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Previous Times’ Questions Answered

With hyperlink to Reference Document, if applicable

Meaning of colour/letter codes

Answer is incomplete

Answer is doubtful/not satisfactory

Satisfactory answer for a previously doubted/incomplete answer

This answer is true subject to organizational (IndiGo) policy

R The sentence has been revised

Note: All the AMM references are subject to changes as per Airbus/IAE issues and
Q1. What you learnt in last 6 months?

Q2. When to uplift engine oil? Why not as soon as engine shut
down or after 2 hours?
A: As per AMM recommendation, oil system should be AMM 12-13-79-
serviced including oil quantity check and filling should be 610-002-A
performed between 5 minutes to 60 minutes post
engine shut down. The reason for not performing oil
servicing before 5 minutes and after 60 minutes are as
* After engine shut down, minimum of 5 minutes
should be given to let the engine oil system to cool down
and depressurized. If oil cap is opened for the purpose
of oil servicing while the oil tank is still pressurized, hot
engine oil may get sprayed that will cause injury to the
* By 60 minutes post engine shut down, oil gets
settled down and some oil flows into the sump causing
oil quantity displayed through the sight gage to be lower
than the actual oil quantity. Hence trying to service
engine oil after 60 minutes, one may over service the
Note: If engine oil is over-serviced, it will not cause
engine damage. It will burn and vented overboard
through vent system. However, it will cause incorrect
calculation of oil consumption rate.

Q3. Nose wheel steering is connected to which hydraulic

system? If yellow hydraulic system fails, can you steer the
A: Nose wheel steering is powered by Yellow hydraulic
system pressure. If yellow hydraulic system fails, we
cannot steer the aircraft.

Q4. What are the computers related to landing gear and flight
A: Landing Gear computers:
LGCIU: Landing Gear Control and Interface Unit.
BSCU: Braking/Steering Control Unit.
ABCU: Alternate Braking Control Unit.

Flight Control computers:

ELAC: Elevator Aileron Computer
SEC: Spoiler Elevator Computer
FAC: Flight Augmentation Computer
SFCC: Slat Flap Control Computer
FCDC: Flight Control Data Concentrator
FMGC: Flight Management and Guidance Computer

Q5. What is LRU? Name five LRUs of engine?

A: LRU or Line Replaceable Unit is a complex unit which can
be replaced easily and quickly to restore the end item
into operational ready condition and thus reducing
aircraft ground time.
Five LRUs of engine are:
1. IDG
2. Starter
5. Thrust Reverser.

Q6. What is the wheel change procedure? Why did you

change wheel and how you came to know when it has to
be changed?
A: When a wheel tire is found to be worn out of limits, it is AMM 32-41-11-
necessary to change the wheel to prevent any accident 000-006-A for
or incident caused by tire burst. Removal of Main
MLG Wheel Change: AMM 32-41-11-
The safety precautions are: 400-006-A for
a. Place wheel chocks on nose landing gear Installation of MLG
wheels and main landing gear wheels not intended to be Wheel.
b. Open, safety and tag the BRK FAN circuit AMM 32-41-12-
breakers in the cockpit. There are two circuit breakers 000-001-A for
located in the 122VU CB Panel. Removal of NLG
c. Placard the landing gear handle, free fall Wheel.
handle and break fan p/b to tell person in cockpit not to AMM 32-41-12-
operate it. 400-001-A for
d. Set the PARKING BRAKE to ON. Installation of NLG
0. Jack up the related landing gear wheel with the axle
1. Release the tab washer.
2. Torque lose and remove the four bolts with a 7/16
3. Remove the tab washer and discard it.
4. Remove the debris protector.
5. Remove the shroud.
6. Cut, release and discard the locking wire.
7. Turn the fan nut with a 13/16 spanner while holding
the fan to prevent it from rotating.
8. Remove the impeller.
9. Loosen the screw with a 3/8 spanner and remove the
clamp and then remove the joint.
10. Release, remove and discard the cotter pins.
11. Torque loose the cross bolts with a 7/16 spanner and
discard the nuts.
12. Remove the axle nut.
13. Install the thread protector. Use a thin layer of
grease over it.
14. Remove the wheel carefully from the axle.
15. Check that the brake driving keys are properly
16. Mount the new wheel on the axle carefully.
17. Remove the thread protector.
18. Apply a thin layer of grease in the threads.
19. Hand tighten the axle nut.
20. Set the PARKING BRAKE to OFF.
21. Set the initial torque of 220 lbs.-ft. in the torque
wrench. With the help of the adapter apply the initial
torque to the axle nut while rotating the wheel in the
direction of tightening.
22. Loosen the axle nut. DO NOT rotate the tire during
this time.
23. Set final torque of 110 lbs.-ft. in the torque wrench.
Apply the final torque to the axle nut while rotating the
wheel in the direction of tightening.
24. Check alignment of cross bolt holes with the slots in
the axle nut. If they are not alignment, it is to be aligned
by rotating the axle nut in the direction of torqueing
only. DO NOT rotate the axle nut in the direction of
loosening to align the holes.
25. Insert the cross bolt. The bolt should be placed with
bolt head in the inner side and it should properly fit in
the inner surface.
26. Install and tighten the nuts. Check the alignment of
cotter pin holes.
27. Insert the cotter pin. Bent it properly into the nut
28. Insert the joint. Install the clamp and tighten the
29. Insert the impeller. Install the fan nut while holding
the fan to prevent it from rotating.
30. Safety the fan nut with locking wire. Check that the
lock wiring is done in positive direction.
31. Insert the shroud and the debris protector.
32. Insert new tab washers and bolts. Tighten the bolts.
33. Bent the tabs to safety the bolts.
In the cockpit, remove the tag and close the circuit
breakers. Operate the break fan to check its properly
functioning. Remove the placards. Put the wheel chocks
on. Set the PARKING BRAKE to ON. Check there is no
trestle or equipment under the aircraft body or wing and
then lower the axle jack.

