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ELECTRO MAGNETIC BRAKING

INTRODUCTION

This is a self – assessment test on the part of the students to assess his
competency in creativity.
During the course of study, the student is put on a sound theoretical foundation
of various mechanical engineering subjects and of course, to a satisfactory extent.
Opportunities are made available to him to work on different kinds of machines,
so that he is exposed to various kinds of manufacturing process.

As a students learn more and more his hold on production technology becomes
stronger. He attains a stage of perfection, when he himself is able to design and
fabricate a device.

This is the project work. That is the testimony for the strenuous training, which
the student had in the institute. This assures that he is no more a student, he is an
engineer.

This report discuses the necessity of the project and various aspects of planning ,
design, selection of materials, fabrication, erection, estimation and testing.

SYNOPSIS

Electric brakes a type of the braking system not very popular can be used
commercially in passenger cars as they have several advantages. Electromagnetic
brakes are used in other fields such as bottling plants. They are used for bringing
the assembly to a quick stop each time for filling up the bottles.

In this project we propose to deal with a new type of electromagnetic brake


using solenoid switch. Most magnetic breaking relay on the attractive force
generated within a gap magnetic circuit which generates forces on the supported
shaft because this force is quadratic magnetic flux intensity in the circuit: it is
only possible to pull the shaft to accomplish bi or multidirectional control of the
shaft.

Several electromagnets are arranged around the shaft and are operated
differentially to improve the linearity and dynamic performance of these
differentially arranged magnets. It is commons to free bias the air gaps with
constant flux density. This biasing can be accomplished in a number of ways but
usually it is done by applying a biasing current to the oils, which energize
the magnetic circuits.

The primary advantages of this scheme a reduction in electrical power


consumption. Magnetic bearings employ the repulsive forces of opposed
magnetic fields generated by electromagnets in this slider and the base. They
achieve straight line accuracy to 0.00004- inches / foot through a control loop
that employs capacity, proximately sensos in position feed back for controlling
the amplifiers that generate the magnetic fields.

Magnetic breaking can support loads in excess of 1000 pounds, magnetic


Breaking have no moving parts to wear and can be used in vacuum condition
soothers is no friction in contact places.

The electro magnetic brake operates in 12VDC power supply. When the
supply given to the electromagnetic coil which pulls the brake lever to apply the
brake to the rotating wheel.
BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF A BRAKE:
The brake must be strong enough to stop the vehicle with a minimum
distance. The distance should be the shortest during Emergency braking. The
distance moved by the vehicle after the application of the brake is known as
braking.

The brakes must have good ant fade characteristic. In other words the
brakes should not loose their effectiveness on prolonged application. This is
only possible by proper and effective cooling of brakes.

PURPOSE OF BRAKES:

1. To control the speed of the vehicle as well as to stop it when and where
desired quickly and efficiently without sticking.
2. To keep the vehicle is any possible position after it had been actually
brought to a complete rest when the driver is not present.
3. These purposes are accomplished by providing two independent braking
systems in a motor vehicle service brake and a parking (or) emergency on
hand brake.

PRINCIPLES OF BRAKING
PRINCIPLES OF BRAKING:

The principle of braking is the reverse of that applied during accelerating


a vehicle. in accelerating, the heat energy of the fuel is converted into the
power of kinetic energy is converted into heat by means of friction produced
between low mating surface of the brake drum. similar to the effective effort
produced at the peripheries of the driving of the motor vehicle, the braking torque
introduced at the brakes drums due to application of brake produces a retarding
effort (or) a negative attractive effort is limited bay the adhesion available
between the brake lining and the brake drum similar to the limit providing by the
adhesion available between the wheels and the grant. the force of friction (or)
force exerted on the shoes by the retarding mechanism and the co-efficient of
friction for the two materials.

BRAKE TESTING:
BRAKE TESTING:

When the vehicle is moving, it can be stopped by applying the brakes. It is


to be noted here that brake pedals cannot be passed instantaneously and the
vehicle cannot be stopped instantaneously. First the drive thinks, then lift the leg.,
presses the brake pedal and the vehicle stops after moving some distance. So it is
necessary to note how much time is required to stop the vehicle and how long it
will travel after applying the brake. These two factors are directly dependent on
the speed o the vehicle.

