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# Applied Mathematics and Computation 174 (2006) 252–270

www.elsevier.com/locate/amc

## Formulas for the drazin inverse

of special block matrices
N. Castro-González *, E. Dopazo, J. Robles
Fac. de Informatica, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Boadilla del Monte, Campus de

Abstract
 
I I
Properties of the Drazin inverse of the matrix F ¼ , with E square, are
E 0
investigated. Based on this approach,it is obtained
 an explicit formula for the Drazin
I Pt
inverse of matrices of the form A ¼ , where U, V, P and Q are n · k. The
Q UV t
D
representation for A is given in terms of k · k matrices involving the individual blocks
under some conditions. Some special cases are also analyzed.

## Keywords: Drazin inverse; Block matrix; Binomial coeﬃcients

1. Introduction

Let us recall that the Drazin inverse of A 2 Cnn is the unique matrix
A 2 Cnn satisfying the relations
D

*
Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: nieves@ﬁ.upm.es (N. Castro-González), edopazo@ﬁ.upm.es (E. Dopazo),
jrobles@ﬁ.upm.es (J. Robles).

doi:10.1016/j.amc.2005.03.027
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 253

r r+1
where r is the smallest non-negative integer such that rank(A ) = rank(A ),
i.e., r = ind(A), the index of A. The case when ind(A) = 1, the Drazin inverse
is called the group inverse of A and is denoted by A].
Let RðAÞ and NðAÞ denote the range space of A and the null space of A,
respectively. The eigenprojection Ap of A corresponding to the eigenvalue 0
is the uniquely determined idempotent matrix with RðAp Þ ¼ NðAr Þ and
NðAp Þ ¼ RðAr Þ. It is well-known that Ap = I  AAD.
In this paper, we present a formula for computing the Drazin inverse of
matrices of the form
 
I Pt
A¼ ; ð1:2Þ
Q UV t

## where U, V, P and Q are n · k matrices. This type of matrices are refereed in

the literature as bordered matrices and they appear in linear algebra problems
in some ﬁelds of applied mathematics (see [1,5] and references therein).
The framework
 of considered matrices includes block matrices of the form
I B
M¼ , I the k · k identity, D the n · n matrix with rank(D) = k. In
C D
this case, D can be factorized as D = UVt, where U, V are n · k matrices with
rank(U) = rank(V) = k [2]. At present time there is no known representation
for the Drazin inverse of M with arbitrary blocks. Recently, expressions for
MD has been given under some conditions on the blocks [8,3].
In [3] the ﬁrst and second author gave a formula for computing the Drazin
inverse of the block matrix
 
I I
F ¼ ; E square; indðEÞ ¼ r; and I identity. ð1:3Þ
E 0
Therein, it was showed that
!
D Y 1 Ep ED þ Y 2 Ep
F ¼ ; ð1:4Þ
ED E þ Y 2 EEp ED þ ðY 1  Y 2 ÞEp
where
X
r1
j
X
r1
j
Y1 ¼ ð1Þ Cð2j; jÞEj and Y2 ¼ ð1Þ Cð2j þ 1; jÞEj ;
j¼0 j¼0
D 2
and also a representation for (F ) was given. However, it would be desirable
to have a representation for the general powers (FD)n. Also an expression for
FpFn for arbitrary integers n will be needed to get our objective. This will be
the task to develop in Section 3. First, in Section 2 we give combinatorial iden-
tities which will be used in the forthcoming section. Finally, in Section 4, we
254 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270

give representations of the Drazin inverse of the block matrix (1.2) in terms of
the k · k matrices PtQ, VtU, PtU, VtQ, (PtQ)D and (VtU)D, under some
conditions.

2. Preliminary results

Throughout
 this paper, for integers n and k, we denote by C(n, k) the binomial
n
coeﬃcient . We will make use of the following well-known identities involv-
k
ing binomial coeﬃcients: C(n, k) = C(n  1,k) + C(n  1, k  1); Cðn; n  kÞ ¼
Cðn; kÞ ¼ nk Cðn  1; k  1Þ; k 6¼ 0; C(l, k) = (1)kC(l + k  1, k).
In the following lemma we give a general convolution identity which we
refer to [6, p. 202, formula (5.62)].

## Lemma 2.1. Let n be an integer. Then

Xk
n
Cðn þ 2j; jÞCð2ðk  jÞ; k  jÞ ¼ Cðn þ 2k; kÞ; integer k P 0.
j¼0
n þ 2j
0
We remark that if n = 0, the factor 0þ2j
Cð0 þ 2j; jÞ should be considered
equal to 1 for j = 0.