Q7. What are the precautions while carrying out taxi light
A: The safety precautions for taxi light change are: AMM 33-46-12-
1. Wear protective clothing while working on lights to 000-001-A for
prevent injury. The lights can be hot. Removal of Taxi
2. De-energize the electrical circuits. light.
3. Do not disconnect the electrical connector for at least AMM 33-46-12-
2 minutes after de-energizing the electrical circuits. 400-001-A for
4. Open, safety and tag the TAXI LIGHT circuit breaker in Installation of Taxi
the 122VU Circuit Breaker panel. light.

Q8. How will you adjust the seat reclination?

A: In front side of the actuator, there are two nuts riding on
a screw which are to be turned to perform adjustment
of seat reclination.
Loose and unscrew the front screw to the required
Pull the seat ahead to check if the distance is proper.
Tighten the rear screw to hold the seat in that position.
Make an operational test of the seat to check if the seat
is retracting to the proper position set.

Q9. What will be your action if fuel is spilled on ground?

A: As soon as fuel spillage is observed on ground CAR Section-2
a. I will first stop re-fuelling. Series H Part II
b. I will restrict movement of personal and
vehicle in the area affected by the fuel spillage.
c. Before re-commencing re-fuelling, I will make
sure that the spilled area is adequately cleaned.
However, the fuel spilled should not be drained into
sewers or drains.
[Another answer of the same question, as per IndiGo
policy defined in their Technical Procedure Manual Issue
04 Revision 00]
In case of fuel spillage during refuelling, the immediate IGO TPM Issue 04
sequence of actions from my side will be: Rev. 00 LM-14
1. Stop the refuelling or de-fuelling process immediately. page 4 of 5
2. Contact the Airport Fire Services immediately after
spillage for effective cleaning of spilled fuel.
3. All vehicles and personnel should be evacuated from ≪IGO ALL TIME
the affected area to a distance not less than 15 meters NOTES 01-01-15-
from the point of fuel spilled. 00≫
4. Restrict movement of any vehicle or personnel in the
affected area until it is declared safe.
5. Engines of vehicles and equipment within six meters
of the fuel spilled area should not be started until the
area is declared safe.
6. Liaise with Airport Authority and Airport Fire Service
for effectively clean the area.
7. Initiate relocating the aircraft in case fuel spillage is
severe and covers a quite large area.

Q10. After wheel and brake change, what test will you
A: After a brake change,
a. Operation of normal braking system
b. Operation of alternate braking system
c. Operational test of Brake Temperature system
d. Operational test of brake fan
are performed.

After a wheel change,

a. Operational test of brake fan
b. Free rotation of wheel
are performed.

Q11. Where is taxing procedure given?

A: Taxing procedure can be found in AMM Chapter 09 –
Taxing and Towing.

Q12. What are the types of brake used in A320?

A: A320 uses carbon brakes.

Q13. What type of jack do we use?

A: We in IndiGo use hydraulically operated jacks.

Q14. Explain the different types of braking systems.

A: A320 series aircraft uses the following braking systems:
a. Normal braking
b. Alternate braking with or without Anti-Skid
c. Parking brake

Normal braking is powered by Green hydraulic system

and is controlled by Braking/Steering Control Unit
(BSCU). When Nose Wheel Steering and Anti-Skid is ON,
Parking Brake is OFF and Green hydraulic power is
available, the Normal braking is active. The BSCU
performs the Anti-Skid calculations.

In case of failure of Normal braking system, Alternate

braking mode is active with or without Anti-Skid
function, depending on aircraft configuration or Normal
braking fault source. Alternate braking is powered by
Yellow hydraulic system, backed up by a Brake
Accumulator and controlled by Alternate Brake Control
Unit (ABCU). If Anti-Skid function is available (Nose
Wheel Steering and Anti-Skid toggle switch is ON and
BSCU are functioning), the ABCU controls the braking
pressure but BSCU makes the Anti-Skid calculations and
supplies it to the ABCU. In case of BSCU failure and/or
Nose Wheel Steering and Anti-Skid switch set to OFF
and/or hydraulic system low pressure detected (braking
pressure supplied by brake accumulator only) Anti-Skid
regulation is lost.

