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5.

0 NUTRITION PROPERTIES

Soybeans are good source of the lipids, protein and carbohydrate. Protein is good
substitutes for animal product because it is unlike with other beans, soy offers a complete
protein profile. Table 1 show the composition of various food( dry solid-g/100g)

Table 1: Composition of Various Food

FOOD PROTEIN LIPIDS CARBOHYDRATES MOISTURE


Soybean 45 25 15 7
Peanut 25 50 20 9
pea 23 2 70 12
Field bean 30 2 60 12
Wheat 14 2 78 10
(grain)
Maize 10 5 80 10
Sorghum 11 4 81 11
Cassava 3 0.8 90 63
Yam 9 0.7 84 73
Potato 9 0 73 78
(tuber)
Source : Cheftel JC, Cuq J-L and D Lorient Amino acids, peptides, and proteins.

Source bean also contain all the essential amino acids, which must supply in the diet
because it cannot be synthesized by the human body. Soybean also can be replace animal-
based foods which also have full protein but tend to contain more fat, especially saturated fat
without any requiring major adjustment in important component of soybeans. Hence,
carbohydrate is major constituents quantitavely and play as a minor nutriention role. This is
because soybeans is consumed more for their protein content and value. The structural
carbohydrates also are the major fraction of Soybean carbohydrates. In additional, cereals
is higher in carbohydrate content than soybean and are the major contributors of energy in
human diet that already show in table 1. Soybeans protein contributes about 45% to the
energy in a meal in which it is major component. Soy are good source of dietary fibre, B-
vitamins, calcium, and omega-3 essential fatty acids and all important food components.
5.1 Protein Content of Soybean Products

Soybean protein usually particularly valuable because it has amino acid composition
that complements that of careals that show in table 2. Soybean are limiting in the sulphur
containing amino acid for animal species including humans but contain sufficient lysine to
overcome the lysine and methionine and may help to explain the successful use of soy
protein product such as soybean surd in the rice eating cultures of Asia. The amount of
protein in soybean is 34-44% is larger than the protein contain of other legumes, 20-30%
and larger that of cereals which is 8-15% (Synder HE, 1987). The large amount of protein in
soybean along with the high biological value(BV) increase their value as feedstuff and is one
of the reason for the economic advantage that soybeans have over other oil seeds. The
digestibility of the soybean protein also varies with the type of modern soybean product with
soybean concentrate (SPC) and SPI having higher digestibility than soy flours (R, 1981).
The presence of considerable levels of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors in soy flour one of
the most reason for the lower digestibility of their protein.

Table 2: Nutrition quality of protein on biological value evaluation and on amino acid
composition

Protein Protein Biological Net Limiting amino acid Chemical


efficiency Value (BV) protein score
ratio(PER) utilization
(NET)
Whole egg 3.8 87 − 97 91-94 𝑁𝑂𝑁𝐸 100
Cow’s milk 2.5 85 − 90 86 𝑆𝑈𝐿𝑃𝐻𝑈𝑅 𝐴𝑀𝐼𝑁𝑂 𝐴𝐶𝐼𝐷𝑆 60
Beef 3.2 76 71-76 𝑆𝑈𝐿𝑃𝐻𝑈𝑅 𝐴𝑀𝐼𝑁𝑂 𝐴𝐶𝐼𝐷𝑆 80
muscle
Salmon − 72 71 𝑇𝑅𝑌𝑃𝑇𝑂𝑃𝐻𝐴𝑁 75
Soybean 0.7 − 1.8 58 − 69 48-61 𝑆𝑈𝐿𝑃𝐻𝑈𝑅 𝐴𝑀𝐼𝑁𝑂 𝐴𝐶𝐼𝐷𝑆 69
Peanut 1.7 56 43-54 𝑆𝑈𝐿𝑃𝐻𝑈𝑅 𝐴𝑀𝐼𝑁𝑂 𝐴𝐶𝐼𝐷𝑆 70
Rice 1.9 75 70 𝐿𝑌𝑆𝐼𝑁𝐸 57
Maize 1.2 60 49-55 𝐿𝑌𝑆𝐼𝑁𝐸 55
Wheat 1.0 52 52 𝐿𝑌𝑆𝐼𝑁𝐸 57
Source : Cheftel JC, Cuq J-L and D Lorient Amino acids, peptides, and proteins.

5.2 Soybean Lipids and Micronutrient Profiles

Soybean oil also provide calories, the essential fatty acid and vitamins A and E, but it
contributes insignificant amount of vitamin D and K. It is one the higher iodine value of
oilseeda which is similar to that of sunflower oils. In soybean oil the fatty acid linoleic, oleic ,
palmitic and linolenic, make up 54, 24, 12 and 8% respectively. Because of the considerable
unsaturation of soybean lipids, which tend to lower serum cholesterol soybean consumption
may be helpful. Other than that, soy oil also can serve as a good source of oleic and the
essential fatty acid (EFA) linoleic acid with even the partially hydrogenated soy oil that
containing 25% linoleic and 3% linolenic acid. (Potter NH, 1995). However, the
polyunsaturation of soy oil is a disadvantage during hydrogenation and bleaching of soy oil,
the temperature of hydrogenation is 120-230˚c. For the information, soy oil contains 55-68%
dienoic and trienoic acids amount that are large enough to influence formation of
considerable level of isomers of linoleic and linoelenic acids. During the hydrogenation
process, the normal cis isomers are converted to the trans geometric isomers (RD, 2004).