STOP TEST:

For testing the brakes, this test is usually adopted by mechanical or driver
after overhauling the brakes the moves the vehicle at a speed and suddenly applies
the brakes. Then he checks how much time it has taken to stop and how long it
has moved after spring the brakes. Also, he sees the impressions of the four tyres
on the road, whether equal or not, and whether the vehicle is pulling a side or not.

STOP WATCH TEST:

To perform this test, the vehicle is moved at about 70km/hr. then the brakes are
applied. The time and distance are noted.

Let T = time taken to stop the vehicle after applying the brakes.

D = distance moved by the vehicle after applying the brakes.


Then, brake efficiency is given by

N = (D-T2)*6 ¼

Brake testers are also used for testing the brakes. They work on the principle of
decelerometer. Taply brake meter is a type of brake tester. This brake meter is
placed on the vehicle floor for testing the brakes. It consists of a round ring with
numbers. There is a pendulum inside the dial which remain dipped in oil. As
soon as the brake are applied, the vehicle speed decreases which causes the
pendulum ring to move. The number on the ring gives reading which can be
obtained by an inspection plate.

BRAKE SERVICE
BRAKE SERVICE:

Following is the procedure to service the brakes

1. Check the fluid level in the master cylinder


2. Check brake pedal adjustments.
3. Check brake pedal travel: If the pedal travels more than halfway to the
floor, the brakes may require adjusting to compensate for lining wear or
they may be require relining.
4. If the brakes pull to one side after adjustment, check tyre pressure. All
tyros must be inflated to recommended pressures to ensure even braking.
Check brake linings for foreign materials and clean as required. If the
side pull persists, check from wheel alignment and balance.
5. Check the bake system for leaks by applying a steady pressure on the
break pedal. If the pedal falls away the break system has leak somewhere.
Find the leak points and remove them.
6. A spongy brake pedal indicates the presence of air in the hydraulic
system. This condition must be corrected by bleeding the brakes.
7. If the brakes become locked so that the vehicle cannot be moved the
brakes must be released by opening, the bleeder screw on any one of the
wheel cylinders.

DESCRIPTION OF BRAKE SYSTEM


INTRODUCTION
Brakes are one of the most important control components of the vehicle. They
are required to stop the vehicle within the smallest possible distance and this is
done by converting the kinetic energy of the wheels into the heat energy which
is dissipated into the atmosphere.

Types of brakes based on method of actuation:

1. Mechanical brakes

2. Hydraulic brakes

3. Electric and electronic brakes

4. Vacuum brakes

5. Air brakes

Types of brakes based on application

1. Drum brakes

2. Disc brakes

3. Parking Brakes

DRUM BRAKES

The modern automobile drum brake was invented in 1902 by Louis Renault,
though a less - sophisticated drum brake had been used by Maybach a
year earlier. In the first drum brakes, the shoes were mechanically
operated with levers and rods or cables. From the mid-1930s the shoes were
operated with oil pressure in a small wheel cylinder and pistons, though some
vehicles continued with purely-mechanical systems for decades. Some designs
have two wheel cylinders.
The shoes in drum brakes are subject to wear and the brakes needed to be
adjusted regularly until the introduction of self adjusting drum brakes in the

1950s. In the 1960s and 1970s brake drums on the front wheel of cars were
gradually replaced with disc brakes and now practically all cars use disc brakes
on the front wheels, with many offering disc brakes on all wheels. However,
drum brakes are still often used for handbrakes as it has proved very difficult to
design a disc brake suitable for holding a car when it is not in use. Moreover, it
is very easy to fit a drum handbrake inside a disc brake so that one unit serves
for both footbrake and handbrake.

Early type brake shoes contained asbestos. When working on brake


systems of older cars, care must be taken not to inhale any dust present in the
brake assembly. The United States Federal Government began to regulate
asbestos production, and brake manufactures had to switch to non- asbestos
linings. Owners initially complained of poor braking with the replacements;
however, technology eventually advanced to compensate. A majority of daily-
driven older vehicles have been fitted with asbestos-free linings. Many other
countries also limit the use of asbestos in brakes.
Drum brakes consist of a backing plate, brake shoes, brake drum, wheel
cylinder, return springs and an automatic or self-adjusting system. When you
apply the brakes, brake fluid is forced, under pressure, into the wheel cylinder
which, in turn, pushes the brake shoes into contact with the machined surface on
the inside of the drum. When the pressure is released, return springs pull the shoes
back to their rest position. As the brake linings wear, the shoes must travel a
greater distance to reach the drum. When the distance reaches a certain point, a
self-adjusting mechanism automatically reacts by adjusting the rest position of
the shoes so that they are closer to the drum.