## Lemma 2.2. Let n be an integer, n P 0.Then

Xk
ki n
ð1Þ Cðn  i; iÞCð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞ ¼ Cðn  1  k; kÞ;
i¼0
ni
integer k P 0.
Moreover, if s(n) is the integer part of n/2, then
X
sðnÞ
ki n
ð1Þ Cðn  i; iÞCð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞ
i¼0
ni

0; sðnÞ < k 6 n  1;
¼
2Cðn  1  k; kÞ; n  1 < k.

## Proof. We consider the following generating functions [6, p. 203]:

 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃn
1 X k 1 þ 1 þ 4z
k
pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ ð1Þ Cð2k; kÞz ;
1 þ 4z k
2
X n
¼ Cðn  k; kÞzk .
k
nk
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 255

Hence, multiplying the above expressions and using the convolution identity,
we derive the ﬁrst identity of the lemma, attending to the fact that
pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
ð1 þ 1 þ 4zÞn X
p ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ¼ Cðn  1  k; kÞzk .
2n 1 þ 4z k
PsðnÞ ki n
Further,
Pk we kidenote S 1 ¼ i¼0 ð1Þ ni Cðn  i; iÞCð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞ and
n
S ¼ i¼0 ð1Þ ni Cðn  i; iÞCð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞ. We observe that C(n  i, i) = 0
for all i such that s(n) < i 6 n  1. Consequently, if s(n) < k 6 n  1, we have
S1 = S = C(n  1  k, k) = 0.
Now, we assume k > n  1. We have
Xk
n
S  S1 ¼ ð1Þki Cðn  i; iÞCð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞ.
i¼n
n  i
n
For i = n the factor ni Cðn  i; iÞ should be considered equal to (1)n+1. For all
i P n + 1, we have
i iþ1 ni
Cðn  i; iÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cð2i  n  1; iÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cð2i  n; iÞ.
2i  n
Thus, using the identity given in Lemma 2.1 we get
X
k
kþ1 n
S  S1 ¼ ð1Þ Cð2i  n; iÞCð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞ
i¼n
2i  n

kþ1
X
kn
n
¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞCð2ðk  n  jÞ; k  n  jÞ
j¼0
n þ 2j
kþ1
¼ ð1Þ Cð2k  n; k  nÞ.
Therefore
kþ1
S 1 ¼ Cðn  1  k; kÞ  ð1Þ Cð2k  n; k  nÞ ¼ 2Cðn  1  k; kÞ.
Then the theorem is proved. h
The following lemma concerning the Drazin inverse of 2 · 2 block triangu-
lar matrices (see [7]) will be used in the last section.

## Lemma 2.3. Let

   
A 0 B C
M1 ¼ ; M2 ¼ ;
C B 0 A
where A and B are square matrices with ind(A) = r and ind(B) = s. Then
! !
D AD 0 D BD X
M1 ¼ ; M2 ¼ ;
256 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270

where ! !
X
r1 X
s1
D 2 D i D i 2
X ¼ ðB Þ ðB Þ CA i p
A þB p i
i¼0 i¼0

## 3. Properties of the Drazin inverse of the matrix F

Throughout this paper for any integer n we will denote by s(n) the integer
part of n2. We introduce the notation
X
r1
j
Y p ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞEj Ep ; n P 1. ð3:1Þ
j¼0
The sequence of matrices Yp(n) allow us to write in a compact form FD and it
will get involved in the powers of (FD)n.
The expression (1.4) for FD can be rewritten as
!  
D 0 ED Y p ð0Þ Y p ð1Þ
F ¼ G þ H; G ¼ ; H ¼ .
ED E ED Y p ð1ÞE Y p ð2ÞE
ð3:2Þ
Notice that
X
r1
j j
Y p ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞðEEp Þ Ep .
j¼0
Since EEp is a nilpotent matrix, we were motivated to work with a general nil-
potent matrix in this preparatory part.

Lemma 3.1. Let N be a r-nilpotent matrix (Nr = 0). Consider the sequence
X
r1
j
Y ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞN j ; n P 1.
j¼0
Then

## (i) Y ð1ÞN ¼ 12 ðI  Y ð0ÞÞ.

(ii) Y(n  1)  Y(n) = Y(n + 1)N for any integer n P 0.
Pr1
(iii) 2Y ðn  1Þ  Y ðnÞ ¼ j¼0 ð1Þj nþ2j
n
Cðn þ 2j; jÞN j for any integer n P 1.

