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News analysis Health Business

New accusations Exercise is 2018/19 budget Insurer’s minimum capital


against Kayihura medicine proposal requirement goes up

Issue No. 558 Feb. 08 - 14 2019 Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

Rebel ghosts haunt


DP, Norbert Mao
His 2021 plan now involves dealing
with Mabikke, Bwanika return

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Feb. 08 - 14 2019
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Issue No. 558 Feb. 08 - 14 2019

News analysis Business Health Arts Motoring

Cover story
Rebel ghosts haunt DP’s Norbert Mao
His 2021 plan now involves dealing with Mabikke, Bwanika return

4 The Week
30 Comments
Court to rule on Nyanzi’s
case on Feb.15 Personal commitment to fight
cancer: Whoever you are, you
have the power to reduce the
9 The Last Word
impact of cancer for yourself, the
Wrong thinking on health services: people you love and for the world
Why expecting a Ugandan peasant to
have the same quality of healthcare
32 Health
as an American is madness
Exercise is medicine:
Doctors should be
14 Analysis
prescribing it
Wanted: Genuine oil investors:
How pressure on oil refinery, pipeline
pushed Uganda to agree to end secret deals
35 Arts & Culture
27 Business
Different But One 23: Annual
2018/19 budget proposal: academic-artists’ exhibit emphasises
Economists welcome debt repayment but research and collaboration
decry budget cuts for social sectors

STRATEGY & EDITORIAL DIRECTOR: Andrew M. Mwenda WRITERS:Ronald Musoke, Flavia Nassaka, Ian Katusiime,
MANAGING EDITOR: Joseph Were Agnes Nantaba, Julius Businge.
INVESTIGATIONS EDITOR: Haggai Matsiko DESIGN/LAYOUT: Sarah Ngororano
BUSINESS EDITOR: Isaac Khisa CARTOONIST: Harriet Jamwa
PHOTOGRAPHER: Jimmy Siya

PUBLISHER: Independent Publications Limited, Plot 82/84, Kanjokya Street, P. O. Box 3304, Kampala, Uganda
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2 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
Offline

“I am proposing that courts have


their own security officials to carry
out execution. I am proposing that
evictions should be carried out under
strict supervision of court.”Justice
Remmy Kasule while appearing before the
Bamugemereire Land Commission

Prayagraj, India: Newly


initiated holy men sit on
the banks of the Ganges
during the Kumbh Mela

“My team and I are seriously considering


challenging President Museveni in
the next presidential election.”Robert
Kyagulanyi, MP for Kyadondo East

Taipei, Taiwan:
Commuters ride
motorcycles across
a bridge from the
Sanchung district. The
mass of bikers moving
down the bridge has
been nicknamed the
Motorbike Waterfall. It
attracts many tourists
and photographers
every morning “I will request that everybody who
does legal training from a recognised
Herzliya, Israel: High university is given an opportunity to go
school students to Law Development Centre (LDC) and fail
training for the Israeli
military crawl through
under their own weight.”Kahinda Otafiire,
sand dunes on their Minister for Justice and Constitutional Affairs at
bellies the opening of the Law Year

Suspects arrested in
1825
F4 Candidates whose results Pieces of ivory
17 connection with attacks on
motorists on Lugogo bypass
are being held by UNEB over
alleged malpractice
2000 URA intercepted
last week

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 3
week
Government
clarifies on new
e-passport
After a rant on social media
over the new e-passport, gov-
ernment clarified on Jan.01 that
they are in the process of notify-
ing all foreign embassies and
consulates about the change in
travel documents.
This was after a Ugandan
travelling to Denmark was
denied a visa over using the
East African Community
e-passport.
Anne Ostman, a Danish
Consular officer in Nairobi told
the applicant that “you have
applied using the new Ugan-
dan EAC passport that was
launched in December 2018.
Unfortunately, this passport is
Court to rule on Nyanzi’s case on Feb.15
not yet approved by the Danish Jailed Makerere University Researcher Dr. disturb their peace, quiet and right to
authorities therefore we cannot Stella Nyanzi who has been in prison since privacy.
issue a visa for this passport.” December over posts she made on social The law provides that a person who
Ostman further told the media appeared again to Buganda road wilfully and repeatedly uses electronic
applicant that “we do not know court last week but without applying for communication to disturb or attempts to
how long it takes for this new bail she was returned to Luzira prison until disturb the peace or right of privacy of
passport to be approved… we Feb.15. This is when they will rule whether any person with no purpose of legitimate
will inform VFS in Kampala
she has a case to answer or not. communication is liable on conviction to
not to accept applications with
Earlier, the researcher through her lawyer a fine not exceeding twenty-four currency
the new passport for the time
Isaac Semakadde had raised a primary points or imprisonment not exceeding one
being.”
objection against the charges that they year or both.
According to Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, this rejection by do not disclose the specific offence she In regard to cyber harassment, a person
the Danish government is only allegedly committed, rendering it defective. who wilfully, maliciously and repeatedly
temporary as the process of its Nyanzi is charged with two counts uses electronic communication to harass
clearance is almost complete. of cyber harassment and offensive another person and makes a threat with the
The issuance of the regional communication in regard to her alleged intent to place that person in reasonable
e-Passport started on December indecent communication against President fear for his or her safety commits the crime
10, 2018 when government Yoweri Museveni and his late mother of cyberstalking and is liable to a fine or
announced that they are phas- Esiteeri Kokundeka. Prosecution led by imprisonment term not exceeding five years
ing out of the current national Janat Kitimbo alleges that on September or both.
passports an exercise they 16, 2018, Nyanzi posted indecent words Nyanzi was arrested in November and
anticipate to end in 2021. By against the president and his late mother has never gotten bail. She recently revealed
this time, they expect every on her Facebook wall. According to the that she suffered a miscarriage while in
Ugandan travelling to be using prosecution, the posts were intended to incarceration.
the new passport.

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4 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
Week

Parliament speaks out on Kadaga witchcraft claim Kagame is new head


Documents stamped by the High court of Jinja it that Kadaga procured his services so that she of the EAC summit
have been making rounds on social media in could immediately become an MP, get appointed
which a one Damiano Akuze accuses speaker of minister and speaker of parliament and be driven After several
parliament Rebecca Kadaga for not paying his in a convoy like the president in exchange for a postponements, Presidents
debt of Shs200million. payment of shs.204,500,000. He did this but his of the East African
Akuze, a witch doctor from Kamuli district services were never paid for, Akuze claims. Community (EAC) met
claims Kadaga used his services in the 1990s but “We hope and pray that Akuze’s comical and in the Tanzanian city of
never paid. A statement was released by parlia- fraudulent allegations will be dismissed by court”, Arusha on Feb.01. The
ment on Feb.01 responding to these claims calling Kibirige said any sober minded person can dis- summit which has aborted
them defamatory. cern the malice aforethought that is embedded in twice – first on Nov. 30
In the statement, Clerk of parliament Jane this mischief by the speaker’s detractors. when Burundi pulled out
Kibirige says that Akuze’s litany of claims has forcing its cancellation and
Dec.27 when the meeting
didn’t happen due to
Uganda marks world cancer day unclear reasons focused
on among others, non-
tariff barriers, integration
of South Sudan into the
cooperation and verifying
the admission of Somalia.
During the meeting
Rwanda President
Paul Kagame was
named chairman of the
community summit
replacing Uganda’s Yoweri
Museveni who has been
holding the position
since 2017. Before them,
Tanzania’s John Pombe
Magufuli was the head.
Burundi’s Pierre
Nkuruziza and South
Sudan’s Salva Kiir
A work out event was one of the activities organized to mark the day. Inactivity is one of
the reasons cited by experts as to why more people are reporting with cancer. didn’t make it but
sent representatives.
Nkurunziza however has
World Cancer Day is is driven towards individual one’s chance of succumbing been the reason as to why
celebrated every Feb. 04. It is a efforts in the fight against if they test positive. As it is the previous meeting
day when organizations and cancer where they implore now, an estimated 9.5 million couldn’t take place as he
people around the world unite everyone to ask themselves people worldwide died of protested because leaders
to raise awareness about cancer what they should do to fight cancer in 2018 – about 26,000 hadn’t paid attention
and work to make it a global cancer. cancer deaths a day - a number to Burundi’s worsening
health priority. This year, the The focus for Uganda predicted to grow. At the relations with Rwanda
day was marked under the was on cancer screening as Uganda Cancer Institute, 80 out following an attempted
theme, ‘I am and I will’. This early detection means early of every 100 people diagnosed coup in Bujumbura in 2015.
theme according to activists treatment which can reduce with cancer die every year.

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Feb. 08 - 14 2019 5
Week

Parliament intervenes
in Apaa land wrangle
An on-going land conflict in Apaa
where over 600 have been displaced was
discussed in parliament on Jan.31 follow-
ing a brawl between the conflicting par-
ties. Recently, hundreds of grass thatched
houses were burnt injuring scores.
The Speaker of Parliament Rebecca Kad-
aga has now directed the government to
intervene by initially providing food and
We are seriously considering challenging Museveni, Wine protection to the displaced persons. The
speaker’s directive came after Kilak North
Kyaddondo East legislator Robert Kyagu- card which is a requirement for one to be MP Anthony Akol said that the army and
lanyi Bobi Wine has revealed in an inter- able to vote. This has been picked up by Uganda Wildlife Authority-UWA were
view with CNN that he is considering run- his supporters who too are rallying people involved in evicting residents.
ning against Museveni in the next election. to get their documents although until last In 2015, Government planted mark
“Many people have come to me calling week many had not yet been clear on why stones in Apaa Village in Amuru district as
for me to stand. We have been discussing they are being asked to. it demarcated the boundaries between the
this issue with my team and I must say I According to a roadmap released by the two neighbouring districts amidst protests
and my team we are seriously considering Electoral Commission, the electoral process from Amuru residents.
challenging president Museveni …” he said starts in April with the demarcation of poll- Residents and leaders of Amuru
that many Ugandans registered as voters ing stations and end in January 2021 with claimed the mark stones were planted 31
but overwhelmingly Museveni looks like he elections. kilometres inside Amuru district. More
is the only way out. Now, in some opposition circles, there than 21 people were injured when police
In many of his Facebook posts, the musi- is a plan to front only one candidate to used live bullets to disperse those opposed
cian and politician has been urging Ugan- challenge president Museveni. Will this be to the demarcation exercise.
dans to go register for their national Identity Bobiwine?

*terms and conditions apply

AfricellUG @AfricellUG

6 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
Humour Did you know?
Facebook is merging
WhatsApp, Messenger,
and Instagram

Facebook is planning to integrate its


three instant messaging apps, WhatsApp,
Singer turned politician Bobi Wine is seriously considering to Facebook Messenger, and Instagram’s direct
go against Yoweri Museveni for presidency in 2021. message function, it has been revealed. The
plans come from Mark Zuckerberg, Face-
book’s CEO, himself, The New York Times
reports.
The three apps have, historically-
speaking, targeted different audiences, had
different uses, and different structures.
Zuckerberg even insisted when Facebook
first acquired them that Instagram and
WhatsApp would have a certain amount of
autonomy from their new owners. Lately,
certain functions have begun to appear in all
three of them – Instagram stories and Face-
book stories for example, and the equivalent
WhatsApp status – but the underlying
structure of the apps has remained different
and distinct. Not for long, apparently. The
change is expected between the end of the
year and the beginning of the next.
Zuckerberg has said that while the three
apps will continue to be standalone and sep-
Parliament has given Government up to the end of April to table electoral reforms. arate, their technical infrastructure will be
the same. This change will also allow users
to message each other from any of the three
apps without having to switch platform.
This move requires that every communi-
cation will be end-to-end encrypted, visible
only to the users and no-one else. Currently,
only WhatsApp provides that as a default
option. Facebook messenger allows encryp-
tion only in secret conversations, which can
be accessed from the app, but it’s not the
default. Instagram doesn’t have anything
like it. So, this is good news for privacy but
only if it is done properly. And given Face-
book’s track record, people have every right
to be skeptical.
This close integration is a significant
U-turn on the way the three platforms
have been run until today and many
speculate it is part of the reason why both
Instagram and WhatsApp’s founders
Makerere University staff have defied Vice Chancellor Prof stepped down from their board positions
Barnabas Nawangwe’s call to end strike and return to class. at Facebook last year.

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 7
New York, US: A Rubens drawing ‘Nude Study of Young Man with Raised Arms’ was auctioned for a record $8.2 million at Sotheby’s, New York.
The Last Word Opinion

Wrong thinking on health services


By Andrew M. Mwenda
Why expecting a Ugandan peasant to have the same
quality of healthcare as an American is madness

L
ast week, I attended the Advo- tion of 40 million people, you have per I have used the USA here because her
cates Coalition for Development capita revenue of Shs405,000 ($107) – in budget and its distribution are easily
and Environment (ACODE)’s Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) it is available online – but it represents a
monthly State of the Nation sem- $353. That is not enough to provide us typical rich country. In fact her peers
inar on public spending and governance with all the public goods and services in in Europe do much better with slightly
on the health sector in Uganda. Like the quantities and quality we demand. less spending. The point is that we are
all such conferences on African issues, So government goes to international expecting Tadeo Mukasa, a peasant in
context is always missing. So we discuss creditors and the domestic market to Masaka, to provide his children the
the state’s ability to deliver public goods borrow where it raises an extra Shs10 same quality of healthcare and educa-
and services as if poor countries have trillion. So this gives us a budget of Shs tion like Bill Gates does his. Its mad-
the same resources – both human and 26 trillion ($7.1 billion or $22.7 billion in ness!
financial – as rich nations. PPP). This brings public spending per The solution for poor countries in
To understand our frustrations with person to Shs 650,000 ($173 or $567 in fixing their healthcare problems has to
our governments, one has to first PPP). begin by identifying important priority
appreciate the mind-set. For most of Compare Uganda with the USA. This areas where they can have the highest
the educated elites in Africa, we have year, its budget is $7.56 trillion for a impact with their meagre resources i.e.
been indoctrinated with the ideology population of 328 million people, giving prioritisation. Prioritising everything
of a welfare state i.e. that government it public spending per person of $23,000. means you have prioritised nothing.
should provide a large basket of public It matters very little how wasteful the And they can begin with what we know.
goods and services to all her citizens for USA can be. This money is enough to The biggest cause of low life expectancy
free – health (especially medical), clean provide a large basket of public goods is high infant and child mortality rates.
water, education, electricity and roads. and services in large quantities and Too many kids die before their first and
When these services are poorly pro- of high quality. Even with all the best fifth birthday. This is where we need to
vided or not provided at all, we assume intentions and efficiencies, Uganda have the most effort.
that it is because of lack of “political simply cannot match this level of pro- The founder of social medicine,
will”, or corruption, or greed and self- viding for her people. Yet Uganda’s ide- Thomas McKoewn, drew a series of
ishness of our leaders. ology of a welfare state and its policies famous diagrams (on Europe) showing,
This explanation for poor delivery is on social service provision to its citizens for a whole series of diseases, that
even found in the works of the most is modelled on that of rich nations like mortality rates were falling before the
sophisticated academics and intel- the USA. introduction of effective treatment and
lectuals in Africa and the Western Coming to health specifically, look at continued to fall almost at the same
world. Yet the problem is very simple: what our most elites expect and what rate after its introduction. McKoewn
poor countries simply do not have the the government of Uganda promises: found that medicine was not very
resources – both financial and human – to provide every citizen, everywhere in useful in improving health. This led
to provide a large (or even small) basket the country, every time they are ill with him to conclude that the root of health
of public goods and services to all their all the treatment they need – for free. improvement lay in economic and social
citizens and for free in the quantity and Anyone looking at Uganda’s resources progress; especially better nutrition and
quality they demand and desire. and not burdened with the ideology of living conditions.
Corruption, absenteeism, incompe- a welfare state and not blinded by the The Nobel laureate in economics,
tence, etc. are consequences of the state mind-set that the state has to do this Angus Deaton, in his book: `The Great
trying to do too much for everyone, would consider our government insane Escape’ shows that improvement in
everywhere, all the time on a string in making such a promise given the health is best realised by improvements
budget, not a result of “cruel, selfish and resources at its disposal. in public health interventions such as
greedy African leaders who don’t care Let us look at the numbers. This finan- sanitation, access to clean water, vector
about their people” as the common nar- cial year the USA will spend $1.7 trillion control and primary health interven-
rative in the media and academia, both on health, Uganda Shs2.3 trillion ($612m tions such as immunisation and vaccina-
in Africa and the West, has postulated. or $2.0 billion in PPP). This gives the tion. These interventions are effective
Put simply, the state in most of Africa is USA per capita health spending of and cheap yet positively impact the vast
over-developed in functions but under- $5,200 while Uganda’s is Shs57,000 majority of the people. They are also the
developed in capacity, so its reach goes ($15.3 or 50.2 in PPP). I have constantly only affordable interventions by govern-
far beyond its grasp. That is the main adjusted figures to PPP because it tells ments of poor countries
source of all our continent’s frustrations us better the number of hospitals, medi-
and recriminations. cines, equipment, nurses, doctors etc. amwenda@independent.co.ug
Let me illustrate. This financial year, that Uganda has to procure and the
Uganda’s total revenue is Shs16.2 tril- prices it has to pay in her own national
lion ($4.3 billion). Divided by a popula- currency.

