top and side views of pycnidia enlarged; (C) section through pycnidium; (D) conidiophores and conidia. Reference (422). CHAETOMELIA Fuckel. Pycnidia black, superficial, separate, without ostiole, covered sparsely with dark bristles; conidiophores simple or branched; conidia dark to subhyaline, 1-celled, fusoid to somewhat curved; saprophytic. Illustration: C aira; original, from herbarium material on dead stalks of Sorghum vulgare. (A) habit of pycnidia; (B) pycnidium enlarged; (C) bristle; (D) conidiophore and conidia; (E) pycnidium of Chaetomella sp. from culture. Reference (358). SPHAEROPSIS Sacc. Pycnidia black, separate or grouped, globose, erumpent, ostiolate; conidiophores short; conidia large, dark, 1-celled, ovoid, elongate or somewhat irregular; parasitic. Illustration: S. malorum (Physalospora obtusa); original, from herbarium material on apple leaf, fruit, and from culture. (A) pycnidia in leaf spot; (B) section of pycnidium in fruit; (C) conidia from culture.




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(D) conidia. ovoid or ellipsoid.178 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA HAPLOSPOREIXA Spcg. (D) conidiophores. Reference (343). l-celled. conidia hyaline. mostly 2-celled. raduloides. 2-celled. chiefly on uredia. (E) conidia. in spots. parasitic or saprophytic. B) habit of pycnidia in uredia. from herbarium material on dead twigs of Cornus. (B) section through pyenidium. conidiophores simple or branched. wartlike stroma that bursts out of the bark. cylindrical. cylindrical with an awl-shaped appendage at the tip. (C) section through uredium of rust showing pycnidia. ovoid to oblong. Pycnidia brown to pale. Illustration: D. conidia large. located in rust sori. hyaline. from dried material of Puccinia on grass leaf. ostiolate. Pycnidia black. yuccaegena. principally causing leaf spots. with 3 to 4 hyaline setae at one end. globose. separate. (A) habit of pycnidia. (C) conidiophores. original. phragmites. conidia hyaline. Pycnidia dark. Illustration: H. original. B) pycnidia. superficial. (C) section of pyenidium. KELXERMANNIA Ellis and Everh. redrawn from Cunnel (69). from herbarium material on stems of Ribes hracteosum (A) habit of pyenidium in bark. papillate. . with small ostiole. ROBILLARDA Sacc. (A) habit of pycnidia and stromata. conidiophores simple. conidia. similar to Ascochyta but not produced in spots. Pycnidia clustered in a black. conidia hyaline. from fresh and dried material on barly leaf. opening by a large pore. (C) conidia with appendages. Illustration: Ascochyta sp. (B) section of Yucca leaf showing location of pycnidia. DIPLODINA Westend. not on leaves. longipes. Illustration: R. ostiolate. ASCOCHYTA Lib. (D) conidia. separate. immersed or erumpent. parasitic on grasses. tipped with mucous or bristlelike appendages at both ends. ellipsoid or fusoid to oblong. separate. C) top and side views of pycnidia. Pycnidia black. RHYNCHOPHOMA Karst. ovoid-oblong. spherical. simple. Illustration: K. 386). from herbarium material on Yucca angustifolia. from herbarium material on dead limbs of Morus alba. (A. DARLUCA Cast. beaked. (C) conidiophores. parasitic or saprophytic. immersed in host tissue. (D) conidia. 385. slender. Pycnidia black. (B. parasitic on rust fungi. original. dark. 2-celled. erumpent to subsuperficial. somewhat globose. (A. 2-celled. conidia hyaline.. globose to flattened. ostiolate. conidiophores simple. and sterile hyphae. immersed in host tissue. globose. conidia 2-celled. parasitic. Illustration: R. (B) section of pyenidium. ovoid or oblong. original. but the latter is described as having no stroma. globose or flattened. conidiophores short. (C) conidiophores. (B) section through stroma. conidia hyaline. (A) habit of pycnidia in leaf spot. Pycnidia separate. (D) conidia. Much like Phyllosticta but with 2-cclled conidia. (A) habit of pycnidia. The genus may be synonymous with Sphaeropsis. original. References (305. original. Illustration: D. bursting out of substrate (usually bark) or superficial. 2-celled. ostiolate. macrospora. parasitic or saprophytic. causing leaf spots. (D) conidia.filum.


parasitic or saprophytic on wood or bark. causing leaf spots. parasitic or saprophytic. locules occurring at different levels in stroma. (C) section through pyenidium. simple. conidia hyaline. (A. ostiolate. stromatic. conidiophores long. globose. zeae. with a stalk extending into the substratum. . (B) section through stroma showing pycnidia. short. (C) conidia. Illustration: Hendersonula sp. conidia hyaline. superficial or erumpent. original. Illustration: A.. original. B) habit of pycnidia. Pycnidia black. vertical hyphae. from herbarium material on dead corn stalk and from culture. ovoid to elongate. Illustration: S. (E) conidia. original. conidiophorcs simple. 1 to several per stroma. (C) section through pyenidium. This genus is much like Macrophoma or Dothiorella. (EJ conidia. slender. innate. later becoming 3. (D) conidia. globose. (C) section through pyenidium. composed internally of dense. Reference (418). conidiophores simple. elongate. ( 4-celled. conidia dark and 2-celled at maturity. carpathica. from herbarium material on leaves of Trifolium repens. Pycnidia brown. original. original. (C) pyenidium from culture. STAGONOSPORA Sacc. conidiophores short. typically 3. original. single. (A) habit of pycnidia on pine needle. Pycnidia black. bearing dark brown setae near the ostiole. hyaline to yellowish. long-cylindrical to filiform. immersed. oeconimicum. (B) section through stroma and pyenidium. B) habit DOTHISTROMA Hulbray. conidia often extruded in cirri. cylindrical. HENDERSONULA Spcg. parasitic. 2-celled. Illustration: D. separate. Pycnidia dark. erumpent. (D) mature conidia. locules separate. on pine needles. of pycnidia. acerina. (D) conidia. separate. globose. several-celled. Stroma dark. pini. becoming erumpent and swollen. cylindrical to elliptical. erumpent. B) habit of pycnidia and stromata. conidia dark. Reference (68). (D) conidiophorcs. flexuous. from herbarium material on twigs of 4-celled and dark. Illustration: B. stromate. conidiophorcs slender. Pycnidia black. ARISTATOMA Tehon. one to several in the upper part of the stroma. (A. ostiolate. Illustration: D. ostiolate. conidia several-eel led. confluent. ellipsoid or ovoid. from herbarium material on needles of Pinus nigra. conidiophores short. (A) stroma bearing pycnidia breaking through bark. from herbarium material on leaves of Vigna sinensis. (C) immature conidia. ostiolate. at first 1-celled. BOTRYODIPLODIA Sacc. parasitic or saprophytic on leaves and stems. erumpent. parasitic or saprophytic on twigs.CL2 180 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA -DIPLODIA Fr. from material from pine bark. simple. Reference (216). hyaline. if only immature conidia are present. (DJ conidiophores. (A. B) habit of pycnidia.