Parking Brake is applied by a parking brake lever located

in the central pedestal (110VU). The Parking Brake
pressure is supplied by Yellow brake accumulator or the
Yellow hydraulic system (if pressurized).

Q15. How APU generator delivers constant frequency

electrical power although it does not have a Constant
Speed Drive (CSD)?
R A: APU do not have a Constant Speed Drive. But its rpm is
R maintained constant by the Electronic Control Box (ECB).
R Once the acceleration cycle is complete, any variation of
R shaft rpm from 100% will send an error signal to the ECB.
R ECB then calculates the change in fuel flow according to
R the temperature and pressure value of inlet airflow to
R regain the 100% rpm. It then sends necessary signal to
R the Fuel Control Unit (FCU) to change the fuel flow
R accordingly and thus returning the engine rpm to 100%.
R Thus APU maintains a constant rpm of the shaft which is
R then rotates the generator armature at the same
R constant speed.

Q16. What are the different sections of AirNav?

A: The different sections of AirNav are:
1. AMM (Aircraft Maintenance Manual)
2. TSM (Trouble Shooting Manual)
3. IPC (Illustrated Parts Catalogue)
4. AWM (Aircraft Wiring Manual)
5. ESPM (Electrical Standard Procedure Manual)
6. AWL (Aircraft Wiring List)
7. ASM (Aircraft Schematic Manual)

Q17. What is the purpose of gas path cleaning and which ports
or line are open during gas path cleaning?
A: Gas path cleaning of engine is performed at specified
interval in order to improve the overall efficiency of the
engine in respect of EGT margin and SFC. Over time in
operation, contamination deposited in the compressor
blades and stators alters the normal profile of these
aerofoil. This reduces the efficiency of engine, to
compensate for which either more fuel has to be
consumed increasing the SFC or increasing the EGT
margin and thus affecting lives of hot section

Q18. Why USI is conducted?


Q19. What is
a. Running torque
b. Breaking torque
c. Dry torque
d. Wet torque
A: Running torque: It is the torque required to keep a load
Breaking torque: It is the torque required to initially
move the load.
Dry torque: It is the torque applied without application
of lubricant or grease. E.g. torque applied in O2 system.
Wet torque: It is the torque applied with application of
lubricant or grease. E.g. torque applied to axle nut.

Q20. What is the SI unit of torque and pressure?

A: SI unit of
Torque : Nm
Pressure : Pascal

Q21. Tell me basics about hydraulic system (A320 family).

A: A320 family aircraft is equipped with three independent
hydraulic system which are identified as Green, Blue and
Yellow system. All three system supplies hydraulic
power at 3000 psi during normal operation. In
emergency, the Blue system is powered by Ram Air
Turbine (RAT) that supplies Blue hydraulic power at 2500
The normal pressure source of Green system is an
Engine Driven Pump located in the accessory gearbox of
#1 engine. As an auxiliary source, Green system can be
pressurized from Yellow system through PTU.
The normal pressure source for Yellow system is an
Engine Driven Pump located in the accessory gearbox of
#2 engine. The auxiliary power sources for Yellow
system are PTU and Electric Motor Driven Pump. The
Yellow system also has a hand pump dedicated to cargo
door operation only.
The normal pressure source for Blue system is Electric
Motor Driven Pump. The Blue system can be pressurized
from a hydraulic pump driven by Ram Air Turbine in case
of abnormal operation.
The PTU pressurizes either Green system from Yellow
system or Yellow system from Green system when there
is a pressure differential of 500 psi between
Green/Yellow or Yellow/Green system is detected. PTU
transfers only power and not fluid.
The Yellow system also has an additional Brake
Accumulator for backing up Yellow hydraulic supply
during alternate brake operation and to parking brake.

Q22. What is RAT?

A: RAT or Ram Air Turbine is a unit installed in A320 family
aircraft which is automatically deployed when both AC
bus has no power while the aircraft speed is still above
100 knots. RAT has two propeller installed in front of the
unit which is exposed to incoming airstream which
rotate it at high speed. The rotational motion is
transferred through a shaft to drive a hydraulic pump
that pressurizes the Blue hydraulic system to about 2500
psi. The Blue hydraulic pressure is then supplied to
critical flight controls and components. Also the Blue
hydraulic pressure is used drive the Constant Speed
Motor Generator which generates 115V 3-phase 400 Hz
AC electrical power at 5 kVA rating which is supplied to
critical equipment and systems.

Q23. What are the flight control computers? Where are they
A: The flight control computers are:
ELAC: Elevator Aileron Computers. Two in number.
SEC: Spoiler Elevator Computers. Three in number.
FAC: Flight Augmentation Computers. Two in number.
SFCC: Slat Flap Control Computers. Two in number.
FCDC: Flight Control Data Concentrators. Two in
FMGC: Flight Management and Guidance Computer.
Two in number.

