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Applied Mathematics and Computation 174 (2006) 252–270

www.elsevier.com/locate/amc

Formulas for the drazin inverse


of special block matrices
N. Castro-González *, E. Dopazo, J. Robles
Fac. de Informatica, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Boadilla del Monte, Campus de
Mintegancedo, 28660 Madrid, Spain

Abstract
 
I I
Properties of the Drazin inverse of the matrix F ¼ , with E square, are
E 0
investigated. Based on this approach,it is obtained
 an explicit formula for the Drazin
I Pt
inverse of matrices of the form A ¼ , where U, V, P and Q are n · k. The
Q UV t
D
representation for A is given in terms of k · k matrices involving the individual blocks
under some conditions. Some special cases are also analyzed.
 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Drazin inverse; Block matrix; Binomial coefficients

1. Introduction

Let us recall that the Drazin inverse of A 2 Cnn is the unique matrix
A 2 Cnn satisfying the relations
D

*
Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: nieves@fi.upm.es (N. Castro-González), edopazo@fi.upm.es (E. Dopazo),
jrobles@fi.upm.es (J. Robles).

0096-3003/$ - see front matter  2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.amc.2005.03.027
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 253

AD AAD ¼ AD ; AAD ¼ AD A; Alþ1 AD ¼ Al for all l P r; ð1:1Þ


r r+1
where r is the smallest non-negative integer such that rank(A ) = rank(A ),
i.e., r = ind(A), the index of A. The case when ind(A) = 1, the Drazin inverse
is called the group inverse of A and is denoted by A].
Let RðAÞ and NðAÞ denote the range space of A and the null space of A,
respectively. The eigenprojection Ap of A corresponding to the eigenvalue 0
is the uniquely determined idempotent matrix with RðAp Þ ¼ NðAr Þ and
NðAp Þ ¼ RðAr Þ. It is well-known that Ap = I  AAD.
In this paper, we present a formula for computing the Drazin inverse of
matrices of the form
 
I Pt
A¼ ; ð1:2Þ
Q UV t

where U, V, P and Q are n · k matrices. This type of matrices are refereed in


the literature as bordered matrices and they appear in linear algebra problems
in some fields of applied mathematics (see [1,5] and references therein).
The framework
 of considered matrices includes block matrices of the form
I B
M¼ , I the k · k identity, D the n · n matrix with rank(D) = k. In
C D
this case, D can be factorized as D = UVt, where U, V are n · k matrices with
rank(U) = rank(V) = k [2]. At present time there is no known representation
for the Drazin inverse of M with arbitrary blocks. Recently, expressions for
MD has been given under some conditions on the blocks [8,3].
In [3] the first and second author gave a formula for computing the Drazin
inverse of the block matrix
 
I I
F ¼ ; E square; indðEÞ ¼ r; and I identity. ð1:3Þ
E 0
Therein, it was showed that
!
D Y 1 Ep ED þ Y 2 Ep
F ¼ ; ð1:4Þ
ED E þ Y 2 EEp ED þ ðY 1  Y 2 ÞEp
where
X
r1
j
X
r1
j
Y1 ¼ ð1Þ Cð2j; jÞEj and Y2 ¼ ð1Þ Cð2j þ 1; jÞEj ;
j¼0 j¼0
D 2
and also a representation for (F ) was given. However, it would be desirable
to have a representation for the general powers (FD)n. Also an expression for
FpFn for arbitrary integers n will be needed to get our objective. This will be
the task to develop in Section 3. First, in Section 2 we give combinatorial iden-
tities which will be used in the forthcoming section. Finally, in Section 4, we
254 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270

give representations of the Drazin inverse of the block matrix (1.2) in terms of
the k · k matrices PtQ, VtU, PtU, VtQ, (PtQ)D and (VtU)D, under some
conditions.

2. Preliminary results

Throughout
 this paper, for integers n and k, we denote by C(n, k) the binomial
n
coefficient . We will make use of the following well-known identities involv-
k
ing binomial coefficients: C(n, k) = C(n  1,k) + C(n  1, k  1); Cðn; n  kÞ ¼
Cðn; kÞ ¼ nk Cðn  1; k  1Þ; k 6¼ 0; C(l, k) = (1)kC(l + k  1, k).
In the following lemma we give a general convolution identity which we
refer to [6, p. 202, formula (5.62)].

Lemma 2.1. Let n be an integer. Then


Xk
n
Cðn þ 2j; jÞCð2ðk  jÞ; k  jÞ ¼ Cðn þ 2k; kÞ; integer k P 0.
j¼0
n þ 2j
0
We remark that if n = 0, the factor 0þ2j
Cð0 þ 2j; jÞ should be considered
equal to 1 for j = 0.

