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Original Title: Heat Exchanger Calcualtions

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For heat exchanger #1, the design that proved to have the smallest heat transfer area was the 2-

shell pass and 4-tube pass design. The ancillary request required a plot of total surface area as a function

of tube side velocity for the optimum heat exchanger, while maintaining the same amount of heat

transfer. The velocities range from 0.15m/s to 15m/s.

As the velocity increases the mass flow rate per tube will increase and consequently the internal

heat transfer coefficient will increase causing an increase in the overall heat transfer coefficient. This

change in overall heat transfer coefficient was calculated using equations (5), (6), and (7).

𝜋 4𝑚 ̇ 𝑐 𝜇

𝑚̇𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒 = 𝐷𝑖2 𝑣𝜌 (5) ℎ̅𝑖 = 0.023( 𝜋 𝜇𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒

𝐷

)4/5 ( 𝑘𝑝 )0.4 𝑘𝑓 ⁄𝐷𝑖 (6)

4 𝑖 𝑓

𝑈𝑖 = ⌊ℎ + 2𝑘𝑡

+ ℎ 𝐷𝑖 ⌋ (7) 𝐴𝑖 = 𝑈𝐴/𝑈𝑖 (8)

𝑖 𝑜 𝑜

Since the total heat transfer must remain constant, so too will UA, thus based off equation (8) the

heat transfer area will decrease with increasing velocity. These effects were calculated for 10 different

velocities across the requested range and the resulting heat transfer area were plotted against velocity in

Figure 7.

Figure 7:

Area vs Velocity

2,000

1,800

1,600

Area (m^2)

1,400

1,200

1,000

800

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Velocity (m/s)

Based off the plotted trend in Figure 7, the heat transfer area decreases exponentially as velocity

increases. This can be particularly useful information since larger heat exchangers are not only less

practical to preform maintenance on, but cost more to construct and ship. Ways to minimize the heat

transfer surface area without effecting the heat transfer rate would be increasing the tube side velocity by

decreasing pipe diameter or decreasing the number of overall tubes.

Appendix F-2

For heat exchanger #2, the design that proved to have the smallest heat transfer area was the 2-

shell pass and 4-tube pass design. The ancillary request required a plot of the outlet temperature as a

function of tube side flow rate for the optimum heat exchanger design. The flow rates range from

4.8kg/s to 8m/s.

As the mass flow rate increases we can expect the heat transfer to go down since the hot fluid

would have less time to exchange heat with the cold fluid. The effects of increasing tube side mass flow

on the overall heat transfer coefficient will be the same as the effect in ancillary request #1 (see

Appendix F-1). Using the method laid out in ancillary request #2 the overall heat transfer coefficient

was obtain for each mass flow rate. To obtain the heat transfer rate, NTU and effectiveness were found

with equations (9), (10), (11), and (12). Then, the heat transfer rate can be obtained with equations (13)

and (14).

−1

1+exp[−(𝑁𝑇𝑈) (1+𝐶 2 )1/2 ]

𝑁𝑇𝑈 = 𝑈𝐴⁄𝐶𝑚𝑖𝑛 (9) 𝜖1 = 2 {1 + 𝐶𝑟 + (1 + 𝐶𝑟2 )1/2 ∙ 1−exp[−(𝑁𝑇𝑈)1 (1+𝐶𝑟2 )1/2 ]} (11)

1 𝑟

𝐶𝑟 = (10) 𝜖 = [( ) − 1] [( ) − 𝐶𝑟 ] (12)

𝑚̇𝐶 𝑐𝑝,𝐶 1−𝜖1 1−𝜖1

𝑞̇

𝑞̇ 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑚̇𝐻 𝑐𝑝,𝐻 (𝑇𝐻,𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝐶,𝑖𝑛 ) (13) 𝑞̇ = 𝜀 ∙ 𝑞̇ 𝑚𝑎𝑥 (14) 𝑇𝐻,𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑇𝐻,𝑖𝑛 − (15)

𝑚̇𝐻 𝑐𝑝,𝐻

Finally, the outlet temperatures can be obtained with equation (15). The resulting temperature

were then plotted against the respective mass flow rate in Figure 8. As expected, the heat transfers and

temperature changes decreased with increasing mass flow, resulting in higher outlet temperatures.

Figure 8:

16.50

Light Stream Outlet Temp. (°C)

16.30

16.10

15.90

15.70

15.50

15.30

15.10

14.90

14.70

4.800 5.300 5.800 6.300 6.800 7.300 7.800

Tube Side Flow Rate (kg/sec)

Based off the plotted trend in Figure 8, the outlet temperature will increase logarithmically as

flow rate increases. The logarithmic slop is not too dramatic (nearly linear). The implications of this

trend indicates that greater heat transfer and fluid temperature changes can be achieved at lower flow

rates. This information can be useful if a heat exchanger is fouled and the outlet fluid properties are not

on spec; the flow rate could be dropped until the heat exchanger can be cleaned.

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