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Water and Sewerage Authority

GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN AND


CONSTRUCTION OF
WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS IN
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

EDITED BY:

COMMITTEE OF THE BOARD OF


ENGINEERING OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
AND THE WATER AND SEWERAGE AUTHORITY
1.1 SCOPE

Under the Water and Sewerage Act Chapter 54:40 of the Laws of Trinidad and
Tobago, the Approval of the Authority is required for the proposed water
reticulation and wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems for all
developments which involve the subdivision of land and other than simple
buildings.

The process of approving applications for Simple and Non-Simple Buildings by


the Authority is designed to ensure that all building sites are provided with an
adequate supply of potable water, as well as an efficient system of wastewater
collection, treatment and disposal.

Applications submitted are considered in the following stages:

Definitions

i) Outline Approval

This is approval in principle which indicates the quantity of water which


can be made available to the site and makes recommendations on the
type of wastewater collection, treatment and disposal system to be
installed.

ii) Final Approval

This involves the approval of detailed designs of the water supply system
and wastewater collection, treatment and disposal facilities to be installed.
This approval must be obtained prior to the installation of any such
facilities.

iii) Completion Certificate

All water and wastewater treatment works must be inspected during


construction by the Authority. This will also involve the carrying out and/or
witnessing of all tests. On satisfactory completion, the Authority will issue
a completion certificate permitting the use of the wastewater system and
the connection to the water supply system.
1.2 OUTLINE APPROVAL

1.2.1 SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR OUTLINE APPROVAL

Applications shall be submitted to the Authority for Outline Approval by a


listed professional Engineer and must be accompanied by a completed
application form (See Appendix 3 for recommended forms) as well as the
following documents:

i) Two (2) copies of the notice of Outline Planning Permission issued by


the Town and Country Planning Division.

ii) Two (2) copies of location plan and vicinity map which would enable
the site to be clearly identified in the field. The location plan should
be extracted from a Ward Sheet.

iii) Two (2) copies of a plan of the area showing topographical


information acceptable to WASA.

iv) The estimated water demand for each type of occupancy i.e.
Residential, Commercial, Industrial, etc

v) The proposed method of wastewater collection, treatment and


disposal.

vi) Where the coast, river, swamp, spring and wells are within a 30m
from the nearest lot, details of their use are required.

vii) Information on seasonal flooding, flood levels are required.

viii) Where it is proposed that the wastewater be treated at an existing


wastewater treatment plant not owned by WASA, the existing and
proposed load on the plant shall be provided.

ix) Where on-site wastewater treatment with sub-soil disposal is


proposed, the percolation test results will be required by WASA.
1.2.2 INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE AVAILABILITY OF WATER SUPPLY AND
METHOD OF WASTEWATER DISPOSAL

1.2.2.1 Water Supply

In determining the feasibility of supplying potable water to a


development, the Authority will consider the following:

i) The source of supply.

ii) The existing and projected water demand in the area.

iii) The existing and operating conditions and schedules.

iv) The possible alternatives for providing the Development with


a potable water supply.

v) A Schematic of the proposed water supply connection and


point of interconnection will be prepared to assist the
applicant with final design drawings.

1.2.2.2 Method of Wastewater Collection, Treatment and Disposal

a. The developer may propose and WASA will consider methods


of disposal including:

i) Provision of on-lot treatment plant or septic tanks and


appropriate effluent disposal systems.

ii) Determine connection to the public/private sewers.

iii) Construction of conventional central collection treatment and


disposal.

b. The developer may propose and WASA will consider methods of


disposal including:

i) Percolation test results where on-lot sub-soil systems are


being considered.

ii) Physical factors – A site visit is necessary to determine


physical factors including location of coast, beaches, river,
swamp, the quality of the receiving waters and well field in
relation to the proposed Development.
iii) Information on seasonal flooding.

iv) Technical feasibility of connection to the public


wastewater system.

v) Advice from the Institute of Marine Affairs where


Developments are in where developments abound the
coast.

vi) Hydrology data from the Water Resources Agency when


there is the possibility of contamination of groundwater
supply and surface water within catchments in use.

vii) Developers should submit their proposals for projects in


their entirety for Outline Approval, providing the phasing
and size of the Development.

viii) Operation and Maintenance requirements.

ix) Soil conditions

x) Topography

xi) Population density in the vicinity of the Development.

1.3 FINAL APPROVAL

1.3.1 SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR FINAL APPROVAL

Submission for Final Approval should include the following:

1.3.1.1 Water Supply

i) Four (4) copies of plans A – size of proposed water reticulation system


showing lot layout, principal drains, all roads, walkways and reserves, the
location and size of all water supply lines, house connections, sluice
valves, fire hydrants and caps, anchor blocks and other special fittings.

ii) Four (4) copies of plans A – size sections and elevations of all communal
storage tanks and pumping stations. Performance curves of all pumps
must also be submitted.

iii) Four (4) copies of plans A – size showing details of river, drain, culvert
and sewer crossings, service connections, sluice valves, air valves,
washouts, fire hydrants and details of connection from the Building
Development to public water supply.

iv) Data on class of pipes and materials and depth of cover.

v) Calculation sheets showing design flows, pressures head losses, system


curves etc.

vi) Structural designs and calculations.

vii) Electrical and mechanical details.

viii) Any other design information which WASA may require.