tissue cartilaginous. produced in spots. conidiophores short. nolinae. maculicila. separate. several-celled. (A) habit of stromata. conidia hyaline. with one or more irregular cavities. the main upright branch often somewhat longer. Reference (163). Pycnidia stromatic.or more-celled. frequently sickle-shaped. from dried material on leaves of Apium. (A) top view of pyenidium. flattened. (A. saprophytic. conidiophores simple or branched. parasitic. branched. Illustration: B. the lower cell tapering. gramineum. pointed at the ends. innate or erumpent. circular. B) habit of pycnidial stroma. waxy. hyaline. between the epidermis and cuticle. 5-celled. TETRANACRIUM Hudson and Sutton. Illustration: D. (C) conidia. opening irregularly. spraophytic on branches. hysteriform. narrowly elongate to filiform. globose. (B) single pyenidium. parasitic or saprophytic. Pycnidia dark. arising from apical cell. narrowly spindle-shaped. top view. both ends pointed. GELATINOSPORIUM Peck. Illustration: M. erumpent stroma. from herbarium material on BetuJa lenta. from herbarium material on Smilex leaves. Illustration: T. simple. conidia hyaline. usually 4-cclled. BARTILINIA Tassi.182 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA DISCOSIA Lib. simple. appendages delicate. (C) conidiophores and conidia. arising from a dark hypostroma. (A) habit of pycnidia. composed of 4 divergent branches. (B) section through pyenidium. allantoid to fusoid. conidiophores erect. globose. Illustration: G. Pycnidial cavities in yellowish to dark. several-celled. original. bowlike. conidia hyaline. (D) conidiophores and conidia. conidia hyaline. splitting open irregularly. (C) conidium. (C) conidiophore and conidia. Pycnidia dark. original. ^SEPTORIA Sacc. abietina (Dermea balsamea). (C) section of stroma. apical pale brown. usually 3 or 4. original. . arising from inner cells of pyenidium. typically causing leaf spots. with single appendage at each end. elongatefiliform. all arising from a globose basal cell. from fresh material on branches of Tsuga canadensis. drawn from photographs from Pollack (336). parasitic. conidiophores simple or branched. (A) section through pyenidium. conidiophores short. separate. separate. (C) section of pyenidium. original. erumpent. I. apii. conidia hyaline. MICROPERA Lev. (B) section through stroma showing pycnidial cavities. the side branches equal. redrawn from Husdon and Sutton (181). (A) habit of pycnidia. Pycnidia black. (B) section through pyenidium. Illustration:S. Pycnidia immersed. ostiolate. saprophytic. hetulinum. conidiophores short. ostiolate. (B) conidiophore and developing conidium. conidia single. (D) conidiophores and conidia. each branch 3.


base globose. (C) section through pyenidium. (B) pycnidia enlarged. spherical. (C) section through pyenidium. subicle or stroma. original. saprophytic. slender. Reference (384). PHAEOSEPTORIA Speg. resembling unopened smut galls. elongate to fusoid. ostiolate. original. conidia long. ostiolate. 1-celled. I. (D) conidia. from herbarium material on twig of Fraxinus. from herbarium material on stems of grass. at first covered and at maturity appearing superficial. fraxini. (B) single pyenidium. (C) conidia. (A. saprophytic. original. (A) stroma and pycnidia. spinelike. B) pycnidia. (A) habit of pycnidia. acicuiar. immersed. without beak. Pycnidia dark. (C) mature conidia. . conidia hyaline. pycnidia erumpent. Illustration:/?. innate. several-celled. separate. wellmanii. open cupulate. conidial states of Bahnsia. filiform-fusoid. separate. muhlenbergiae. redrawn from Yerkes (479). from herbarium material on leaves of Celtis occidentaHs. Reference (94). several-celled. conidia hyaline. Illustration: H. conidia hyaline. conidia dark. original. saprophytic or parasitic. conidia yellowish to light brown. (B) conidiophores and immature conidia. ostiolate. often curved. several-celled parasitic or saprophytic. with several-celled. spherical. RHABDOSPORA Mont. (D) conidiophores and conidia. Pycnidia black. separate. Illustration: L. (A. 1. Pycnidia black. usually erumpent. SPHAEROGRAPHIUM Sacc. original. flattened to depressed. Stroma dark. parasitic on grasses. Pycnidia dark. elongate. erumpent. (C) conidiophores and conidia. simple. short. (C) conidia. LEPTOSTROMELLA Sacc. beak conical. Illustration: E. B) habit of pycnidia. B) habit of pycnidia. Pycnidia dark. Illustration: P. subepidermal or erumpent. parasitic principally on grasses. (C) conidia. hyaline. Illustration: S. from herbarium material on dead leaf stalks of Dry op ten's spinulosa. crowned with setae. conidiophores short. 2-celled.184 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA EPHELIS Fr. (B) section through pycnidia. conidiophores simple. CHAETOSEPTORIA Tehon. (Balansia) horealis. separate. without clypeus. longitudinally cleft. elongate to filiform. globose. parasitic on leaves. not produced in spots. original. short. narrowly elongate to filiform. filicina. HENDERSONIA Sacc. (A. (A) pyenidium. or lighter when young. Pycnidia complete. erumpent. conidia hyaline. conidiophores simple. conidiophores branched. separate. solidaginis. somewhat gelatinous. festucae var. elongate to filiform. several-celled. from herbarium material on stem of Solidago canadensis. (A) habit of pycnidia. in spots. Illustration: C. from culture obtained from Muhlenbergia.