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 9
cover story

Rebel ghosts haunt


DP’s Norbert Mao
His 2021 plan now involves dealing
with Mabikke, Bwanika return
cover story

(L-R) Micheal Mabikke, legislators Muwanga Kivumbi and Kyagulanyi Ssentamu and DP's spokesperson Samuel Kakande at the party reunion meeting.

M
By Flavia Nassaka the multiparty dispensation and DP In May last year, Mabikke who has
did not name him its flag-bearer in struggled for relevance since losing
ichael Mabikke is his Makindye East constituency. his parliamentary seat in 2011, silently
a distinctive figure So Mabikke ran as an Independent championed a meeting of DP members
in the Democratic candidate and trounced both the DP from across the country. His agenda, he
Party (DP). Chatty and ruling NRM party candidates. said, was to attract those that had left
and squat and A year to the next election in 2011, to return and solve the party’s internal
plumb with mid-age, Mabikke formed his own party; the wrangles.
he recently returned to his “mother Social Democratic Party (SDP) in 2010. Many defiant DP stalwarts, like
party”, DP, after a long sojourn. And He ran for parliament and lost. Then in Masaka Municipality MP Mathias
that, a DP insider who knows Mabikke 2014, two years before the 2016 national Mpuuga and Butambala MP Muwanga
well recently told The Independent, elections, he first attempted to change Kivumbi who have for long been
means there is trouble ahead for DP. the SDP name to the `Party of National opposed to Mao’s leadership at City
Apparently, it is a generally held Unity’ and in 2015 switched to join The House attended the reunion meeting at
belief within DP that whenever Democratic Alliance (TDA) coalition Makerere University Rugby Grounds
Mabikke shows up at the City House with former Prime Minister Amama in Kampala on Mabikke’s persuasion.
party headquarters in Kampala, it Mbabazi’s Go Forward group. Later, in September, another reunion
usually signals trouble ahead. So when This time, it appears, he has set his was held in the party stronghold region
we met him on Jan.30, we asked him if sights on finding significance in the of Masaka. Opposition politicians from
his recent return to City House, once 2021 elections with DP as his base. other parties attended but it ended in
again spells trouble. He smiled briefly, He announced his return to the DP chaos.
and then curtly said: “Not this time”. in the company of another perennial Mabikke says they had planned a
It had been ten days since Mabikke presidential election figurehead, Abed number of caravans across the country
announced that he had returned after a Bwanika; the president of the Peoples but were briefly put on hold following
long sojourn that begun in 2005. Over Development Party (PDP) who got the violence in Masaka. Since then, he
that period, he had entered parliament 0.9% of the vote in the 2016 presidential says, he has been working behind the
as an independent, formed his own race – his third attempt. Together, with scenes on his “greater plan” to ensure
party in 2010, attempted to change Mabikke, they believe they are natural that come 2021, the opposition gives
its name in 2014, was sued, joined leaders of DP; having been founder the ruling NRM a tough defeat.
an amorphous coalition in 2015, and members of the party youth wing – “Even if we didn’t want to reunite,
backed a presidential candidate who the Uganda Young Democrats (UYD). the circumstances now dictate that,”
flopped in 2016. That is partly the reason they walked he told The Independent. In his book,
Mabikke’s fumbles often happen out of DP when, in 2010, Norbert he says, returning to DP is step one to
around national election time. He Mao who some consider of lesser DP achieving his greater agenda.
had left the party in 2005 just before pedigree won the party presidency at a Since Mabikke’s departure from the
the 2006 national elections after controversial delegates conference. party, many others; especially vocal
disagreeing with then-DP President members of parliament and other
General, John Sebaana Kizito. Then, UYD regroups politicians either left the party or came
Mabikke said Sebaana Kizito was a Mabikke says his group has realised up with pressure groups within the
conservative who had no space for that UYD has been around for some party.
vibrant members like him. He says time and has groomed leaders who are Opposition firebrand and Kampala
the party had sectarian tendencies, everywhere - even in the ruling NRM City Lord Mayor Erias Lukwago,
and moved at a very slow pace. The party. For him, that cadreship alone is Mpuuga, Kivumbi and Mukono
2006 polls were the first election under enough to create change. municipality MP Betty Nambooze

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 11
cover story

Mabikke (c) during a press briefing where he declared his return to DP.

Bakireke in 2011 formed the Ssuubi But if, as is being predicted, Mabikke NRM.”
Coalition with top figures of the has returned to cause trouble in DP, He says, despite this, DP had
Buganda kingdom establishment. They the person who has to clean up that surrendered its role to FDC - a newer
agreed to support FDC presidential mess is party President Nobert Mao. At party, and a mere break away from
candidate Col Dr. Kizza Besigye even the press briefing, Mao sounded like NRM. Now he says, the FDC “is
when their party, DP, had fielded one who has thought deeply about the disintegrating” with internal fights
Norbert Mao. issue. He said the returnees, who he and breakaways by the Gen. Mugisha
But Mabikke says those shenanigans calls “defectors” must have realised Muntu faction.
are now behind them. This time, come that DP is not a party that can be easily “Most of them are soldiers, they
2021, he and colleagues have thought it washed away. He also said he runs an don’t know civilian organisation. They
wise to reunite. open door system where he can never are more conversant with military
He says the need for a return to block other democracy seeking forces organisation,” he says.
the DP fold was started by deceased from joining DP. Mabikke says his current plan, after
Secretary General Mathias Nsubuga “We have had deep and serious bringing back active but scattered
in the lead up to the 2016 elections. talks with them and have solved our members, is to set up a strategy that
Nsubuga, says Mabikke, left the work differences to a large extent. You know will involve other opposition political
half done and the mantle was handed we have learnt from our history and it parties. The plan is to launch what
to Issa Kikungwe who has also since dictates doing things differently. We they have called ‘One to One Model’
passed on. are now trying to think outside the at the center of which is fronting one
When the unity plan was recently confines of the region, personal egos,” opposition candidate against Museveni
reignited, Mabikke says they tested it he said. in the 2021 presidential polls and one
on the recent by-elections where they “DP is well entrenched and has a candidate for both local government
resolved to initially lookout for UYD good international network, and only positions and the parliamentary slots
members that are scattered all over. requires little to refocus”. across the country.
“We went to Jinja, DP had a The “zoning” as they are calling
candidate but we put our weight Mabikke seems to agree. it, is already done according to
behind Paul Mwiru even as his party He said they realised that the DP is a Samuel Walter Lubega; a 2011
FDC wasn’t supporting him. In Bugiri, superior organisation to the Forum for presidential candidate. He adds that
we chose to rally behind JEEMA’s Democratic Change (FDC) which has the “collective forces of change will
Asuman Basalirwa. In Arua, we been the leading opposition party for agree on one candidate who has the
decided to back Kasiano Wadri. He the last 15 years. biggest advantage to trounce an NRM
wasn’t a UYD but he played a great “The opposition has suffered many candidate”.
role in the DP parliamentary caucus,” setbacks in these 15 years, because Under the zoning approach,
Mabikke says. FDC didn’t have tested cadres and the Mabikke and company have allocated
Some cynics would say Mabikke is organisational prowess DP has,” he constituencies to parties according to
clinging on other people’s victories, says, “In fact FDC actually brought areas where, according to them, the
after all success has many fathers. rivalry in areas that had been covered parties have a comparative advantage.
by DP instead of going to areas that According to their already announced
Norbert Mao’s plan had not yet been liberated from the preliminary planning, DP will take

12 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
cover story
charge over Buganda, parts of Busoga,
Bukedi, Acholi and parts of west Nile.
FDC will reign in Kigezi, Ankole,
Bugisu, Bunyoro and Sebei regions,
the yet to be registered group of Maj.
Gen. Mugisha Muntu will take over the
Rwenzori region whereas Karamoja
and Lango will be covered by the
Uganda People’s Congress.
“There is no reason why DP should
go to Kigezi in a general election
yet there’s an opposition party with
comparative advantage. We are
borrowing this from economics but
we know it will help minimize inter-
opposition party rivalry. It’s not
healthy and has partly been responsible
for our loss to NRM in some areas,”
Lubega says.

Unrealistic coalitions
According to Lubega, their next
move is to sell this plan to colleagues in
other opposition parties. Lubega says
under the approach, the opposition
will have to next year conduct primary
elections where whoever wants to
stand for presidency in the general
election will be asked to stand and
then voters make a choice by standing
behind the candidate of their choice.
“We can’t afford an expensive
primary but if we agree, whoever
emerges victorious will be the one
to stand and defeat the dictator
(Museveni),” he said. TDA, it was an issue of egos where all
He says they have learnt from the candidates wanted to be leaders.”
previous experience with coalitions
that most of the decisions failed DP will take “I was more of an observer in that
alliance. I told them disagreements
because they were made in boardrooms
and did not involve voters and the charge over should be for advancement not to
stifle,” he says.
grassroots supporters.
“That’s why the likes of Col. Dr. Buganda, parts For the One to One approach to
work, he says, leaders of the different
Kizza Besigye could afford to disagree
with the TDA – The Democratic of Busoga, political organisations need to
harmonise their policies and agree
Alliance chosen candidate in 2016,” he
says, “all coalitions we have had before Bukedi, Acholi on what they need to achieve in an
election since they already know the

and parts of
haven’t been realistic.” country is in a crisis and yet they are
He reasons that even if they don’t faced with a very powerful ruling

west Nile. FDC


defeat the NRM at the top, they will be party.
able to get more slots at parliament and For him, even if the president

will reign in
at the local government level. remains but the opposition gets more
Currently, of the 459 MPs in representation in parliament, it would

Kigezi, Ankole,
parliament, only 60 slots belong to the help persuade government to pay
opposition combined, smaller than attention to the needs of the people.

Bugisu,
independents who are the second Mabikke has been in many coalitions
biggest group at 67. The rest belong to and tested all ideas. In 2011 he threw

Bunyoro and
the NRM. Some 91 slots were just gifted his weight behind Col. Kizza Besigye
away by the opposition to the NRM but crossed to John Patrick Amama
as they didn’t front any candidates in Mbabazi in 2016 where he was the
those constituencies.
Zachary Olum; a DP historical
Sebei regions spokesperson for their GO- Forward
pressure group. How he handles his
and former member of the National return to DP will show what lessons he
Resistance Council believes a coalition has learned.
can work well for the opposition. But,
he insists, there must be “good will”.
“Those involved should put aside
their selfish interests,” he says, “In

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 13
news analysis

New accusations
against Kayihura
Better evidence or desperation by ISO, CMI?

By Haggai Matsiko that of Col. Ndahura Atwooki, the intelligence bodies are now

S
former director crime intelligence. investigating Kayihura over allegations
ince August 27 last year when Both officers have been under military that he instructed Herbert Muhangi to
he was released on bail, detention since when CMI arrested work with Congolese to steal vehicles
embattled former inspector them together with Richard Ndaboine, from Uganda to sell them in DR Congo
General of Police, Gen. Kale the former head of cyber intelligence. and raise Shs200 million per month for
Kayihura has appeared to be on the They are also facing charges of failure an unstated purpose.
road to rehabilitation and possible to protect war materials, aiding the Apparently, the security organs have
freedom. kidnap, and illegal repatriation of Congolese who are ready to confess
Many observes assumed his Rwandan nationals. that Kayihura, through Muhangi, was
privileges to have been partly restored But, The Independent can exclusively working with them.
when he received two brand new report, that Kayihura is not free to In another charge, the security
Toyota Land Cruisers—one from the travel around as was assumed and new agencies allege that Kayihura
army and another from police as part charges again him are being prepared instructed Abdul Kitatta; the jailed
of his privileges for serving the two by the Internal Security Organisation former head of the defunct Boda Boda
institutions. (ISO) and the Chieftaincy of Military 2010 to kill people with machetes in
Kayihura appeared to have Intelligence (CMI). Kampala and its suburbs. The goal was
unimpeded travel within the country Details remain scanty but The allegedly to discredit President Yoweri
and State House aided him as he Independent has learnt that the Museveni’s record on security.
applied for visas to travel with four Kitatta and 12 others were remanded
others including his wife and a military to Kigo prison in January last year by
officer to Germany for medical the army’s Unit Disciplinary Court
treatment. over charges of failure to protect war
Kayihura’s road to freedom was material, being in possession of military
even marked with an important stores, among others, following their
milestone, on Feb.04. That is arrest the same month.
when he would appear again Connecting Kitatta and Kayihura to
before the Military Court gangs that used machetes to kill people
Martial at Makindye military is a major accusation. The machete
barracks in Kampala on three wielding gangs sent shock waves
charges; failure to protect war across central Uganda in 2017 forcing
materials, aiding and abetting police to carry out a sting and arrest
kidnap, and illegal repatriation scores, some of who claimed they were
of Rwandese exiles. The Court working with police.
Martial is yet to give a hearing The killings by these gangs caused
date for the case and Kayihura a security crisis that saw President
appears at every beginning of Museveni instruct CMI to take over
month as part of the terms for his many police functions including
bail. arresting and detaining police officers
The same court was set to decide accused of working with criminal
on the bail applications of Kayihura’s elements.
co-accused; Herbert Muhangi, the
former commander of the defunct Resurrecting dead charges
Flying Squad Unit and That the security agencies are