1.3.1.2 Wastewater

i) Four (4) copies of plans A – size showing lot layout, principal drains, all
roads, walkways and reserves and layout of the wastewater collection
system showing connections, sizes, gradient of sewers and distances
between manholes, invert and top elevations of all manholes and other
appurtenances.

ii) Four (4) copies of plans A – size showing profiles along sewers, showing
ground elevation, invert elevations, manholes, clean outs drain crossings,
encasement and special bedding where necessary.

iii) Four (4) copies of plan A – size showing details of all manholes, clean
outs house connections, encasement, manhole covers, step supports etc.

iv) Calculation sheets showing depth of flow in sewer at minimum, average


and peak flows, minimum and peak velocities, capacity of sewer and
length, slope and diameter of each section.

v) Where a wastewater treatment plant is to be provided, a process design


should be submitted and approved prior to the commencement of detailed
design.

vi) Four (4) copies of plans A – size showing detailed designs of wastewater
treatment plant including plans and sections of all process units, air supply
piping, sludge/wastewater piping, electrical and mechanical details.

vii) Layout of plant on site showing location of pumping facilities, sludge


drying beds, operations building, fence, road reserve, drains, distance of
plant from nearest habitable plot, point of full discharge of effluent and
other pertinent details.

viii) Four (4) copies of plans A – size showing detailed designs of lift station,
sludge drying beds, equipment room, operators’ facilities, operations
building, pumping apparatus and the chlorine contact chamber.

ix) Work sheets showing hydraulic and biological designs, computations for
sizing of treatment units and electrical and mechanical equipment as well
as structural design calculations.

x) Detailed manufacturers specifications for all equipment such as pumps,


blowers, chlorinators and other equipment.

xi) Where on-lot disposal systems are proposed:

a) A copy of the percolation test certificate issued by the Authority.

b) Four (4) copies of plans A – size of typical lot, showing maximum


building coverage, location of treatment plant or septic tank and
effluent disposal system and outfall effluent drain where applicable.

c) Four (4) copies of plans A – size showing plans and sections of


septic tank and effluent disposal system, including disinfection
facilities where required.

d) Work sheet showing design computation for sizing of septic tank and
effluent disposal system.

1.4 INSPECTION AND COMPLETION CERTIFICATE FOR WATER AND


WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

1.4.1 PROCEDURE FOR INSPECTION AND ISSUANCE OF COMPLETION


CERTIFICATE

(i) Prior to commencement of construction of the water and wastewater


infrastructural works, the applicant submit a work schedule and pay the
relevant inspection fees to the Authority.

(ii) These works shall be inspected during construction by a Registered


Engineer who shall be required to certify in writing the quality of the works.
The Engineers Certificate of the works will generally be accepted by the
Authority as a basis for granting the necessary approvals.
(iii) The role of the Authority will involve occasional inspection of the works
and witnessing and approval of prescribed tests.

(iv) A completion certificate for the Development will be issued by the Water
and Sewerage Authority upon successful completion of all tests.

1.5 CONNECTIONS TO THE WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

1.5.1 WATER SYSTEM

(i) Connections to the water system will normally be done by the Water and
Sewerage Authority at the cost of the Developer.

1.5.2 WASTEWATER SYSTEM

All the connections to the public wastewater system must be done by a Licensed
Sanitary Constructor under the supervision of the Water and Sewerage Authority.
PART II

DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR WATER SYSTEM


DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR WATER SYSTEM
2.1 SCOPE

Design guidelines for the following are included in this section:-

2.1.1 Design factors for pipelines, storage tanks and pump stations.

2.1.2 Material specifications to ensure that quality requirements are met.

2.1.3 Typical details of appurtenances and other related structures.

2.1.4 Power requirements for pumpsets, identification of acceptable type of


pumps with considerations for quality reliability, maintenance, spares etc.

2.2 GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN OF PIPELINES AND RELATED STRUCTURES

2.2.1 Pipeline

2.2.1.1 General

Pipeline sizes should be determined from estimates of water


consumption and allowable velocity.

2.2.1.2 Water Consumption

Table 2.1 provides estimates of the average daily demand for


potable water:
Table 2.1
Water Consumption

NO. USER UNIT TYPICAL (lpd)


CONSUMPTION
1 Residential Person 350
2 Commercial Passengers 11
2.1 Airport Person 455
2.2 Apartment House Employee 49
2.3 Automobile Service Station Vehicle Served 38
2.4 Boarding House Person 152
2.5 Department Store Toilet Room 2083
Employee 38
2.6 Hotel Guest 189
Employee 38
2.7 Lodging House & Tourist Home Guest 152
2.8 Motel Guest 111
2.9 Motel with Kitchen Guest 152
2.10 Laundry (self service) Machine 2083
Wash 158
2.11 Office Employee 57
2.12 Public Lavatory User 19
2.13 Restaurant (including toilet) Customer 34
Conventional Customer 23
Short Order Customer 98
Bar & Cocktail Lounge Seat 76
2.14 Shopping Center Parking Space 8
2.15 Theater Employees 375
Indoor Seat 12
Outdoor Car 15

3 Industrial

4 Fire Fighting Purposes Lpm 2275


NO. USER UNIT TYPICAL (lpd)
CONSUMPTION
5 Institutional User
5.1 Assembly Hall Seat 12

5.2 Hospital, Medical Bed 568


Employee 38

5.3 Hospital, Mental Bed 455


Employee 38

5.4 Prison Inmate 455


Employee 341

5.5 Rest Home Resident 341


Employee 38

5.6 School Day with Cafeteria


Gym and Showers Student 95
With Cafeteria only Student 57
With Cafeteria and Gym (without) Student 38
School Boarding Student 284

5.7 Hotels (lcd) 350

Source: - (1) Water and Sewerage Authority


(2) Metcalf and Eddy, Wastewater Engineering,
Treatment, Disposal & Release; 3rd Edition
2.2.1.2 Pipelines shall be designed to accommodate a peak flow rate of
twice (2) the average demand for residential, commercial and
industrial usage plus the value estimated for fire fighting purposes
plus twenty percent (20%) of the total, which is considered as
unaccounted for water in the system.

2.2.1.3 Velocity

The velocity of flow in any pipeline whether for the average or the
peak value shall normally be between 0.91 m/s to 1.52 m/s.