All flight control computers, except SEC 3, is located in

80VU (aft) avionics compartment. SEC 3 is located in
90VU (forward) avionics compartment.

Q24. What is specific gravity? What is its unit?

A: It is the ratio of density of certain volume of a substance
to the density of equal volume of water at 4OC.
Since it is the ratio of two similar quantity, it does not
have a unit.

Q25. How to open cargo door manually?

A: In case of absence of Yellow hydraulic system normal
and auxiliary power source, cargo door can be opened
with the help of a manual hand pump dedicated to cargo
door operation. The hand pump is located in the Yellow
hydraulic service panel on the left hand side of the
fuselage behind main landing gear wheel well area. The
handle to operate the hand pump is also located in the
Yellow hydraulic service panel.
1. Open the Yellow hydraulic service panel.
2. Connect the operating handle to the manual hand
3. Lift the handle of the appropriate cargo door.
4. Push and hold the cargo door hydraulic lever in the
OPEN position.
5. Operate the hand pump to pressurize the Yellow
hydraulic system to open the cargo door.

Q26. What are the things to be checked while taking seals from
A: While procuring new seal from store, its part number,
shelf life, and condition of packing are to be checked.

Q27. What are the points to be kept in mind while taking

torque wrench from store?
A: While taking torque wrench from store, the type of
torque wrench, type of drive, unit of measurement and
range of torque are to be specified.

Q28 What is spool?

A: By the term spool, a complete rotor assembly consisting
of compressor blades and disk, turbine blades and disk
and the connecting shaft is indicated. For example in
split-spool, or twin spool, as it may sometimes called,
has two spools namely High Pressure spool consisting of
HPC, HPT and its connected shaft, and Low Pressure
spool consisting of LPC, LPT and its connecting shaft.

Q29. How starter rotate the spool while teeth of starter is

engaged in accessory gearbox?
A: The starter gear teeth is connected to the accessory
gearbox. As the starter rotate, it rotates the accessory
gearbox. To the accessory gearbox, radial drive shaft is
connected which is in turn connected to the engine HP
shaft. Thus when accessory gearbox rotates, it rotates
the radial drive shaft and thereby the engine HP shaft is

Q30. Mallet and screw driver (Question about their size).

A: Mallets are classified by the type of material of the head
and diameter of face.
Screw driver is classified by the shape, type of blade and
length of blade.

Q31. Numerical related to extension used in torque wrench.

A: The equation to find the torque value indicated on the
wrench dial when an extension is used is:

Tw = (Te * A)/(A+B)

Tw is the torque value indicated on wrench dial

Te is the amount of required to be applied
A is the length of the torque wrench
B is the length of extension

Q32. Handling of bleed valve, HP valve, Overpressure valve

(question about locations and their use).

Q33. How engine thrust rating changed?

A: Engine thrust rating can be changed by changing the
Engine Identification Plug.

Q34. Snag rectification is confirmed from which manual?

A: TSM (Trouble Shooting Manual)

Q35. Torque of the bolt is mentioned in which chapter of

A: Chapter 20 : Standard Maintenance Practices
Q36. Replacement of any component is referred from which
A: AMM (Aircraft Maintenance Manual)

Q37. Engine mounts – which bolt is opened first?


Q38. IDG location and about their internal operation.

A: IDG is located in the accessory gearbox at 6 O’clock

Q39. Rating of emergency generator.

A: The electrical supply from the emergency generator, or
the CSM/G is 115V 400 Hz 3-phase AC at 5 kVA rating.

Q40. What happen if the sense lines going to FADEC are

A: In normal operation, the V2500 engine fitted in our
A320s operate in EPR mode. However, if sense lines
going to FADEC are blocked, then depending on the
parameter lost, the engine mode automatically switches
to either rated N1 or unrated N1 mode.

Q41. What are the things that a Yellow hand pump can
A: Yellow hand pump is dedicated for cargo door operation

Q42. What is fan cowl latch opening and closing sequence?

A: Fan cowl latches are opened from the front and closed
from the rear.

Q43. What is T/R cowl latch opening and closing sequence?

A: T/R cowl latch opening sequence: AMM 78-32-00-
3→2→5→4→1 010-010 opening
T/R cowl latch closing sequence: C-duct
1→4→5→2→3 AMM 78-32-00-
410-010 for closing
IAE V2500 Training
Section 2:
Propulsion System
(page: 2-27)

Q44. What are the advantages of Fly-By-Wire?

A: Advantages of Fly-By-Wire are:
a. Weight saving.
b. Reduction in fuel consumption.
c. Higher reliability
d. Gust load alleviation
e. Flight envelope protection

However fly-by-wire aircraft are not (?) from

disadvantages. The disadvantages are:
a. It has no feel.
b. Complexity of aircraft and system increases.
c. Unit cost increases

Q45. Number of flight control computers.