Lemma 2.2. Let n be an integer, n P 0.Then


Xk
ki n
ð1Þ Cðn  i; iÞCð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞ ¼ Cðn  1  k; kÞ;
i¼0
ni
integer k P 0.
Moreover, if s(n) is the integer part of n/2, then
X
sðnÞ
ki n
ð1Þ Cðn  i; iÞCð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞ
i¼0
ni

0; sðnÞ < k 6 n  1;
¼
2Cðn  1  k; kÞ; n  1 < k.

Proof. We consider the following generating functions [6, p. 203]:


 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffin
1 X k 1 þ 1 þ 4z
k
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ¼ ð1Þ Cð2k; kÞz ;
1 þ 4z k
2
X n
¼ Cðn  k; kÞzk .
k
nk
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 255

Hence, multiplying the above expressions and using the convolution identity,
we derive the first identity of the lemma, attending to the fact that
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ð1 þ 1 þ 4zÞn X
p ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ¼ Cðn  1  k; kÞzk .
2n 1 þ 4z k
PsðnÞ ki n
Further,
Pk we kidenote S 1 ¼ i¼0 ð1Þ ni Cðn  i; iÞCð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞ and
n
S ¼ i¼0 ð1Þ ni Cðn  i; iÞCð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞ. We observe that C(n  i, i) = 0
for all i such that s(n) < i 6 n  1. Consequently, if s(n) < k 6 n  1, we have
S1 = S = C(n  1  k, k) = 0.
Now, we assume k > n  1. We have
Xk
n
S  S1 ¼ ð1Þki Cðn  i; iÞCð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞ.
i¼n
n  i
n
For i = n the factor ni Cðn  i; iÞ should be considered equal to (1)n+1. For all
i P n + 1, we have
i iþ1 ni
Cðn  i; iÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cð2i  n  1; iÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cð2i  n; iÞ.
2i  n
Thus, using the identity given in Lemma 2.1 we get
X
k
kþ1 n
S  S1 ¼ ð1Þ Cð2i  n; iÞCð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞ
i¼n
2i  n

kþ1
X
kn
n
¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞCð2ðk  n  jÞ; k  n  jÞ
j¼0
n þ 2j
kþ1
¼ ð1Þ Cð2k  n; k  nÞ.
Therefore
kþ1
S 1 ¼ Cðn  1  k; kÞ  ð1Þ Cð2k  n; k  nÞ ¼ 2Cðn  1  k; kÞ.
Then the theorem is proved. h
The following lemma concerning the Drazin inverse of 2 · 2 block triangu-
lar matrices (see [7]) will be used in the last section.

Lemma 2.3. Let


   
A 0 B C
M1 ¼ ; M2 ¼ ;
C B 0 A
where A and B are square matrices with ind(A) = r and ind(B) = s. Then
! !
D AD 0 D BD X
M1 ¼ ; M2 ¼ ;
X BD 0 AD
256 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270

where ! !
X
r1 X
s1
D 2 D i D i 2
X ¼ ðB Þ ðB Þ CA i p
A þB p i
B CðA Þ ðAD Þ  BD CAD .
i¼0 i¼0

3. Properties of the Drazin inverse of the matrix F

Throughout this paper for any integer n we will denote by s(n) the integer
part of n2. We introduce the notation
X
r1
j
Y p ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞEj Ep ; n P 1. ð3:1Þ
j¼0
The sequence of matrices Yp(n) allow us to write in a compact form FD and it
will get involved in the powers of (FD)n.
The expression (1.4) for FD can be rewritten as
!  
D 0 ED Y p ð0Þ Y p ð1Þ
F ¼ G þ H; G ¼ ; H ¼ .
ED E ED Y p ð1ÞE Y p ð2ÞE
ð3:2Þ
Notice that
X
r1
j j
Y p ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞðEEp Þ Ep .
j¼0
Since EEp is a nilpotent matrix, we were motivated to work with a general nil-
potent matrix in this preparatory part.

Lemma 3.1. Let N be a r-nilpotent matrix (Nr = 0). Consider the sequence
X
r1
j
Y ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞN j ; n P 1.
j¼0
Then

(i) Y ð1ÞN ¼ 12 ðI  Y ð0ÞÞ.


(ii) Y(n  1)  Y(n) = Y(n + 1)N for any integer n P 0.
Pr1
(iii) 2Y ðn  1Þ  Y ðnÞ ¼ j¼0 ð1Þj nþ2j
n
Cðn þ 2j; jÞN j for any integer n P 1.