2.2.1.4 Head Losses

(a) Friction Loss

Friction loss can be computed using either Hazen Williams


formula or Darcy’s equation.

(b) Minor losses in bends, valves and other fittings should be


computed and included.

For Network Analysis, the Hardy Cross method of design can


be utilized to determine the required pipe sizes.

The minimum size of any distribution pipeline shall be 100mm.

A residual pressure of not less than 170kPa (25 psi) should be


considered in the design.

2.2.1.5 Vertical Alignment

Water mains shall be laid within the road reserve at a depth of not
deeper than 2m below the road surface (between 0.76m & 2m).

2.2.1.6 Horizontal Alignment

Dual water mains may be installed to avoid water services from


crossing the carriageway.
2.2.1.7 Right of Way

A right of way of at least 3.0 meters wide shall be provided for


water mains not located within a road reserve.

2.2.1.8 Location in Relation to Sewers

All water mains shall be placed above the sewers so as to ensure a


minimum clearance of 0.45m above the top of the sewer.

2.2.2 Pipeline Appurtenances

2.2.2.1 Gate Valves shall be located to ensure that sections of the pipelines
and the development can be locked off without disruption of the total
water supply to other areas. Valves shall be provided for control and
isolation purposes in accordance with the following:

(a) Pipeline sizes less than 200mm, valves shall be placed at intervals
of 500m.

(b) Pipeline sizes greater than 200mm, valves shall be placed at


intervals of 1000mm.

(c) In all situations valves shall be placed at connection points to the


existing system, at street intersections to facilitate isolations and at
dead ends.

2.2.2.2 Air release and vacuum valves shall be located at the highest points.
Other air valves shall be placed at other high points. The size of air
valves shall be in accordance with the relevant AWWA Standards or
approved equivalent.

2.2.2.3 Wash out and pump outs shall be provided at all low points. In cases
where the ground level is flat a 0.002 grade on the pipeline is required
to facilitate adequate drainage.

2.2.2.4 Fire hydrants spacing shall be located so as to not exceed 90m apart
or as approved by the fire services department.

2.2.2.5 Thrust Restraints

All tees, bends, caps, reducers, wyes, valves and hydrants shall be
restrained by either concrete thrust blocks or thrust rods where
applicable. Thrust restraining structures shall be designed in
accordance to the relevant AWWA Standards or approved equivalent.
2.2.2.6 Service Connections

Each plot shall have an individual water service connection not less
than 20mm in diameter. Double service connections shall not be
permitted.

All water service pipes shall be connected to the water main by means
of a ferrule or corporation valve and shall be laid at a depth of not less
than 450mm.

2.2.2.7 Kerb Valves

Kerb Valves shall be installed on water service connections outside the


property boundary.

2.2.2.8 Meter Box

All water service pipes shall be terminated just inside the boundary line
or property line with a typical meter box as approved by the Authority.

2.2.2.9 Testing

Testing of water mains and appurtenances shall conform to AWWA


Standards C 600-82. The test pressure shall equal one point five (1.5)
times the operating pressure for 2hrs.

2.2.3 Storage Facilities

Central water storage facilities shall be provided for all public,


commercial and industrial buildings and other building developments
as stipulated by the Water and Sewerage Authority.

The water storage tank shall have the capacity equivalent to the
average daily requirement of the establishment.

Where applicable, central storage facilities that are provided they shall
be adequately fenced, illuminated and accessible to vehicular traffic.
2.2.4 Swimming Pool

2.2.4.2 Detailed Considerations

These include:-

a. All water for potable use must be obtained from a source approved
by the Water and Sewerage Authority.

b. Fresh water should be introduced into the suction side of the


recirculation pump, preferably through a make-up water tank.

c. Chlorine residual should be 0.6 ppm on the suction side of the


recirculation pump.

d. The recirculation pump shall be capable of recycling or dewatering


the pool at least once every 6 hours for commercial pools and once
every 8 hours for domestic pools.

e. Daily partial renewal of clear water should be on average one-


twentieth of the total volume of swimming-pool water.

f. Pool water shall not be drained into a private or public wastewater


collection system.

g. Swimming pools should not be located less than 3.0m from any
building sewer or septic tank and 7.5m from a subsurface
wastewater absorption unit.

DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR WASTEWATER SYSTEM


3.1 Sewers

Factors that must be considered in determining the required capacities of


sanitary sewers include:

3.1.1 Sewers shall be designed for the estimated ultimate tributary population.

3.1.2 Sewers are to be designed for maximum flow i.e., peak flow and
infiltration.

3.1.3 Total contributing population for residential developments shall be 4.5


persons per dwelling unit. Population densities for other types of
developments shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Town
and Country Planning Division.
3.1.4 Per capita daily contribution of wastewater should be in accordance with
Table 3.1.

3.1.5 The peak flow should be calculated based on the peak factor times the dry
weather flow plus infiltration.

The peak factor shall be calculated based on the formula, peak factor = 51/6
where P is the population in thousands. NOTE: Max PF = 3 P

3.1.6 Ground water infiltration should be estimated at 5000 l/ha/day, or based


on actual investigation or established data, if available, in case of existing
systems.
Table 3.1
Wastewater Flow

NO. USER UNIT TYPICAL (lpd)


CONSUMPTION
1 Residential Person 280
2 Commercial (working)
2.1 Airport Passengers 10
2.2 Automobile Service Station Vehicle Served 40
Employee 50
2.3 Bar Customer 8
Employee 50
2.4 Hotel Guest 190
Employee 4
2.5 Industrial Building Employee 55
(Excluding Industry & Cafeteria)
2.6 Laundry (self service) Machine 2198
Wash 190
2.7 Guest House Person 120
2.8 Guest House with Kitchen Person 200
2.9 Office Employee 55
2.10 Restaurant Meal 10
2.11 Rooming House Resident 150
2.12 Department Store Toilet Room 2000
Employee 40
2.13 Shopping Center Parking Space 4
Employees 40