ovoid or ellipsoid. from herbarium material on twig of Prunus. several-celled with oblique septa. hetulinum. stalked. hyaline. later breaking out. conidia dark. conidiophores simple. globose. opening by a pore. Illustration: C. ovoid to ellipsoid. externally black. CHONDROPODIUM Hohnel. conidia hyaline or subhyaline. septate. original. (C) section of pyenidium. saprophytic.' . from herbarium material on twigs of Prunus virginiana. conidiophores simple or forked. conidia hyaline to colored. (C) conidia. (D) conidia. papillate. ostiolate. B) drawn from photographs. (C) from drawing. All redrawn from White (470). CAMAROSPORIUM Schulz. or clavatc. (B) section of pyenidium. (A) habit of pycnidia. (C) conidiophores. Pycnidia stromatic. Pycnidia black. original. innate in tissue. spindle-shaped. (A. cylindrical. from herbarium material on stem of Rhus radkans. Illustration: P. erumpent. stalked. globosedepressed. Pycnidia dark. Illustration: C. Illustration: D. separate or sometimes confluent. conidiophores simple. closed or ostiolate. fusoid to greatly elongated. globose. PROSTHEMIUM Kunze. columnar. dark. (B) section through pyenidium. (A) habit of pycnidia. crescent-shaped or sickle-shaped. persicae. original. original. 1-celled. (A. bulbous at the base. original. covered. (C) conidia. carbonaceous. usually with one chamber or divided by irregular folds. several-celled. robinae. (C) conidia. (A. (A) habit of pycnidia in bark. elongate fusoid to filiform. conidia . globose. developing in or under the epidermis or bark. simple. Illustration: P. cylindrical or long. several-celled. robinae. (B) section through pyenidium. weakly parasitic or saprophytic. Illustration: C. DICHOMERA Cooke. conidia hyaline. saprophytic on twigs. saprophytic. imperfectly formed. sickle-shaped. (C) section of stroma and pycnidia. separate.186 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA PHLYCTAENA Mont. (D) conidiophores and immature conidia. PHLEOSPORA Wallr.several-celled. dark. with several cross walls and a few longitudinal or oblique walls. internally gelatinous. stellately joined into few-spored groups. (C) conidiophores and conidia. conidia dark. Illustration: P. (A. grouped on stroma. from herbarium material on dead twigs of Robinia pseudoacacia. bursting out of bark. cylindrical to ellipsoid. parasitic or saprophytic. usually in tufts or groups. mostly bent. (A) habit of pycnidia. conidiophores filiform. from herbarium material on bark of Betula alba. conidia hyaline. (B) section through pyenidium. resembling a staurospore. parasitic or saprophytic. (H) mature conidia. and Desm. from herbarium material on leaves of Robiniapseudoacacia. (D) conidiophores and immature conidia. several-celled. (E) mature conidia. Pycnidia black. B) habit of pycnidia. albocincta. ostiolate. Pycnidia separate. globose. hard. pseudotsugae. conidiophores short. Pycnidia dark. Pycnidia dark. original. B) pycnidia. not in distinct spots. prunkola. CORNULARIA Sacc. B) habit of pycnidia.


from herbarium material on leaves of Geranium caroliniana. (C) portion of acervulus on fruit. with a hyaline branched appendage at the apex. nervisequum (Gnomonia veneta). parasitic. produced on lateral sterigmata. Illustration: C. waxy. which may be absent in some cultures. conidia and setae from culture. Acervuli subcuticular. conidiophores simple. (C) conidia. conidiophores simple. and Mont. 1-celled. conidia hyaline. (F) conidiophores and conidia in culture. from fresh material on Platanus leaves and from culture. ampelinmn (Elsinoe ampelina). Acervulus cushion-shaped. (C) conidiophores and conidia. Illustration: P. . conidia hyaline. Acervuli disc-shaped or cushion-shaped. (E) conidia. fruiligenum (Glomerella cingulata). original. 1-celled. parasitic. (C) conidia. parasitic. ovoid or oblong. (A) habit on twig. (B) conidiophores. (B) conidiophore producing conidia. mostly conidial states of Glomerella. (A) section of acervulus from prepared slide. PESTALOZZIELLA Sacc. closely grouped or compacted. ' • > SPHACELOMA de Bary. original. septate. GLOEOSPORIUM Desm. typically with dark. Illustration: S. chiefly on leaves or fruits. (D) acervuli produced in culture. subsessilis. conidiophores simple. (D) conidia. spines or setae at the edge or arr^ong the conidiophores. ellipsoid. Illustration: (A-C) G. (B) section through acervulus. imperfect states of Glomerella. conidia hyaline. This genus differs '-from Gloeosporium in having spines. CATENOPHORA Luttrell. waxy. to falcate parasitic. from herbarium material on grape twigs and fruit. lindemutheanum. one per cell of the conidiophore. parasitic. (A) habit of fungus. and Ellis. imperfect states of Elsinoe.188 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA -. conidia hyaline. (D-F) G. disc-shaped or cushion-shaped. redrawn from Luttrell (271). 1-celled. waxy. ovoid or oblong. (B) conidiophores and conidia. pruni. graminicola. elongate. sometimes curved. conidia hyaline. variable in length. Acervuli disc-shaped or cushion-shaped. (A) section through acervulus. (C) conidia. simple or branched. (D) conidia of C. subepidermal. similar to Gloeosporium and Colletotrichum. conidiophores slender. sometimes almost appearing as a sporodochium. elongate. COLLETOTRICHUM Corda. original from prepared slide and from culture. conidiophores simple. Acervuli subepidermal erumpent. 1-celled. 1-celled. (A) habit on leaf. arising from a stromalike base. ovoid or cfofong. original. (B) portion of acervulus on twig. Illustration: C. ovoid to oblong.