Proof. (i) Using the identity Cð2j  1; j  1Þ ¼ 12 Cð2j; jÞ, we obtain


X
r1 X
r1
Y ð1ÞN ¼ ð1Þj Cð2j þ 1; jÞN jþ1 ¼ ð1Þj1 Cð2j  1; j  1ÞN j
j¼0 j¼1

X
r1
1 jþ1 1
¼ ð1Þ Cð2j; jÞN j ¼ ðI  Y ð0ÞÞ.
j¼1
2 2
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 257

(ii) Using the identity C(m, k) = C(m  1, k) + C(m  1, k  1), we get


X
r1
Y ðn  1Þ  Y ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þj ðCðn  1 þ 2j; jÞ  Cðn þ 2j; jÞÞN j
j¼0
X
r1
jþ1
¼ ð1Þ Cðn  1 þ 2j; j  1ÞN j
j¼1
X
r2
¼ ð1Þj Cðn þ 1 þ 2j; jÞN jþ1 ¼ Y ðn þ 1ÞN .
j¼0

(iii) We compute
X
r1
j
2Y ðn  1Þ  Y ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ ð2Cðn  1 þ 2j; jÞ  Cðn þ 2j; jÞÞN j
j¼0

X
r1  
2ðn þ jÞ
¼ ð1Þj  1 Cðn þ 2j; jÞN j
j¼0
n þ 2j
X
r1
j n
¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞN j . 
j¼0
n þ 2j

Proposition 3.2. Let N be a r-nilpotent matrix. Consider

X
r1
j
Y ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞN j ; n P 0.
j¼0

If
 
Y ð0Þ Y ð1Þ
H¼ ;
Y ð1ÞN Y ð2ÞN
then for all n P 1 we have
 
Y ðn  1Þ Y ðnÞ
Hn ¼ . ð3:3Þ
Y ðnÞN Y ðn þ 1ÞN

Proof. We prove it by induction. For n = 1 it is clear. Assume that (3.3) is sat-


isfied for n and we will check it for n + 1.
  
nþ1
Y ðn  1Þ Y ðnÞ Y ð0Þ Y ð1Þ
H ¼
Y ðnÞN Y ðn þ 1ÞN Y ð1ÞN Y ð2ÞN
 
U1 ðnÞ U2 ðnÞ
¼ ;
U1 ðn þ 1ÞN U2 ðn þ 1ÞN
258 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270

where
U1 ðnÞ ¼ Y ðn  1ÞY ð0Þ þ Y ðnÞY ð1ÞN ;
ð3:4Þ
U2 ðnÞ ¼ Y ðn  1ÞY ð1Þ þ Y ðnÞY ð2ÞN .
Now, by applying Lemma 3.1(i) and (iii), we get
 
1 1
U1 ðnÞ ¼ Y ðn  1Þ  Y ðnÞ Y ð0Þ þ Y ðnÞ
2 2 ! !
1 X r1
j n j
X
r1
j j
¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞN ð1Þ Cð2j; jÞN
2 j¼0 n þ 2j j¼0
!
1 X r1
j j
X
r1
þ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞN ¼ ck ðnÞN k ;
2 j¼0 k¼0

where
!
ð1Þ
k X
r1
n
ck ðnÞ ¼ Cðn þ 2j; jÞCð2ðk  jÞ; k  jÞ þ Cðn þ 2k; kÞ .
2 i¼0
n þ 2j

Hence, applying Lemma 2.1 we obtain


k
ð1Þ
ck ðnÞ ¼ ðCðn þ 2k; kÞ þ Cðn þ 2k; kÞÞ ¼ ð1Þk Cðn þ 2k; kÞ.
2
Thus, U1(n) = Y(n).
On the other hand, we consider U2(n) given by (3.4). Using Lemma 3.1(ii) we
get
U2 ðnÞ ¼ Y ðnÞY ð0Þ þ ðY ðn  1Þ  Y ðnÞÞY ð1Þ
¼ Y ðnÞY ð0Þ þ Y ðn þ 1ÞY ð1ÞN
¼ U1 ðn þ 1Þ ¼ Y ðn þ 1Þ.
Thus, we have
 
Y ðnÞ Y ðn þ 1Þ
H nþ1 ¼ ;
Y ðn þ 1ÞN Y ðn þ 2ÞN
so the formula (3.3) is valid for arbitrary integer n P 1. h
Our next purpose isto obtaina representation for the powers of a block ma-
0 A
trix in the form M ¼ where A 2 Cdd . We start introducing a se-
I A
quence of matrices which will get involved in the powers Mn.

Lemma 3.3. Let A 2 Cdd . Consider the sequence of matrices


X
sðnÞ
n
X ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cðn  i; iÞAni ; n P 0; X ð1Þ ¼ 0.
i¼0
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 259

Then for all n P 0,


Psðnþ1Þ n Psðnþ2Þ1 n
(i) X ðnÞ ¼ i¼0 ð1Þ Cðn  i; iÞAni ¼ i¼0 ð1Þ Cðn  i; iÞAni .
(ii) X(n  1)A  X(n)A = X(n + 1).