NO. USER UNIT TYPICAL (lpd)


CONSUMPTION
3 Institutional
3.1 Hospital, Medical Bed 78.2
Employee 48
3.2 Hospital, Mental Bed 482
Employee 48
3.3 Prison Inmate 541
Employee 48
3.4 Institutional (School)
School Day with Cafeteria, Gym and Student 96
Showers
With Cafeteria only Student 72
With Cafeteria and Gym Student 48
School Boarding Student 336
3.5 Retirement Home Resident 421
Employee 48
3.6 Apartment, Resort, Person 264
Recreational Cabin, Person 192
Resort Customer 7
Cafeteria Employee 48
3.7 Campground (development) Person 144
Cocktail Lounge Seat 90
Coffee Shop Customer 24
Employee 48
3.8 Day Camp (No Meals) Person 60
Dining Hall Meal Served 36
Dormitory, Bunkhouse Person 180
Hotel, Resort Person 240
Laundromat Machine 2641
Store Resort Customer 12
Employee 48
3.9 Swimming Pool Customer 48
Employee 48
3.10 Theatre Seat 12
Visitor Center Visitor 42
Country Club Member Present 482
Employee 60

3.1.7 No public sewers shall be less than 200 mm in diameter except where
permitted by the Authority.

3.1.8 All sewers shall be so designed and constructed to give self-cleansing


velocities, when flowing full, of not less than 0.6 m/s.
3.1.9 Velocities in sewers should not normally exceed 3.00 m/s. Where greater
velocities are attained special provision shall be made to protect against
displacement by erosion, abrasion and movement.

3.1.10 Table 3.2 shows the maximum lengths between manholes and absolute
minimum slopes that should be provided for various pipe sizes. However,
slopes greater than these are desirable:

Maximum
Sewer Size Distances/Lengths Minimum Slope
mm / ins m ft ft/100ft-m/100m
200 8 90 300 0.40
250 10 110 350 0.28
300 12 110 350 0.22
350 14 110 350 0.17
375 15 110 350 0.15
400 16 120 400 0.14
450 18 120 400 0.12
525 21 120 400 0.10
600 24 150 500 0.08

3.1.11 Sewers 600 mm or less shall be laid with straight alignment between
manholes.

3.1.12 When a sewer joins a larger one, the invert of the larger sewer should be
lowered sufficiently to maintain the same energy gradient.

3.1.13 Pipe material shall be of PVC or concrete or any other material as


approved by the Authority.

a) PVC – All PVC pipe shall be manufactured according to BS 5481 or


approved equivalent international standard;

b) Concrete – Concrete pipes shall be manufactured to meet the


requirements of BS 556 or approved equivalent international standard.

3.1.14 Manholes shall be installed at the upper end of each line, at all changes in
grade, size or alignment, at all inter-sections and in accordance with
distances at Table 3.2. A drop manhole should be provided for a sewer
entering a manhole at an elevation of 0.6m for more, above the manhole
invert. Where the difference in elevation between the incoming sewer and
the manhole invert is less than 0.6m, the invert should be filleted to
prevent solids deposition. The minimum diameter of manholes should be
1.2m. Solid and watertight manhole covers are to be used in all cases.
Manhole covers shall be fitted with a gasket to the approval of the Water
and Sewerage Authority. Manholes should be constructed of precast
reinforced concrete cylinders. The base of the manhole shall be such as
to permit the flushing of solids. Sulphate Resistant cement shall be used
in the construction and installation of the manhole bases. The design,
spacing and materials for manhole steps shall be approved by WASA.

3.1.15 There shall be no physical connection between a public or private potable


water supply system and a sewer. Sewers should be laid at least 3.0m
horizontally from any existing or proposed water main. Whenever sewers
cross under water mains, the sewer shall be laid at such elevation that the
top of the sewer is at least 0.45m below the bottom of the water main.

3.1.16 In roadways where cover is less than 1.2m or in open areas where cover
is less than 0.9m, the pipe shall be structurally reinforced to perform a
rapid pipe system.

3.1.17 The top of the sewer shall be at least 0.6m below the bottom of any drain
it crosses. Where this distance is less than 0.6m, the sewer shall be
encased in concrete.

3.1.18 A right-of-way of at least 3.0 meters wide shall be provided for sewer
mains not located within a road, reserve.

3.2 SMALL DIAMETER GRAVITY SEWERS

3.2.1 Where small Diameter Gravity Sewers are permitted the EPA Manual
Alternative Wastewater Collection Systems, the design of small bore
sewer systems by R.J. Otis and D. Duncan Mara, or any other standard
acceptable to the Water and Sewerage Authority.

3.2.2 The minimum pipe diameter shall not be less than 100mm.

3.2.3 The minimum design velocity of 0.46 m/s at half full pipe shall be used.

3.2.4 FORCE MAINS

Considerations for velocity and friction losses in the design of force mains
shall be similar to those applied to the design of water mains. The
minimum size force main is 100mm.
3.4 WASTEWATER PUMPING STATIONS

3.4.1 Pumping stations shall be designed to handle peak flows with 100%
standby capacity.

3.4.2 The wet well shall provide a minimum holding period of 10mins. for the
design flow.

3.4.3 Pumps should be sized and operated so that their rate of discharge is at
least equal to the rate of flow into the wet well.

3.4.4 A coarse screen with a space of no less than 50 mm shall be provided


before the wet well. Adequate provisions must be made for the removal
and disposal of screenings.

3.4.5 Pumping stations must be provided with standby power generation units.

3.4.6 In areas affected by seasonal flooding precautionary measures shall be


take to guard against flooding of the wet well.

