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7.5.

3 Torispherical ends

The calculation pressure: P 0,66 [Mpa]

The test pressure: Ptest 0,9 [Mpa]
Inside spherical radius of central part of torispherical
end: R 507 [mm]
The inside diameter of the cylindrical flange: Di 600 [mm]
The inside radius of curvature of a knuckle: r 112 [mm]
The nominal thickness: en 8 [mm]
The minimum yield strength or 0,2% proof strength at
calculation temperature: Rp0,2T 355 [Mpa]

The minimum tensile strength at 20°C: Rm/20 470 [Mpa]

Joint coefficient: z 0,7 []

The nominal design stress for normal operating cases:

𝑅 , 𝑅 /
𝑓 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ;
1,5 2,4
𝑅 , 𝑅 /
𝑓 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 ∗ 0,9; ∗ 0,9 : 𝑧 ≤ 0,7
1,5 2,4

fd 176,3 [Mpa]
The nominal design stress for test cases:
𝑅 ,
𝑓 =
1,05
ftest 338,1 [Mpa]

𝑃∗𝑅
𝑒 =
2𝑓 ∗ 𝑧 − 0,5𝑃
es 1,4 [mm]

𝑃 ∗𝑅
𝑒 =
2𝑓 ∗ 𝑧 − 0,5𝑃
estest 1,0 [mm]
Parameter Y:
𝑒
𝑌 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 , 0,04
𝑅
Y 0,003 []
Parameter Z:
𝑍 = 𝑙𝑜𝑔 1/𝑌
Z 2,559 []

Radio of knuckle inside radius to shell inside diameter:

𝑋 = 𝑟/𝐷
X 0,187 []
Parameter N:
1
𝑁 = 1,006 −
6,2 + 90𝑌
N 0,845 []
For X=0.06
𝛽 , = 𝑁 −0,3635𝑍 + 2,2124𝑍 − 3,2937𝑍 + 1,8873
β0.06 1,567 []
For 0.06<X<0.1
𝛽 = 25 0,1 − 𝑋 𝛽 , + 𝑋 − 0,06 𝛽 ,
β -0,045 []
For X=0.1
𝛽 , = 𝑁 −0,1833𝑍 + 1,0383𝑍 − 1,2943𝑍 + 0,837
β0.1 1,058 []
For 0.1<X<0.2
𝛽 = 10 0,2 − 𝑋 𝛽 , + 𝑋 − 0,1 𝛽 ,
β 0,597 []
For X=0.2
𝛽 , = 𝑚𝑎𝑥 0,95 0,56 − 1,94𝑌 − 82,5𝑌 ; 0,5
β0.2 0,526 []
Coefficient:
β 0,597 []

Required thickness of knuckle to avoid axisymmetric

yielding for normal operating loads:
𝛽 ∗ 𝑃 ∗ 0.75𝑅 + 0.2𝐷
𝑒 =
𝑓
ey 1,1 [mm]

Required thickness of knuckle to avoid axisymmetric

yielding for test loads:
𝛽∗𝑃 ∗ 0.75𝑅 + 0.2𝐷
𝑒 =
𝑓
eytest 0,8 [mm]

Required thickness of knuckle to avoid plastic buckling

for normal operating loads:
, ,
𝑃 𝐷
𝑒 = 0,75𝑅 + 0,2𝐷
111𝑓 𝑟
eb 1,3 [mm]

Required thickness of knuckle to avoid plastic buckling

, ,
𝑃 𝐷
𝑒 = 0,75𝑅 + 0,2𝐷
111𝑓 𝑟
ebtest 1,0 [mm]
The required thickness:
𝑒 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑒 ; 𝑒 ;𝑒 ;𝑒 ;𝑒 ;𝑒
e 1,4 [mm]
The corrosion allowance: c 2 [mm]
The absolute value of the possible negative tolerance
on the nominal thickness (EN 10029): quality D
de1 0,7 [mm]

Limit values of weld joint defects (EN ISO 5817):

Limit values of weld joint defects (EN ISO 5817): quality C
Linear offset between plates (EN 5817):
𝐵 → 𝛿 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 0,2 + 0,1𝑒 ; 3
𝐶 → 𝛿 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 0,2 + 0,15𝑒 ; 4
𝐷 → 𝛿 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 0,2 + 0,25𝑒 ; 5
de2 1,4 [mm]
Defects of welds:
𝐵 → 𝛿 = 0,2𝑒 ∗ 0,04
𝐶 → 𝛿 = 0,3𝑒 ∗ 0,08
𝐷 → 𝛿 = 0,4𝑒 ∗ 0,16
de3 0,2 [mm]
The analysis thickness:
𝑒 ≤𝑒 =𝑒 −𝛿 −𝛿 −𝛿 −𝑐
ea 3,7 [mm]
Maximum allowable pressure Ps for normal operating
2𝑓 ∗ 𝑧 ∗ 𝑒
𝑃 =
𝑅 + 0,5𝑒
Ps 1,8 [MPa]

Maximum allowable pressure Pstest for test loads:

2𝑓 ∗𝑧∗𝑒
𝑃 =
𝑅 + 0,5𝑒
Pstest 3,4 [MPa]
Maximum allowable pressure Py for normal operating
𝑓 ∗𝑒
𝑃 =
𝛽 0,75𝑅 + 0,2𝐷
Py 2,2 [MPa]

Maximum allowable pressure Pytest for test loads:

𝑓 ∗𝑒
𝑃 =
𝛽 0,75𝑅 + 0,2𝐷
Pytest 4,2 [MPa]
Maximum allowable pressure Pb for normal operating
, ,
𝑒 𝑟
𝑃 = 111𝑓
0,75𝑅 + 0,2𝐷 𝐷
Pb 3,1 [MPa]
Maximum allowable pressure Pbtest for test loads:
, ,
𝑒 𝑟
𝑃 = 111𝑓
0,75𝑅 + 0,2𝐷 𝐷
Pbtest 6,0 [MPa]

Maximum pressure for normal operating loads:

𝑃≤𝑃 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑃 ; 𝑃 ; 𝑃
Pmax 1,8 [MPa]

Maximum pressure for test loads:

𝑃 ≤𝑃 = 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑃 ;𝑃 ;𝑃
Pmaxtest 3,4 [MPa]
𝑟 ≤ 0,2𝐷 120 yes
𝑟 ≥ 0,06𝐷 36 yes
𝑟 ≥ 2𝑒 2,8 yes
𝑒 ≤ 0,08(𝐷 + 2𝑒 ) 49,28 yes
𝑒 ≥ 0,001(𝐷 + 2𝑒 ) 0,616 yes
𝑅 ≤ (𝐷 + 2𝑒 ) 616 yes