MELANCONIUM Link. Acervuli subepidermal or subcortical, conic or discoid, black; conidiophores simple; conidia dark, I-celled, ovoid to ellipsoid or oblong; parasitic or saprophytic. Illustration: M. oblongum; original, from herbarium material on dead twigs of Jugulans cinerea. (A) habit of acervuli; (B) section through acervulus; (C) conidiophores and conidia. Reference (419). MYCOLEPTODISCUS Ostazeski. Sclerotia small, round, black; acervuluslike fruiting structure; shieldlike, yellow to brown; stroma a single layer of cells bearing conidia; conidiophores obsolete; conidia hyaline, 2-celIed, allantoid, with a filamentous appendage at each end (absent in some isolates), parasitic on legumes. Illustration: M. (Leptodiscus) lerrestris; (A) spore-bearing upper surface of acervulus; (B) section through acervulus; (C) conidia; (A) drawn from unpublished photograph furnished by J.W. Gerdemann; (B, C) drawn from photographs from Gerdemann (145). References (284, 320). MAKSSONINA Magn. Acervuli subepidermal, discoid, pale; conidiophores short, simple; conidia hyaline, 2-celled, ovoid to elongate; parasitic, chiefly on leaves. Illustration: M. populi; original, from herbarium material on leaves of Populus. (A) habit on leaf; (B) section through acervulus; (C) conidiophores and conidia. SEPTOGLOEUM Sacc. Acervuli subepidermal, erumpent, pale; conidiophores short, simple; conidia hyaline, several-celled, oblong to fusoid; parasites on leaves. Illustration: S. profusum; original, from herbarium material on leaves of Ulmus americana. (A, B) habit of acervuli; (C) section through acervulus; (D) conidiophores and conidia. CRYPTOSPORIUM Kunze. Acervuli erumpent, becoming cup-shaped or disc-shaped, stroma brownish; conidiophores simple or branched; conidia hyaline or subhyaline, l-celled, elongate, falcate; parasitic. Illustration: C. pinkoia; (A) section through acervuli; (B) conidiophore and conidia; redrawn from Lindcr (269). LIBERTELLA Desm. Acervulus subcortical, erumpent, yellow to red; conidiophores branched; conidia hyaline, l-celled, filiform; saprophytic. Illustration: L. betulina; original, from herbarium material on bark of Betula lutea. (A) habit of acervuli; (B) section through acervulus; (C) conidiophores; (D) conidia held together in matrix; (E) separate conidia.

















CYLINDROSPORIUM Unger. Acervuli subepidermal, white or pale, discoid or spread out; conidiophores short, simple; conidia hyaline, filiform, straight or curved, l-celled or becoming septate; parasitic on leaves. Illustration: C. padi (Coccomyces hiemalis); original, from dried material on cherry leaves. (A, B) habit of acervuli; (C) section through acervulum; (D) conidiophores and conidia.

MONOCHAET1A Sacc. Acervuli dark, discoid or cushion-shaped, subepidermal; conidiophores slender, simple; conidia dark, several-celled with hyaline, pointed end cells, elongate to fusoid, with a single apical appendage; parasitic. Illustration: M. mali; original, from herbarium material on apple leaf. (A) habit on leaf; (B) section through acervulus; (C) conidiophores and conidia. Reference (391). ^^ PESTALOT1A de Not. Acervuli dark, discoid or cushion-shaped, subepidermal; conidiophores short, simple; conidia dark, several-celled, with hyaline, pointed end cells, ellipsoid to fusoid, with two or more hyaline, apical appendages; parasitic; or saprophytic. References (392, 416). n Illustration: P. macrotricha; original, from fresh material on leaves of Rhododendron. (A, B) habit of acervuli; (C) section through acervuli; (D) conidiophores and conidia; (E) conidia. References (392, 415).

POEYNEMA Lev. Mycelium immersed in substratum, hyaline; acervuli typical with little stromatic development; conidiophores arising from cells of stroma, conidia single, apical, cylindrical, obclavate, 2-to 3-celled, brown, with single simple or branched apical appendage and 1 to 3 basal appendages. Illustration: Polynema (Neobarclaya) sp.; redrawn from Sutton (416). (A) section through acervulus; (B) conidia. Reference (420).

SEIMATOSPORIUM Corda. Acervuli typical, first immersed, erumpent; conidiophores cylindrical, slender, with a few apical proliferations; conidia borne single and successively on proliferating new growing points, fusiform to curved, 4- to 6-celled, 2 end cells hyaline, median cells dark, apical appendage single, simple or rarely branched, basal appendage usually simple; on leaves and twigs. Compare with Pestahtia. Illustration: Seimatosporium sp. (Cryptostictis arbuti); redrawn from Sutton (418). (A) portion of acervulus; (B) developing conidium; (C) conidia.


dark. from fresh material on bark of Acer. (B) conidiophores and conidia. parasitic on leaves and fruit. kunzei. (B) section through acervulus. conidia dark. conidiophores short. conidia dark. Illustration: A. Illustration: E. Illustration: S. redrawn from Archer (3). (C) conidiophores. ovoid. karstenii. hoffmanni. CORYNEUM Nees. apical in basipetal chains. Illustration: C. redrawn from Sutton and Pirozynski (428). (A) habit of acervuli. from fresh material on oak twigs. (A) habit of acervuli on twig. cushion-shaped to disc-shaped. (C) conidia. simple. . (D) conidia. (C) conidiophores and conidia. Acei'vuU subcortical. pyriforme. each arm septate. maculatum (Fabrea maculata). saprophytic on leaves or twigs. stromatic. simple. (A) acervuluslike fruit structure. Reference (425). and sterile hyphae. oblong to fusoid. dark. Acervulus subcuticular. 4-celled. conidia dark. typically 4-armed. PHRAGMOTRICHUM Kunze ex Fries. parasitic or saprophytic. (B) section through acervulus. (B) conidia. Fructifications interpreted as acervuli (sometimes pycnidiumlike). conidia yellow or slightly darker. upright. Illustration: P. discoid. saprophytic on wood. Acervuli bursting through bark. all except the basal cell equipped with a slender bristle. original. conidia hyaline. conidia. conidiophores simple. black. (B) section through acervulus. (A) habit on leaf. simple. dictyosporous. conidiophores slender. (C) conidia. conidiophores slender. saprophytic. phragmosporous or dictyosporous. cross-shaped. original. Reference (458). several-celled. the two lateral cells smaller. STEGANOSPORlUM Corda. (A) section through acervulus. conidiophores short. original from herbarium material on leaves of Cydonia.194 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA ENTOMOSPORIUM Lev. ASTEROSPORIUM Kunze. simple. cushion-shaped. Acervulus subcutaneous or subcortical. oblong or pear-shaped.