Proof. (i) If n is even then s(n) = s(n + 1) = s(n + 2)  1; otherwise s(n + 1) =


s(n + 2) = s(n) + 1 and C(n  s(n)  1, s(n) + 1) = 0.
(ii) Using (i), we obtain

X ðn  1ÞA  X ðnÞA
X
sðnþ1Þ1 X
sðnþ1Þ
¼ ð1Þn1 Cðn  1  i; iÞAni  ð1Þn Cðn  i; iÞAnþ1i
i¼0 i¼0

X
sðnþ1Þ
nþ1 nþ1
¼ ð1Þ ðCðn  i; i  1Þ þ Cðn  i; iÞÞAnþ1i þ ð1Þ Anþ1
i¼1

X
sðnþ1Þ
¼ ð1Þnþ1 Cðn þ 1  i; iÞAnþ1i . 
i¼0

 
0 A
Proposition 3.4. Let M ¼ where A 2 Cdd . Then for all integer
I A
n P 1,
 
X ðn  2ÞA X ðn  1ÞA
Mn ¼ ;
X ðn  1Þ X ðnÞ
where X(n) is as in Lemma 3.3.

Proof. We prove it by induction. For n = 1 it is easily verified. Assume that the


formula is satisfied for n and we will check it for n + 1. By applying Lemma
3.3(ii), we get
! !
nþ1
X ðn  2ÞA X ðn  1ÞA 0 A
M ¼
X ðn  1Þ X ðnÞ I A
!
X ðn  1ÞA ðX ðn  2Þ  X ðn  1ÞÞA2
¼
X ðnÞ ðX ðn  1Þ  X ðnÞÞA
!
X ðn  1ÞA X ðnÞA
¼ .
X ðnÞ X ðn þ 1Þ
So, the representation of Mn is valid for all n P 1. h
Now, we are in position to prove the following theorem which provides
expressions for the powers of FD.
260 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270
 
I I
Theorem 3.5. Let F ¼ where E 2 Cdd , ind(E) = r. Then for all n P 2
E 0
!  
n X d ðn  2ÞED X d ðn  1ÞED Y p ðn  1Þ Y p ðnÞ
ðF D Þ ¼ þ ;
X d ðn  1Þ X d ðnÞ Y p ðnÞE Y p ðn þ 1ÞE

where for any integer n P 0,

X
sðnÞ
n ni
X d ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cðn  i; iÞðED Þ and
i¼0

X
r1
Y p ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þj Cðn þ 2j; jÞEj Ep .
j¼0

Proof. We split up FD = G + H as in (3.2). Since GH = HG = 0 then


PsðnÞ n ni
(FD)n = Gn + Hn for n P 0. Now, if X d ðnÞ ¼ i¼0 ð1Þ Cðn  i; iÞðED Þ ,
n P 0, by applying Proposition 3.4 with A = ED we get for integers n P 2
!n !
n
0 ED EED 0
G ¼
I ED 0 EED
!
X d ðn  2ÞED X d ðn  1ÞED
¼ .
X d ðn  1Þ X d ðnÞ
Pr1 j j
On the other hand, if Y ðnÞ ¼ j¼0 ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞðEEp Þ and Yp(n) = Y(n)Ep,
for n P 0, then by applying Proposition 3.2 with N = EEp we get
!n p
!
Y ð0Þ Y ð1Þ E 0
Hn ¼
Y ð1ÞEEp Y ð2ÞEEp 0 Ep
! ! !
Y ðn  1Þ Y ðnÞ Ep 0 Y p ðn  1Þ Y p ðnÞ
¼ ¼ .
Y ðn  1ÞEEp Y ðn þ 1ÞEEp 0 Ep Y p ðnÞE Y p ðn þ 1ÞE

So, from the above computations, we get the statement of the theorem. h
Now, we give a representation of Fp.

Proposition 3.6. If F is given by (1.3), then


 
p
Y p ð1ÞE Y p ð0Þ
F ¼ ;
Y p ð0ÞE Y p ð1Þ
where Yp(n) is defined as (3.1).
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 261

Proof. It is easy to check


 p 
p D
E  ðY p ð0Þ þ Y p ð1ÞEÞ ðY p ð1Þ þ Y p ð2ÞEÞ
F ¼I F F ¼ .
EY p ð0Þ Ep  Y p ð1ÞE

Hence, using Lemma 3.1(i) and (ii) the result follows. h


Our next objective is to get a representation for FpFn. An expression for the
powers of F was given in [3, Proposition 3.1]. The representation for Fn given
therein can be rewritten in a more compact form using the sequence
X
sðnÞ
U ðnÞ ¼ Cðn  i; iÞEi ; n P 0; U ð1Þ ¼ 0. ð3:5Þ
i¼0

 
I I
Proposition 3.7. Let F ¼ where E 2 Cdd . For all n P 1, we have
E 0
 
n
U ðnÞ U ðn  1Þ
F ¼ ;
U ðn  1ÞE U ðn  2ÞE

where U(n) is given by (3.5).