## Proof. (i) Using the identity Cð2j  1; j  1Þ ¼ 12 Cð2j; jÞ, we obtain

X
r1 X
r1
Y ð1ÞN ¼ ð1Þj Cð2j þ 1; jÞN jþ1 ¼ ð1Þj1 Cð2j  1; j  1ÞN j
j¼0 j¼1

X
r1
1 jþ1 1
¼ ð1Þ Cð2j; jÞN j ¼ ðI  Y ð0ÞÞ.
j¼1
2 2
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 257

## (ii) Using the identity C(m, k) = C(m  1, k) + C(m  1, k  1), we get

X
r1
Y ðn  1Þ  Y ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þj ðCðn  1 þ 2j; jÞ  Cðn þ 2j; jÞÞN j
j¼0
X
r1
jþ1
¼ ð1Þ Cðn  1 þ 2j; j  1ÞN j
j¼1
X
r2
¼ ð1Þj Cðn þ 1 þ 2j; jÞN jþ1 ¼ Y ðn þ 1ÞN .
j¼0

(iii) We compute
X
r1
j
2Y ðn  1Þ  Y ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ ð2Cðn  1 þ 2j; jÞ  Cðn þ 2j; jÞÞN j
j¼0

X
r1  
2ðn þ jÞ
¼ ð1Þj  1 Cðn þ 2j; jÞN j
j¼0
n þ 2j
X
r1
j n
¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞN j . 
j¼0
n þ 2j

## Proposition 3.2. Let N be a r-nilpotent matrix. Consider

X
r1
j
Y ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞN j ; n P 0.
j¼0

If
 
Y ð0Þ Y ð1Þ
H¼ ;
Y ð1ÞN Y ð2ÞN
then for all n P 1 we have
 
Y ðn  1Þ Y ðnÞ
Hn ¼ . ð3:3Þ
Y ðnÞN Y ðn þ 1ÞN

## Proof. We prove it by induction. For n = 1 it is clear. Assume that (3.3) is sat-

isﬁed for n and we will check it for n + 1.
  
nþ1
Y ðn  1Þ Y ðnÞ Y ð0Þ Y ð1Þ
H ¼
Y ðnÞN Y ðn þ 1ÞN Y ð1ÞN Y ð2ÞN
 
U1 ðnÞ U2 ðnÞ
¼ ;
U1 ðn þ 1ÞN U2 ðn þ 1ÞN
258 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270

where
U1 ðnÞ ¼ Y ðn  1ÞY ð0Þ þ Y ðnÞY ð1ÞN ;
ð3:4Þ
U2 ðnÞ ¼ Y ðn  1ÞY ð1Þ þ Y ðnÞY ð2ÞN .
Now, by applying Lemma 3.1(i) and (iii), we get
 
1 1
U1 ðnÞ ¼ Y ðn  1Þ  Y ðnÞ Y ð0Þ þ Y ðnÞ
2 2 ! !
1 X r1
j n j
X
r1
j j
¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞN ð1Þ Cð2j; jÞN
2 j¼0 n þ 2j j¼0
!
1 X r1
j j
X
r1
þ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞN ¼ ck ðnÞN k ;
2 j¼0 k¼0

where
!
ð1Þ
k X
r1
n
ck ðnÞ ¼ Cðn þ 2j; jÞCð2ðk  jÞ; k  jÞ þ Cðn þ 2k; kÞ .
2 i¼0
n þ 2j

## Hence, applying Lemma 2.1 we obtain

k
ð1Þ
ck ðnÞ ¼ ðCðn þ 2k; kÞ þ Cðn þ 2k; kÞÞ ¼ ð1Þk Cðn þ 2k; kÞ.
2
Thus, U1(n) = Y(n).
On the other hand, we consider U2(n) given by (3.4). Using Lemma 3.1(ii) we
get
U2 ðnÞ ¼ Y ðnÞY ð0Þ þ ðY ðn  1Þ  Y ðnÞÞY ð1Þ
¼ Y ðnÞY ð0Þ þ Y ðn þ 1ÞY ð1ÞN
¼ U1 ðn þ 1Þ ¼ Y ðn þ 1Þ.
Thus, we have
 
Y ðnÞ Y ðn þ 1Þ
H nþ1 ¼ ;
Y ðn þ 1ÞN Y ðn þ 2ÞN
so the formula (3.3) is valid for arbitrary integer n P 1. h
Our next purpose isto obtaina representation for the powers of a block ma-
0 A
trix in the form M ¼ where A 2 Cdd . We start introducing a se-
I A
quence of matrices which will get involved in the powers Mn.