3.4.7 Adequate and safe access shall be provided for dry and wet wells to allow
for inspection and maintenance.

3.4.8 Adequate ventilation must be provided either naturally or by forced means.

3.4.9 The distance between a pumping station and a residence shall not be less
than 50m.

3.4.10 The installation shall have paved vehicular access, surface drainage,
security lights and shall be adequately fenced.

3.4.11 A potable water supply must be provided, including adequately sized


storage tank with a pump capable of delivering a minimum of 90 lpm at
30m head.
3.5 WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

3.5.1 The standard for domestic effluent shall be the Trinidad and Tobago
Bureau of Standards (T.T.S – 417 1993) – “Specifications for liquid
effluent from domestic wastewater treatment plants into the environment”.
This standard has been compulsory status. Appendix 3 refers.

3.5.2 The standard for all other wastewater effluents (Municipal, Commercial,
Agricultural (etc) shall be the World Health Organisation (WHO)
standards, or any other standards acceptable to the Authority. Note:
Consideration should be given to including the EMA Water Rules 2001
here.

3.5.3 Table 3.3 provided tolerance limits for Industrial effluent discharged into
public sewers. NOTE: TES 101: 2004 provides updated figures)
TABLE 3.3
TOLERANCE LIMITS FOR INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS DISCHARGING INTO PUBLIC SEWERS

NO. CHARACTERISTIC TOLERANCE LIMITS INTO


PUBLIC SEWERS
1 Colour and odour -

2 Suspended solids, mg/l, Max 350

3 Particle size of suspended solids, m 3

4 Dissolved solids (inorganic), mg/l, Max 2100

5 pH value 5.5 to 9.0

6 Temperature, oC, Max 4.5 at the point of discharge

7 Oil and grease, mg/l, Max 20

8 Total residual chlorine, mg/l, Max -

9. Ammoniacal nitrogen (as N) , mg/l, Max 50

10. Total nitrogen (as N), mg/l, Max -

11. Free ammonia (as NH3) , mg/l, Max -

12. Biochemical oxygen demand (5 days at 200C) Max 300

13. Chemical oxygen demand, mg/l, Max -

14. Arsenic (as As) , mg/l, Max 0.2

15. Mercury (as Hg) , mg/l, Max 0.01

16. Lead (as Pb) , mg/l, Max 1

17. Cadmin (as Cd) , mg/l, Max 1


NO. CHARACTERISTIC TOLERANCE LIMITS INTO
PUBLIC SEWERS
18. Hexavalent chromium (as Cr + 6) mg/l, Max 2

19. Total chromium (as Cr), mg/l, Max 2

20. Copper (as Cu), mg/l, Max 3

21. Zinc (as Se), mg/l, Max 15

22. Selenium (as se), mg/l, Max 0.05

23. Nickel (as Ni), mg/l, Max 3

24. Boron (as B), mg/l, Max 2

25. Percent sodium, Max 60

26. Residual sodium carbonate, meq/l, Max -

27. Cyanide (as CN), mg/l, Max 2.0

28. Chloride (as Cl), mg/l, Max 1000

29. Floride (as F), mg/l, Max 15

30. Dissolved phosphates (as P) mg/l, Max -

31. Sulphate (as S) , mg/l, Max 1000

32. Sulphide (as S) , mg/l, Max

33. Pesticides (See note 5) Absent

34. Phenolic compounds I (as C6H5OH) , mg/l, Max 5

35. Radioactive materials:


(a) Alpha emmitters, uc?ml, Max 10 – 7
(b) Beta emmitters, uc/ml, Max 10 – 6

3.5.4 The Authority may consider any technically feasible method of wastewater
treatment providing it can produce effluent of the required quality and
which can satisfy the Authority’s other requirements such as location. All
relevant references must be provided.

3.5.5 Treatment plants are to be located downwind of all residential premises.


Treatment tanks shall not be located less than 50metres from a habitable
premises. Where treatment is done at waste stabilization ponds the
distance from the pond to any habitable premises shall be less than
100metres. A thick green belt (for example tall pine trees shall be
provided between the pond and the habitable premises).

3.5.6 Adequate land shall be provided for the treatment facilities including
additional land area for future plant expansion.

3.5.7 The treatment facilities shall be made accessible to vehicular traffic.


Paved roadways, including on-site vehicular parking and paved walkways
between treatment units and buildings must be provided.

3.5.8 All treatment units shall be provided with service access – steps/ladders,
cat-walks and hand rails. All works must be painted. The compound shall
be properly landscaped. Adequate surface drainage must be provided.
All works must be adequately fenced and protected against unauthorized
interference. Adequate lighting of Wastewater Treatment Plants shall also
be provided. (note: moved from 3.5.6)

3.5.9 Adequate accommodation by means of a room equipped with storage


cupboards, toilet and face basin and shower lavatory facilities with hot and
cold water shall be provided.

3.5.10 A potable water supply must be provided, including a 4000 litre water
storage tank with a pump capable of delivering a minimum of 90 lpm at
30m pressure.

3.5.11 Treatment plants shall be provided with appropriate laboratory facilities.


(note: appropriate to be specified further by Claudette).
3.6 ON-LOT WASTEWATER DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

3.6.1 Where on lot wastewater disposal systems are permitted the following
manual may be used:-

(a) EPA design manual “On-site Wastewater Treatment and Disposal


System”.

(b) The Trinidad and Tobago Bureau of Standards – T.T.S 16 80 400

(c) Or any other standard acceptable to the Water and Sewerage


Authority shall be used.