176.196 DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF GENERA & . (A) small sclerotia and mycelium in tube culture. (B) portion of section of sclerotium. globose or irregular. the most common species. Illustration: Papulospora sp. mycelium usually light. v> * *-*'' PAP15LOSPORA Preuss. (I* . 361). sclerotia brown to black. (B) section of loose sclerotium. (A) sclerotia in tube culture. or parasitic on storage parts of some plants. References (323. (A-C) sclerotia produced on mycelium with clamp connections. solani). References (17. 'tj?X RHIZOCTONIA DC. " *. asexual fruit bodies and conidia absent. mycelium light to dark brown. Illustration: R. parasitic. Asexual fruit bodies and conidia lacking.. (C) cells of mycelium. saprophytic. original. rolfsii. original. producing compact clusters of small cells or bulbils which are sclerotium-like and serve to reproduce the fungus. (Thanatephorus) solarri. (C) portions of mycelium showing clamp connections. from culture. from decaying wood.u. cells of mycelium usually long. 177). principally on underground parts of plants. sclerotia light colored and poorly formed in some species or brown or black and well formed in other. original. SCLEROTIUM Tode. . Asexual spores lacking. septa of branches usually set off from the main hyphae. Mycelium hyaline in some species to dark in others (such as R.> v. sporodochium-like bodies and chlamydospore-like cells in chains produced in some species. \. chiefly on roots or other underground parts of plants. from culture. . Illustration: S. parasitic. compact.


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Life cycle of Piggotia fraxini. causing leaf disease of ash. Further observations on Calcarisporium arhuscula. Mycologia 48.REFERENCES 211 463. Wolf. White. Wolf. 46S. A. 1955. i . P. F. Trans. Mycol. 480. and M. and H. 473. A new species of Chstulariella associated with a leaf spot of maple.W.K. 479.A. Mycol.W. Wilson. New and rare lignicolous hyphomycetes.E. Whaley. Soc. F.. Yerkes. 475. Bril. Mycologia 39: 690-698. and R.and R. Mvcohgia 55: 195-210.. Wolf. 465. Conidia of Acrospernntm compressum and A. 1949. Waterman. Brit.A. Brit. 1936. Watson. Mycologia 4 5 : 951-963. Webster. * ' . Humieola grisea.H. A squash disease caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum. W. S. White. Notes on Corynespora. F. Two unusual conidial fungi. 477. Mvcohgia 33: 526-539. Wei. 489-500. 8: 319-328. Mvcol. 467. Mycol. Life histories of two leaf-inhibiting fungi on sycamore. 474. 1956. C. 1938. 38:409-414.I. P..L. 1965.. Chaeioseploria wellmanii in Mexico.M.' *•*'. Isolates between Stachyhotrys and Memnoniella. The original and modem concepts of Slemphvlium. Wolf. and B. Davison. R. Trans. The pycnidial state of Exosporina fawceitii. Soc. Wolf. 1947. J. W. 1938. 1963. 476.K. J. Morphology of Polythriniciurn causing sooty blotch of red clover. ' !•-'. 464. Downing. Mvcol. 1953.r '. 470. Sutton. D.L. Soc. E. 466. Trans. F. Zuck. 34: M 0 .A. Agr. Mycologia 74.. Mycologia 27: 58-73. 1941. 21:211-239. Mycologia 30: 54-63. 39: 361-366. A new species of Chondropodium on Pseudotsuga laxifolia.R Marshall. Watson. 738-740. Mycologia 38: 69-76. Wiltshire. .A. F. Mycologia 28: 433-438. Wang. 469. 478. Barnett.W. 48: 9-17. Mycologia 41: 561-564. Calcarisporium arhuscula living as an endophyte in apparently healthy spirophores of Russula and Laciarius. a soil-inhibiting cellulolytic hyphomycete. 1949.L. J. Parasitism and nutrition of Gonaioholrvs simplex. Res. 472.C. CI 1950. . Soc. 1946. Papers C.. 4 7 1 . Phytopathology 39: 340-346. 1956.M. 1982.J. 1935. gramineum. P. Trans.A.. Bril. 1917.

196. bearing conidiophores and conidia. p. Aspergillus. with multinucleate hyphae or segments. 82. narrowed. saucer-shaped fruit body. Alternaria. Amerospore: a one-celled conidium. more or less to a point. 94. Ephelis. Acropetal: chain of conidia having the youngest conidium at the apex. 88. Sclerotium. Bulbil: a small number of cells aggregated into a sclerotiumlike structure. Collarette: a cup-shaped structure or flaring apex of a phialide. Rhizoctonia. Cercospora. 76. Conidiogenous cell: a cell or portion of a conidiophore bearing conidia (a sporogenous cell). 134. 94. Biotrophic: a method by which some parasites obtain nutrients from living host cells. p. Anastomosis: fusion between hyphal branches to form a network. p. Monilia. Entomosporium. p. Aspergillus. Capitate: conidia formed into a more or less rounded head. p. p. Chalaropsis. Aleuriospore: see p. 88. 43. broader toward the apex. p. p. 98. 82. Also see Aleuriospore. p. Arthrospores: seep. Spilocaea. 128. Ch lam yd ospore: a thick-walled terminal or intercalary conidium formed from a previous cell.4\. 106. Botrytis. Blastospore: see p. p. 90. Papularia. 194. Cladosporium. 90. 72. p. Catenulate: conidia formed in chains of two or more. 42. Coenocytic: nonseptate. Monilia. p. Circinate: recurved. Botr yob last ospore: see p. Anneilate: conidial scars appearing as rings at apex region of conidiophore or conidiogenous cell due to successive formation of terminal conidia. characteristic of certain basidiomycetes. p.GLOSSARY Definitions and Examples Acicular: slender and pointed. Gyrothrix. characteristic of the Melanconiales. Ba si petal: successive chain of conidia having the youngest conidium at the base. Attenuated: drawn out. Dictyoarthrinum. Chlohdium. 68. p. p. 196. 184. Calcarisporium parasiticum. Annellospore: see p. 42. p. 212 . Circinotrichum. p. p. Gonatobotrys simplex. p. Sepedonium. p. needle-shaped. p. Allantoid: conidia somewhat curved. p. 90. p. Clavate: club-shaped. Oidium. 106. 106. 132. Phialophora. Clamp connection: a hyphal outgrowth connecting two adjacent cells of the mycelium. 42. 72. p. Cruciform: arranged in the form of a cross. Acervulus: an erumpent. open. Scopulariopsis. Cladosporium.