## Lemma 3.3. Let A 2 Cdd . Consider the sequence of matrices

X
sðnÞ
n
X ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cðn  i; iÞAni ; n P 0; X ð1Þ ¼ 0.
i¼0
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 259

## Then for all n P 0,

Psðnþ1Þ n Psðnþ2Þ1 n
(i) X ðnÞ ¼ i¼0 ð1Þ Cðn  i; iÞAni ¼ i¼0 ð1Þ Cðn  i; iÞAni .
(ii) X(n  1)A  X(n)A = X(n + 1).

## Proof. (i) If n is even then s(n) = s(n + 1) = s(n + 2)  1; otherwise s(n + 1) =

s(n + 2) = s(n) + 1 and C(n  s(n)  1, s(n) + 1) = 0.
(ii) Using (i), we obtain

X ðn  1ÞA  X ðnÞA
X
sðnþ1Þ1 X
sðnþ1Þ
¼ ð1Þn1 Cðn  1  i; iÞAni  ð1Þn Cðn  i; iÞAnþ1i
i¼0 i¼0

X
sðnþ1Þ
nþ1 nþ1
¼ ð1Þ ðCðn  i; i  1Þ þ Cðn  i; iÞÞAnþ1i þ ð1Þ Anþ1
i¼1

X
sðnþ1Þ
¼ ð1Þnþ1 Cðn þ 1  i; iÞAnþ1i . 
i¼0

 
0 A
Proposition 3.4. Let M ¼ where A 2 Cdd . Then for all integer
I A
n P 1,
 
X ðn  2ÞA X ðn  1ÞA
Mn ¼ ;
X ðn  1Þ X ðnÞ
where X(n) is as in Lemma 3.3.

## Proof. We prove it by induction. For n = 1 it is easily veriﬁed. Assume that the

formula is satisﬁed for n and we will check it for n + 1. By applying Lemma
3.3(ii), we get
! !
nþ1
X ðn  2ÞA X ðn  1ÞA 0 A
M ¼
X ðn  1Þ X ðnÞ I A
!
X ðn  1ÞA ðX ðn  2Þ  X ðn  1ÞÞA2
¼
X ðnÞ ðX ðn  1Þ  X ðnÞÞA
!
X ðn  1ÞA X ðnÞA
¼ .
X ðnÞ X ðn þ 1Þ
So, the representation of Mn is valid for all n P 1. h
Now, we are in position to prove the following theorem which provides
expressions for the powers of FD.
260 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270
 
I I
Theorem 3.5. Let F ¼ where E 2 Cdd , ind(E) = r. Then for all n P 2
E 0
!  
n X d ðn  2ÞED X d ðn  1ÞED Y p ðn  1Þ Y p ðnÞ
ðF D Þ ¼ þ ;
X d ðn  1Þ X d ðnÞ Y p ðnÞE Y p ðn þ 1ÞE

## where for any integer n P 0,

X
sðnÞ
n ni
X d ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cðn  i; iÞðED Þ and
i¼0

X
r1
Y p ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þj Cðn þ 2j; jÞEj Ep .
j¼0

## Proof. We split up FD = G + H as in (3.2). Since GH = HG = 0 then

PsðnÞ n ni
(FD)n = Gn + Hn for n P 0. Now, if X d ðnÞ ¼ i¼0 ð1Þ Cðn  i; iÞðED Þ ,
n P 0, by applying Proposition 3.4 with A = ED we get for integers n P 2
!n !
n
0 ED EED 0
G ¼
I ED 0 EED
!
X d ðn  2ÞED X d ðn  1ÞED
¼ .
X d ðn  1Þ X d ðnÞ
Pr1 j j
On the other hand, if Y ðnÞ ¼ j¼0 ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞðEEp Þ and Yp(n) = Y(n)Ep,
for n P 0, then by applying Proposition 3.2 with N = EEp we get
!n p
!
Y ð0Þ Y ð1Þ E 0
Hn ¼
Y ð1ÞEEp Y ð2ÞEEp 0 Ep
! ! !
Y ðn  1Þ Y ðnÞ Ep 0 Y p ðn  1Þ Y p ðnÞ
¼ ¼ .
Y ðn  1ÞEEp Y ðn þ 1ÞEEp 0 Ep Y p ðnÞE Y p ðn þ 1ÞE

So, from the above computations, we get the statement of the theorem. h
Now, we give a representation of Fp.