3.6.2 On-lot systems shall be constructed in accordance with approvals of the


Authority’s (Local Health, WASA) and may be used where no public or
private sewerage system is:

i. available within 50m (150ft) or


ii. likely to become available with a reasonable time

3.6.3 The on-lot disposal system shall be designed to receive all domestic
wastewater from the building.

3.6.4 Storm-water, wastewater from a commercial water softener, water filter, or


other commercial water treatment device or commercial or industrial
process wastes shall not be discharged into an on-lot system designed to
receive sanitary sewage.

3.6.5 Sewage or sewage effluent shall not be discharged into:

i. a drilled, bored or dug well


ii. an aquifer
iii. an excavation, seepage pit or cesspool deeper than 3.66m
(12ft) from the surface; or
iv. an abandoned water well
3.6.6 An absorption system shall not normally be located under

i. a roadway or driveway
ii. a paved road
iii. a vehicle parking lot
iv. any building

TABLE 3.4
Minimum Distance for Location of On-site/Lot Wastewater System

Feature Septic Tank Absorption


Metre Unit Metre
Building 1.50 3.00

Property Boundary 1.50 1.50

Wells, Springs or any water source 30.00 30.00

Potable Water Pipes 7.50 3.00

*Cuts or Embankments 3.00 30.00

Paths 7.50 1.50

Swimming Pools 1.50 7.50

Shore line/highwater mark 3.00 30.00

Underground Water Storage Tank 30.00 15.00

Large Trees 7.50 1.50

Septic Tank 1.50 1.50

Soakaway 1.50 -

Note
+ Ground Water Level 1.20 1.20
Notes:

* These distances should be increased to 60


metres, if the installation is on a water supply
watershed.

+ The minimum clearance between the bottom


of an absorption unit and the ground water
level.

3.7 PROCEDURE FOR MAKING PERCOLATION TEST


3.7.1 General

Where the effluent of an on-lot system is to be disposed of in a sub-


surface system the design of the system shall be based on the results of a
percolation test performed in keeping with the building procedures.

Percolation tests shall be conducted under the supervision of the Water


and Sewerage Authority. A test certificate shall be issued following these
tests.

These tests ascertain the suitability of a receiving soil to absorb effluent


from an on-lot system.

Prior to the percolation tests, a subdivisions/site plan for the proposed


development showing contours at 1m or 2m intervals should if required,
be submitted to the Water and Sewerage Authority and/or the Approving
Authority for locating test points.

3.7.2 Location and Number of test holes

The test shall be conducted at points where the disposal unit(s)


(soakaway pit or absorption trenches) are to be located.

A minimum of three shall be bored or dug across the test area.

At least one hole shall be bored or dug to a depth of about 3.0m at the
lowest site elevation in order to determine the existence of ground water
or impervious strata.

3.7.3 Preparation of test holes

Each hole shall have a diameter or side width respectively of 150 to


300mm and vertical sides to a depth of the proposed soakaway pit or
absorption trench (min. depth 1.3m)

The bottom and sides of the holes shall be carefully scratched in order to
remove any smeared soil surface and to provide a natural soil/water
interface into which water may percolate.
All loose material shall be removed from the bottom of the holes and
coarse sand or fine gravel shall be added for a depth of about 50mm to
protect the bottom of the holes from scouring and sediment.

3.7.4 Soaking Period

Carefully fill the holes with at least 300mm of clear water above the gravel
or sand or to a height where the water surface is visible and leave
overnight to allow ample opportunity for soil swelling and saturation.

The percolation test shall be determined 24 hours after the water is added.

3.7.5 Measurement of Percolation Rate

Adjust the water level to 300mm above the gravel or sand. From a fixed
reference point the drop in water level shall be noted over a 120 minutes
period at intervals of 30 minutes.
After each measurement the water level is adjusted to the 300mm level.
The last water level drop is used to calculate the percolation rate.

In sand/porous soils with little or no clay, soaking may not be necessary.


If after filling the holes twice with 300mm of water, water seeps completely
away in less than 10 minutes, the test can proceed immediately.

From a fixed, reference point the drop in water level shall be noted over a
60 minutes period at intervals of 10 minutes adjusting the water level to
300mm after each measurement. The last water level drop is used to
calculate the percolation rate.

3.7.6 Calculation of Percolation Rate

The percolation rate is the time taken, in minutes, for the water level in a
test hole to fall 25mm. To determine the percolation rate for the area, the
rates obtained for each hole are averaged. If the rates in the area vary by
more than 20 minutes/25mm, variations in the soil type are indicated.
Under these circumstances percolation rates should not be averaged.
3.7.7 Interpretation of Results Absorption System
Percolation Rate

Slower than 30 min./25mm Unsuitable for soakaway

Slower than 60min/25mm Unsuitable for absorption trenches

3.7.8 The final choice of which wastewater disposal system is adopted in a


particular case will depend on many factors.

3.7.9 Absorption – Area Requirements

For Private Residences

PERCOLATION RATE REQUIRED ABSORPTION AREA


(TIME REQUIRED TO FALL SQUARE METERS PER BEDROOM
25MM IN MINUTES) FOR BOTTOM ABSORPTION
TRENCHES OR SIDE WALL AREA
FOR SOAKAWAY PITS

1 or less 6.5
2 7.9
3 9.3
4 10.7
5 11.6
10 15.3
15 17.6
30 23.2
45 27.9
60 30.7

3.7.10 Table 3.4 provides details of minimum distances for location of on-lot
Wastewater Systems
3.8 Other On-Lot Systems

Where percolation rates do not permit sub-soil disposal of wastewater


effluent the following alternative on-lot systems may be used. These
include:-

(a) Evapo-transpiration system including use of the mound system;


(b) Use of separate dual system.