BRAKE SHOES

Like the disc pads, brake shoes consist of a steel shoe with the friction
material or lining riveted or bonded to it. Also like disc pads, the linings
eventually wear out and must be replaced. If the linings are allowed to wear
through to the bare metal shoe, they will cause severe damage to the brake drum.

BACKING PLATE

The backing plate is what holds everything together. It attaches to the


axle and forms a solid surface for the wheel cylinder, brake shoes and assorted
hardware. It rarely causes any problems.
BRAKE DRUM

Brake drums are made of iron and have a machined surface on the inside where
the shoes make contact. Just as with disc rotors, brake drums will show signs of
wear as the brake linings seat themselves against the machined surface of the
drum. When new shoes are installed, the brake drum should be machined
smooth. Brake drums have a maximum diameter specification that is stamped
on the outside of the drum. When a drum is machined, it must never exceed that
measurement. If the surface cannot be machined within that limit, the drum
must be replaced.

WHEEL CYLINDER

The wheel cylinder consists of a cylinder that has two pistons, one on each side.
Each piston has a rubber seal and a shaft that connects the piston with a brake
shoe. When brake pressure is applied, the pistons are forced out pushing the shoes
into contact with the drum. Wheel cylinders must be rebuilt or replaced if they
show signs of leaking.
The major components of the drum brake assembly is shown in the following
figure the detailed exploded view of drum brake components.

RETURN SPRINGS

Return springs pull the brake shoes back to their rest position after the pressure is
released from the wheel cylinder. If the spring are weak and do not return the
shoes all the way, it will cause premature lining wear because the linings will
remain in contact with the drum. A good technician will examine the springs
during a brake job and recommend their replacement if they show signs of fatigue.
On certain vehicles, the technician may recommend replacing them even if they
look good as inexpensive insurance.

SELF ADJUSTING SYSTEM


The parts of a self adjusting system should be clean and move freely to insure
that the brakes maintain their adjustment over the life of the linings. If the
self adjusters stop working, you will notice that you will have to step down
further and further on the brake pedal before you feel the brakes begin to
engage. Disc brakes are self adjusting by nature and do not require any type of
mechanism. When a technician performs a brake job, aside from checking the
return springs, he will also clean and lubricates the self adjusting parts where
necessary.

PARKING BREAKS

The parking brake (a.k.a. emergency brake) system controls the rear brakes
through a series of steel cables that are connected to either a hand lever or a foot
pedal. The idea is that the system is fully mechanical and completely by passes
the hydraulic system so that the vehicle can be brought to a stop even if there is
a total brake failure.
In drum brakes, the cable pulls on a lever mounted in the rear brake and is
directly connected to the brake shoes. This has the effect of by passing the
wheel cylinder and controlling the brakes directly.

1. Support plate

2. Park brake shoes

3. Equalize

4. Springs

5. Hold down clips

6. Adjuster

Disc brakes on the rear wheels add additional complication for parking brake
systems. There are two main designs for adding a mechanical parking brake to
rear disc brakes. The first type uses the existing rear wheel caliper and adds a
lever attached to a mechanical corkscrew device inside the caliper piston.
When the parking brake cable pulls on the lever, this corkscrew device pushes
the piston against the pads, thereby bypassing the hydraulic system, to stop the
vehicle. This type of system is primarily used with single piston floating calipers,
if the caliper is of the four piston fixed type, then that type of system can’t be
used. The other system uses a complete mechanical drum brake unit mounted
inside the rear rotor. The brake shoes on this system are connected to a lever that
is pulled by the parking brake cable to activate the brakes. The brake “drum” is
actually the inside part of the rear brake rotor.