14 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
news analysis
resurrecting these charges speaks indicated that Kale had also formed of the police Professional Standards
volumes about the direction they intend a new terrorist group called People’s Unit, Assistant Superintendent of Police
to take in terms of pinning the accused, Agency and that the same group has Magada, crime intelligence; Benon
insiders say. Capt. Charles Ssekayita, been throwing leaflets around the Atwebembeire, Sgt Abel Tumukunde,
who is representing Muhangi, based on country. the Kampala Metropolitan Police flying
Kayihura’s freedom to plea for bail for Apparently, ISO arrested a boda squad commander, Faisal Katende,
Muhangi at the last court martial sitting. boda rider linked to the group. Upon flying squad and Amon Kwarisima.
Ssekayita argued that Muhangi faces interrogation, the rider took them to his They were charged with unlawful
the same charges with former Police house, where ISO found a drone and possession of firearms and grenades
chief Gen. Kale Kayihura who was boom-making materials. ISO claimed to ordinarily a monopoly of the Defence
granted bail. “I pray that court follows have credible evidence that Kale is the Forces.
the same precedence and grant Muhangi one who formed People’s Agency. The group was also charged with
bail,” Ssekayita said. It is not the first time such accusations handing to the Rwanda government
Ssekayita pointed out that Muhangi are emerging. In July, Kaka paraded two prominent persons; one Lt. Joel
had spent 290 days in detention at before the press two youths who Mutabazi; a former presidential guard
Makindye military barracks without trial. confessed to have participated in for Rwanda President Paul Kagame
“If the person is remanded for over 180 who had sought refuge in Uganda,
days, the Constitution stipulates that he and Jackson Kalemera. According to
is entitled to mandatory bail,” he said. court proceedings, the two officials
He added that his client suffers from were handed to Rwanda without their
peptic ulcers that cannot be treated in consent. But Rwandan authorities say
detention. these were handed to them through
With Kayihura out of jail and on the official channels.
path to rehabilitation and freedom,
everything appeared to point to possible Bogus charges history
freedom for Muhangi and others. Kayihura was initially arrested over
But the fresh investigations mean that allegations that he was responsible for
these officers and the former police are the murder former Assistant Inspector
not yet off the hook. The new charges General of Police (AIGP) Andrew Felix
mean they can be re-arrested even if they Kaweesi.
are granted bail. Kaweesi was murdered together with
Insiders say the security agencies have his bodyguard Kenneth Erau and driver
arrested many low ranking officers to Godfrey Mambewa on March 17 when
implicate Kayihura. The plan according assailants showered with bullets the car
to highly placed sources is to get the he was driving in on their way from his
arrested officers to confess crimes against President Yoweri Museveni home in Kulambiro, a Kampala surburb.
Kale in exchange for their release. And on June 13 the military led by the
Kayihura’s lawyer, Elison Karuhanga Deputy Chief of Defence Forces, Lt. Gen.
told The Independent that he was not Wilson Mbadi and the head of CMI Brig.
aware of the fresh investigations but Abel Kandiho arrested Kayihura at his
would not be surprised. farm in Kashagama, Lyantonde District.
“What we have always been aware Following his arrest, Kayihura was
of is that there is an industry that told that he was being charged with the
manufactures fake news against him, murder of AIGP Kaweesi.
why and by whom we do not know,” he According to sources, President
said. Yoweri Museveni had in June last year
Karuhanga says that, no one asked said the charges against Kayihura were
Kayihura about the new accusations of a serious nature.
during the 70 days he was under military The President’s explanation followed
interrogation at Makindye Military a request by Kayihura through the
Barracks and no one has asked him about Chief of Defense Forces; Gen. David
the same ever since he was granted bail. Muhoozi for a meeting with the head of
Yet at one point Kayihura faced up to state. But when Muhoozi passed on the
19 charges, according to his other lawyer, Gen.Salim Saleh information during a meeting of senior
Jet Tumwebaze. army officers with the president at State
The latest charges follow others that House Entebbe, President Museveni
appear intended to keep a noose around murdering people using machetes/ declined to see him.
Kayihura. pangas. He told the army officers that he
Insiders say the ISO boss; retired The youths accused Kayihura of preferred to keep emotional distance
Col. Kaka Bagyenda, in January sent a having released such suspects when and explained that if he met Kayihura
radio message to President Museveni reported to him. Kaka said he would personally, he could be swayed by
and other security agencies that Gen. investigate. kindness and emotion towards him.
Kayihura has links to Australian-based The CMI had earlier arrested At the time the team investigating
Australia-based Ugandan cardiologist, other Kayihura’s close aides; Senior Kayihura comprised eight officers; four
Dr Aggrey Kiyingi. Kiyingi has been Superintendent of Police Nixon from police, two from the CMI and two
linked to rebel activities. Agasirwe, the former commander Special from ISO.
According a source familiar with the Operations Unit, Senior Commissioner Those from police were Grace Akullo,
intelligence reports, ISO intelligence of Police Joel Aguma, the commandant the Director Criminal Investigations

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 15
news analysis
and Intelligence Department (CIID), as he had not believed the audio recording,
chair, her deputy; Senior Commissioner which operatives at the Internal ISO
of Police (SCP) Elly Womanya, and two had availed as part of the evidence
other police detectives. From ISO, it was pinning the police chief in the murder of
Lt. Churchill Mutatina and another, and Kaweesi.
from CMI, it is the Joint Anti-Terrorism Kayihura would later be released on
Task Force (JATT) Director, Charles bail on Aug.27. Since then, some felt that
Asiimwe, and another agent. he was on the verge of being a free man.
The team concluded its investigations Indeed, while he was initially not
and submitted its report to President allowed to travel outside Uganda,
Museveni. around the same time, State House
The most significant piece of evidence aided him as he applied for visas to
in this report was a recording in which travel with four others including his
Kayihura was allegedly talking to the wife and a military officer to Germany
assassin, who ISO claimed was Muhangi. for medical treatment. His travel plans
Kaka had also assembled witnesses Col.Kaka Bagyenda were only frustrated when on the day
who claimed to have participated in the he was supposed to pick his visa from
planning and execution of the murder. the Germany Embassy in Kampala, he
But when a joint team of investigators received a phone call informing him that
from police, ISO and CMI further his application had been declined.
interrogated the said witnesses, they Insiders said the former police chief
admitted that ISO operatives had coached could be facing a travel ban as a result of
them. The investigating team also found his work as police chief.
that the recording was not authentic. In They pointed to the case over the
their report to President Museveni, the forcefully deportation of a group of
joint investigating team concluded that Rwandan nationals back to Rwanda,
the evidence against Kayihura up until which apparently, President Museveni
this point was bogus. was forced to act against the police chief
“They found the claims against Kale to and others following complaints from
be fabricated,” a source knowledgeable UN diplomats over the same.
about the investigations told The This was especially because in March
Independent on condition of anonymity last year, a group of Rwandans took
because of the sensitivity of the matter, Brig.Abel Kandiho Kayihura to the International Criminal
“They have also recommended that Court (ICC) over crimes against
Kayihura’s allies who were arrested over humanity that he allegedly committed
the same allegations should be released.” along with his men when they forcefully
Indeed, when President Museveni deported a group of Rwandan nationals
was presented with a report from this back to Rwanda. Also, over the years,
investigation, he also concluded that the several pressure groups both local and
charges were bogus. in the diaspora have petitioned the
Then on Aug.27, a day before Kayihura U.S. and European Union countries
was granted bail, President Museveni to put travel sanctions against senior
met his family members and told them security officers in command positions
that the authorities would soon get to the who have been at the centre of human
bottom of the issues. rights violations. But away from the
Apart from meeting President international trouble, it appeared like
Museveni, Kayihura’s family also Kayihura had less pressure internally.
met the Senior Presidential Advisor Reports about fresh accusation could
on Defence and Security, Gen. Caleb mean fresh internal pressure for the
Akandwanaho, aka, Salim Saleh. Herbert Muhangi former police chief.
Apparently, Gen. Saleh told them that

16 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
EDUCATION

You cannot forge scientists


Students cannot pass without being taught, experts tell the
government as 2018 UCE results show high failure rates
By Flavia Nassaka & Julius Businge and yet it seems to be what is happening,” after government came up with the policy,”

W
he told The Independent soon after the he says.
hile releasing the results of results were released. He adds that the government should
the 2018 Uganda Certificate of He says that it is not that Ugandan pick lessons from this continuous bad
Education (UCE) examinations students cannot to grasp science theories performance.
on Jan.31, the Chairperson of and laws; the problem is with the teaching “One would say those that fail sciences
the Uganda National Examinations Board system, it does not guide students enough are not smart but why then do they score
(UNEB), Mary Nakandha Okwakol pointed to be able to learn the subject content, bring distinctions in the arts. They fail because
at two trends; first that more students are out their potential, and pass exams. they know it is not the career path of their
failing science subjects. And two, that there “You cannot forge a scientist, he has to be choice,” he says.
is little science teaching going on in schools. made,” he says. He adds that imposing these subjects
Okwakol said the 2018 results show According to Okwakol, many schools; on students is only straining government
that chemistry remains the worst done especially in rural areas, are attempting to resources and the difference the policy is
subject overall. She noted improvements teach sciences without having the necessary creating on the type of science professionals
at distinction level for subjects like apparatus and chemicals to conduct on the labour market is very minimal if any.
mathematics, physics and biology, but practical lessons. But Grace Baguma, the executive director
almost half of the students did not achieve Herbert Asiimwe Mutamba, a retired of the National Curriculum Development
the minimum Pass 8 level. sciences teacher turned author told The Center (NCDC) says the policy of making
“That should tickle teachers and Independent that the government is at a loss sciences compulsory is not the problem but
government to think about what is not when half of the students fail to score even a the challenge is with the way it is taught.
being done right,” she said, “These results pass eight in the subjects. She says when, in 2004, the government
are an indicator that there is little science “With such a mark, they can’t pursue a moved to ensure that all students that go
teaching.” sciences combination at advanced level,” through the Uganda education system
At the same function, the Executive Asiimwe said. must have basic knowledge in science,
Secretary of UNEB, Daniel Odongo, Mutamba blames the government policy it was because no country has taken off
pointed at another problem related to the of making sciences compulsory for all economically without the involvement of
examination of science subjects. Odongo students in lower secondary school. He scientists.
said the highest cases of examination says the intention of the policy was good, “With the change of curriculum they
malpractices were registered in physics, but the worsening performance of science thought they would fix a few things and
chemistry, biology and mathematics. subjects shows that the government should ensure that we get more numbers of
A total of 335,435 students sat for the have found another way of achieving the scientists graduating,” she says.
2018 examinations, up from 326, 212 in agenda of grooming more scientists. He She says Uganda has already trained
2017. Of these 27,696 passed in division says imposing the subjects even on those many good scientists who are competing
one compared to 31, 338 in 2017, 52,706 in that do not have the ability to pass them favourably on the international stage.
division two compared to 53, 665 in 2017 was wrong. He says, in any case, most Baguma says there have been reports of
and 70,347 in third division compared to70, students still go on to study arts fields at scrapping or changing the policy before but
797 in 2017. Those that passed in fourth A-Level. she says the government should instead
division were 137,058 compared to 131, 660 “That is why you see we still almost be looking into ways of improving the
a year before. record the same percentages of students method of teaching science subjects, get
Odongo said impersonation and offering arts subjects at A - level, 15 years more science teachers trained on the job,
substitution were the common cases of and ensure that schools have the necessary
examination malpractices which led to facilities to understand the subjects.
results of 1,825 students being withheld. “We are talking of driving the country to
He said the affected students were given middle income but we do not want to train
external assistance while some candidates those engineers and technologists to drive
colluded to cheat. that economic development. Without more
Commenting on these developments, scientists we will remain the way we are or
Robert Mugambwa, an education become worse”.
researcher working with Uwezo says Mutamba also commented on the
students fail science subjects because they Secondary Science and Mathematics
are taught badly. Teachers (SESMAT) programme that the
He explained that passing sciences government introduced to give science
requires a learner to understand theories teachers refresher courses around the
and laws, yet most schools in Uganda same time the policy was introduced, but
use the cramming method; a form of rote which has not changed much in terms of
learning that merely prepares students to the preparedness of science teachers to
quickly pass exams. teach science.
“Cramming does not help in the sciences

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 17
EDUCATION

By Independent Reporter

I
n 2018, schools under the Universal
Primary Education (UPE) sat more
students for Primary Leaving Exami-
nations (PLE) than non-UPE schools;
476,130 (or 70.9%) out of 671,923 candidates.
It was another sign that it was as right to
start UPE 20 years ago as it makes basic
education accessible to every child.
As a result, UPE enrolment has soared
from about 3.06 million pupils in 1996 to
about 8.84 pupils in 2017 with more girls
going to school for the very first time than
before.
Such successes are the subject of a com-
memorative book by the Ministry of Educa-
tion and Sports titled `UPE (Universal Pri-
mary Education): Transforming Uganda’.
The 226-page, coffee table style volume is
a near-full account of how UPE was born,
the people who implemented it, the key
policy frameworks, the critical investments,
and its impact on the education of girls, spe-
cial needs learners, refugee and host com-
munities, business and economy, household
health and earnings, among many others.
The Minister of Education, Janet K.
20 years of UPE
Museveni, in the foreword to the book notes
that UPE has shown potential to brighten Focus moves to quality of learning
Uganda’s future. She explains how it opens
various paths to opportunities for pupils
to acquire “knowledge and skills that will first and prioritise them. Museveni says of libraries and latrines. This has reshaped
make them self-reliant adults that meaning- to prioritise is both a skill and a discipline pupil-classroom and pupil-teacher ratios to
fully contribute to socio-economic transfor- which the NRM does by listening to what 69:1 and 54:1 respectively. The target is 45:1
mation of our country”. ails the wanainchi. pupil-classroom ratio.
For a long time, it has been said that “The NRA would never have been able Another 138 primary schools have been
introducing UPE was motivated by politics; to capture power with 27 guns if its nucleus planned through the Uganda Teacher
given how President Yoweri Museveni of leaders did not embody the virtue of and School Effectiveness Project. Each of
unexpectedly announced it in May 1996 at a prioritisation within resource constraints,” the schools will get seven classrooms, one
campaign rally in Masaka. Museveni says in the book’s preface. administration block, two blocks of five-
However, in the book, former education To kick-start UPE, the government had to stance latrines for boys and girls, and one
minister Namirembe Bitamazire says it was revise its funding priorities away from ter- block of two-stance latrines for teachers.
preceded by proper and well-researched tiary education to primary education. UPE has had impact outside beyond the
planning. Success was expected but chal- Today, the primary school subsector schools. The work on infrastructure has
lenges too were anticipated. Bitamazire takes the lion’s share of the education bud- been monopolised by Ugandan companies,
was minister of state for primary education get, which in FY2016/17 was Shs2.47 tril- putting money in thousands of households
between 1998 and 2004 and directly charged lion or 11 percent of the national budget of and improving lives.
with the implementation of UPE. Her zeal Shs18.3 trillion. By comparison, a year after But the poor grades of UPE pupils in PLE
and passion earned her the pet title ‘Mama UPE had begun (that is FY1998/99) the edu- and the high dropout rates expose the teeth-
UPE’. cation sector’s allocation was Shs403 billion ing challenge that led to neglect of quality as
Dr John C. Muyingo, a long time educa- out of Shs1.5 trillion. focus went to getting every child to school.
tionist, who is currently the state minister “It means that in [FY]2016/17 when UPE Out of the 476,130 pupils who sat exams
for higher education, makes the same point. clocked 20 years, the education sector was in 2018, only 38,148 (or 6.6 percent) passed
“The argument that government was not being allocated more money than the entire in Division One. Both numbers are tiny
prepared for UPE is clearly not true. There national budget when the programme was fractions of those who started out in P.1 as
were clear roadmaps and planning, unlike a year old,” Museveni says. many fell off.
what most people think. The government The money has gone into the welfare The government does not hide its head
did not start UPE from the blue,” he says. of teachers, school infrastructure and to in the sand over these problems. Permanent
To be sure, UPE was neither the brain- some extent instructional materials. Science Secretary Alex Kakooza, says the Ministry
child of Museveni personally nor his gov- teachers and those in hard-to-reach areas of Education is focused on raising the qual-
ernment’s collectively – a fact both are quick are entitled to a 30 percent top up over their ity of learning. The Education Sector Strate-
to concede. The idea was first introduced salary. gic Plan has identified interventions such as
in 1962 by the Uganda People’s Congress In infrastructural terms, there are over increasing teacher numbers, training them,
(UPC). But, the NRM says, earlier govern- 160,000 classrooms compared to 45,000 improving their welfare, supplying more
ments failed to implement UPE because that existed at the start of UPE in 1997. and better instructional materials, and con-
they could not put the interests of citizens Additionally, there has been a scaling-up struction of more schools.