Pithomyces.. p. p. p. Zygosporium. Dendroid: branched. Botryodipiodia. p. Dothichiza. Torula. deeper than saucer-shaped. Actinopehe. Geniculosporium. 132. often giving a zig-zag appearance. p. Piptocephalis. Ellipsoid. 100. 84. Geniculate: bent like a knee. 154. Deciduous: referring to conidia falling off naturally. p. p. Heterosporium. Didymosporc: a two-celled conidium. Globose: nearly spherical. 112. Graphium. 172. p. on the surface of conidia or conidiophores. often. Humkola. 136. Hyperparasite: a parasite on another parasitic fungus. Hyphopodium: a 1. Hainesia. p. p. 92. Monacrosporium. p. Dichotomous: forked. Dichobotrys. parasitism has not been proved. branchlike structure on epiphytic mycelium of certain fungi. Fusiform: spindle-shaped. 132. p. branched into two more or less equal arms. and circular. 1 1 8 . Fuscous: brownish-gray. p. very slender. Dermatomycosis: a fungus disease restricted to the surface of the skin of man and animals. Dimidiate: a half structure. Hyaline: clear. 152. Bactridium.or 2-celled. 194. Coryneum. Haustorium: a special absorbing structure formed by some parasitic fungi within cells of the host. 62. 122. (A term used loosely.GLOSSARY 213 Cupulate: cup-shaped. Determinate: cessation of growth of a conidiophore when a terminal conidium is formed. 72. 90. Elliptical: a conidium having an outline of an ellipse with rounded ends. Echinulate: with slight projections. p. 116. Sporonema. Doratomyces. Helicomyces. smoky. flat. treelike. 172. p. Erumpent: breaking out through the surface of the substratum. Chalara. Steganosporium. p. Microsporum. 76. Filiform: threadlike. absence of dark pigment. Endogenous: conidia produced well within a phialide. Helicospore: a coiled or spiral-shaped conidium. p. p. p. 78. p. p. 194. Fascicle: tight cluster or group. Dinemasporium. Polythrincium. Microsporum. Fusoid. Discoid: disc-shaped. p. 1 1 6 . usually pointed. 176. Cylindrosporium. 172. I S O . p. . 182.) See also Mycoparasite. 192. Dictyospore: conidium having both transverse and oblique septa. p. or having one part smaller than the other. p. Falx: a hook-shaped hypha or cell capable of bearing conidia. p. Ahernaria. p. Flexuous: wavy. Lepiostroma. p. Septoria. Trichoderma. sharp or blunt. 174. p. 148. toothlike projection on which conidia are borne. 74. p. p. 174. Denticle: small to medium sized. Gonatobotrys. Dehiscent: breaking open at maturity. Falcate: curved like the blade of a sickle. Exogenous: conidia produced on the outside of a conidiogenous cell.

76. not in the internal contents. p. Gonatobotrys. 94. 94. Bipolaris. narrowest at base. p. Piptocephalis. applied when fungus produces conidia of two distinct sizes. p. p. 132. Cytospora. 176. 90. 76. p. . 41. like a half moon. Fusarium. Phialospore: see p. Lenticular: in the form of a double convex lens. Ostiole: opening or mouth of a pyenidium. referring to compactly branched conidiophores. 62. usually within a stroma. Obovoid: inversely ovoid. widest at base. Phoma. Gonatobotrys. p. Brachysporium. >vr . 170. p. 130. Percurrent: proliferation of conidiophore or conidiogenous cell in which each successive apex arises through the previous apex. p. Leptostroma. Alternaria. 120. p. usually with blunt ends. Microconidia: small. PeniciUium. 138. p. 114. 170. Lunate: crescent-shaped. Muriform: conidia with both an oblique septa and a dictyopore. slender stalk bearing a conidium. Phragmospore: a several-celled conidium with transverse septa only. Lunulospora. p. Porospore: see p. p. p. often applied to host of a micoparasite. Sclerotium. Penicillus: a brush. Oblong: about twice as long as wide. Meristem arthrospore: see p. p. p. Gonatobotrys. Locule: a cavity. p. p. . 96. 166. 76. Murogenous: originating as an expansion of the entire conidiophore tip.214 GLOSSARY Clasterosporium. Innate: immersed in substratum. Necrosis: death of cells. p. Ovoid: egg-shaped. Gliocladium. often applied to spermatia. with a median cleft. 126. p. Penicillate: a brushlike cluster of sporogenous cells on a conidiophore as in PeniciUium. p. often multicelled conidia. Pseudoparenchyma: isodiametric or oval fungus cells organized into tissues in which the individual hyphae have lost their identity. 44. Phialide: a specialized sporogenous cell producing conidia from an open end in basipetal succession. Intercalary: produced between other cells. 176. 106. 122. 196. Dothiorella. Pedicel: a short. 162. usually 1-celled conidia. 194. p. Papilla: a small rounded projection. p. Murogenella. Mycoparasite: a fungus parasitic on another fungus. Phialocephala. Obclavate: inversely clavate. Steganosporium. Chalara. Indeterminate: growth of conidiophore does not cease with production of a terminal conidium or group of conidia. Hysteriform: elongated. not terminal. p. p. Curvularia. Pigmented: used to indicate presence of pigment in the cell waifs. Macroconidia: large. Cytospora. p. p. 118. p. with narrower end at apex. Polyphialide: a phialide with more than one open end. 92. 126. Sphaeropsis. Spilocaea. 43. n > ft ^ . Dendryphiopsis.