5.3 Soybean Carbohydrates

Carbohydates of soybean contained a little hexose and starch, and largely


polysaccharides with some oligosaccharides. Soybean contains 35% of carnohydrates. 50%
of carbphydrates of soybeans are non-structural in nature and include oligosaccharides,
small amounts of pectic polysaccahrides and low molecular weight. The small amount of free
galactose, fructose, glucose, and sucrose make up the low molecular weight sugars. The
structural carbohydrates can divide into cotyledon meal polysaccharides and hull
polysaccharides. The primary of both are arabinogalactan and an acidic polysaccharides
that is similar to pectin. Many factors affect the nutritional value of soybeans carbohydrates
including cultivar, genotype and processing. Soybean polysaccharides are considered
unavailable to human mainly due to difficulties in digestion. The important benefit of dietary
fibre to humans is increasing the water-holding capacity of stools. Dehulled of soybean flour
contains 6.2% neutral fibre, 4.6% crude cellulose, 1.3% lignin, 5.7 acid detergent fibre and
0.5% crude hemicellulose (Synder HE, 1987).

5.4 Soybean Minerals

Dry soybeans an ash content 5% which is quite considerable. The major forms od
minerals in soybeans are sulphates, phosphate and carbonates. Potassium is found in
soybeans in the higher concentration followed by phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur ,
calcium, chloride and sodium in that order. The minor minerals is include silicon, iron zinc
manganese, copper, molybdenum, fluoride, chromium, selenium, cobalt and others.

5.5 Soybean Vitamins

Water-soluble vitamins of the soybeans mainly include riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic


acid, thiamine and folic acid. Normaly, vitamin c is negligible in the mature beans but is
present in measurable quantity in immature and germinated beans. Vitamin A, Vitamin E is
main oil soluble vitamins.

6.0 Commercilization and Application of Soybeans in China and Indian


 Marketing
China marketing of domestic soybeans remains generally same and its impacts on
soybeans imports remains limited. The majority of domestic soybeans are sold for
locally consumer and processing. Traders sourcing soybeans from the four North-
eastern provinces can deliver products to other parts of China though rails and
trucks. Chi ese industry sources reported that marketing of MY17/18 soybeans
remained slow due to lower than expected prices. Based on CNGOIC, the February
purchase orice for soybeans averaged RMB 3600/ton for food use and RMB3400/ton
for crushing, compared to the RMB 3300/ton for imported soybeans. The purchase of
domestic soybeans for crushing remains low. In many coastal provinces, the
marketing ofdomestic soybeans for food use is also increasingly challenged by the
use of imported soybeans. Trades of domestic soybenad for food use are normally
small to medium size operations and face difficulty in consolidating soybeans from
household and village.

 Imports
Post estimates the growing import of soybeans import reaching 97MMT in MY17/18,
and 100MMT in MY18/19. China’s domestic production remains insufficients and
unable to meet growing consumption of oilseed product. In MY16/17, china
continued to dominate the global soybean market and remain the largest importer of
soybeans in the world with total import of 93.5MMT, absorbing 62.6% of total world
export and 61.2% of total U.S soybean exports. In additional, economic incentives
are reportedly driving greater use of imported soybeans for food in the coastal
provinces.

 Exports
China’s soybeans exports, mostly destined for traditional food use are forecast at
150000 tons for MY18/19 unchanged from MY17/18 estimate. China’s soybeans
exported remains small and are not expected to change significantly as traditional
markets like Korean and Japan which is source of good food grade soybeans.

In indian, a step forward is taken for commercialization of traditional product by


taking active on certain aspects. The scope for commercialization in Indian is quality
control and hygiene. The primary factor for successful commercialization of the
traditional product is hygiene and quality control. Next is standardization and
documentation. A step forward for commercialization the product need a uniform
optimized technique for each product which can be documented for reference.
Moving on to the packing and transport. Hygienic packing is the key to
commercialization of the traditional product. To withstand the different levels of
marketing stages necessitated proper packing and transport. Lastly is skill and
entrepreneurship development. Training and skill development of the entrepreneurs
in processing and scientific preparations methods, demonstration and production of
different products is required. Hand holding for the establishment of a small scale unit
in respective location and providing technical backup and input supply to promote
entrepreneurship are requires.

References

 Potter NH, J. H. (1995). food science. new york: Chapman and Hall.

 R, B. (1981). The role of soybeans in food system. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc, 392.

 RD, O. (2004). Fats and oil formulation processing application. CRC Press, 13-15.

 Synder HE, T. K. (1987). soybean utilization. new york.