18 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
EDUCATION

PLE results expose system


Experts blame outdated UNEB Act for failure rates
By Agnes E Nantaba and fourth grade typically find difficulty outcomes between children from high and

T
advancing in good secondary schools. low socio-economic status households with
he recently released 2018 Primary Up to 476,131 pupils were from govern- 42 percent from wealthier household being
Leaving Examinations (PLE) caused ment sponsored Universal Primary Educa- able to read and understand an English
excitement for many pupils, parents, tion (UPE) schools and 195,792 from private story compared to 38 percent from poorer
and schools. But for some top elite school. households.
schools Jan. 17, the day when the Uganda According to the results, the pass rate for Details in the report also point to an
National Examinations Board (UNEB) re- non-UPE schools was 22% while that for annex of Uganda pupils that is not learn-
leased the results, was full of frustration. UPE schools stands at 4%. ing for instance in Eastern Uganda and
These are schools where parents pay Robert Mugambwa, a national trainer parts of Northern Uganda that are getting a
high fees expecting high quality teaching, with Uwezo Uganda; an NGO that raw deal in education. These translate into
learning, and examination grades. Classes researches ways of improving learning, non-alignment or imbalance in terms of
expect and have previously scored a 100 says that the disparity in pass rate results what is taught and examined thus failure
percent pass rate. Not this time. To the sur- from different abilities of pupils to read. He to comprehend and learn on the side of the
prise of many, scarcely known performed says the Uwezo surveys have consistently learners.
unexpectedly far better than the top aca- shown that children in UPE schools are “In our assessment, pupils in private
demic giants. And conspiracies have been inadequately taught to read and, therefore, schools were able to do better numeracy
swirling since. Some blame the new mark- fail to comprehend and interpret questions. and literacy and it’s now reflecting in the
ing system introduced by UNEB, although He says even the failure to pass math- UNEB PLE results,” says Mugambwa.
it is not clear how it could discriminate ematics, can be attributed to read.
against top schools. “There is a word question and compre- Unmatched assessment policy
But according to Mary Okwakol, the Focus has also been placed on the lack of
UNEB chairperson, the new system; the a standard examination system on which
Education Information Management Sys- UNEB would base to set questions. Many
tem, is based on anonymity of school names experts say the examiner bases on a 1983
during the marking process. Instead of the UNEB Act to assess learners yet it is inad-
school names, it uses numbers given by the equate.
Ministry of Education and Sports (MOES). The current 30 year old system bases on
The idea is to improve on efficiency and summative system of assessment, where
effectiveness in the processing of results. learners are evaluated at the end of an
The previous system required candidates instructional unit. But the standard on
to write their names, index numbers, name which their performance is compared is
of the school and district but this changed not systematically set. The experts say this
last year. contributes to the disparity in performance
This time, anonymous numbers were from year to year.
given out during the registration of schools Patrick Kaboyo, the National Secretary of
for the exam to remove identifiable informa- Federation of Non-State Education Institutions
tion from the examination script at the time (FENEI) says there is need for clear and profes-
of sitting. hending it was a challenge,” he says, “Some sional assessment policy. Even the little efforts
“The system helps relieve pressure felt by pupils especially those in rural schools are made towards amending the UNEB Act, Kaboyo
examiners while dealing with top schools,” not introduced to English early, so asking says, have been done without consulting key
said Okwakol. them to write a story which involves a lot of players; like parents associations.
In addition to anonymity, the system also English becomes a challenge.” UNEB has also been calling for an
incorporates a ‘conveyor belt’ system where Uwezo is a five year initiative that aims amendment of the 1983 UNEB Act; but
examiners only wait for scripts rotating on a to improve competencies in literacy and mainly citing its weakness in curbing exam-
conveyor belt. The examiner marks which- numeracy among children aged 6-16 years inations malpractices.
ever scripts come his or her way. They also old in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Several UNEB Executive Secretary Dan Odongo
only mark a small portion of numbers and reports it has done point to failure of learn- revealed that the law was outdated and in
pass the script to someone else to mark ers in numeracy and literacy. conflict with other laws. But the amend-
other sections. Up to five examiners mark a According to Uwezo Uganda Sixth ment has not been done.
script compared to one previously. Learning Assessment Report 2016 titled ‘Are Although the examiner has worked hard
Away from the grumbling by specific our children learning’, 60 percent of P3 – P7 to curb examination malpractices, Okwakol
schools, focus has this time focused on the pupils in private schools could read and noted that the main challenge still lies in
high failure rates. Of the 646,190 candi- understand a P2 English story and P2 divi- teachers assisting learners with answers in
dates that sat the exams, only 57,198 or sion with only 49 percent in private schools the course of writing exams with eight cases
8.85% passed in First Grade, 293,977 in and only 45 percent in community schools. registered in Bundibugyo district during
second grade, 128,573 in third grade, 91504 The report indicates that non-participation, the sitting of exams on November 4 and 5
in fourth grade and 57,354 walking away late entry and delayed progression are still last year. According to Kaboyo, this means
ungraded or failed. This officially translates challenges in primary education in Uganda. the security leaks in the examinations are a
into 9% failure rate, although pupils in third There are also slight differences in learning systemic problem.

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 19
news analysis

Wanted: Genuine oil investors


How pressure on oil refinery, pipeline pushed
Uganda to agree to end secret deals
By Ronald Musoke government mechanisms.

F
Whatever the reason, Paul Twebaze, a
or ten years, civil society has been member of the Mineral Audit Committee
trying and failing to push the of the International Great Lakes
government to join the Extractives Conference Against illegal Exploitation
Industries Transparency Initiative of Natural Resources told The Independent
(EITI), a global mechanism that requires that he hopes Uganda will now be viewed
governments and companies to be open with favour in the region considering that
about their oil, gas and mineral deals. it has severally been accused of frustrating
Then on Jan.29, the government efforts geared towards streamlining
abruptly announced it was joining EITI. minerals trade in the region.
So what had changed? Twebaze told The Independent that DR
Onesmus Mugyenyi, the deputy Congo and Rwanda officials in charge
executive director of the Advocates of mineral certification have consistently
Coalition for Development and blamed the lackluster performance of
Environment (ACODE), a Kampala-based the regional mechanism on the laxity in
think tank told The Independent that the Uganda in implementing the process.
government could have finally realised “Since things will now be in the open,
that for Uganda to gainfully exploit its that accusation will now stop,” Twebaze
oil, gas and mineral resources, it needs told The Independent.
to build investor confidence by creating According to Global Witness, a
an environment that attracts genuine London-based non-profit that advocates
investors. for transparency in the extractives sector
“Attempts to get investors to build an around the world, over 50 countries are
oil refinery, and other infrastructure have now implementing the EITI and 80 of the
been a big challenge,” Mugyenyi told The world’s largest oil, gas and mining firms
Independent, “Government has perhaps also actively participate in the initiative.
realised that creating an environment The initiative has also won the support
that is conducive for investors is very of over 80 global investment institutions
important.” that collectively manage assets worth
Mugyenyi who also doubles as over US$ 19 trillion. Global Witness has
the manager of the environment and also noted that since its inception in 2002,
democracy programme at ACODE told companies have disclosed over US $ 1
The Independent that genuine investors do trillion in revenue payments
not like places where there are no clear through EITI reports.
mechanisms in doing business. An August 2013
Mugyenyi told The Independent Global Witness paper
that by Uganda joining the EITI— a titled, “The benefits
global standard for transparency in for Uganda of joining
the extractives sector—it means the the emerging global
government has agreed to subject its transparency
management of oil, gas and mining standard
revenues to scrutiny beyond the internal

20 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
news analysis
for extractive industry revenues,” noted to the secrecy that surrounds the deals in interruptions to supply.
that the introduction of initiatives like the Uganda’s extractives industry. She said the
EITI were intended to bring about a new endless disputes between the government Big step forward
global transparency standard for oil, gas and oil companies such as Tullow over There is no doubt Uganda has made a
and mining revenues into being. Capital Gains Tax are partly due contracts big step towards rooting out the culture
In 2013, the EITI standard was revised done in secret and kept a secret. of secrecy in the oil and mining sectors.
and strengthened to tackle corruption “With the EITI requiring disclosure of This is the general view of donors and
in the natural resource sector, boosting such transactions, it will certainly help,” civil society activists following cabinet’s
development and creating more stable she said, “What we now need is action. approval on Jan.28.
investment climates. The working group (on EITI) must be well Government spokesperson, Ofwono
For instance, Global Witness notes constituted and we hope the government Opondo, announced the cabinet decision
that the introduction of the Dodd-Frank will afford it the necessary goodwill and on Jan.29 saying it is intended to minimize
Act (Section 1504) in the U.S, the new we look forward to being part of the oil, gas and mining revenues being
Accounting and Transparency Directive process.” mismanaged or lost to corruption.
in the EU; government commitments Advocates of the EITI mechanism have James Muhindo, the national
to introduce similar mandatory rules always urged the government to adopt the coordinator of the Civil Society Coalition
in Canada and Norway, and a new international voluntary initiative citing its on Oil and Gas (CSCO), a consortium
implementing requirements for the EITI, multiple benefits. of local and international NGOs told
have brought a new global transparency They have, for instance, argued The Independent on Jan.31 that Uganda’s
standard for oil, gas and mining revenue that project level disclosures provide intention to join the transparency initiative
into being. communities that live near extraction sites is a “big milestone” on Uganda’s path
By 2016, EITI countries were required with details of the financial contributions towards transparency and accountability
to publish information on the ultimate that the industry makes and enable in the oil, gas and mining sector.
beneficial ownership of entities with oil, In a statement released on Jan. 30, the
gas and mining rights. The standard EU also applauded the Cabinet for the
encourages governments to publish public pronouncement saying this was a
contracts, production figures while
state-owned companies and regional
By 2016, EITI positive step towards improved financial
management and accountability of
transfers are also covered by the disclosure
requirements.
countries Uganda’s natural resources.
“The European Union Delegation

EITI benefits
were required to Uganda welcomes the Government
of Uganda’s decision to formally join
But the next three years will be critical
to gauging the government’s commitment
to publish the Extractive Industries Transparency
Initiative (EITI) as a member state,” said
on EITI. The government must start work information on Attilio Pacifici, the EU Ambassador to
on the procedural formalities of joining Uganda, “Uganda’s decision to become
the EITI, including formally notifying the the ultimate a fully-fledged member state is an
EITI Secretariat in Oslo, Norway of the important step for improved accountability
resolution. beneficial particularly as the country continues to

ownership of
Thereafter, at national level, a multi- prepare for oil production.”
stakeholder group consisting of the Publishing and reconciling data on

entities with
government, industry and civil society oil, gas and mining revenues ensures
representatives will be constituted to form transparency but government officials

oil, gas and


what is technically called the “national have often said the mechanism is not all
multi-stakeholder group.” that necessary and it makes foreigners

mining rights
With the multi-stakeholder group interfere with Uganda’s internal affairs.
in place, the government will approve In 2008, during the formulation of the
an administrator who will be charged national oil and gas policy, the government
with the day-to-day activities on EITI put joining the EITI as its sixth objective
such as ensuring participation of all but it later appeared as though it had
stakeholders; receiving data on revenue a “change of heart” on the voluntary
payments by companies and receipts by citizens, MPs, civil society groups transparency mechanism.
the government, facilitating the multi- including media to hold governments to At one time, President Museveni
stakeholder group to develop a report, account for how the revenues are spent. sounded dismissive of the EITI
and disseminating the report, among other They have also argued that transparency arrangement saying he would prefer a
roles. over oil and mineral revenues can continental mechanism. But civil society
Such project-by-project reporting, contribute to the prevention of natural and donors have often reminded the
experts argue, helps investors improve resource-related conflict. government of joining the mechanism.
their ability to assess risk and make Project-by-project reporting under EITI, Ngabiirwe also told The Independent
decisions about the allocation of capital, experts say, is beneficial to the companies that she now hopes the government will
as well as fostering more stable operating because it strengthens companies’ “social work on structures to help people in the
environments that enhance prospects for licence” to operate by showing host grassroots follow the important discourse
investment return. populations the financial contributions in the sector. It is important to have the
Winfred Ngabiirwe, the former they make to public revenues which in information but what you do with the
coordinator of Publish What You Pay and turn reduces the likelihood of resentment information is another issue, she said.
the current head of Global Rights Alert told and conflict. Local unrest can severely
The Independent on Feb.01 that she hopes impact the reputation and finances
Uganda’s joining the EITI will bring an end of extractives companies, and cause

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 21
news analysis

Much to celebrate about UPDF


As young people, we need to avoid being duped into
forgetting or ignoring our history and say never again to chaos
By Natasha Mariam resistance war against dictatorships, they country.

O
came with a new dawn that had never been The NRA/UPDF has been at the helm of
n February 6 Ugandans joined the seen in any armed force before. The his- Uganda because of the discipline that was
UPDF to celebrate Tarehe-Sita, a tory of the NRA/NRM revolution is firmly instilled in them right from the onset of the
day which marks the attack on anchored in the positive relations the free- liberation war. The ideological and political
Kabamba barracks by 27 armed dom fighters were able to achieve with the grounding is another aspect of training in
and a few unarmed patriots. They stormed population of Uganda. UPDF which has set itself apart from previ-
the barracks marking the start of the strug- In his swearing-in speech of January ous armies which never understood their
gle by the Ugandans against the misrule 1986, President Museveni clearly pointed reason for being.
that they had witnessed characterised by out his new position on security of person I quote: “Political education has given
dictatorship, unconstitutional governance, and property and in his statement he said UPDF that mighty weapon which when
and state oppression and violation of hu- that “The security of the people of Uganda brought on to the battle field you cannot
man rights. is their right and not a favour bestowed by defeat. Other armies take weapons like heli-
This liberation struggle started in 1981 to any regime. No regime has a right to kill copters, tanks, and engineering equipment
January 26, 1986 when Uganda was finally any citizen of this country, or to beat any as the most important force multipliers. Yes,
liberated, after taking over Kampala. Tare- citizen at a roadblock. We make it clear to they are force multipliers, but the UPDF’s
he-sita which literary means the sixth day is our soldiers that if they abuse any citizen, biggest force multiplier is its political con-
always celebrated with a long week of activ- the punishment they will receive will teach sciousness,” said the late Gen. Aronda
ities in different districts around Ugan- Nyakairima who was also an
da and this year’s celebrations started army commander.
on January 31 and ended on February As young people, we need to
6 in the Acholi sub region; particularly avoid being duped into forget-
in the districts of Agago, Lamwo, ting or ignoring our history.
Gulu, Omoro, Pader, Nwoya ,Amuru There are a number of critical
and finally Kitgum to crown the week. lessons which the present and
A number of activities including com- future generations must take
munity cleaning and health drives seriously if Uganda is never
among others were conducted by again to slide back into chaos it
UPDF medical and engineering teams. was in before 1986. The peace
The most significant activities occurred and stability we enjoy today was
in the hosting districts. born through sacrifice and must
Unlike the post-independence gov- be guarded jealously at all times.
ernments and their armed forces that Over the years, the UPDF has
were characterised by extra-judicial continued as the most active
killings, impunity, indiscipline, torture force, not only in peace and
of the wanainchi, incarcerations, and stability but economic and social
outright disappearances of citizens development. More officers of
merely suspected of being opposed to them a lesson. As for killing people, if you the force are now in charge of some depart-
those in power at the time, the new breed kill a citizen, you yourself will be killed.” ments and projects in government. A case in
of NRA/UPDF maintained its principle of This alone was enough for all the citizens point is the Operation Wealth Creation, the
discipline. This is the main reason it has to have faith and belief in their army which newly created Anti-Corruption Unit, Inter-
continued not only winning the hearts of sparked off a very good working environ- nal Affairs, and Ministry of Works where
Ugandans but the entire region. ment for the forces and the wanainchi. they are currently constructing houses for
After the overthrow of Idi Amin in April Since then, despite a few incidents of civil the recent Bududa landslide victims. In
1979 by a combined force of the Tanzanian unrests in northern Uganda caused by the health, during the doctors’ strike the UPDF
army and Ugandan freedom fighters from Lord’s Resistance Army rebels of Joseph came in to save the situation saving a num-
Tanzania, the killings and state persecution Kony, and their precursors, there is peace ber of Ugandans all over the country. The
of citizens did not end. Instead it continued in the whole of Uganda today. It is evident greatest of all that the army has contributed
to grow out of control. The successive gov- to everyone that Ugandans do not face any to the region is by making sure there is
ernments; including that of Apollo Milton threat on any boarder and this is partly due peace in Somalia, Congo, and South Sudan.
Obote and their armies failed to win the to the good working relation of the UPDF Therefore as we celebrate Tarehe-Sita
hearts of Ugandans because they were not and the Wanainchi. this year, we commend the gallant soldiers
any different from the Amin army and did Therefore, as we celebrate the Army Day, not only in providing peace and stability in
not know how to relate with the wanainchi. we do not only celebrate NRA which was Uganda but the entire region.
In January 1986, after the National Resis- in the lead of the liberation fight but all the
tance Army led by Gen. Yoweri Museveni previous armies which merged to form Natasha Mariam works with Uganda Media
seized power after a protracted five-year one national army that we now have as a Centre

22 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
2018/19 budget
proposal
Economists welcome
debt repayment but
decry budget cuts for
social sectors