Notes on Percolation Test when compared with Standard TTS 16 80 400

 The minimum distances as stipulated in Table 3.4 in this doc varies slightly from the
TTBS standard.
 The procedure for the percolation test is essentially the same except that this doc requires
that the test pit be filled to 300 mm and the test conducted over 2 hrs, while the TTBS
standard requires that the test pit be filled to 150 mm and the test conducted over 4 hours.
 Also Section 3.7.9 of this document specifies the absorption areas in terms of no of
bedrooms of residence while the TTBS standard specifies it in terms of 1000litres usage.
The latter is recommended.
APPENDIX 1
APPENDIX 1

MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL GUIDELINES


4.1 GENERAL

4.1.1 The installations shall have paved vehicular access, surface drainage,
security lights and shall be adequately fenced.

4.1.2 A minimum of one (1) metre working space is to be provided around


blowers, lift pumps, sludge pumps and standby generators.

4.1.3 Adequate lifting equipment are to be provided for al pumps as well as


blowers rated at 15 HP and larger.

4.1.4 Wastewater pump stations and treatment plants shall be designed to


handle peak flows with 100% standby capacity including blowers, lift
pumps and sludge/recirculating pumps.

4.1.5 All installations shall be designed to allow for unmanned operations.

4.2 ELECTRICAL POWER/LIGHTING REQUIREMENT FOR WATER AND


WASTEWATER INSTALATION

4.2.1 GENERAL

4.2.1.1 The character for the electrical power supply to these


installations shall be 400V, 3 phase, 60 Hz, 4 wire or 230V,
1ph, 60 Hz.

4.2.1.2 These installations shall conform to the requirements of the


Trinidad and Tobago National electrical code as
administered by the Electrical Inspectorate and of the
Trinidad and Tobago Electricity Commission.

4.2.1.3 A single phase step down 230V/115V transformer shall be


installed to 15V for socket outlets and possible lighting.

4.2.1.4 Adequate indoor lighting shall be provided where a starter


house is used, adequate internal fluorescent lighting shall be
provided and at least two (120V/115V) electrical outlets.

4.2.1.5 External lights shall be controlled by photo electric sensors.


4.2.2 WASTEWATER PLANTS – ELECTRICAL POWER

4.2.2.1 Adequate outdoor lighting shall be provided specifically over


the process tank at treatment plants.

4.2.2.2 A standby generator shall be provided for at least fifty


percent (50%) pumping capacity, surface aerators/blower
capacity recirculting pumps as well as emergency lighting
equipped with auto transfer switches.

4.3 MOTOR REQUIREMENTS

4.3.1 Motors shall operate at the above power supply and shall be vertical or
horizontal, weatherproof and vermin proof.

4.3.2 Motors shall be rated to drive pumps for the full range of flows and heads.

4.3.3 Motors shall be rated to be able to operate in tropical countries.

4.3.4 Motor thrust bearings shall have capacity to carry the weight of all the
rotating parts plus the hydraulic thrust of the pump impellers and have an
ample safety factor. The factor shall be based on the average life
expectancy of five years operating at 24 hours per day.

4.3.5 The motor shall be of the full voltage starting, vertical hollow shaft, squirrel
cage induction type.

4.3.6 The motor speed shall not exceed 1800 rpm for motors larger than 30 hp
(no load).

4.4. MOTOR STARTER/CONTROL REQUIREMENTS

4.4.1 Starters shall conform to the latest NEMA Class II type B standards, the
requirements of the Trinidad and Tobago Electrical Inspectorate, and the
requirements of the Trinidad and Tobago Electricity Commission.

4.4.2 Starters shall be of the reduced voltage type unless otherwise approved in
writing by T&TEC.

4.4.3 Starter shall have phase failure and overload relays.

4.4.4 Starters shall include circuit breakers, hand-off-auto switches, voltmeters,


ameters, push button on-off switches and adequately sized motor starter
contactors.
4.4.5 Direct on-line starters shall be weather proof and be capable of begin pole
mounted.

4.4.6 Reduced voltage starters shall be NEMA type 12 ventilated enclosure and
shall be housed in a covered enclosed building.

4.5 INSTRUMENTS – WATER PUMP STATIONS

4.5.1 Provision shall be made for the measurement of the suction and discharge
pressure at each pump and the common discharge line pressure.

4.5.2 Provision shall also be made for the measurement of flow using a flow
meter or other reputable flow measuring device at each pump station.

4.5.3 Pressure switches shall be installed at the suction line of each pump at
water pump stations.

4.5.4 A common discharge pressure switch shall be installed at water pump


stations.

4.5.5 The pressure switches shall be set as to trip pumps at low suction and
high discharge pressures and to start pumps at the required pressure.

4.5.6 All pump stations shall be designed with due consideration for the effects
of water hammer. Adequate protection for adverse effects should be
included in the design.

4.6 INSTRUMENTS

Flow meter for Pump Stations and Plants

- Turbine type meters (accuracy -+ 1-2% of Actual)


- Flow nozzles (accuracy - + 1-2% of Actual)
- Ultra Sonic – (transit time type) (accuracy - + 1-2% of Actual)
- Flow tubes – (accuracy - + 0.5 – 2% of Actual)
- Venturi – (accuracy - + 0.5 – 2% of Actual)
- Magnetic – (accuracy - + 1 – 2% of Actual)
Recommendation of use in Wastewater Plants and Pump Station
assuming fuel flow in pipes.

- Flow nozzles ( accuracy - + 1 – 2% of Actual)


- Ultra Sonic – (transit time type) (accuracy - + 1 – 2% of Actual)
- Flow tubes – (accuracy - + 0.5 – 2% of Actual)
- Venturi – (accuracy - + 0.5 – 2% of Actual)
- Magnetic – (accuracy - + 1 – 2% of Actual)

Recommendation for use in Wastewater Plants – open d……..