A: There are total six different computers controls the
operation of flight control surfaces. They are:
ELAC (Elevator Aileron Computer)
SEC (Spoiler Elevator Computer)
FAC (Flight Augmentation Computer)
SFCC (Slat Flap Control Computer)
FCDC (Flight Control Data Concentrators)
FMGC (Flight Management and Guidance Computers)

All flight control computers are duplicated except for

SEC which is three in total. They are located in 80VU (aft)
avionics compartment except for SEC 3 which is located
in 90VU (forward) avionics compartment.

Q46. In what unit fuel is displayed in aircraft?

A: In aircraft, fuel quantity is indicated in Kilograms.
However, bowser provide fuel in litres.
Note: BTU per kilogram of fuel is constant while BTU per
litre of fuel is dependent on temperature. When value of
litre is multiplied by its specific gravity, we can get the
kilogram value.

Q47. Electrical system rating in A320 electrical system.

A: IDG: 115V 400 Hz 3-phase AC at 90 kVA rating
APU GEN: 115V 400 Hz 3-phase AC at 90 kVA rating
CSM/G: 115V 400 Hz 3-phase AC at 5 kVA rating
EXT PWR: 115V 400 Hz 3-phase AC at 90 kVA rating
STAT INV: 115V 400 Hz single-phase AC at 1 kVA rating

TR: 28V DC 200 A

DC BAT: 24V DC at 23 Ah

Q48. Where to find part number?

A: IPC or Illustrated Parts Catalogue.
Q49. Colour code of oxygen system?
A: Oxygen cylinders are in Green colour with “AVIATORS
BREATHING OXYGEN” scribed on it.

Q50. Torque used in oxygen fittings.

A: In Oxygen system fittings, dry torque i.e. torque without
use of lubricant is used. This is to prevent oxygen system

Q51. What all to check in part obtained from stores?

A: Its part number appropriate as per IPC, Serviceability

Q52. What is 1/10th of thou?

A: One thou is one part of thousandth. So 1/10th of thou is

Q53. How to open cargo door with Yellow pump inoperative?

A: When Yellow pump is inoperative (both EDP and EMDP),
a dedicated hand pump can be used to supply Yellow
hydraulic pressure for cargo door operation.

Q54. How to check if locking nut is in good condition?

A: Turn the nut down the bolt thread with hand. If the nut
can be tightened with hand only, which implies that the
self-locking ability of the nut has lost and it should be

Q55. What are the precautions for putting seals?

A: Check that the seal is of proper part number, within its
shelf life and packing condition is proper while receiving
from store. Always lubricate the new seal before

Q56. What is the time gap for measuring tire pressure?

A: Tire pressure should be measured
a. At least after 2 hours since the aircraft last
b. The wheel temperature indication is below
60 C.

Within 2 hours of last taxi/tow, the tire can be hot that

will cause the nitrogen pressure inside the tire to increase
due to expansion. This will give a false indication of
actual tire pressure of the tire.
Q57. What are the precautions to be followed for fuelling?
A: 1. Chocks should be placed a little away from the wheels IndiGo TPM Issue
or otherwise aircraft weight settling down after 04 Rev. 00 LM-14
refuelling may cause it difficult to remove the chocks.
2. “NO SMOKING” policy should be strictly adhered to. ≪IGO ALL TIME
3. Fuel bowser should be placed such that it does not NOTES 01-01-15-
come under the wing and there is a clear exit is 00≫
maintained all the time to take vehicle and personnel
away from the aircraft during any emergency.
4. Weather radar antenna or HF transceiver should not
be used within 30 meters from the fuelling point.
5. The fuelling vehicle and the aircraft should be bonded
to each other and they individually should be earthen.
Also there should be bonding of nozzle to aircraft
6. No tools or device should be used which may cause
spark and initiate a fire.
7. Fuelling should be suspended in case of:
a. Severe lightning strike in nearby areas.
b. During heavy rain in case of over wing gravity
c. Major fuel spillage.
8. The fuelling should be carried out in an open space
with fuelling point and tank vent points at least 15
meters from the nearby inhabitated buildings except for
those structure specifically built for direct loading and
unloading of passengers such as aero bridges. The
aircraft should be positioned head wind.
9. Adequate fire-fighting equipment is available with the
fuelling vehicle.
10. Fuelling should not be started if brakes are very hot
(“HOT” indication is on in the cockpit).
11. It should be ensured that there should not be any
aircraft movement nearby which brings its jet blast
within 43 feet of fuelling point.
12. GPU, ACU or other vehicles should be appropriate
type. However, they should be placed at least 6 meters
from the fuelling point.
13. APU should not be started during fuelling if APU has
failed to start or an automatic shut-down has occurred.
14. Aircraft oxygen system should not be replenished
and strobe lights should not be operated while refuelling
is being carried out.

Q58. Micrometer, Vernier use.