## Proposition 3.6. If F is given by (1.3), then

 
p
Y p ð1ÞE Y p ð0Þ
F ¼ ;
Y p ð0ÞE Y p ð1Þ
where Yp(n) is defined as (3.1).
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 261

## Proof. It is easy to check

 p 
p D
E  ðY p ð0Þ þ Y p ð1ÞEÞ ðY p ð1Þ þ Y p ð2ÞEÞ
F ¼I F F ¼ .
EY p ð0Þ Ep  Y p ð1ÞE

## Hence, using Lemma 3.1(i) and (ii) the result follows. h

Our next objective is to get a representation for FpFn. An expression for the
powers of F was given in [3, Proposition 3.1]. The representation for Fn given
therein can be rewritten in a more compact form using the sequence
X
sðnÞ
U ðnÞ ¼ Cðn  i; iÞEi ; n P 0; U ð1Þ ¼ 0. ð3:5Þ
i¼0

 
I I
Proposition 3.7. Let F ¼ where E 2 Cdd . For all n P 1, we have
E 0
 
n
U ðnÞ U ðn  1Þ
F ¼ ;
U ðn  1ÞE U ðn  2ÞE

## where U(n) is given by (3.5).

Here, we establish some properties of the sequence U(n) involved in the
expression for Fn which will be used in the next theorem.

Lemma 3.8. Let E 2 Cdd . Consider U(n) for n P 1 given by (3.5). Then
Psðnþ1Þ Psðnþ2Þ1
(i) U ðnÞ ¼ i¼0 Cðn  i; iÞN i ¼ i¼0 Cðn  i; iÞN i for any integer
n P 0.
(ii) U(n)  U(n  1) = U(n  2)E for any integer n P 1.
PsðnÞ n
(iii) 2U ðnÞ  U ðn  1Þ ¼ i¼0 ni
Cðn  i; iÞEi for any integer n P 1.

## Proof. (i) It is similar to the part (i) of Proposition 3.4.

(ii) Using (i), we compute
X
sðnÞ
U ðnÞ  U ðn  1Þ ¼ ðCðn  i; iÞ  Cðn  1  i; iÞÞEi
i¼0

X
sðnÞ X
sðnÞ1
¼ Cðn  1  i; i  1ÞEi ¼ Cðn  2  i; iÞEiþ1
i¼1 i¼0

X
sðn2Þ
¼ Cðn  2  i; iÞEi E ¼ U ðn  2ÞE.
i¼0
262 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270

(iii) We compute

X
sðnÞ
2U ðnÞ  U ðn  1Þ ¼ ð2Cðn  i; iÞ  Cðn  1  i; iÞÞEi
i¼0
sðnÞ 
X 
n  2i
¼ 2 Cðn  i; iÞEi
i¼0
ni
X
sðnÞ
n
¼ Cðn  i; iÞEi . 
i¼0
ni
 
I I
Theorem 3.9. Let F ¼ where E 2 Cdd . For all n P 1, we have
E 0
  !
nþ1
D nþ1
U ðnÞ U ðn  1Þ n1 Y p ðn þ 1ÞE Y p ðnÞEn
F F ¼ þ ð1Þ
U ðn  1ÞE U ðn  2ÞE Y p ðnÞEnþ1 Y p ðn  1ÞEn

and, consequently,
!
p n n Y p ðn þ 1ÞEnþ1 Y p ðnÞEn
F F ¼ ð1Þ ;
Y p ðnÞEnþ1 Y p ðn  1ÞEn
where U(n) and Yp(n) for n P 1 are defined by (3.5) and (3.1), respectively.