T
By Julius Businge

he government is seeking to
increase spending by 5% to
Shs34.3 trillion in the next fi-
nancial year that starts in July
amidst proposed budget cuts for
critical sectors including secu-
rity, education, health, social development,
water and environment and agriculture.
The new proposal that is detailed in the
Budget Framework Paper (BFP) for the
2019/20 comes four months to the reading of
the national budget.
It has already sparked off
debate among the followers of the
budget making process and its
implementation. important when it comes to effective payments and non-revenue funds for
One group supports government’s undertaking of projects like roads, domestic debt refinancing.
move to cut expenditure for the critical power dams and oil projects. Interest payments will increase to
sectors to favor debt repayments and According to the BFP, the Shs2.9tn (11.4% of the total budget –
infrastructure projects. total allocation to social sectors second largest share) up from Shs2.5tn
Another group is opposed to of education, health, social in the FY2018/2019.
the new move saying it is wrong development, water and environment The domestic revenue is expected
to allocate less money to social and agriculture will reduce by to increase by 12.3% to Shs18.3tn
sectors because they support human 12% from Shs7.7tn to Shs6.8tn in following GDP growth projection of
capital development that is linked to the FY2018/2019 and 2019/2020 6.2%. This implies that 66% of the new
performance of the economy. respectively. In addition, security budget will be financed by domestic
“This is not good news for sector will also suffer a cut. revenue where taxes will contribute
addressing social inequality,” This, however, contradicts the World Shs17.8tn to the total domestic
said Enock Twinoburyo, a senior Bank human capital development revenue.
economist. “The poverty that has view that advises countries to invest Julius Mukunda, the coordinator
increased in the past few years heavily in early healthcare and child of the Civil Society Budget Advocacy
requires government to invest more in education. Group (CSBAG) said the local
human capital.” Government’s plan is to spend population needs not to be excited ‘for
The new allocations, he said Shs12.6trillion or 37% of the total the Shs34 trillion since almost half of
should take into account issues like budget on development expenditure. the items that comprise it are of no
institutional capacity and human The rest of the resource envelop will direct benefit.”
resource development which are be used for debt repayment, interest He also said the government needs

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 23
business
to fast track the development of the The projected interest rate – growth revenue, while the service sector
medium-term revenue strategy as differential up to 2025 is expected to which accounts for half the annual
well as present new tax measures to remain over 5% per annum. GDP contributes two thirds of the
generate the extra revenue (Shs1.9tn) While data on debt exists, tax collections and the remaining is
for the proposed budget. Twinoburyo says, there is not contributed by industry sector.
holistic understanding of how much This scenario reiterates the fact
Debt burden queries government owns in terms of the that informality is a major constraint
The country’s total public debt assets which provide a buffer to but also could lend credence to the
stock both domestic and external as mitigate debt crisis. fact that evasion increases with self-
at the end of 2018 stood at US$10.7bn In terms of capacity to raise revenue, employment, both at the individual
(equivalent to Shs41.3tn). This is Twinoburyo says given that 90% of level and beyond.
equivalent to 41.5% of the GDP of revenue is coming from the top 1,000 From the policy and administration
which 13.3% is domestic while 28.2% taxpayers, taxes are collected from a front; digitalisation of the informal
is external. relatively narrow base. sector and key economic activities
While this is still below the 50% At sector level, agriculture as well as establishing a transparent
threshold, some analysts say it worries which accounts for quarter of GDP and stringent mechanisms for tax
given that it can exceed the 50% limit contributes less than 1% of tax expenditures will deliver quick wins,
if government implements other debt Twinoburyo said.
financing of huge projects such as He adds that establishing a strong
Standard Gauge Railway, new roads
and the planned oil pipeline.
Winners culture of compliance, improving
the tax structure, and enhancing
The good news for the private sector the productivity and capacity of the
is that the government plans to reduce
its domestic borrowing from Shs1.7tn
Works and tax administration too are critical to
attaining Uganda’s revenue objectives.
to Shs534.9bn – a welcome move transport sector On the other hand, Kasirye, says

will have its


aimed at not crowding out the private though it is bad news to reduce
sector in the credit market. expenditure for social sectors, it is also
Twinoburyo and the Makerere
University based Economic Policy
budget allocation a good idea of paying off current debt
to avoid their accumulation.
Research Centre senior research increased from He says debt repayment protects
fellow, Ibra Kasirye told The government from becoming
Independent in separate interviews Shs4.7tn to uncreditworthy, and borrowing at
that the new budget should be thought
out carefully in terms of avoiding Shs5.3tn; interest much higher rates.
Kasirye supports the idea of hiking
debt accumulation and medium term
budget theme of ‘industrialization for
payments from revenue collection targets domestically
for URA as long as projections are in
job creation and shared prosperity’. Shs2.5tn to line with anticipated performance of
“Allocation and operational
efficiency is critical in this process,” Shs2.9tn, energy the economy.
“I believe that they (government)
Twinoburyo said. “We seem to be
good at budgeting on paper but not at
and mineral think they will have a larger port
to collect taxes in the new financial
implementation,” he said. development year,” Kasirye said.
On borrowing, Twinoburyo said the
government needs to take into account from Shs2.4tn to Beyond debt, another item to watch
is the creation of a Youth Livelihood
the changing cost of borrowing
brought about by interest rate hikes
Shs2.6tn. Program vote in State House of
Shs130bn in 2019/2020 which CSBAG’s
and the volatile exchange rate. Mukunda says should be handled
He said the interest payments
annually are fast approaching 3% Losers carefully given that the President’s
office is prone to compromising
of GDP (nearly 20% of domestic
revenue), which is one of the highest.
Education politically such initiatives because
of limited public and parliamentary
This implies that only 80% of the budget is scrutiny.

reduced from
revenue is being invested in other 16 Going forward, Mukunda says
sectors amidst other risks. that as the country approaches the
“Utilisation of loans is marred with
cost and time overruns…feasibility of
Shs2.7tn to 2020 final year of the NDPII, the
middle income status targets appear
projects is lacking in most cases,” he Shs2.6tn; health far in the horizon, signaling the

from Shs2.3tn
says. need for prudent fiscal management
Overall, he adds that the medium with realistic targets to achieve the
term debt risks are pronounced – and
the average weighted interest rate on
to Shs2.2tn and aspirations.

debt is higher than the rate at which security from


the economy is growing suggesting
an eventual unsustainable trend if the Shs2.0tn to
pace of debt growth is not contained
in the medium term as well sequenced Shs1.9tn.
in tandem with capacity to efficiently
absorb loans.

24 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
business

Insurer’s minimum capital


requirement goes up
The move could see major mergers and acquisitions
By Isaac Khisa

U
ganda’s insurance regulator Uganda’s insurance premium growth
has increased the minimum
capital requirements for Year 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
insurers, a move that is Gross Premiums 296.83 351.23 463 502.65 611.13 634 737
intended to strengthen their capacity Underwritten (Shsbns)
to handle risks. 18.3 31 8 21 3.6 16
The Insurance Regulatory Authority
of Uganda requires insurers to boost Source: IRA-U
their capital in the next five years,
according to its Chief Executive Gary Corbit, said they were ready
Officer, Ibrahim Kaddunabi Lubega. to implement the new capital
Non-life insurers will now be requirements.
required to boost their capital to “We will look at the new minimum
Shs 6bn from Shs 4billion, while life capital requirement that will be given
insurers will pay Shs 4.5bn from Shs to us. If it means that we up our
3bn. capital, then, our shareholders shall
Health Membership Organisations exactly do that.”
that among others includes Case Countries that have already
Medical Centre, St. Catherine’s Clinic, embraced Risk Based Supervision
AAR and IAA will double their in Africa includes; Kenya, Tanzania,
minimum requirement to Shs 1bn. Rwanda, Zambia and Malawi.
The re-insurance firms are now Latest data from IRA-U shows that
required to have Shs 9bn and Shs 6bn the industry recorded an increase in
as minimum capital for those dealing premiums from Shs566.4bn for the
in Non-life and life respectively nine months ending September, 2017
compared with the previous Shs10bn to Shs 658.4bn in 2018 driven by the
for either of the re-insurers. increase in government investments in
This is the second time that the infrastructure, uptake of agriculture
IRA-U is raising the minimal capital insurance and improvement in the
requirements for insurers in a period all the five HMOs are required to economy.
of five years. inject additional capital into their Non-life gross written premiums
In 2013, IRA-U raised the minimum operations within three years to meet increased from Shs404bn to Shs452.7bn
capital requirements from Shs 1bn to the requirement. while life gross written premiums
Shs 3bn for life and Shs 1bn to Shs 4 Currently, Uganda has 31 Insurance increased from Shs120bn to Shs150.9bn
billion for non-life. companies, one Micro Insurance during the same period under review.
Ivan Kilameri, the actuarial officer Company, one National Reinsurance Similarly, Health Membership
at the IRA-U told insurers during a Company, six HMOs and 35 Insurance Organisation recorded an increase in
Risk Based Supervision Workshop brokers. insurance premiums from Shs42bn to
held on Jan. 29 in Kampala that the This new development comes after Shs54.79bn. Overall, the industry’s
new dispensation in the industry few years since the IRAU ordered all net premium earned a recorded 21.5%
means that only strong companies insurers to separate their life and non- growth in premiums to Shs410.8bn.
will remain in the market with the life insurance business as part of the In 2017, the industry registered a
potential to pay the claims. changing relations in the East African 16% growth in insurance premiums
“These new capital requirements Community. to Shs737billion last year, up from
as we move to implement risk based However, a section of insurers said Shs634billion 2016. In 2016 premiums
supervision means that insurers with the new initiatives could see firms were recorded at Shs611billion.
low capital will have to inject in more have excess capital with limited usage. However, the insurance penetration
capital,” he said adding that “there is But the regulator said it is time for remains at less than 1% compared
likely to be mergers and acquisitions insurers to be vigorous and grow their with Rwanda’s 1%, Tanzania’s 2.3%
as firms strive to meet the legal business. and Kenya’s 3.4%.
requirement.” Earlier in an interview with The
Kilameri said six non-life Independent, the Sanlam General
companies, three life insurers and Insurance, Chief Executive Officer

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 25
Business
aviation accountancy

Emirates excites ICPAU moves to advance accountancy

T
travellers he state of the trade. In terms of

E
accounting in improving audit quality,
mirates served over 20,000 Uganda is set to the institute is looking at
plant-based meals across all improve following initiatives such as having
classes in January, known initiatives that are being a training of trainers,
to Vegans worldwide as pushed by the Institute conducting joint firm
Veganuary. This was in line with of Certified Public trainings, encouraging
the worldwide movement aimed at Accountants of Uganda promotion based training,
encouraging Veganism especially (ICPAU) – all targeting introducing practical
in the month of January which saw practitioners. Speaking sessions to the continuous
on board requests for vegan meals at the 9th Practioners professional development
increase by over 40%. The airline Forum held in Kampala programmes and
caters for all its customers and has a at the end of last month, encouraging peer review
range of dedicated menus for medi- Frederick Kibbedi schemes. Officials said that
cal or religious meal requirements (CPA), the President of improving the performance
which are designed with a team of the ICPAU said several CPA Kelemensio Busingye (L) received of the profession is critical
nutritionists and chefs. Vegan meals initiatives including staff a certificate during the forum. because it supports growth
rank as the third most commonly training, outsourcing of the economy. Uganda
requested special meal in economy services in which one promoting more public currently has a total of
class. The Airline has over 170 has no competence, awareness of accounting about 3,516 qualified
plant-based recipes in its kitchen to specialisation, leveraging services are being pushed accountants and slightly
cater for its vegan customers. technology and as one way of boosting above 2000 are active.

insurance
csr

Total Uganda announces StartUpper challenge finalists NIC renews


Anold (Seatpack), Geoffrey
partnership
Omoding (Sayans Academy), with FUFA

N
Hilda Asiimwe (digital health
access), Vicent Nemeyimana IC Holdings limited
(Swapafrica) among others. The has renewed its four
selection of the winners was year partnership with
based on the applicant’s age, the Federation of
nationality, project age (two Uganda Football Association of-
fering new and better insurance
years), social and community
sponsorship package for the
impact, innovation and poten-
association, the Uganda Cranes,
tial and feasibility. Speaking
the Junior League and the FUFA
at the unveiling ceremony in
drum tournament. The new con-

T
Kampala on Jan.30, Patrick
tract covers all players, coaching
he 15 finalists who innovations and passions into Mweheire, the CEO of Stanbic staff and team doctor against
participated in the sustainable businesses. Initiated bank who is the Jury Ambas- death and injuries resulting into
second edition of the by the Total Group in 39 Afri- sador of the initiative and Obi permanent disability sustained
StartUpper of the year can countries simultaneously, Imemba, the MD for Total said while on official duty. The
challenge by Total Uganda the challenge will support that the overall winners will sponsorship includes Shs660m
(2018-2019) have been an- innovative projects which are take home Shs75million, the annually for the Uganda Cranes,
nounced. The aim of the chal- less than 2-years old. Some of first runner-up Shs40m and Shs800m for the FUFA Junior
lenge is to turn young people’s the winners include Mugagga second runner up Shs35m. League annually, Shs960m for
the FUFA Drum Tournament,
banking
Shs10m for FUFA awards annu-
Stanchart launches online digital bank ally and US$18,000 for a genera-
tor. On Jan.24, the NIC manag-

S
tandard Chartered anyone to join the bank by invest in modern technology, ing director, Bayo Folayan said
Bank Uganda has downloading the Standard build systems and up skill the package is in line with NIC’s
launched the first fully Chartered Mobile App and “our people whilst tapping continued support of sports in
digital online banking opening an online Standard into our global expertise to Uganda. “We believe the youth
solution aimed at giving Chartered Digital Life Account. make digitisation a reality are the future of the country and
its clients access to over 70 According to the bank’s CEO, in Uganda.” Meanwhile, on that is why this partnership goes
self-service requests making Albert Saltson this is a key Jan.29, the bank unveiled a long way in supporting the
banking accessible, hassle-free milestone on their digital the popular comedian Anne efforts of government in the area
and convenient. Core among journey and a justification for Kansiime as its Digital Bank of youth and sports develop-
these services is the ability for the bank’s commitment to Ambassador. ment,” Folayan said.

26 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
Business

FAO moves to boost fishing


community’s incomes
By Isaac Khisa to sustain the benefits.

T
FAO Representative in
he Food and Agricul- Uganda, Antonio Querido, said
ture Organization of the project beneficiary com-
the United Nations in munities will be supported to
partnership with the ag- boost their incomes through
riculture ministry has unveiled additional streams resulting
a Technical Cooperation Project from alternative livelihood op-
to support women and youth tions that are at the same time
groups in fishing communities expected to reduce pressure on
around Lake Victoria. capture fisheries resources.
The pilot project dubbed ‘In-  “It is our sincere hope that
tegrated Livelihood Support to this project will contribute
Fishing Communities around to addressing inadequate
Lake Victoria’ is in response to diversification of livelihood
Bank of Uganda Governor Emmanuel Tumusiime Mutebile (2-L), chats with the government’s recent initia- options among the rural poor
Stanchard Chartered Bank Board Chairman Robin Kibuuka (L) and Albert tive to deploy military on the fishing communities, especially
Saltson (R) during the launch of the bank’s digital online banking solution at lake to stop illegal fishing and women and youth, as well as
Kampala Serena Hotel on January 29.  Independent/Julius Businge boost fish production, a situ- improving the resilience of live-
ation that has denied the two lihoods to threats and crises,”
groups of their livelihood. he said.
The 2-year project worth Vincent Ssempijja, the minis-
US$277,000 to be implemented ter for agriculture said the gov-
in Kalangala, Kalungu and ernment is also planning to set
Masaka Districts, will support aside a substantive amount of
interventions aimed at promot- money in this coming national
ing legal fishing methods and budget to boost aquaculture.
gears to vulnerable groups, Latest data from Directorate
providing non-fishing liveli- of Fisheries Resources in the
hood options, efficient post- agriculture ministry shows that
harvest handling and value ad- the country’s fish export earn-
dition technologies, economic ings fell from US$134.79million
empowerment of women and in 2015 to US$113million in
youth through savings and co- 2016 due to a decline in fish
operative societies and building harvests.
the capacity of the beneficiaries
Juma Kisaame, the former chief executive officer for dfcu bank
handing over a commemorative plaque to his successor Mathias
Katamba during his [Kisaame’s] farewell dinner at Kampala Serena
Hotel on Feb.01.  Independent/Julius Businge

Weekly share price movement (Jan. 28)