Q59. Definitions of British Thermal Unit (BTU), Calorie,
Absolute Pressure, Ambient Temperature/Pressure,
Cabin Altitude, Differential Pressure.
A: British Thermal Unit (BTU) is defined as the amount of
heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pounds of
water by 1 degree Fahrenheit.
Calorie is defined as the amount of heat required to raise
the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius.
Absolute Pressure is the pressure measured above
Ambient Temperature/Pressure is the
temperature/pressure of the prevailing atmosphere
around the object under concern.
Cabin Altitude is used to designate the cabin pressure to
equivalent atmospheric altitude at which the same
pressure value can be obtained above sea level during
standard day condition.
Differential Pressure is the difference of pressure
measured at two distinct points.

Q60. Question about Hard hammer, Soft hammer, ball peen

hammer, cross peen hammer.
A: The head of Hard hammer is made of steel or iron and is
made for hitting purpose. It is classified by the weight of
the head without handle and type of head design such
as ball peen, cross peen hammer etc.
Soft hammer head is made of soft material such as lead,
Babbitt, rubber etc. and is made for light tapping on any
soft metal or non-metal. It should never be used for
hitting hard object. It is classified by the diameter of the
face and the type of material of the head.

Q61. Fuel leak – Slow seep, seep, heavy seep, running leak.
A: Slow seep is a leak in which fuel wets an area around the FAA AC65-9A
source of leak no more than ¾ of an inch in diameter. (Airframe and
Seep is a leak in which fuel wets an area around the Powerplant
source of leak from ¾ inches to 1½ inches in diameter. Mechanics General
Heavy seep is a fuel leak that wets an area around the Handbook); page
leak source from 1½ inches to 3 inches in diameter. 97
Running leak is the most severe and most dangerous
which may drip from aircraft surface, may run down
vertical surfaces and may even run down finger when
touched the wet area. The aircraft should be
immediately grounded until repair of the source of leak.
Q62. If there is positive and negative error in TPG then what is
your action to measure correct pressure?

Q63. Question about special tool used in removing O-ring.


Q64. Hydraulic line tightening procedure.


Q65. Cabin air-conditioning and pressurizing system

A: The components of cabin air-conditioning and
pressurization system of A320 are:
Flow Control valve
Primary heat exchanger
Main heat exchanger
Water extractor
Turbine By-Pass valve
Ram Air Inlet flap
Cooling fan
Mixture unit
Trim Air PRV
Trim Air valves
Cabin outflow valve
Safety valves

Q66. Colour coding of pipe lines.


Q67. Type of split pin locking.


Q68. Question about different ATA.


Q69. Difference between ATF and Gasoline.

A: 1. ATF is Kerosene blend aviation fuel which is not Aircraft Gas
gasoline. Turbine
2. Gasoline or AVGAS in coloured fluid while ATF is Powerplant (Otis):
transparent. Chapter 7 page 7-
3. Specific gravity of ATF (Jet Fuel) is closer to water than
specific gravity of AVGAS. Therefore, ATF can held more
water in suspension than AVGAS without showing it.
4. In stored condition, ATF produces best mixture with
the air post vaporization inside a storage tank. Whereas
AVGAS maintains a very rich vapour-to-air mixture.
Therefore, ATF is more dangerous in stored condition
than AVGAS.

Q70. Difference between flexible hose and rigid tube.


Q71. Question on definition and use of momentum.


Q72. Where we keep chocks before refuelling?

A: Two chocks at the front of the nose wheel and four
chocks at the rear of the main wheels. The chocks should
be placed a little away from the wheels or otherwise the
aircraft weight settling down upon refuelling will cause
difficulty in removing the chocks later.

Q73. How to start engine from APU bleed?

A: APU has electric starter. Once APU is started, we can
avail the APU bleed for engine starting. The engine
starting sequence using APU bleed is:
a. APU bleed air is passed through HP Shut Off Valve.
b. The bleed air rotates the pneumatic starter installed
in the engine gearbox.
c. The pneumatic energy of bleed air is converted into
mechanical energy that drives the starter.
d. The starter is connected to the Accessory Gear Box.
As the starter rotates, it rotates the Accessory Gear Box.
e. Accessory Gear Box in turn rotates the Transfer Gear
Box through a horizontal drive shaft.
f. The Transfer Gear Box then rotates the HP compressor
shaft (N2) through a radial drive shaft.
g. As the HP compressor section starts to rotate, it
initiate airflow through the engine. At a certain HP
Compressor rpm (N2), the LP compressor (N1) assembly
to starts rotating due to aerodynamic coupling.
h. When airflow is sufficient, fuel is introduced in the
combustion chamber and ignition is automatically
provided. The fuel mixes with air to produce an ignitable
sources that burns under the ignition spark. The air
expands as it burns that provide energy to the turbine
assembly to support rotation without starter assistance.
i. As the turbine assembly start receiving sufficient
energy from the hot gases, it accelerates the
compressor rpm. At a certain engine rpm, the starter is
automatically disengaged from the gear box. The engine
then self-accelerates to idle rpm.
j. The hot exhaust gases passing through the turbine is
then expelled through the exhaust section of the engine.