## Proof. We write FD = G + H as in (3.2). Using Proposition 3.7 and Lemma

3.8(ii) we obtain
! !
nþ1
0 ED U ðn þ 1Þ U ðnÞ
GF ¼
ED E ED U ðnÞE U ðn  1ÞE
!
U ðnÞEED U ðn  1ÞEED
¼
ðU ðn þ 1Þ  U ðnÞÞEED ðU ðnÞ  U ðn  1ÞÞEED
!
U ðnÞEED U ðn  1ÞEED
¼ . ð3:6Þ
U ðn  1ÞE2 ED U ðn  2ÞE2 ED
Now, we compute
! !
nþ1
Y p ð0Þ Y p ð1Þ U ðn þ 1Þ U ðnÞ
HF ¼
Y p ð1ÞE Y p ð2ÞE U ðnÞE U ðn  1ÞE
!
U1 ðnÞ U1 ðn  1Þ
¼ ;
U2 ðnÞ U2 ðn  1Þ
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 263

where

## U1 ðnÞ ¼ Y p ð0ÞU ðn þ 1Þ þ Y p ð1ÞEU ðnÞ;

ð3:7Þ
U2 ðnÞ ¼ Y p ð1ÞEU ðn þ 1Þ þ Y p ð2ÞE2 U ðnÞ.

## From Lemma 3.1(i), taking N = EEp, it follows that Y p ð1ÞE ¼

1
2
ðEp Y p ð0ÞÞ. Using this equality and Lemma 3.8(i) and (iii) we obtain
 
1 1
U1 ðnÞ ¼ U ðn þ 1Þ  U ðnÞ Y p ð0Þ þ U ðnÞEp
2 2
! !
X
sðnþ1Þ
nþ1 X
r1
j
i j p
¼ Cðn þ 1  i; iÞE ð1Þ Cð2j; jÞE E
i¼0
2ðn þ 1  iÞ j¼0

X
sðnþ1Þ
1 X
r1
þ Cðn  i; iÞEi Ep ¼ ck ðnÞEk Ep .
i¼0
2 k¼0

## If 0 6 k 6 s(n + 1) the coefﬁcient ck(n) is given by

X
k
nþ1 1
ck ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þki Cð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞCðn þ 1  i;iÞ þ Cðn  k; kÞ.
i¼0
2ðn þ 1  iÞ 2

## Hence, applying Lemma 2.2(i), we conclude

1 1
ck ðnÞ ¼ Cðn  k; kÞ þ Cðn  k; kÞ ¼ Cðn  k; kÞ.
2 2
For k > s(n + 1) we have

X
sðnþ1Þ
ki nþ1
ck ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cð2ðk  iÞ; k  iÞCðn þ 1  i; iÞ .
i¼0
2ðn þ 1  iÞ

## Thus, applying Lemma 2.2(ii), we conclude


0; sðnÞ < k 6 n;
ck ðnÞ ¼ k
Cðn  k; kÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cð2k  n  1; kÞ; n < k.
Therefore,
X
sðnþ1Þ X
r1
U1 ðnÞ ¼ Cðn  k; kÞEk Ep þ ð1Þk Cð2k  n  1; kÞEk Ep
k¼0 k¼nþ1
p nþ1
¼ U ðnÞE þ ð1Þ Y p ðn þ 1ÞEnþ1 .
On the other hand, using Lemma 3.1(ii) and Lemma 3.8(ii), U2(n) given in (3.7)
becomes
264 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270

## U2 ðnÞ ¼ Y p ð0ÞU ðnÞE þ Y p ð1ÞEðU ðn þ 1Þ  U ðnÞÞ

¼ Y p ð0ÞU ðnÞE þ Y p ð1ÞU ðn  1ÞE
¼ U1 ðn  1ÞE.
So, we have
!
U ðnÞEp  ð1Þn Y p ðn þ 1ÞEnþ1 U ðn  1ÞEp þ ð1Þn Y p ðnÞEn
HF nþ1 ¼ .
U ðn  1ÞEp þ ð1Þn Y p ðnÞEnþ1 U ðn  2ÞEp  ð1Þn Y p ðn  1ÞEn

Finally, the desired result follows by adding HFn+1 and GFn+1 given by (3.6). h
p n
We remark that, from the above theorem, we get that F F for all n P r is
the null matrix because ind(E) = r.

## 4. The Drazin inverse for a class of block matrices

 
I Pt
We consider the matrices of the form A ¼ , where U, V, P and Q
Q UV t
are n · k matrices.
 The matrix
 A  can be written as A = BCt, where
0 I I 0 I 0
B¼ and C ¼ . Hence, we have [4]
U Q 0 V 0 P
D D 2
AD ¼ ðBC t Þ ¼ BððC t BÞ Þ C t . ð4:1Þ
We have
0 1 0 1
0 Vt   V tU V tQ 0
B C 0 I I B C
CtB ¼ @ I 0 A ¼@ 0 I I A. ð4:2Þ
U Q 0
0 Pt PQ 0 t
PU t