- Panshell flame – (+ 3 – 8% of Actual)


- Open Flow nozzles – (+ 3 – 8% of Actual)

4.7 DISINFECTION – WASTEWATER PLANTS

4.7.1 Adequate disinfection is to be provided for the Treatment Plant’s effluent


in keeping with TT4417.1993 prior to its discharge into a receiving stream.
APPENDIX II
APPENDIX 2

LIST OF APPLICABLE STANDARDS


5.1 SPECIFICATIONS OF MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP

All materials for potable water shall meet the ASTM Standard or approved
equivalent standard. The Standards also provide literature on Workmanship.
For guidance the appropriate standards are listed.
5.2 Water

SUBJECT STANDARD
Storage Tanks
Welded Steel Tank ANSI/AWWA D100-84
Painting for Welded Steel Tanks ANSI/AWWA D102-78
Factory Coated Tanks ANSI/AWWA D103-80
Disinfection ANSI/AWWA D152-86
Concrete Structures for retaining liquids AS 3735 1991

Pipelines
Polybutylene (PB) AWWA C-902-78
Polyethylene (PET) AWWA C-901-78
Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) AWWA C-900-75
Fabricated Steel Pipe and Fittings AWWA C-208-83
Steel Pipe Flanges Class D AWWA C-207-86
Coal tar protection coatings and AWWA C-203-86
Linings for steel water pipelines
Flanged Ductile Iron Pipelines AWWA C-115/A21
Rubber Gasket AWWA C-111/A21
Disinfection AWWA C-651-86
Pressure Test AWWA C-600-82
Grey Iron Casting BS 1452:1977
Elastometrix Joint Rings for pipework and BS 2494:1986
pipelines
Flanges and bolting for pipes valves and BS 4504: Part 2 1974
fittings metric series
(copper alley and composite flanges)
Metal Washers for General Engineering BS 4320:1968
Purposes Metric Series
SUBJECT STANDARD
Specifications for Poly Vinyl Chloride TTS 413-1992
(PVC) solvent Cement for use with un-
plasticized PVC Pipes and fittings for cold
water applications

Cast Iron Non-pressure pipes and pipe AS 1631 – 1974


fittings metric units

Safety Valves

Safety Valves BS 6759

Specification for safety valves for steam PT 1 1984


and hot water
Mixing Valves

Mixing Valves BS 1415

Non-Thermostatic, Non-Compensating PT 1 1976


mixing valves

Specification for Thermostatic mixing PT 2 1986


valves
SUBJECT STANDARD

Water

Glass Filament Reinforced thermosetting AS 3571 1989


plastics (GRP) Pipes Polyester Based –
Water Supply. Sewerage and Drainage
Applications.
Water Supply Metal Bodied Taps – AS 3718 – 1990
Specified by performance
Water Well Casing BS 879

Specification for steel tubes for casing PT 1-1985


Specification for thermoplastics tubes for PT Z-1988
casing and slotted casing.
Stationery circulation pumps for heating BS 1394
and hot water service system.
Specification for Cold Water Storage and BS 4213 - 1991
combined feed and expansion cisterns
(polyolefin or olefin copolymer) up to 500 L
capacity used for domestic purposes
Multi Standard BS 5728
Measurement of flow of cold potable water
in closed conduits
Safety and Control Devices for use in hot BS 6283
water systems
Code of Practice for test pumping of Water BS 6316 – 1992
Well
Storage Cisterns up to 500 L Actual BS 7181 – 1989
Capacity for water supply for domestic
purposes
Bitumen – based coatings for cold BS 3416 – 1980
application, suitable for use in contact with
potable water
Bitumen based hot applied coating BS1 4147 – 1980
materials for protecting iron and steel
including suitable primers were required
5.3 Wastewater Systems

SUBJECT
STANDARD
Cement ASTM C-150-60
Aggregate ASTM C-33-59
Steel (Reinforcer) ASTM A- 15-58T
Structural Steel ASA – ASA A57 1-1952
Manhole Bricks ASTM C- 32-58 Grade MA
Precast Sections ASTM C-478-61T using type II cement

Manhole Frames Cones ASTM A48-60T


Reinforced Concrete Pipes ASTM C76-60T
Non Reinforced Concrete Pipes ASTM C14-59
Gaskets Flexible joint gasket manufactured by lock joint
Co or Equal
Welded Steel Pipe AWWA C 202-59
Steel Fitting Couplings AWWA (Same as Water)
Gate Valves ASA B16 10-1957
Sluice Valves AWWA C 501-41T
Drain Pipes and Fittings BS 4660 or American Equivalent
Sewer BS 4660, BS 5481 or Class B, BS 3505
Grey Iron BS 4622
Ductile Iron BS 4772
Thermoplastic Pipe for Sewers ASTM D 2321, F-894
Thermoplastics waste pipes and fittings BS 5255 – 1989
Polypropylene Waste pipe and fittings BS 5254 – 1976
(External Diameter 34.6 mm 41.0 mm 54.1
mm)

Sewer
Unplasticized PVC (UPVC) Pipes and Fittings AS 1254
for storm and surface water applications
Unplasticized PVC (UPVC) Pipes and Fittings AS 1415 PT 1-4
for soil waste and vent (SWV) applications
Design charts for water supply and sewerage AS 2200-1978
Water Supply – Mechanical backflow AS 2845-1986
prevention devices
Plastics Waste Fittings AS 2887-1986
Specifications for compact type float operated PT 4 - 1991
valves for the WC Flushing Cisterns (including
floats)
Specification for Galvanized low Carbon Steel, BS 417
Cisterns, Lids, Tanks and Cylinders
Specification for unplasticized PVC Drain, TTS 414-1992
Waste and Vent Pipes
Technical Drawing Installation, Graphical TTS 31 85 006
symbols for supply water and drainage PT 6 – 1988
systems
Recommendations for the Design of buildings, TTS 16 90 400
plumbing and drainage systems PT 4 - 1985