Here, we establish some properties of the sequence U(n) involved in the
expression for Fn which will be used in the next theorem.

Lemma 3.8. Let E 2 Cdd . Consider U(n) for n P 1 given by (3.5). Then
Psðnþ1Þ Psðnþ2Þ1
(i) U ðnÞ ¼ i¼0 Cðn  i; iÞN i ¼ i¼0 Cðn  i; iÞN i for any integer
n P 0.
(ii) U(n)  U(n  1) = U(n  2)E for any integer n P 1.
PsðnÞ n
(iii) 2U ðnÞ  U ðn  1Þ ¼ i¼0 ni
Cðn  i; iÞEi for any integer n P 1.

Proof. (i) It is similar to the part (i) of Proposition 3.4.


(ii) Using (i), we compute
X
sðnÞ
U ðnÞ  U ðn  1Þ ¼ ðCðn  i; iÞ  Cðn  1  i; iÞÞEi
i¼0

X
sðnÞ X
sðnÞ1
¼ Cðn  1  i; i  1ÞEi ¼ Cðn  2  i; iÞEiþ1
i¼1 i¼0

X
sðn2Þ
¼ Cðn  2  i; iÞEi E ¼ U ðn  2ÞE.
i¼0
262 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270

(iii) We compute

X
sðnÞ
2U ðnÞ  U ðn  1Þ ¼ ð2Cðn  i; iÞ  Cðn  1  i; iÞÞEi
i¼0
sðnÞ 
X 
n  2i
¼ 2 Cðn  i; iÞEi
i¼0
ni
X
sðnÞ
n
¼ Cðn  i; iÞEi . 
i¼0
ni
 
I I
Theorem 3.9. Let F ¼ where E 2 Cdd . For all n P 1, we have
E 0
  !
nþ1
D nþ1
U ðnÞ U ðn  1Þ n1 Y p ðn þ 1ÞE Y p ðnÞEn
F F ¼ þ ð1Þ
U ðn  1ÞE U ðn  2ÞE Y p ðnÞEnþ1 Y p ðn  1ÞEn

and, consequently,
!
p n n Y p ðn þ 1ÞEnþ1 Y p ðnÞEn
F F ¼ ð1Þ ;
Y p ðnÞEnþ1 Y p ðn  1ÞEn
where U(n) and Yp(n) for n P 1 are defined by (3.5) and (3.1), respectively.

Proof. We write FD = G + H as in (3.2). Using Proposition 3.7 and Lemma


3.8(ii) we obtain
! !
nþ1
0 ED U ðn þ 1Þ U ðnÞ
GF ¼
ED E ED U ðnÞE U ðn  1ÞE
!
U ðnÞEED U ðn  1ÞEED
¼
ðU ðn þ 1Þ  U ðnÞÞEED ðU ðnÞ  U ðn  1ÞÞEED
!
U ðnÞEED U ðn  1ÞEED
¼ . ð3:6Þ
U ðn  1ÞE2 ED U ðn  2ÞE2 ED
Now, we compute
! !
nþ1
Y p ð0Þ Y p ð1Þ U ðn þ 1Þ U ðnÞ
HF ¼
Y p ð1ÞE Y p ð2ÞE U ðnÞE U ðn  1ÞE
!
U1 ðnÞ U1 ðn  1Þ
¼ ;
U2 ðnÞ U2 ðn  1Þ
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 263

where

U1 ðnÞ ¼ Y p ð0ÞU ðn þ 1Þ þ Y p ð1ÞEU ðnÞ;


ð3:7Þ
U2 ðnÞ ¼ Y p ð1ÞEU ðn þ 1Þ þ Y p ð2ÞE2 U ðnÞ.

From Lemma 3.1(i), taking N = EEp, it follows that Y p ð1ÞE ¼


1
2
ðEp Y p ð0ÞÞ. Using this equality and Lemma 3.8(i) and (iii) we obtain
 
1 1
U1 ðnÞ ¼ U ðn þ 1Þ  U ðnÞ Y p ð0Þ þ U ðnÞEp
2 2
! !
X
sðnþ1Þ
nþ1 X
r1
j
i j p
¼ Cðn þ 1  i; iÞE ð1Þ Cð2j; jÞE E
i¼0
2ðn þ 1  iÞ j¼0

X
sðnþ1Þ
1 X
r1
þ Cðn  i; iÞEi Ep ¼ ck ðnÞEk Ep .
i¼0
2 k¼0

If 0 6 k 6 s(n + 1) the coefficient ck(n) is given by


X
k
nþ1 1
ck ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þki Cð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞCðn þ 1  i;iÞ þ Cðn  k; kÞ.
i¼0
2ðn þ 1  iÞ 2