Security Jan. 28 Jan. 14 Movement
BATU 30,000 30000 00
BOBU 134 135 0.7
CENT 1,247 1,049 18.8
QCL 200 174 15
DFCU 800 822 2.6
EABL 6,108 5, 941 2.8
EBL 1,474 1,346 9.5
JHL 15,789 15,135 4.3
KA 286 290 1.3
KCB 1,479 1,345 10
NIC 14 14 00
NMG 2,181 2,296 5.0
NVL 337 338 0.3
Some of the winners of the Beera Millionaire with Airtel Money SBU 29 30 3.3
promotion celebrate upon receiving their goodies at the Airtel offices UCHM 29 31 6.5
in Kampala on Feb. 01.   Courtesy photo. UCL 19 19 00
UMEME 300 300 00
ALSI -- -- --

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 27
Exercise is medicine the benefits of exercise and how to counsel
patients.
The need for this change in approaching
Doctors should be prescribing it health and disease comes from two key
realisations. One is that there are a grow-
ing number of people with preventable
chronic illness, and our health-care system

T
By Scott Lear cine at the University of Calgary — have
is not adequately prepared to deal with all
revised their curricula to incorporate aspects
here is a movement afoot (pun these patients. Our system is reactionary;
of exercise in the prevention and treatment
intended) to get more people it is designed to wait until someone has a
of disease.
exercising by involving their disease instead of preventing it. But chronic
This is one part of growing initiatives like
doctors. illnesses are not like diseases of old. They
`Exercise is Medicine’ that advocate for the
In the United Kingdom, the cannot be cured, although many can be pre-
role of exercise and encourage doctors to
government released `Moving vented. Exercise is increasingly recognised
prescribe it.
Medicine’ — an online resource to help doc- as important to this change.
Similarly, the `Prescription to Get Active’
tors talk to their patients about the impor- program in Alberta allows doctors to pre-
tance of exercise in relation to conditions as scribe free 30-day gym memberships to
Exercise for cancer care
diverse as cancer and dementia. This is a Second, we have greater knowledge
patients.
welcome initiative given that physical inac- about the benefits of exercise in treating
A grassroots program called `Walk with
tivity is the fourth leading cause of death in disease in addition to preventing it. Exercise
a Doc’ has local doctors walking with their
the world, according to the World Health is used for cardiac rehabilitation, after a
patients. The program was begun by Dr.
Organization. heart attack.
David Sabgir, a cardiologist in Columbus,
The benefits of exercise have been proven Exercise works as well as drugs that
Ohio, who was frustrated with his inability
over and over again: Exercise reduces risk lower cholesterol and blood pressure in
to affect behaviour change in the clinical
of depression, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, preventing early death. And diabetics who
setting and invited his patients to go for a
stroke and many cancers, and prevents exercise require less medication to manage
walk with him in a local park one Saturday
early death. If it was a pill, exercise would their blood sugar.
morning. More than 100 people showed up,
be a trillion-dollar money-maker prescribed Even in treating cancer, exercise can
and there are now 400 chapters worldwide.
to everyone. reduce the side-effects of treatment, such
There have also been calls for exercise to
Exercise as a therapy is mentioned in as anxiety, depression and fatigue. This has
be considered a vital sign, much like blood
almost all prevention and treatment guide- prompted the Clinical Oncology Society
pressure and heart rate. Health insurance
lines, which are written by doctors them- of Australia to release a position statement
provider Kaiser Permanente requires doc-
selves. Still, most patients never hear their recommending exercise as part of regular
tors in the United States to record how
doctor talk about it. And most people do cancer care. It is believed to be the first of its
much physical activity a patient does.
not achieve current guidelines for physical kind in the world, but hopefully not the last.
Patients who receive exercise prescrip-
activity, which recommend that people par- Doctors would benefit from additional
tions and counseling from their doctors are
ticipate in moderate (such as brisk walking) incentives such as specific billing codes that
more likely to be active, so these initiatives
and vigorous (such as jogging, swimming allow for prescribing of exercise as well as
are a good start. More needs to be done,
or running) activity for at least 150 minutes more continuing medical education sessions
however, when only one-third of doctors
per week. on how to do so.
talk to their patients about exercise.
Part of the reason is that most doctors in Educating current and future doctors that
exercise is as good, if not better, than many
practice today received little, if any, training Reactionary health-care system medications will be essential to prevent the
on the role of exercise in managing disease. Not surprisingly, doctors who exercise
Years ago I taught a 30-minute lecture on increasing burden of chronic illnesses.
themselves are more likely to counsel their
the topic at a Canadian medical school and patients about physical activity. Therefore,
this was all the students got over their four- Scott Lear is Professor of Health Sciences, Simon
targeting doctors to be more active may
year program. Fraser University and writer of the weekly blog
provide a substantial population effect.
In recent years, Canadian medical schools `Feel healthy with Dr. Scott Lear’.
At the same time, doctors say they need
— such as the Cumming School of Medi- more and better training with respect to

28 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
comment
By Joyce Moriku Kaducu
Personal commitment to fight cancer
Whoever you are, you have the power to reduce the impact
of cancer for yourself, the people you love and for the world

E
very February 04, Uganda joins the the communities are educated on how to Bank is training an additional 208 can-
rest of the world to commemorate prevent cancer, access cancer screening and cer treatment and care specialists and
World Cancer Day, to raise aware- treatment services including palliative care researchers. Uganda Cancer Institute
ness of cancer and to encourage everywhere in Uganda. This commitment is has also trained 500 health workers
its prevention, detection, and treatment. evidenced by; from district Local Governments and
Nearly every family in the world has been  Providing an enabling legal framework regional referral hospitals on how to
affected by cancer, which is now respon- for cancer control through The Uganda educate communities about cancer and
sible for one in every six deaths globally. Cancer Institute Act of 2016. provide cancer screening services in the
Worldwide, approximately, 9.6 million  Establishment of the Center of Excel- country.
people die each year from cancer. That is lence for cancer treatment in East and  This financial year, 169 additional staff
more than HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuber- Central Africa at the Uganda Cancer from Regional Referral Hospitals will be
culosis combined. In 2018, Kampala Cancer Institute (UCI) with support from Afri- trained further in cancer screening and
Registry registered 32,617 new cancer cases, can Development Bank. The need for treatment.
and 21,829 deaths. Unfortunately, many of referrals abroad for cancer treatment  Government is in the process of estab-
the cancer patients come to Uganda Cancer has been mitigated. lishing Regional Cancer Centers in
Institute with advanced disease when  Increased funding for the Uganda Gulu, Arua, Mbarara, Mbale. Mbarara
nothing much can be done to cure it. Sensi- Cancer Institute to UGX 8.4 billion in Regional Cancer Center is already run-
tisation of the public is, therefore, important 2018/19 budget ning and caring for over 20,000 cancer
so that in addition to prevention measures,  Increased availability and accessibility patients. Gulu Regional Cancer Center
cancer is diagnosed early. This year, World of cancer treatment medicines. Uganda will open doors to people of the Acholi
Cancer Day was held under the theme ‘I Cancer Institute medicines supply is region in 2019/2020.
AM and I WILL’ to resonate, inspire change now at almost 100%.  Plans are underway to extend cancer
and mobilize action against Cancer both  Providing vaccination against cancer awareness and screening services at
nationally and globally. of the cervix at each sub county and every Health Center III in the country.
This is an empowering call-to-action immunisation post in Uganda. Current The Government of Uganda recognises
urging for personal commitment and repre- HPV vaccination is at 70%. Girls aged and appreciates the role and contribution
sents the power of individual action taken 10 years are protected from getting can- of Uganda Cancer Society, the American
now to impact the present and future cancer cer of the cervix in future. Cancer Society and other partners in the
prevention efforts.  Enacting the tobacco control act; Tobac- fight against cancer in Uganda. You have
Whoever you are, you have the power to co is known to cause almost 60% of all supported us in raising cancer awareness,
reduce the impact of cancer for yourself, the cancers. The Government is currently providing patient support and accommo-
people you love and for the world. It’s time in the process of enacting the alcohol dation, counseling services and palliative
to make a personal commitment. control law. care. On behalf of Ministry of Health, we
Cancer can be prevented by adopting  Investment in cancer diagnostic and immensely appreciate your effort.
simple lifestyle changes such as; treatment services. Uganda Cancer I thank the development partners espe-
 Stop consumption of tobacco Institute has a state of the art labora- cially the International Atomic Energy
 Limit harmful use of alcohol tory and imaging equipment for cancer Agency, Fred Hutch Research Center and
 Eat healthy, for example foods rich in diagnosis. African Development Bank for their sup-
fruits and vegetables – these foods are  In addition, with support from the port towards cancer control in the country.
readily available in our farms, gardens, Indian Government, we have acquired I thank my staff here at the Ministry
and markets. a second radiotherapy machine. Gov- of Health, the management and staff
 Engage in physical activity for at least ernment of Uganda has also procured of Uganda Cancer Institute for the pas-
30 minutes per day such as running, the third radiotherapy machine which sion and great effort they put in to help
jogging, dancing etc will be shipped into the country by cancer patients. And I thank the Uganda
 Vaccinate yourselves and your children March 2019. Construction of the bun- Cancer Society for mobilising the civil
against Hepatitis B and Human Papil- kers to house the machines has been society in the fight against cancer. I call
loma Virus (HPV) to prevent cancer of completed. This means all patients who upon all individuals, communities, civil
the liver and cervix respectively need radiotherapy services will receive society and development partners to sup-
According to current evidence, between it in a timely manner port Government to strengthen efforts
30% and 50% of cancer deaths could be  UCI is now a centre of excellence in that stimulate powerful cancer advocacy,
prevented by modifying or avoiding key Oncology in the whole of the East Afri- action and accountability at every level.
risk factors such as tobacco use, harmful can Region and Uganda is proud to I finally thank the members of the press
consumption of alcohol, physical inactivity, host the East African Oncology Institute for helping us reach the population with
unhealthy diets and obesity. that trains cancer treatment specialists. cancer prevention and control messages
More than one third of cancer cases can  Increasing the human resources for and urge them to do more so that cancer
be prevented. Another third can be cured cancer treatment. In addition to the best stops killing our people prematurely.
if detected early and treated properly. The doctors present at the Uganda Cancer
Ministry of Health has prioritised cancer Institute, the Ministry of Health with Dr. Joyce Moriku Kaducu is the Minister of
control and is committed to ensuring that support from African Development State for Health – Primary Health Care

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 29
comment
By José Antonio Ocampo
Decision on future of Corporate Taxation
In Paris this month, developing countries must
understand what is at stake and speak up

A
t first glance, it appears to be a occurred. For example, Vodafone, the first The upcoming OECD meeting will be
bureaucratic meeting like any big multinational to publish country-by- decisive in this respect. For the first time,
other. But the discussions at country data voluntarily, revealed that the OECD will present to the Inclusive
the OECD in Paris at the end of nearly 40% of its profits for 2016-17 were Framework, including developing coun-
this month are of the utmost importance, allocated to tax havens, with €1.4 billion tries, the outlines of the BEPS 2.0 plan
because the world’s richest countries will declared in Luxembourg, where the com- and its vision of a deeper transformation
present new proposals for taxing digital pany is taxed at an effective rate of 0.3%. of the tax system in response to the chal-
multinational companies such as Google, Tax avoidance can be found in all eco- lenges posed by the digital economy. It is
Amazon, Facebook, Apple, Netflix, and nomic sectors, but digital companies best a unique opportunity for all 125 govern-
Uber. demonstrate how outdated the current ments in the Inclusive Framework to urge
Back in 2012, when scandals related international tax system is. Because these the OECD to repudiate transfer pricing
to tax-avoidance schemes by Apple, companies’ marginal cost of production and move toward a fairer and more effec-
Amazon, and Google unleashed public is zero, the revenue accruing to them is tive system.
anger and forced the G20 to act, the equal to a rent, and it is therefore impor- The lack of consensus so far on how
OECD was called on to reform the inter- tant to tax this rent effectively. And, con- to tax digital multinationals has led
national corporate tax system. That led, trary to what these companies’ leaders numerous countries to implement (as
three years later, to a package of reforms claim, this taxation would not negatively India, Italy, Spain, and France have done)
known as the “Base Erosion and Profit affect the supply of digital services. or promise to implement (in the case of
Shifting” Project, or BEPS. The reform The Independent Commission for the the United Kingdom) turnover-based
process was led by OECD countries and Reform of International Corporate Taxa- taxes as a stop-gap measure to raise rev-
opened up to developing countries only tion (ICRICT), which I chair, believes that enue. But unilateral action is not enough.
after this initial package was unveiled. the BEPS process has achieved what it The ICRICT supports all discussions
Today, 125 countries are involved, could, given the political muscle of big that move toward unitary taxation of
forming a group called the “Inclusive corporations and the army of lawyers and multinationals, which would eliminate
Framework.” accountants who have a vested interest multinationals’ use of transfer prices to
BEPS was undoubtedly an important in maintaining the status quo. In our shift profits, because their global income
step toward tackling some of the most latest report, we take stock of what has would be consolidated. Global profits and
egregious tax-avoidance strategies been achieved and highlight what should associated taxes could then be allocated
used by multinationals. It initiated, for happen in the next phase of reform, geographically according to objective fac-
example, the sharing among tax authori- “BEPS 2.0.” tors such as the company’s sales, employ-
ties of country-by-country reports on ment, resources, and even digital users in
these companies’ profits and tax pay- each country. We also strongly support
ments. Unfortunately, however, this norm the introduction of a global minimum
will apply only to very large multina-
tionals, and the reports will not be pub-
BEPS was effective corporate-tax rate of between
20% and 25% on all profits earned by
licly available, depriving civil society of undoubtedly an multinationals.

important step
an essential tool of transparency. The overriding priority now is to estab-
Furthermore, BEPS failed to reach the lish an international corporate tax system
root of the problem: companies are still
permitted to move their profits wherever
toward tackling fit for the digital economy. The OECD
BEPS process was essentially conceived
they want and to take advantage of very- some of the by developed countries for developed
low-tax jurisdictions. Google, for example,
most egregious
countries. In Paris this month, developing
moved €19.9 billion ($22.7 billion) through countries must understand what is at stake
a Dutch shell company to Bermuda in
2017, and in the same year Facebook paid tax-avoidance and make their voices heard, to ensure that
any new proposal benefits all.
just £7.4 million ($9.6 million) in corpora-
tion tax in the United Kingdom, despite
strategies used José Antonio Ocampo is a board member of
generating £1.3 billion in revenue there. by multinationals Banco de la República, Colombia’s central
Multinationals can do this legally by bank, professor at Columbia University, Chair
using so-called transfer pricing: a parent of the UN Economic and Social Council’s
company sets the prices of transactions Committee for Development Policy, and Chair
among its subsidiaries to guarantee that of the Independent Commission for the Reform
profits are registered in low-tax coun- of International Corporate Taxation.
tries, rather than where the economic Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
activity that generated the profits actually

30 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
comment
By Kristalina Georgieva
Right investments for human capital
Focus on productivity-linked indicators such as child
survival, stunting, learning-adjusted years of school

F
or 75 years, the World Bank has been they learn? growth every year.
at the forefront of development, The Human Capital Index is unique Investing in people is even more
helping countries make smart because it focuses on productivity- urgent because of two challenging
investments to prepare their citizens linked indicators such as child survival, global trends. First, global growth is
for the future. It has been particularly stunting, learning-adjusted years of slowing. Our Global Economic Prospects
focused on the poorest and most vulnerable school, and adult survival, and it draws report, released earlier this month, is
– their access to infrastructure, health, a direct line between future economic appropriately titled Darkening Skies.
education, assets, jobs, and markets. In growth and better health and education Global growth has moderated – in 2019,
recent years, it has embraced policies and outcomes. Above all, it paints a clear it is expected to slow to 2.9%, from 3% in
investment in areas critical for the world’s picture for leaders of how much more 2018. And growth in emerging markets
future, such as combating climate change productive their workers could be when and developing economies is expected to
and making technology work for the poor. they are healthy, educated, and equipped stall at 4.2%, the same pace as in 2018.
Everywhere I travel – from Rwanda with the skills needed for a rapidly Second, the pace of poverty reduction
to Zambia, or from Indonesia to my changing labor market. is slowing. Our Poverty and Shared
home country, Bulgaria – I see the A country can score between 0 and 1 on Prosperity report found that in 2015,
difference that technology can make in the index, with 1 representing the best the most recent year with robust data,
people’s lives. The impact is apparent possible frontier of complete education extreme poverty reached 10%, the lowest
in a multitude of ways, such as digital and full health. In our first index, the level in recorded history. But the 736
payment systems or the emerging gig average value for the world was just 0.56. million people still living in extreme
economy, leading to remarkable success This means that, across the 157 countries poverty will be harder to reach. The
stories. covered, children born today will grow poverty rate in areas suffering from
But just as technology is improving the up to be roughly half as productive as fragility, conflict, and violence climbed
lives of millions around the world, it is they could be. to 36% in 2015, up from a low of 34.4% in
also changing the nature of work. Our The implications for growth – and 2011, and that share will likely increase.
2019 World Development Report focused therefore poverty reduction – are Investment in human capital can help
on how innovation is changing or doing enormous. If a country has a score of drive inclusive, sustainable economic
away with existing jobs and launching 0.50, its future GDP per worker could be growth. But this is not just the domain of
entirely new fields of employment that twice as high if that country reached the health and education ministers. Heads
didn’t exist a few years ago. frontier. Over a half-century, this works of state, finance ministers, CEOs, and
This raises some difficult questions: out to 1.4 percentage points of GDP investors need to make these investments
What jobs are people going to do? How an urgent priority.
will they support their families? How If we act now, we can create a world
will they fulfill their potential in an where all children arrive at school well-
increasingly complex world?
We have powerful new tools to help
A country can nourished and ready to learn; where
they can grow up to be healthy, skilled,
developing countries answer those score between productive adults; and where they have

0 and 1 on the
questions. At the World Bank Group-IMF a chance to fulfil their potential.
Annual Meetings in Bali in October, The children of today deserve this
2018, we launched the Human Capital
Index. Initially covering 157 countries,
index, with 1 future. The employers of tomorrow will
demand it. The leaders of the world owe
the Index is a summary measure of the representing the it to them to act now.
human capital that a child born today
can expect to attain by age 18, given the best possible Kristalina Georgieva is Chief Executive
risks of poor health and education where
he or she lives. frontier of Officer of the World Bank.