-. Torulose: cylindrical but having swellings at intervals. p. 142. 108. appearing as a minutely roughened wall. VerticilHum. Scopulariopsis. Verticillate: having a whorl of three or more branches or sporogenous cells arising at the same level. Tritirachiwn. p. Geotrichum. Vesicle: an inflated cell or portion of conidiophore. Scolecospore: a long slender conidium. 92. Stylospore: an elongated conidium produced in a pycnidium. VerticilHum. Sporogenous cell: a special cell or branch bearing conidia. p. p. p. Staurospore: a branched or star-shaped conidium. Ulocladium. p. Cytospora. 66. characteristic of the Stilbaceae. p. Triiirachium. p.) Choanephora. Tube re u late: having wartlike processes. 100. p. p. 192. Sporodochium: a cushion-shaped structure made up of closely grouped conidiophores. 68. 140. Curvularia. peglike extension of a cell that supports a conidium. Sclerotium: a compact resistant mass of hyphae or pseudoparenchyma. p. 100. 92. Botryodiplodia. p. 74. narrower at the base. 98. usually considered larger than a denticle. Martensella. Cylindrocladium. Tripospermum. but showing slight pigmentation in mass. 132. Asteromella. Cylindrosporium. Aureobasidium. p. 64. p. Phomopsis. Subiculum: a loose crustlike growth on which fruit bodies are produced. Synnema: a cylindrical compact group of conidiophores. p. p. Sporangiole: a small sporangium producing one to few spores. Gyrothrix. p. Pyriform: pear-shaped. Tripospermum. 142. characteristic of the Sphaeropsidales. Sympodial: growth or branching of a conidiophore or sporogenous cell arising beneath or behind the previous conidium and pushing it to one side. 180. p. 182. pointed. Sterigma: a short. 90. 170. characteristic of the Tuberculariaceae. flat. Sessile: without a stalk. *"' .GLOSSARY 215 Pycnidium: a closed or nearly closed asexual fruit body bearing conidiophores and conidia internally. p. Colletotrichum. Rachis: central axis of a conidiophore on which conidia are attached alternately. Sporocladium: a special short branch of a sporangiophore in certain Mucorales in which conidia are borne on one side only. 70. Truncate: cut off at the end. Septoria. p. 122. p. 188. p. Cornularia. . Stipirate: having a stipe or stalk. 43. . p. Subhyaline: conidia generally classified as hyaline. 164. 164. p. Reniform: kidney-shaped. Tridenteria. (In some genera the 1-celled sporangioles may be called conidia. Periconia. Sympodulospore: see p. r—* Verricose: having small rounded processes. Seta: a sterile hypha associated with various fruiting structures. 186. p. Whorl: a number of conidia or branches attached at the same level. Stroma: a compact mass of hyphae on which or in which conidia or fruit bodies are borne. characteristic of some Mucorales.

120 — Coryneum. 176 Chaetophoma. 1 5 0 Candelabrella. 164 Asteromyces. 1 7 0 Cytosporella. 118 —Entomosporium. 100 Basipetospora. 90 Cladobotryum. 1 3 8 Dictyoarthrinium. 90 Chalaropsis. 1 1 4 -Diplodia. 194 Ephelis. 176 Conoplea. 100 Beltrania. 76 Botryotrichum. 144 Didymaria. 188 Catinula. 186 Dichotomophthora. 102 Cordana. 128 Cercosporella. 66 Chondropodium. 174 -Ascochyta. 82 Chloridium. 84 -Botrytis. 96 Chaetoseptoria. 78 Dichomera. 166 Ampulliferina. 132 Acrosporium. 174 Actinospora. 1 2 6 Briosia. 70 Beauveria. 80 Chrysosporium. 146 Dendrographium. 1 1 8 Clavariopsis. 1 1 6 Cephalosporium. 158 Alatospora. 134 Bipolaris. 1 0 8 Cylindrosporium. 134 Dictyosporium. 76 Acrospeira. 172 Cephaliophora. 1 1 6 Camptomeris. 130 Dactylosporium. 154 Dilophospora. 178 Deightoniella. 80 Botryoderma. 120 Dicranidion. 60 216 Curvularia. 194 Aureobasidium. 122 Cylindrocarpon.Botryodiplodia. 154 Dothichiza. 154 Articulospora. 1 1 0 Didymobotryum. 76 Brachysporium. 142 Aschersonia. 74 Cryptosporium. 144 Ceratosporium. 194 Cristulariella. 150 Balanium. 68 Cicinnobolus. 184 . 140 Dendryphion. 62 —Colletotrichum. 174 Aposphaeria. 192 Cytospora. 94 Ceratophorum. 88 Choanephora. 94 Asperisporium. 128 Cercosporidium. 162 Dendrospora. 152 Cacumisporium. 180 Botryosporium. 158 Acladium. 142 Diplococcium. 110 Arthrobotryum. 1 1 6 Echinobotryum. 186 Chromelosporium. 90 Cheiromyces. 126 Bispora. 68 Amerosporium. 120 Dichobotrys. 1 3 0 Cylindrocladium. 172 Ampelomyces. 110 Dactylella. 164 Chaetopsina. see Ampelomyces Circinotrichum. 104 Berkleasmium. 134 Coniothyrium. 66 Doratomyces.INDEX TO GENERA Acarocybe. 156 Didymostilbe. 154 Arthrosporium. 92 —Cladosporium. 140 Aegerita. see Chloridium Blastomyces. 148 Bactrodesmium. 1 7 8 -Aspergillus. 1 6 8 Endocalyx. 140 Annellophora. 84 Eleutheromycella. 110 Candida. 166 Dothistroma. 106 Clasterosporium. 1 1 8 Dendrodochium. 172 -Dothiorella. 106 Bisporomyces. 88 Coemansia. 122 Chaetochalara. 150 Chlamydomyces. 166 Dactylaria. 1 1 2 Aster omella. 74 Arthrobotrys. 134 Darluca. 168 Eleutheromyces. see Oidium Actinopelte. 112 Cornularia. 90 Chaet omella. 106 Anguillospora. 184 Chalara. 188 Coniosporium. 152 Endophragmia. 142 -Alternaria. 190 Culicidospora. 182 Basidiobotrys. 140 Codinaea. 1 4 0 Cunmnghamella. 186 Corynespora. 1 7 0 Cytosporina. 180 Arthrinium. 118 Ceratosporella. 1 7 2 Diplocladiella. 124 Dendryphiopsis. 102 Camarosporium. 162 Aristatoma. 132 Amblyosporium. 180 Diplodina. 182 Dispira. 128 Dactylium. 154 Dendrophoma. 122 Dwayabeeja. 144 -=Cercospora. 180 Drechslera. 96 Chaetopsis. 150 Akanthomyces. 166 Dimargaris. 62 Dinemasporium. 124 Calcarisporium. 70 Bactridium. 1 1 8 Anthasthoopa. 178 Diplosporium. 108 Discosia. 106 Bartilinia. 86 . 1 0 8 Cladosporiella. 1 8 6 Camposporium. 84 Asterosporium. 70 Catenophora.