 
I I
Let us extract the block matrix F ¼ and let r = ind(PtQ). In the
P tQ 0
next theorem we will refer to this matrix F and to the following sequences:
X
sðnÞ
X d ðnÞ ¼ Cðn  i; iÞððP t QÞD Þni ; n P 0; X d ð1Þ ¼ 0;
i¼0
ð4:3Þ
X
r1
j j p
Y p ðnÞ ¼ ð1Þ Cðn þ 2j; jÞðP t QÞ ðP t QÞ ; n P 1.
j¼0
2
Let F 2ij and ðF D Þij denote the (i, j)-block of F2 and (FD)2, respectively, for
i,j = 1, 2. Notice that ind(F2) 6 ind(F) = ind(PtQ) = r.
In order to get a representation for the Drazin inverse of AD, we will apply
results of the preceding section together with Lemma 2.3 concerning the Drazin
inverse of block triangular matrices.
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 265
 
I Pt
Theorem 4.1. Let A ¼ , where U, V, P and Q are n · k matrices. If
Q UV t
VtQ = 0 then
!
D
Zð1Þ R0 V t þ Zð0ÞP t
A ¼ D 2 ;
QZð0Þ U ððV t U Þ Þ V t þ QR1 V t þ QZð1ÞP t

where,

X
m1
2n p
Ri ¼ ðZð2n þ 1 þ iÞP t U þ Zð2n þ 2 þ iÞP t UV t U ÞðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ
n¼0

i
X
s1
2nþ1i
þ ð1Þ ðP t QÞ fY p ð2n þ 1  iÞP t U
n¼0
D D 2nþ3
 P QY p ð2n þ 2  iÞP t U ðV t U Þ gððV t U Þ Þ
t

## with m = ind((VtU)2), s = ind(F2) and

ZðnÞ ¼ X d ðnÞðP t QÞD þ Y p ðn þ 1Þ; n P 1;
where Xd(n) and Yp(n) given by (4.3).

Proof. We consider the matrix CtB given by (4.2) taking VtQ = 0. Then
0 1
ðV t U Þ2 0 0
2 B C
ðC t BÞ ¼ @ P t U F 211 F 212 A.
P t UV t U F 221 F 222
Seeing the above matrix as a 2 · 2 block triangular matrix which diagonal
blocks are (VtU)2 and F2 and applying Lemma 2.3 we obtain
0 1
ððV t U ÞD Þ2 0 0
2 D B 2 2 C
ððC t BÞ Þ ¼ @ X1 ðF D Þ11 ðF D Þ12 A;
X2 ðF D Þ21 ðF D Þ222

## where if we denote X = (X1 X2)t, C = (PtU PtUVtU)t, then

m1  s1 
P 2nþ4 2n p P 2n D 2nþ4
X ¼ ðF D Þ CðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ þ F p F CððV t U Þ Þ
n¼0 n¼0
D 2 t D 2
ðF Þ CððV U Þ Þ .
ð4:4Þ
266 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270

## Now, using (4.1) we have

0 t D 2 10 1
  ððV U Þ Þ 0 0 0 Vt
0 I I B CB C
AD ¼ @ X1 ðF D Þ211 ðF D Þ212 A@ I 0 A
U Q 0
X2
2
ðF D Þ21 ðF D Þ22
2 0 Pt
0   1
2 2 2 2
ðF D Þ11 þ ðF D Þ21 ðX 1 þ X 2 ÞV t þ ðF D Þ12 þ ðF D Þ22 P t
¼@ A. ð4:5Þ
D 2 t D 2 t t D 2 t
QðF Þ11 U ððV U Þ Þ V þ QX 1 V þ QðF Þ12 P
Denote Z(n) = Xd(n)(PtQ)D + Yp(n + 1) for integers n P 1.
First, we obtain
2 2 2 D
ðF D Þ11 ¼ ðF D Þ12 þ ðF D Þ22 ¼ ðP t QÞ þ Y p ð1Þ ¼ Zð0Þ;
2 D 2
ðF D Þ12 ¼ ððP t QÞ Þ þ Y p ð2Þ ¼ Zð1Þ;
ðF D Þ211 þ ðF D Þ221 ¼ Y p ð0Þ ¼ Zð1Þ.
Now, we need to obtain X1 and X1 + X2 from (4.4). In order that, we split up
X = U + W + X and compute each term separately.
Using Theorem 3.5, it follows:
  !
U1 Xm1
D 2nþ4 2n p
U¼ ¼ ðF Þ CðV U Þ ðV t U Þ
t
U2 n¼0
( !
Xm1
X d ð2n þ 2ÞðP t QÞ
D
X d ð2n þ 3ÞðP t QÞ
D
¼
n¼0 X d ð2n þ 3Þ X d ð2n þ 4Þ
  !
2n
Y p ð2n þ 3Þ Y p ð2n þ 4Þ P t U ðV t U Þ p
þ ðV t U Þ .
Y p ð2n þ 4ÞP t Q Y p ð2n þ 5ÞP t Q P t U ðV t U Þ2nþ1