The Index focuses on outcomes in three


key areas. First, survival: What is the
complete Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.

probability that a child born today will education and


survive to age five? Second, health: Will
children be stunted before age five? Will full health
they be healthy into adulthood, ready
for work, with a foundation for lifelong
learning? And third, education: How
much schooling will children complete,
and more importantly, how much will

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 31
comment
By Nathan Were
Behind micro-credit loans
No one deserves to die from excessive peer pressure
because of failure to re-pay a micro-credit loan

T
he Daily Monitor newspaper the Nobel peace Laurent and founder collateral, no credit history or a
of February 02, 2019 led of micro-credit has continued to argue trace of tractions to determine their
with a sad story of Gubindi that what he founded nearly 30 years cashflow. They must form groups
- a resident of Jinja town in ago, has taken a completely different to borrow. It is this vulnerability
eastern Uganda who, after failure course. The desire to make excessive that micro-finance institutions are
to re-pay a micro-loan of 300,000 returns for shareholders is driving exploiting and hurting the poor in the
($81) that he obtained from Pride many institutions into unethical process.
Microfinance Limited, took his own practices, excessive pricing, and fierce These loans are not even cheap. A
life in a police cell. recovery methods. recent Bank of Uganda loan pricing
The story of Gubindi and many It is not just about people taking matrix for micro-deposit taking
other people who are hurting silently their own lives, group loans are also a institutions showed that some MFIs
because of unethical lending practices big inconvenience. A study conducted are lending at as high as 65% effective
and brutal recovery methods by by one of the global financial inclusion interest rate per annum. No business
lending institutions, brings in question think tanks five years ago found that can generate such returns. Infact, for
the intended outcomes of micro-credit people lose a lot of time and money in many micro borrowers, these loans
and responsible lending. weekly meetings. Group borrowers are are eroding their working capital and
Micro-credit - mainly delivered required to meet weekly, sometimes slowly killing their businesses. But
through joint liability groups (JLG) bi-weekly for several hours to discuss because they juggle many things from
has for many years been hailed by their loan repayment situation. For which they earn, it is not obvious for
social impact experts as a channel some, they must close their businesses them to see the impact of this pricing.
through which poor households that as a result and lose income in the Can the industry be redeemed? This
lack collateral securities can access a process. One of the clients during the remains an open question with very
micro-loan and invest in their micro same study indicated that “taking a few answers. A few organisations
and small enterprises. The industry group loan from a microfinance is like have tried to advocate for responsible
has hailed the methodology for a being in prison. You have no life, no lending and social performance – but
near-zero default rate and many privacy and no peace”. their efforts are not yielding the much-
financial institutions have become But how did we get here? The poor expected results. MFIs are at cross-roads
profitable and rapidly grown as a have limited options when it comes struggling to balance the social outcomes
result. However, repayment (or its to financial services. They have no with profitability. Some microfinance
lack thereof) presents an incomplete lending vehicles – the source of debt and
picture in assessing whether these equity funding for many MFIs - care less
joint liability loans help customers about social impact but concentrate on
achieve original goals or even improve return on investment at whatever cost.
their financial situation. When micro- The regulators are mainly concerned

credit was
A trail of deaths, shuttered families, with financial and sound health of
broken marriages and migration out these institutions and less about how
villages are just some of the many
pitfalls that these group guaranteed
created, it’s they treat their customers. With these
contradictions, it is unlikely that we shall
loans continue to leave behind in intended see microfinance return to its original
the name of empowering the poor. A
outcomes were
intentions of empowering the poor.
number of studies from around the
world have consistently highlighted
how excessive peer pressure from to build and not Mr. Were is an Access to Finance
group members has caused some
to flee their homes, abandon their
destroy lives of Specialist based in Nairobi.
Email: were.nathan@gmail.com
businesses or even take their own the poor
lives.
When micro-credit was created,
it’s intended outcomes were to build
and not destroy lives of the poor.
However, along the way, the industry
has been hijacked by capitalists whose
quest for profitability supersedes its
original outcomes. Mohamed Yunus

32 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
ART | BOOKS | SOCIETY | TRAVEL | CULTURE

Different But One 23


I
By Dominic Muwanguzi

t is time for `Different


But One’ - the annual
exhibit by art lecturers of
Margaret Trowell School Annual academic-artists’ exhibit
of Industrial and Fine art
which has been running
for 23 years!
emphasises research and collaboration
Every beginning of the year,
the lecturers come together to social and cultural spaces
exhibit their art, concepts, and of Uganda.” In light of such
latest innovations. The idea is statement, these artifacts are
to inspire their students and still very visible in traditional
reflect on what it means to be introduction ceremonies like
an artist. Okuhingira(Okwanjura) in
Exhibiting academics western Uganda. On the
include Associate Prof. Phillip contrary, these pots contribute
Kwesiga, Prof. F. X Ifee, Fedelis to the subject of material culture
Nabukenya, Assoc. Prof. Kizito and the conversation that
Maria Kasule, Dr. Ronald surrounds it. These were both
Mpindi, Raymond Nsereko, functional objects and artworks
Dr. Rose Kirumira and Dr. in their own right.
Kyeyune George. An interesting aspect
The idea to showcase of this year’s exhibit is the
different artworks or ideas inclusion of a guest artist,
in an annual exhibit can be Moses Nkonge, whose work
challenging; especially if it `Egypt’ and `Spirals’ also
involves academic artists who offers remarkable ideas on the
beyond their primary role of subject of art making; especially
teaching and researching on with particular emphasis on
the subject of art at university, themes of studio dexterity and
also have to produce art. experimentation. He works
This challenge to multi-task with stained glass, a seldom
at the same time is visible in used medium among artists
the exhibition. With such a practicing on the Kampala
perennial cycle, it is inevitable contemporary art scene. Stained
that ideas and art will be glass is an ancient medium
recycled or reproduced. that is principally used in
Sometimes it is conceptual, the designing of cathedrals
other times it is old art (windows and doors). It
trumping new for any number requires a certain level of studio
of reasons; including tight deftness in usage because of
deadlines. its fragility and the complex
This year, as usual, exhibition process of construction and
founder RivkaUziel brings that pervades the country. The Noteworthy also is Prof. reconstruction on particular
freshness. This time it is collage home theme is further visible Phillip Kwesiga’s display of surfaces. In the exhibit, the
fabrics ( Kitengi) as a metaphor in the painting `The Home lll’ earthenware titled `Perfume artist nimbly demonstrates
to her attachment to Uganda, which depicts a rather small Pot’ (Mishomingi) and Milk this procedure with an
a country she considers her rugged shelter, constructed Pot (Ekyanzi) that suggest the astonishingly captivating
third home after Bulgaria with hardwood. The image idea of cultural preservation image.
and Israel respectively. The conjures settlements that reside in this era of modernity The `Different But One’
Kitengi is often perceived in the Bulgarian countryside, where synthetic household dons make art that is research
as a local garment by many over- looking the Bulgarian objects are taking over the oriented inspired to meet the
people and its appropriation sea. Suffice to say, the artist, traditional organic utensils in demands of global standards.
in Uziel’s work `The Home Uziel, paints it with a sea – blue many households. Kwesiga
Crane’ perfectly serves the palette in the background to says these objects “have The `Different But one 23’
purpose. Its bright colours and evoke the idea of the sea. She continued to survive and offer exhibit is showing until Feb.19
diverse patterns allude to the appropriates sand from the sea new possibilities in terms of at Makerere Art Gallery in
vibrant and colourful rhythm in the painting. resilience and chance in the Kampala.

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 33
feature

Romance is dead
A psychologist’s reflections on today’s
dating scene and what comes next

By Maryanne Fisher they greatly dislike the dating scene Second, many complain about meeting

O
today. There are three main sources men who only want sex; some of these
ne of my main areas of of concern - the quality of the mate, men pretend to want a relationship,
research is on how women the energies they have to undertake but ultimately it’s a deception. In
compete amongst each to self-promote and the competition general, there seems to be a perception
other for mates. So, as I they face. I should preface the rest of that there are only a few good men
was having lunch with a girlfriend this article by saying that I don’t know out there left. To win these few good
recently, we somehow ended up on much about men’s views of the dating men, they have to improve themselves
the topic of romance and the current world, as it’s not part of my research, and compete with other women who
dating scene. By the end of lunch, we so I’m going to focus on women here. are trying to get the same guy. And,
reached the conclusion that romance is Women usually begin by because there are only a few good ones
pretty much dead. I was devastated at complaining about the available men. out there (at least in their eyes) they
the thought, but I think we’re right. There seems to be two main problems. don’t want to be overly demanding.
As part of my work, I often ask First, they meet men who are already When questioned about what they
women about their perceptions of the in relationships but who take off their would ask for if they could, most
dating market - what they have to do wedding ring to appear available. women mention romance - they want
to acquire a good prospect in light of Or, there are men who say that they to feel that they are the center of his
the fact that there are other women are single but then secretly text their world, that he can’t help but fall in
out there trying to win the same prize. girlfriend saying that they are still out love with them, and it’s them and only
A comment I routinely hear is that with the guys and will be home late. them that he wants.

34 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
feature
They want him to be clear about his some of the backstabbing things they
love, not sending some cryptic text have done to each other, like saying
that is laden with ambiguity. Some “you look super” when they think
do mention sex, but usually it follows
from falling in love. Basically, these
Some their friend doesn’t looks that great,
or telling a friend that a guy they both
women want to live the plot of any women don’t like is unavailable, just to deter the

necessarily
romantic comedy movie or romance friend from competing. The majority
novel. of women I’ve talked to undertake

want to have
When I asked whether the women considerable effort to think about their
thought they themselves were rivals, and what they will be facing in
romantic, the answer seems to be
no - so the women want the men to sex, they just terms of competition. Sugar and spice,
and everything nice, that’s what girls
be romantic, but aren’t themselves.
They seem to believe that men really don’t want to are made of? I think not.
What does this all mean? Well,
don’t care if they are romantic, so
why bother? Overall, then, there is
be single again basically, in today’s dating scene,
romance has been pushed to the
a perception that there aren’t many
good men out there, and if a woman
or they want side. Women tend not to display it,
and they tell me it’s because the men
finds one, she doesn’t want to place to have a little they are meeting don’t care about

more time to
many demands on him because it romance at all. Men aren’t displaying
might scare him off. it because women don’t expect them

see if he’s a
to - or at least that’s how it seems.
Cost of self-promotion For the men reading this, I’d advise
The second issue is one centered
on the women themselves. Many keeper you to use romance (as so long as
it’s not paired with a tan line from
feel exhausted from all the various where your wedding ring should be)
activities they undertake to look good because you might seem like a very
and to make themselves seem as good catch to prospective mates, and
desirable as possible. In research, this you’ll stand out as being different,
is called self-promotion because one is but in a good way. I can hear critics
trying to promote herself as being the saying “nice guys finish last” and
best option out there. equating romance with nice guys, so
Listening to a group of women it’s important to note that the research
who are active daters talk will often is really not well supportive of this
reveal the effort that is involved idiom.
simply in terms of improving
physical appearance. Then there is Future of romance
the financial cost of that undertaking If romance is dead, what comes
- gym memberships, clothing, salon next? I really don’t know, but it’s
visits, teeth whitening, cosmetics looking like the routine is to have
and wonder creams are not cheap. are in when it comes to sex. One of the sex and then hope that there is some
Many women also feel unsure how to most significant issue that I’m hearing emotional connection afterwards.
‘be’ when dating - what personality these days is how men are not really This pattern is not true for everyone,
characteristics should they display and displaying any romance, and women of course, but it is becoming more
hide? Is it ok to have a loud laugh or are feeling increasingly pressured to prevalent among the women I’m
not? Is it ok to be intelligent, or does have sex earlier in the relationship. talking with these days. Maybe I’ll
playing dumb improve one’s chances? When I ask them why, I often hear be proven wrong, but it seems to me
Should they be honest about their something like, “if I don’t have sex that as our society has streamlined
profession if it’s one that is high in with him, he’ll find someone else who everything imaginable (even social
status, given that it might mean they can.” These women don’t necessarily relationships are now efficient thanks
are too competitive or challenging? want to have sex, they just don’t want to facebook), there’s just no room left
Together, trying to put the best foot to be single again or they want to for romance. The only solution I can
forward is not an easy undertaking have a little more time to see if he’s see, at least on theoretical grounds, is
if you are making the effort to find a keeper. And these days, it seems that women need to start demanding it
a good mate, especially if you are that the ‘sex’ date is number two or from potential mates, and males who
particularly self-conscious or have three - a far cry from the courting days want to seem like good catches should
been away from the dating scene in a of 1900 when one used only a finely start offering it. Maybe, just maybe,
while. tuned wit to woo. I should mention we can start to resuscitate romance.
that most of my research is based on
Weighing the competition young women, between 18-28 years of Maryanne Fisher, Ph.D., is a Professor
The third issue is competing with age. Perhaps the situation is different in the Department of Psychology, and a
other women for a good mate. This is among older crowds. member of the Women and Gender Studies
where the issue of romance resurfaces. Related to this issue of competition Program, at Saint Mary’s University in
Yes, by using good clothes and a is that many women try to determine Halifax, Canada.
winning personality one is competing what potential rivals are doing so that
against potential rivals for a keeper they can be unique, but not too unique
of a man. However, that pales in as to become freakish. Friends who
comparison to the competition women are active daters have reported to me

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 35
Indian wants to sue parents for giving birth to him without his consent
A 27-year-old man from New Delhi, abstain from procreation because giving me for their joy and their pleasure. My
India, wants to take his parents to court birth to sentient beings without asking life has been amazing, but I don’t see
for bringing him into this world without for their consent is morally wrong. He why I should put another life through the
first asking for his consent. The 27-year considers himself a victim of life without rigamarole of school and finding a career,
old Raphael Samuel is an-antintalist, a “forced life”. “I love my parents, and we especially when they didn’t ask to exist.”
person who believes that people should have a great relationship, but they had