Hence, applying Lemma 2.2(i), we conclude


1 1
ck ðnÞ ¼ Cðn  k; kÞ þ Cðn  k; kÞ ¼ Cðn  k; kÞ.
2 2
For k > s(n + 1) we have

X
sðnþ1Þ
ki nþ1
ck ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞCðn þ 1  i; iÞ .
i¼0
2ðn þ 1  iÞ

Thus, applying Lemma 2.2(ii), we conclude



0; sðnÞ < k 6 n;
ck ðnÞ ¼ k
Cðn  k; kÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cð2k  n  1; kÞ; n < k.
Therefore,
X
sðnþ1Þ X
r1
U1 ðnÞ ¼ Cðn  k; kÞEk Ep þ ð1Þk Cð2k  n  1; kÞEk Ep
k¼0 k¼nþ1
p nþ1
¼ U ðnÞE þ ð1Þ Y p ðn þ 1ÞEnþ1 .
On the other hand, using Lemma 3.1(ii) and Lemma 3.8(ii), U2(n) given in (3.7)
becomes
264 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270

U2 ðnÞ ¼ Y p ð0ÞU ðnÞE þ Y p ð1ÞEðU ðn þ 1Þ  U ðnÞÞ


¼ Y p ð0ÞU ðnÞE þ Y p ð1ÞU ðn  1ÞE
¼ U1 ðn  1ÞE.
So, we have
!
U ðnÞEp  ð1Þn Y p ðn þ 1ÞEnþ1 U ðn  1ÞEp þ ð1Þn Y p ðnÞEn
HF nþ1 ¼ .
U ðn  1ÞEp þ ð1Þn Y p ðnÞEnþ1 U ðn  2ÞEp  ð1Þn Y p ðn  1ÞEn

Finally, the desired result follows by adding HFn+1 and GFn+1 given by (3.6). h
p n
We remark that, from the above theorem, we get that F F for all n P r is
the null matrix because ind(E) = r.

4. The Drazin inverse for a class of block matrices


 
I Pt
We consider the matrices of the form A ¼ , where U, V, P and Q
Q UV t
are n · k matrices.
 The matrix
 A  can be written as A = BCt, where
0 I I 0 I 0
B¼ and C ¼ . Hence, we have [4]
U Q 0 V 0 P
D D 2
AD ¼ ðBC t Þ ¼ BððC t BÞ Þ C t . ð4:1Þ
We have
0 1 0 1
0 Vt   V tU V tQ 0
B C 0 I I B C
CtB ¼ @ I 0 A ¼@ 0 I I A. ð4:2Þ
U Q 0
0 Pt PQ 0 t
PU t

 
I I
Let us extract the block matrix F ¼ and let r = ind(PtQ). In the
P tQ 0
next theorem we will refer to this matrix F and to the following sequences:
X
sðnÞ
X d ðnÞ ¼ Cðn  i; iÞððP t QÞD Þni ; n P 0; X d ð1Þ ¼ 0;
i¼0
ð4:3Þ
X
r1
j j p
Y p ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞðP t QÞ ðP t QÞ ; n P 1.
j¼0
2
Let F 2ij and ðF D Þij denote the (i, j)-block of F2 and (FD)2, respectively, for
i,j = 1, 2. Notice that ind(F2) 6 ind(F) = ind(PtQ) = r.
In order to get a representation for the Drazin inverse of AD, we will apply
results of the preceding section together with Lemma 2.3 concerning the Drazin
inverse of block triangular matrices.
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 265
 
I Pt
Theorem 4.1. Let A ¼ , where U, V, P and Q are n · k matrices. If
Q UV t
VtQ = 0 then
!
D
Zð1Þ R0 V t þ Zð0ÞP t
A ¼ D 2 ;
QZð0Þ U ððV t U Þ Þ V t þ QR1 V t þ QZð1ÞP t

where,

X
m1
2n p
Ri ¼ ðZð2n þ 1 þ iÞP t U þ Zð2n þ 2 þ iÞP t UV t U ÞðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ
n¼0

i
X
s1
2nþ1i
þ ð1Þ ðP t QÞ fY p ð2n þ 1  iÞP t U
n¼0
D D 2nþ3
 P QY p ð2n þ 2  iÞP t U ðV t U Þ gððV t U Þ Þ
t

 ðZðiÞP t U þ Zði  1ÞP t U ðV t U ÞD ÞðV t U ÞD ; i ¼ 0; 1;

with m = ind((VtU)2), s = ind(F2) and


ZðnÞ ¼ X d ðnÞðP t QÞD þ Y p ðn þ 1Þ; n P 1;
where Xd(n) and Yp(n) given by (4.3).