On cars with automatic transmissions, the parking brake is rarely used. This can
cause a couple of problems. The biggest problem is that the brake

cables tend to get corroded and eventually size up causing the parking brake to
become inoperative. By using the parking brake from time to time, the cables stay
clean and functional. Another problem comes from the fact that the self adjusting
mechanism on certain brake systems uses the parking brake actuation to adjust
the brakes. If the parking brake is never used, then the brakes never get adjusted.

DISC BRAKES

INTRODUCTION

Disc brakes consist of a metal disc attached to the wheel hub that rotates with the
wheel. Calipers are attached to the frame or fork along with pads that squeeze
together on the disc. Such brakes have been successfully used on motorcycles for
decades, and been the principal choice there. The disc brake is a lot like the brakes
on bicycle. Bicycle brakes have a caliper, which squeezes the brake pads against
the wheel. In a disc brake, the brake pads squeeze the rotor instead of the wheel,
and the force is transmitted hydraulically instead of through a cable. Friction
between the pads and the disc slows the disc down.

CONSTRUCTION

Theory Of Conventional Hydraulic Disc Brake


A Disc brake uses a flat, round disc or rotor, attached to the wheel hub instead of
a drum. Brake pads are positioned on the opposite sides of the rotor and are
mounted in the brake caliper. The caliper contains the hydraulic piston used to
apply the shoes and to transmit the braking forces from the shoes to the
suspension members.

All disc brakes are non energized, non servo brakes; lining pressure is
directly proportional to brake pedal pressure. Centrifugal force will throw the
contaminants off the rotor. A disc brake will have much cooler operation than
drum brakes because of increased area that is exposed to the air flowing past it.

All modern automotive brake system uses a hydraulic system to transmit the
application forces from the brake pedal to the brake shoes.

The brake’s hydraulic system begins at the master cylinder. The master
cylinder is basically a piston type hydraulic pump operated by the brake pedal.
As brake pedal is pushed, brake fluid is pumped to the caliper or wheel cylinder
piston. This fluid pushes on the pistons, which push the brake shoes against the
rotor.

ADVANTAGES OF DISC BRAKES OVER DRUM BRAKES

 In case of disc brakes the frictions surface is directly exposed to the


cooling air, so the heat dissipation is much easier in disc brake than drum
brakes.
 The frictional surface in case of disc brakes are flat when compared to
curved surface of drum brakes, this mean in disc brakes there is uniform
wear.
 Frictional pad material is not subjected to any bending, thereby
increasing the range of materials from which to choose the suitable one.
 The design of disc brakes is such that there is no loss efficiency due to
expansion, as the system becomes hot, expansion of drum of
internally expanded shoe types if brake tends to move the friction surface
apart, causing a loss of effective pedal travel, on the friction surfaces
slightly without tending to increase the clearance.
 Disc brake weigh less than their conventional drum type counterpart a
saving approximately 20% being possible.
 Disc brake has a better anti fade characteristics than drum brakes.

DISADVANTAGES

 Any leakages of hydraulic fluid leads to brake failure


 Air bubbles if any got trapped in the hydraulic circuit will result is brake
failure.
 Sufficient level of brake fluid should always be maintained all the time.
 Hydraulic disc brakes usually require relatively specialized tools to bleed
the brake systems.
 Repairs on the trail are difficult to perform, whereas mechanical disc
brakes rarely fail completely.
Considering the above mentioned advantages and superior nature of disc brakes
we decided to choose modifications in disc brakes to make it much simpler and
more effective and cheaper design.

HYDRAULIC VS MECHANICAL

Two main disc brake systems exist: hydraulic and mechanical (cable- actuated).
Mechanical disc brakes (which are almost always less expensive than hydraulic)
have less modulation than hydraulic disc brake systems, and since the cable is
usually open to the outside, mechanical disc brake tend to pick up small bits of
dirt and grit in the cable lines when ridden in harsh terrain. Hydraulic disc rakes
use fluid from a reservoir, pushed through a hose, to actuate the pistons in the
disc caliper that then actuate the pads. Hydraulic disc brake systems generally
keep contaminants out better. However, since hydraulic disc brakes usually
require relatively specialized tools to bleed the brake systems, repairs on the
trail are difficult to perform, whereas mechanical disc brakes rarely fail
completely. Hydraulic disc brakes occasionally require bleeding of the
brake lines to remove air bubbles. There are two types of brake fluid
used in disc brakes today: mineral oil and DOT flu