Thus we now have the engine start completed.

Q74. What are the hydraulic system in our aircraft?

A: Refer Q21.

Q75. Which hydraulic system has electric pump?

A: Both Yellow and Blue hydraulic system has electric

Q76. How to pressurize Green hydraulic system on ground?

A: On ground, Green hydraulic system can be pressurized
with the help of Yellow hydraulic pressure via Power
Transfer Unit (PTU). We start the Yellow electric pump
through a P/B on the cockpit overhead hydraulic panel

Q77. What work you have done with your own hand?

Q78. What are the differences between CFM and IAE engines?
What is the difference between their fan blade
A: CFM56-5B and IAE V2500 engines are options for
installation in Airbus A320 family aircraft. There are a
few noted differences between these two types of
engines which are:
1. CFM56 engine uses hollow fan blade while IAE V2500
uses titanium with honeycomb structure in fan blades.
2. CFM56 engines uses separate nozzles for primary
(core engine) airflow exhaust and secondary (fan air)
airflow exhaust. However, IAE V2500 engines has
Common Nozzle Assembly (CAN) which mixes fan air
with core engine air prior to releasing it to atmosphere
through a common exhaust nozzle.
3. CFM56 engines uses pivoting doors type thrust
reverser while IAE V2500 engines use translating sleeve
and cascade type thrust reverser.
Q79. You opened the fuelling panel and you find nothing on
the panel. What will be your action?
A: Upon opening the fuelling panel, if I notice that all
displays are coming blank, I will very first try to reset the
circuit with the help of the micro-switch located on the
right hand side of the compartment.
If it still not coming

Q80. If fuel is not going to the left tank during refuelling, what
will you do?
A: I will try by manual overriding the Cross Feed valve to
open position. For this, I need to release out Cross Feet
P/B in the cockpit overhead FUEL panel (35VU).

Q81. There are three lights for each tank in the fuelling panel.
What are they for? What if they are not illuminating?
A: The three lights are for indicating HI LEVEL of fuel in its
respective tanks.
If the lights are not coming ON, one possible reason may
be that the High Level Protection system is inoperative
for which the fuel system will not be protected against
overfilling and spillage.

Q82. Where are the sensors of fuel tank situated?

A: Capacitance type sensors provide fuel quantity
indication to display in the ECAM. There are 5 sensors
located in the centre tank and 14 sensors are located in
each wing tank.

Q83. What will you do when there is bird strike in engine?


Q84. How fan blade numbering done?

A: Fan blades are numbered 1, 2, 3 and so on in clockwise

Q85. In what direction fan blade numbering are done? How

many fan blades are numbered and where the
numberings are written?
A: Fan blades are numbered in clockwise direction.
All the fan blades in a fan assembly is numbered.
The fan blade’s number is written either on the Annulus
filler or

Q86. Was any MEL invoked in your flight? If yes, explain about
the MEL?
A: Yes. On one day, an MEL is invoked to carry forward SFCC MEL Issue 01 Rev.
2 Flap Channel under the provision of MEL Ref. 27-51- 09 Ref. 27-51-01A
To invoke this MEL, a certain conditions are to be
fulfilled which include:
1. SFCC 2 is deactivated.
2. Flaps and Slats operation should be
satisfactory with SFCC 1.
3. WTB Blue solenoid function is satisfactory with
4. All ELACs, SECs, FACs, RAs, LGCIUs and ADIRUs
are operative.
5. The minimum idle on ground is found
operative. The same is also carried forward under
provision of MEL 73-20-05.

Q87. What are the values of initial and final torque for Main
Wheel and Nose Wheel? Why Initial torque is more than
Final torque?
A: Torque values for wheels:
MAIN WHEEL: Initial - 220 lbs. ft.
Final - 110 lbs. ft.

NOSE WHEEL: Initial - 160 lbs. ft.

Final - 80 lbs. ft.

The Initial torque, also termed as bearing setting torque,

is apply to correctly set the bearing assembly of the
wheel. In order to properly set the bearing, a higher
value of torque than the wheel actually needs during
operation is required. Therefore, an Initial torque is
provided at a higher value than the Final torque on the

Q88. How many igniter plugs are there in APS3200 series

APUs? What are their locations and why only one is
changed at a time?
A: There are two igniter plugs located at the rear of the Lufthansa Technic
combustor housing and 5 O’clock and 9 O’clock position. A320/40/APS/L3-E

There are two igniter plugs in APS3200 series APUs. They AMM
are located at 120O and 270O position while looked from
the rear.