64 Lacellina. 192 Polythrincium. 196 Passalora. 1 1 4 . 1 1 8 "Monilia. 196 Rhizosphaera. 166 "Sclerotium. 146 Ingoldia. 170 Fusoma. 162 Pleurophragmium. 152 — Pestalotia. 80 Haplosporella. 162 -^Phomopsis. 64 Lunulospora. 108 Robillarda. 174 Libertella. 128 Rabenhorstia. 192 Monocillium. 1 1 2 Fusicoccum. 1 1 0 Geniculosporium. 178 Sclerographium. 104 Rhinotrichum. 152 Gyrothrix. 108 . 192 Pestalozziella. 166 Nigrospora. 148 Flagellospora. 78 Lacellinopsis. 88 Phleospora. 76 Oidiodendron.Helminthosporium. 186 Phlvctaena. 94 Gliocladium. 136 Helicoma. 96 Phialomyces. 60 Murogenella. 196 Scolecobasidium. 104 Pesotum. 72 Monilochaetes. 82 Hobsonia. 60 Rhynchophoma.INDEX 217 Epicoccum. 158 Sclerotiopsis. 146 Hainesia. 136 Helicomina. 76 ^—Rhizoctonia. 176 Leptostromella. 190 Linderina. 174 Hansfordia. 128 Neottiospora. 70 Kellermania. 150 Humicola. 70 Paecilomyces. 122 Hirsutella. 136 Heliscus. 170 Radiomyces. 86 Gloeosporium. 90 Hadrotrichum. 84 -Marssonina. 98 Leptostroma. 98 Graphium. 154 Polynema. 138 Insecticola. 186 "-Phoma. 164 Phaeoseptoria. 82 Papulospora. 146 Nakataea. 152 Heterosporium. 106 Pseudotorula. 86 Mortierella. 190 MartehsSlla. 164 Rhopalomyces. 194 Phyllosticta. 80 Micr opera. 156 Helicocephalum. 138 Leptographium. 74 Ovularia. 160 Gilmaniella. 170 Pleurothecium. 78 Piptocephalis. 158 Idriella. 152 Metarrhizium. 188 Glomerularia. 112 Prosthemium. 1 1 6 Pucciniopsis. 138 Fusariella. 180 Heterocephalum. 86 Gonatobotrys. 126 Podosporium. 184 Rhinocladiella. 94 Papularia. 1 1 6 Monacrosporium. 154 Itersonilia. 184 Leptothyrium. 84 Hyalodendron. 92 Gliomastix. 168 Hymenella. 102 Illosporium. 182 Genicularia. 178 Rhynchosporium. 130 Fusarium. 76 Gonatobotryum. 132 Pleiochaeta. 104 Ovulariopsis. 98 Haplographium. 162 Pyricularia. 150 fexcipularia. 110' Ramulispora. 122 Gonatorrhodiella. 64 Melanconium. 68 Gibellula. 158 lsaria. 60 Helicodendron. 68 Oidium. 82 Mycoleptodiscus. 184 Phialocephala. 94 Microclavia. 78 Lemonniera. 148 Exosporium. 1 1 2 --Penicillium. 148 Pyrenochaeta. 136 Helicomyces. 64 Ramularia. 128 Plenodomas. 136 Helicoon. 160 Hirudinaria. 100 Oedocephalum. 146 Hymenostilbe. 64 ' Martens iomyces. 74 Periconiella. 178 Harknessia. 156 Isariopsis. 94 Phialophora. 88 Menisporopsis. 82 Nodulosporium. 94 Periconia. 126 Pleurostromella. 60 Myrothecium. 174 Memnoniella. 190 Mycotypha. 124 Hendersonia. 1 1 6 Gelatinosporium. 184 Hendersonula. 68 Olpitrichum. 190 Melasmia. 144 Histoplasma. 164 Mammaria. 72 Hyalopycnis. 138 Macrophoma. 148 Rhabdospora. 86 Monochaetia. 186 Pseud obotrytis. 88 Menispora. 100 Geotrichum. 150 Everhartia. 62 Pithomyces. 182 Microsporum. 78 Gonatophragmium. 176 Harpographium. 1 1 8 Phragmotrichum. 114 Mycogone. 94 Gliocephalotrichum. 130 Fusicladium. 178 Kickxella. 164 Phragmocephala. 84 Gliocephalis. 188 Peyronellaea. 78 Gonytrichum. 162 Phymatotrichum. 136 Helicosporium.

144 Triscelophorous. 1 3 8 Verticicladiella. 82 Septocylindrium. 100 Volutella. 142 Spermospora. 92 Virgaria. 134 Stigmina. 96 Tieghemiomyces. 66 Syncephalis. 1 1 6 Trichothecium. 74 TrichocladLum. 104 Verticicladium. 98 Seimatosporium. 116 -Septoria. 72 Torula. 120 Sporobolomyces. Sporoschisma. 192 Selenophoma. 160 Tetrachaetum. 100 Tubercularia. 150 Speiropsis. 98 Stachybotrys. 156 Thielaviopsis. 134 Spadicoides. 128 Septogloeum. 106 Spirodactylon. 114 Spegazzinia. 66 Spiropes. 1 4 0 Tetranacrium. 86 Varicosporium. 142 Triposporium. 146 Sympodiella. 140 Tetracladium. 190 Septonema. 172 . 92 Stagonospora.218 INDEX Scolecotrichum. 136 Zygosporium. 168 . 1 3 8 Tritirachium. 132 Stephanoma. 140 Tripospermum. 132 Umbelopsis. 130 Sporothrix. 88 Stachylidium. 158 Spondyiocladiella. 62 Tilletiopsis. 62 Synnematium. 120 Sporidesmium. 188 Sphaerographium. 82 Stigmella. 104 —-Verticillium. 84 Xenosporium. 172 Sirosporium. 152 Strumella. 180 Staphylotrichum. 80 Steganosporium. 64 Spiromyces. 128 Sphacelia. 1 1 8 Trichoderma. 184 Sphaeronaema. 182 Tetrapola. 138 Tridentaria. 1 4 8 Ulocladium. 108 Trichurus. 102 Sepedonium. 72 . 176 Sphaerosporium. 92 Wardomyces. 120 Stilbum. 142 Thallospora. 92 Trichophyton. Sphaeropsis. 162 Selenosporella. 156 Tricladium. 70 Sporonema. 146 Spilocaea. 104 Syncephalastrum. 146 Tuberculina. 182 Shanoria. 142 Tharoopama. 1 4 8 Wallemia. 148 -Sphaceloma. 92 Thysanophora. 112 Scopulariopsis. 194 Stemphylium.

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