World’s boldest Man spends millions on surgery to look like Michael Jackson
biohackers plans to live Leo Blanco, a watching the King of
to at least 180 years! 22-year-old man
from Buenos Aires, in
Pop as a young child
and knew very early
Argentina, has report- on that he wanted to be
Dave Asprey is one of the
edly spent over $30,000 just like him. At age 15,
world’s boldest biohackers - a
(Approx.Shs110 mil- Leo turned to plastic
person who alters their own body
by implanting do-it-yourself cyber- lion) on plastic proce- surgery to fulfill his
netic devices; that is, devices that dures over the last sev- dream of becoming a
control genes and how a person en years, in an attempt lookalike of his idol.
interacts with their environment. to mimic Michael He’s had four surgeries
The 45-year-old Asprey’s ambition Jackson’s look. Blanco on his nose, operations
is to live to at least 180 years, longer is one of the thousands on his cheekbones, jaw
than any human. He eats uncon- of Michael Jackson and chin. “I put my
ventional diets, uses smart drugs, impersonators around body, my soul, and all
miracle substances and uses hun- the world, but what my money to be the
dreds of gadgets in a quest to opti- sets him apart from all world’s best Michael
mize his health and overall lifestyle. the rest is his obsession Jackson impersonator,”
He meditates, drinks a cocktail of with looking just like the 22-year-old says.
supplements spiked with modafinil his idol. He started
(a drug for “wakefulness”) and
testosterone every day, and uses an
EEG machine to train his brain to MP resigns after trying Company sells kits that
be less reactive. He got a surgeon to
extract half a litre of bone marrow to forcibly kiss TV host `help’ people get sick
from his hips, filtered out the stem
cells, and then injected them into A morning TV host had to push Most people would Vaev bills itself a
his joints, spinal cord and into his away a male politician when he never use a tissue that “wellness brand”
cerebral fluid, scalp, and face and attempted to forcibly kiss her someone else sneezed although technically it’s
uses a hyperbaric oxygen chamber, on her show. Martha Hinojos in, let alone pay $80 for helping people get sick
sleeps in a bed bathed in infrared kicked her legs in the air as she one, but one Los Ange- by selling them tissues
light, uses an atmospheric cell tried to get away from Jose Maria les startup claims to that complete strangers
trainer that reproduces the effect of Armenta after he pounced on her have already sold close sick with the cold have
climbing to the top of Mount Ever- during a broadcast of ‘El Mejor to a thousand sneeze- allegedly sneezed into.
est and dropping back down to sea Dia’ (The Best Day) on Telemax, filled tissues to people But who in their right
level in a matter of minutes, and in Mexico. The man first gave who want to catch a cold mind would pay $79.99
even wears yellow-lens glasses that Alejandra Leon’s co-host Martha virus now so they don’t (Approx.Shs300,000) on
allegedly filter out “the bad light”. Hinojos a kiss on the cheek. He get sick with the same a germ-contaminated
Is living a long time a kind then tried to kiss Ms Leon on the cold later. Does that used tissue? Well, that
of superpower? “Yes,” he says, lips but she was having none of make any sense? would be “open-minded
“Although I might die trying.” it. She tried to shove him off and people” who appreciate
he eventually released her. But the luxury of being able
then he asked her for a kiss on the to get sick “on their
cheek, which she agreed to. But own terms”.
she was visibly shaken.
“I need to say something,” she
said, “The devil will take you. My
boyfriend is going to beat you up,
you will see.” The MP resigned
from his government role after he
was criticised for his actions.

36 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
Uncrashable
Mercedes-
Benz

High-tech ESF safety concept car coming mid-


2019 to showcase life-saving safety tech
By Agencies that a new ESF would be revealed mid- things at all times, no one should die while

T
2019. riding inside a car.
he idea of zero road deaths sounds Improvements in autonomous driving It is not known if the new ESF will be a
like a pipe dream. But Mercedes- tech and collision prevention are expected, concept car like this, the Mercedes-Benz
Benz says an uncrashable car is pos- as are new occupant protection systems IAA Concept, or based on the new S-Class
sible. That’s the opinion Mercedes- designed to reduce injury in the advent of a production car but Kalennius said the new
Benz global R&D chief, Ola Kalennius, car crash. concept car will be a jaw dropper.
who is excited about his new ESF (formerly “Things like autonomous driving and He suggested many of its safety features
ESV), or Experimental Safety Vehicle. sophisticated driver assistance are all are almost showroom ready.
“Safety is the core DNA of Mercedes and enablers to reduce traffic accidents. Because “Having been in engineering for a couple
the ultimate goal is zero accidents in traf- virtually all traffic accidents are human of years, I’m absolutely amazed at the
fic,” said Ola Kalennius. error,” he said. ingenuity and creativity of the engineers.
In an interview with Australian media The idea is that if cars are controlled by It never stops. We will do something in the
at the 2019 Consumer Electronics Show, constantly-learning AI and a huge amount middle of this year, to demonstrate what
where autonomous and even flying cars of cloud computing brawn that can see all the future of safety is going to look like.”
were in abundance, Kalennius confirmed

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Feb. 08 - 14 2019 37
Pastor Martin Ssempa
on Bobi Wine
`In this country, you are judged basing on whether you are pro or anti-government’
By Agnes E Nantaba about AIDS and the good news of Jesus assumes to be an Indian or Asian trader.

P
Christ. He says, “I am a child of an illicit rela-
astor Martin Ssempa is a familiar About the same time he joined Makerere tionship that was disapproved of racially
name in circles of activists and University to pursue a Bachelor’s degree in and religiously”.
Makerere University Kampala. For Social Sciences majoring in Sociology. Sem- He remains a strong critic of abortion
over 20 years, he has run a congre- pa’s brother and sister contracted HIV and after his mother chose to keep him despite
gation of mainly Makerere University stu- after their death, Ssempa started activism several threats and orders to do so. Ssempa
dents through his Prime Time fellowship against HIV/AIDS through abstinence. was named after his maternal grandfather.
at Makerere Community church. His style He says, “I was lucky to have made a He spent the early years of school in Masa-
involves preaching through entertainment. decision to get saved and was challenged to ka before completing primary at Nsambya
He is very outspoken. But his campaign be part of the response team”. Police. He later joined Rubaga Boys where
against homosexuality has been the most He started Prime Time Fellowship about he completed ordinary level and Namily-
controversial. the same time to strengthen his ministry ango College for advanced level.
In 2010, he got international prominence among the young people and save many
after a video of an anti-homosexuality pre- from contracting the scourge. The fight
sentation he made at his church went viral would mean traversing the country with
online. He has also campaigned for separa- several drama shows using the bible to
tion of the church and state, condom use counsel people.
and abstinence as key prevention mecha- In 1992 right after graduating from
nisms against HIV/AIDS. Makerere University, Ssempa married
Ssempa has recently made headlines for Tracey. Together, they have five
criticising singer turned prominent politi- children. He later received a Mas-
cian Robert Kyagulanyi Ssentamu alias ter of Arts degree in counselling
Bobi Wine who made a political cover of a from Philadelphia Biblical Univer-
church hymn ‘Tuliyambala Engule’. Ssem- sity and in 2006, that same university
pa and others accuse the singer of desecrat- awarded Ssempa an unaccredited honor-
ing the Christian heritage of the hymn for ary doctorate for his work with people
political gain. “We have strong attachments with AIDS.
to these songs because they map out the In October 2012, Ssempa and five other
journey of a pilgrim’s progress,” he says. individuals were convicted in Buganda
But, in a viral debate that ensued on Road Court of conspiring to tarnish a rival
social media, many accuse Ssempa of pastor’s reputation by falsely accusing him
working for the government to silence the of engaging in homosexuality. The guilty
opposition. He denies it, maintaining that verdict stemmed from a May 2009 incident
his accusations against Bobi Wine set a new in which Ssempa and the others engaged
narrative which is not for only today but against Pastor Robert Kayanja of
also for tomorrow. Rubaga Miracle Center Cathe-
Ssempa’s activism journey dates more dral. Ssempa and others were
than two decades ago when he converted to sentenced to a fine of ShsI
Evangelical Christianity at the Wandegeya million and 100 hours of
Baptist Youth Center. Previously a catholic, community service.
his initial intentions for attending fellow- Ssempa was born in
ship at the centre was to get close attach- Naluzaale, Masaka Dis-
ment to some of the beautiful girls but this trict to Dorothy Namuli
was cut short by his reception of Christ. He a teacher . He never
reveals that continuous attendance revealed had an opportu-
to him a whole different paradigm of godly nity to meet with
young people, something that set into his father
motion a one year process of self-reflection who he
in his final year of high school at Namily-
ango College School.
As a teenage young boy, Ssempa was
awarded East African break dance cham-
pion which he used to compose drama skits
to educate students around the country

38 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
Q&A

Pastor Martin Ssempa’s Liteside


Any three things that we don’t What is your greatest extrava- responsible. priority.

I
know about you? gance?
am courageous, original, I like electronics and What or who is the greatest What is your favorite occupa-
and faithful. technology. love of your life? tion?
My wife and children. I like teaching people the
What is your idea of per- What is your current state of truth.
fect happiness? mind? When and where were you
I am always happy. But I also I am a happy person. happiest? Who are your favorite writers?
love a good joke and I don’t The day my wife said yes to One of the most valuable
take life too serious even when What do you consider the my marriage proposal in 1990 books is one written by John
I go through very tough times. most overrated virtue? while seated at the mosque in Roscoe; he wrote the ‘Culture
We are obsessed with poli- Wandegeya. I was very excited and Peoples of Buganda’
What is the trait you most de- tics to the extent of making it on my wedding day in 1992. which documents the DNA of
plore in yourself? appear like the only thing that Every moment that I return a muganda. There is no book
Sometimes I love and share we should look at. There are home to meet my wife and chil- that has helped me understand
too much because I am too many other things like religion dren brings me great joy. myself and my people better.
trusting. I have discovered that and culture that require more Martin Luther King is also
not everybody is trustworthy. time. In this country, you are Which talent would you most rhetoric.
judged basing on whether you like to have?
What is the trait you most de- are pro or anti-government. I wish I could sing and Which historical figure do you
plore in others? preach at the same time. I most identify with?
Being a devil agent; I can’t What does being powerful would communicate better. Alexander MacKay came
work with people of such char- mean to you? into this country when the king
acter. Being righteous, prayerful If you could change one thing called for missionaries. He
and listening to God. Such about yourself, what would was a faithful and industrious
Which living person do you people are disproportionate it be? young man who made such
most admire? with what they are in the physi- I would like to get more incredible sacrifices for this
I admire people of courage, cal world. muscles so I could breakdance country. Uganda is built on
those who promise and fulfill; again. Christian foundations because
especially when their cour- On what occasion do you lie? of him.
age is tested. I admire Speaker I tell lies but I also try to cor- What do you consider your
Kadaga; especially at a time rect with the truth as fast as i greatest achievement? Who are your heroes in real
when she signed the Anti- can. Being faithful to my wife for life?
homosexuality Bill because she 27 years despite coming from a My mother did incredible
did it for the children of Ugan- What do you most dislike society whether polygamy is a stuff with great difficulty.
da. I also admire President John about your appearance? way of life.
Pombe Magufuli for standing My appearance is a heavenly What is your greatest regret?
up against homosexuality. I job. Where would you most like Sometimes I look back and
admire Jennifer Musisi for to live? conclude that I have been too
doing an incredible Which living person do you I love Uganda; there are dramatic. At times I think that
job in Kampala most despise? many problems within but its I shouldn’t have presented my
under great I despise wicked people beauty is unmatched. thoughts that way.
difficulty. because God tells me and Satan
has made them be what they What is your most treasured How would you like to die?
are. I also despise people who possession? I would like to write a list of
are not faithful; those say some- My bible is food for my my procession and sleep away
thing and do the reverse. spirit, food that guides me and in the company of my family
sharpens me. and friends like personal pas-
What is the quality you most tors.
like in a woman? What do you regard as the
God fearing and industrious- lowest depth of misery? What is your motto?
ness. Not having good washrooms If you stand by me, I will
is dehumanising. Everybody stand by you.
What is the quality you most should have access to good
like in a man? washrooms but it’s not some-
God fearing, faithful and thing that we think about as a

Feb. 08 - 14 2019 39
Global comment
By Célestin Monga
Benefits of African Economic Integration
With the right balance of audacity and pragmatism,
regional integration could yield larger dividends

W
hen Kwame Nkrumah, under Unfortunately, overlapping and fragmented economies.
whose leadership Ghana often contradictory regional economic In a world where 60% of trade occurs
became the first African communities have constituted a through global value chains, Africa
country to claim independence mostly ineffective “Spaghetti bowl” of must industrialise to diversify away
in 1957, was overthrown by a military coup institutions with little authority and from natural resources and create jobs
in 1966, few of his fellow citizens shed a tear weak analytical capacity. This has made for its fast-growing young population.
for his regime. But one aspect of his legacy African integration sound like an empty By boosting intra-continental trade,
remains relevant to this day and merits political promise used by leaders who consumption, and investment, regional
careful consideration. have little will to make it happen. integration can be a strong vector for
Nkrumah was a visionary and Moreover, researchers have cast doubt improving productivity, building
charismatic leader whose focus was on on the goal of integration. All African manufacturing powerhouses, and
modernising Ghana and on campaigning economies combined still represent developing credible African brands.
for Africa’s political unity. His most only about 3% of global GDP, and Open regionalism could also stimulate
brilliant idea was to integrate the purchasing power remains low. Why, connections between small and medium-
continent and create the United States of then, devote limited financial resources size enterprises and international value
Africa. But he favoured the development to building costly infrastructure aimed at chains, thereby enabling these firms to
of costly, capital-intensive projects, integrating the continent? While creating enter global markets.
which led to unsustainable foreign a single African market is a desirable In particular, five trade measures could
debt and deficits while creating few goal, pursuing it must not distract bring total gains worth 4.5% of Africa’s
employment opportunities. Economic national policymakers’ attention from GDP, or $134 billion a year – almost the
contraction led to widespread unrest the huge potential gains to be had from amount of all official development aid
and to a loss of credibility for the idea of integration into the global economy. in 2017. The first is elimination of all
African integration, and to fallout with A new study from the African bilateral tariffs. Second, country-of-origin
his famous economic adviser, the future Development Bank provides evidence rules (needed to determine the source
Nobel laureate W. Arthur Lewis. that both objectives are not mutually of a product) should be kept simple,
Nkrumah’s intuition about the exclusive; in fact, they could be mutually flexible, and transparent. Third, all
potential benefits of Africa’s integration reinforcing. The report also examines nontariff barriers on trade of goods and
was based on a sound economic the potential gains from regional public services should be removed on a most-
rationale, which he failed to articulate goods, such as synchronising financial favored-nation basis. Fourth, the World
convincingly. With 16 landlocked governance frameworks, pooling power, Trade Organisation’s Trade Facilitation
countries, Africa is more fragmented opening skies to competition, and Agreement should be implemented to
than any other continent. The small size opening borders to free movement of reduce the time it takes to cross borders
of many countries and the resulting people, goods, and services. and the transaction costs associated
fragmentation of domestic markets The study shows that a borderless with nontariff measures. Lastly, tariffs
result in various diseconomies of scale, continent that enables agricultural and and nontariff barriers applied to trade
impeding economic development. In industrial production across national with other developing countries should
2017, more than three-quarters of African boundaries is the foundation of a be reduced by half on a most-favored-
countries had fewer than 30 million globally competitive African market, nation basis.
people, and about half had a GDP of less because it would offer economies The economic rationale for Nkrumah’s
than $10 billion. of scale to investors, while creating dream was stronger than previously
After Nkrumah’s fall from power, much bigger markets and providing thought. The adoption of the African
other African leaders took up his new opportunities for small firms and Continental Free Trade Area by
goal of building the United States of large. It would also help eliminate African leaders in 2018 is giving it new
Africa, based on the Organisation of monopoly positions and enhance cross- momentum. With the right balance of
African Unity. The OAU subsequently border spillovers between coastal and audacity and pragmatism, regional
adopted a series of treaties to make landlocked countries. integration could yield large dividends
economic integration a reality. The Moreover, integration can improve for Africa and the world alike.
African Economic Community was regional security, because the
created in 1991, and, after the OAU was expansion of international trade often Célestin Monga is Vice President and Chief
disbanded in 2002, leaders adopted the correlates with a reduction of conflict. Economist of the African Development Bank
African Union Agenda 2063 in 2015. The Deeper market integration for goods, Group.
continent’s leaders also created a large infrastructure services, and key factors
number of regional institutions to make of production (labour and capital) is Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
incremental progress toward Nkrumah’s especially important – both economically
goal. and strategically – for Africa’s small and

40 Feb. 08 - 14 2019
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