Q89. When manually operating the cargo door by hand pump

and flaps are in POS#2, then will the flaps move? If not,
then why?
A: No, flaps will not move irrespective of flap lever position.
For flaps to move, we need both Yellow and Green
hydraulic system pressure. The hand pump for operating
the cargo door is a dedicated pump only for operating
the cargo door. This means, the Yellow hydraulic
pressurized by the hand pump is directed only towards
the cargo doors and not to the rest of the Yellow
hydraulic system parts. Therefore, neither the Yellow
system is practically pressurized for operating the flaps
nor the Green system will be pressurized through the

A second question that may appear like, “What will

happen if we operate the cargo door normally in which
case the yellow electric pump is operated
The Answer will then be:
No sir, flaps will still not move. As I mentioned, for flap
operation, both Green and Yellow hydraulic pressure are
required. Although Yellow hydraulic pump operates, the
PTU inhibition logic will not allow PTU operation while
cargo door operation and thus Green system will not be
pressurized and hence no flap or other control surface
movement will take place.

Q90. What are the tools involved in starter servicing?


Q91. What if we forget to check the oil quantity?

A: The oil quantity should be meticulously checked during
transit/pre-flight/base flight inspection. If oil quantity is
not checked and there happens to be low oil, the engine
bearings and other sophisticated section of the engines
will starve of lubrication during operation, which will
cause heat development, excessive wear and tear which
cumulatively lead to a premature failure of such remote
and sophisticated portions of engine. In turn, the engine
will have to be overhauled at period shorter than

Q92. What are the differences between Magnetic Chip

Detector (MCD) and Master Magnetic Chip Detector
A: Practically, Magnetic Chip Detector (MCD) and Master
Magnetic Chip Detector (MMCD) are the same and does
the same thing. They are located in the engine oil system
return and detects any metallic particle in the oil. The
only difference is that MMCD is located at a more easily
accessible location than the MCDs.
The Master Magnetic Chip Detector is located in the final
oil return line whereas Magnetic Chip Detectors are
located in bearing sumps and accessory gearbox. When
high number of metallic particle is found in Master
Magnetic Chip Detector, although it does indicate
excessive wear and tear in the engine, however it can’t
distinguish the actual origin. However, each Magnetic
Chip Detector detects presence of metallic particle of its
specific location and hence finding excessive metallic
particle in them identify the appropriate source of wear
and tear.
Now, we have a Master Magnetic Chip Detector in
addition to the 6 Magnetic Chip Detectors in our engine.
The design principle of Master Magnetic Chip Detector
is to reduce work load of maintenance personnel by
providing single point for identification of possible
internal failure rather than looking through the
Magnetic Chip Detectors. If Master Magnetic Chip
Detector is clean, there is no need to inspect each
Magnetic Chip Detector individually. They are needed to
be inspected only when Master Magnetic Chip Detector
indicate possible internal failure to identify the exact
location of failure.

Q93. What is HELICOIL?


Q94. What are the different types of drag?

A: Drag is the resistance offered by air or fluid to the
movement of a body moving or trying to move through
the air or fluid.
The drag is mainly divided into two types:
1. Wing drag is the drag produced by those surfaces that
contribute towards producing lift.
2. Parasite drag is the drag produced by non-lift
producing surfaces such as fuselage.

Both wing drag and parasite drag includes Form drag,

also called as pressure drag, and skin friction. Form drag,
as can be understand by its name is the drag produced
due to the shape and form of the surface under
consideration. The air comes head on into the forward
facing portion of a surface and is thus brought to rest or
nearly rest. Thus there is a little pressure zone created
at the front of the face which resists the movement of
the surface. The more the face is blunt, the higher will
be the strength of the pressure zone and higher will be
drag. Streamlining a surface is the method of reduction
of this kind of drag. Skin friction is caused by the
irregularity of the surface. Every surface, even a smooth
machined surface, will definitely have some roughness.
The air flowing past the surface will be disturbed by
these irregularities. The higher the irregularity, the
higher will be disturbances and higher will be skin
friction. Smoothening of surface and removing
irregularities as much as possible is the method of
reduction of this kind of friction.
Hence form drag and skin friction is produced both by
wings (lift producing surface) and non-lift producing
surfaces. However, wing produces another type of drag,
called Induced drag, which is defined as the drag induced
by the lift. The very reason which produces lift, also
contributes towards a vector component rearwards and
hence drag. This drag is called induced drag. Induced
drag is inevitable as long as there is lift from wings. The
method by which induced drag can be somewhat
reduced is by designing a wing with high aspect ratio
(ratio of span to chord).

Q95. Explain the IAE fan blade construction.


Q96. What is Fan Trim Air?


Q97. What type of oil is used in our engines?


Q98. What is FAP? Up to what it can maintain the cabin

A: FAP or Flight Attendant Panel is the main user interface
with Cabin Intercommunication Data System (CIDS). It is
located at the left hand side of forward galley above
flight attendant seats.
Through FAP, cabin crew can adjust cabin temperature
to a maximum of ±2.5 degree Celsius from the
temperature selected from the cockpit.

Q99. What is enhanced and inenhanced cabin in IndiGo?