Proof. We consider the matrix CtB given by (4.2) taking VtQ = 0. Then
0 1
ðV t U Þ2 0 0
2 B C
ðC t BÞ ¼ @ P t U F 211 F 212 A.
P t UV t U F 221 F 222
Seeing the above matrix as a 2 · 2 block triangular matrix which diagonal
blocks are (VtU)2 and F2 and applying Lemma 2.3 we obtain
0 1
ððV t U ÞD Þ2 0 0
2 D B 2 2 C
ððC t BÞ Þ ¼ @ X1 ðF D Þ11 ðF D Þ12 A;
X2 ðF D Þ21 ðF D Þ222

where if we denote X = (X1 X2)t, C = (PtU PtUVtU)t, then


m1  s1 
P 2nþ4 2n p P 2n D 2nþ4
X ¼ ðF D Þ CðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ þ F p F CððV t U Þ Þ
n¼0 n¼0
D 2 t D 2
ðF Þ CððV U Þ Þ .
ð4:4Þ
266 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270

Now, using (4.1) we have


0 t D 2 10 1
  ððV U Þ Þ 0 0 0 Vt
0 I I B CB C
AD ¼ @ X1 ðF D Þ211 ðF D Þ212 A@ I 0 A
U Q 0
X2
2
ðF D Þ21 ðF D Þ22
2 0 Pt
0   1
2 2 2 2
ðF D Þ11 þ ðF D Þ21 ðX 1 þ X 2 ÞV t þ ðF D Þ12 þ ðF D Þ22 P t
¼@ A. ð4:5Þ
D 2 t D 2 t t D 2 t
QðF Þ11 U ððV U Þ Þ V þ QX 1 V þ QðF Þ12 P
Denote Z(n) = Xd(n)(PtQ)D + Yp(n + 1) for integers n P 1.
First, we obtain
2 2 2 D
ðF D Þ11 ¼ ðF D Þ12 þ ðF D Þ22 ¼ ðP t QÞ þ Y p ð1Þ ¼ Zð0Þ;
2 D 2
ðF D Þ12 ¼ ððP t QÞ Þ þ Y p ð2Þ ¼ Zð1Þ;
ðF D Þ211 þ ðF D Þ221 ¼ Y p ð0Þ ¼ Zð1Þ.
Now, we need to obtain X1 and X1 + X2 from (4.4). In order that, we split up
X = U + W + X and compute each term separately.
Using Theorem 3.5, it follows:
  !
U1 Xm1
D 2nþ4 2n p
U¼ ¼ ðF Þ CðV U Þ ðV t U Þ
t
U2 n¼0
( !
Xm1
X d ð2n þ 2ÞðP t QÞ
D
X d ð2n þ 3ÞðP t QÞ
D
¼
n¼0 X d ð2n þ 3Þ X d ð2n þ 4Þ
  !
2n
Y p ð2n þ 3Þ Y p ð2n þ 4Þ P t U ðV t U Þ p
þ ðV t U Þ .
Y p ð2n þ 4ÞP t Q Y p ð2n þ 5ÞP t Q P t U ðV t U Þ2nþ1

Hence, using Lemmas 3.3(ii) and 3.1(ii) to simplify the expression for U1 + U2,
we get
X
m1
2n p
U1 ¼ ðZð2n þ 2ÞP t U þ Zð2n þ 3ÞP t UV t U ÞðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ ;
n¼0
X
m1
2n p
U1 þ U2 ¼ ðZð2n þ 1ÞP t U þ Zð2n þ 2ÞP t UV t U ÞðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ .
n¼0

Now, let W = (W1, W2)t. By Theorem 3.9 and Proposition 3.6,


!
Xs1
D 2nþ4
p 2n t
W¼F F CððV U Þ Þ
n¼0
! !
X
s1
Y p ð2n þ 1ÞðP t QÞ
2nþ1
Y p ð2nÞðP t QÞ
2n D 2nþ4
P t U ððV t U Þ Þ
¼ 2nþ1 2n D 2nþ3
.
n¼0 Y p ð2nÞðP t QÞ Y p ð2n  1ÞðP t QÞ P t U ððV t U Þ Þ
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 267

Then,
X
s1  
W1 ¼ ðP t QÞ2n Y p ð2nÞP t U þ P t QY p ð2n þ 1ÞP t U ðV t U ÞD ððV t U ÞD Þ2nþ3
n¼0

and applying Lemma 3.1(ii),


X
s1  
W1 þ W2 ¼ ðP t QÞ2nþ1 Y p ð2n þ 1ÞP t U  P t QY p ð2n þ 2ÞP t U ðV t U ÞD
n¼0
D 2nþ3
 ððV t U Þ Þ .
Finally, we compute
 
X1
X¼ ¼ ðF D Þ2 CððV t U ÞD Þ2
X2
! !
X d ð0ÞðP t QÞD þ Y p ð1Þ X d ð1ÞðP t QÞD þ Y p ð2Þ D 2
P t U ððV t U Þ Þ
¼ D
.
X d ð1Þ þ Y p ð2ÞP t Q X d ð2Þ þ Y p ð3ÞP t Q P t U ðV t U Þ

Hence,
 
D D
X1 ¼  Zð1ÞP t U þ Zð0ÞP t U ðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ ;
 
D D
X1 þ X2 ¼  Zð0ÞP t U þ Zð1ÞP t U ðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ .

Thus, collecting the above computations in the expression (4.5) for AD, we get
the statement of the theorem. h
As consequence of the above theorem we point out the following result of
interest.
 
I Pt
Corollary 4.2. Let A ¼ , where P and Q are n · k matrices. Then
Q 0 !
D
D Y p ð0Þ ððP t QÞ þ Y p ð1ÞÞP t
A ¼ D D 2
;
QððP t QÞ þ Y p ð1ÞÞ QðððP t QÞ Þ þ Y p ð2ÞÞP t
where Yp(n), for n = 0, 1, 2, are defined as in (4.3).

Special cases

Here we derive from Theorem 4.1 some particular representations of AD un-


der certain additional conditions. In all the following cases we will assume that
VtQ = 0.
(a) Case PtQ = 0. We have Xd(n) = 0, Yp(n) = I and Z(n) = I for all
n P 1. So,
268 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270

 
D I R0 V t þ P t
A ¼ ;
Q U ððV t U ÞD Þ2 V t þ QR1 V t þ QP t
where for i = 0, 1,
X
m1
2n p D 3
Ri ¼ P t U ðI þ V t U Þ ðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ  iP t U ððV t U Þ Þ
n¼0
D 2 D
 P U ððV U Þ Þ  P t U ðV t U Þ .
t t

(b) Case VtU = 0. In this case, R0 = Z(1)PtU and R1 = Z(2)PtU. Thus,


 
Zð1Þ Zð1ÞP t UV t þ Zð0ÞP t
AD ¼ .
QZð0Þ QZð2ÞP t UV t þ QZð1ÞP t

(c) Case PtU = 0. Then R0 = 0 and R1 = 0. So,


!
t
Zð1Þ Zð0ÞP
AD ¼ .
QZð0Þ U ððV t U ÞD Þ2 V t þ QZð1ÞP t

(d) Case ind(PtQ) = 1. In this case, (PtQ)D = (PtQ)] and PtQ(PtQ)p = 0. So,
we can simplify Yp(n) = (PtQ)p and, thus, Z(n) = Xd(n) + (PtQ)p, for all n P 0.
Moreover, because s = ind(F2) 6 1 the expressions appearing in AD are
simplified.
The proof of the following result is basically the same as for the above the-
orem, so it will be omitted.
 
I Pt
Theorem 4.3. Let A ¼ , where U, V, P and Q are n · k matrices. If
Q UV t
PtU = 0 then
!
t
Zð1Þ Zð0ÞP
AD ¼ ;
U R0 þ QZð0Þ U ððV t U ÞD Þ2 V t þ ðU R1 þ QZð1ÞÞP t
where,
p
X
m1
2n
Ri ¼ ðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ ðV t QZð2n þ 1 þ iÞ þ V t UV t QZð2n þ 2 þ iÞÞ
n¼0
X
s1 
þ ð1Þi ððV t U ÞD Þ2nþ3 V t QY p ð2n þ 1  iÞ
n¼0

ðV U Þ V t QY p ð2n þ 2  iÞP t Q ðP t QÞ2nþ1i
t D

 
D D
 ðV t U Þ V t QZðiÞ þ ðV t U Þ V t QZði  1Þ ; i ¼ 0; 1;

where m = ind((VtU)2), s = ind(F2) and Z(n) = Xd(n)(PtQ)D + Yp(n + 1),


n P 1, with Xd(n) and Yp(n) given by (4.3).
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 269

Special Cases

Here we analyze some particular representations of AD derived from Theo-


rem 4.3. In all the following cases we will assume that PtU = 0.
(a) Case PtQ = 0. In this case we get
 
I Pt
AD ¼ ;
U R0 þ Q U ððV t U ÞD Þ2 V t þ ðU R1 þ QÞP t
where for i = 0, 1,
X
m1
Ri ¼ ðV t U Þp ðV t U Þ2n ðI þ V t U ÞV t Q  iððV t U ÞD Þ3 V t Q
n¼0

 ðV U Þ ðI þ ðV t U ÞD ÞV t Q.
t D

(b) Case VtU = 0. We obtain


 
D Zð1Þ Zð0ÞP t
A ¼ t
.
UV QZð1Þ þ QZð0Þ UV t QZð2ÞP t þ QZð1ÞP t
(c) Case VtQ = 0. We obtain
!
D
Zð1Þ Zð0ÞP t
A ¼ D 2 .
QZð0Þ U ððV t U Þ Þ V t þ QZð1ÞP t

Acknowledgment

This research was partly supported by the ‘‘Agencia Española de Cooper-


ación Internacional (AECI)’’, Project 201/03/P.

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