Hence, using Lemmas 3.3(ii) and 3.1(ii) to simplify the expression for U1 + U2,
we get
X
m1
2n p
U1 ¼ ðZð2n þ 2ÞP t U þ Zð2n þ 3ÞP t UV t U ÞðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ ;
n¼0
X
m1
2n p
U1 þ U2 ¼ ðZð2n þ 1ÞP t U þ Zð2n þ 2ÞP t UV t U ÞðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ .
n¼0

## Now, let W = (W1, W2)t. By Theorem 3.9 and Proposition 3.6,

!
Xs1
D 2nþ4
p 2n t
W¼F F CððV U Þ Þ
n¼0
! !
X
s1
Y p ð2n þ 1ÞðP t QÞ
2nþ1
Y p ð2nÞðP t QÞ
2n D 2nþ4
P t U ððV t U Þ Þ
¼ 2nþ1 2n D 2nþ3
.
n¼0 Y p ð2nÞðP t QÞ Y p ð2n  1ÞðP t QÞ P t U ððV t U Þ Þ
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 267

Then,
X
s1  
W1 ¼ ðP t QÞ2n Y p ð2nÞP t U þ P t QY p ð2n þ 1ÞP t U ðV t U ÞD ððV t U ÞD Þ2nþ3
n¼0

## and applying Lemma 3.1(ii),

X
s1  
W1 þ W2 ¼ ðP t QÞ2nþ1 Y p ð2n þ 1ÞP t U  P t QY p ð2n þ 2ÞP t U ðV t U ÞD
n¼0
D 2nþ3
 ððV t U Þ Þ .
Finally, we compute
 
X1
X¼ ¼ ðF D Þ2 CððV t U ÞD Þ2
X2
! !
X d ð0ÞðP t QÞD þ Y p ð1Þ X d ð1ÞðP t QÞD þ Y p ð2Þ D 2
P t U ððV t U Þ Þ
¼ D
.
X d ð1Þ þ Y p ð2ÞP t Q X d ð2Þ þ Y p ð3ÞP t Q P t U ðV t U Þ

Hence,
 
D D
X1 ¼  Zð1ÞP t U þ Zð0ÞP t U ðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ ;
 
D D
X1 þ X2 ¼  Zð0ÞP t U þ Zð1ÞP t U ðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ .

Thus, collecting the above computations in the expression (4.5) for AD, we get
the statement of the theorem. h
As consequence of the above theorem we point out the following result of
interest.
 
I Pt
Corollary 4.2. Let A ¼ , where P and Q are n · k matrices. Then
Q 0 !
D
D Y p ð0Þ ððP t QÞ þ Y p ð1ÞÞP t
A ¼ D D 2
;
QððP t QÞ þ Y p ð1ÞÞ QðððP t QÞ Þ þ Y p ð2ÞÞP t
where Yp(n), for n = 0, 1, 2, are defined as in (4.3).

Special cases

## Here we derive from Theorem 4.1 some particular representations of AD un-

der certain additional conditions. In all the following cases we will assume that
VtQ = 0.
(a) Case PtQ = 0. We have Xd(n) = 0, Yp(n) = I and Z(n) = I for all
n P 1. So,
268 N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270

 
D I R0 V t þ P t
A ¼ ;
Q U ððV t U ÞD Þ2 V t þ QR1 V t þ QP t
where for i = 0, 1,
X
m1
2n p D 3
Ri ¼ P t U ðI þ V t U Þ ðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ  iP t U ððV t U Þ Þ
n¼0
D 2 D
 P U ððV U Þ Þ  P t U ðV t U Þ .
t t

## (b) Case VtU = 0. In this case, R0 = Z(1)PtU and R1 = Z(2)PtU. Thus,

 
Zð1Þ Zð1ÞP t UV t þ Zð0ÞP t
QZð0Þ QZð2ÞP t UV t þ QZð1ÞP t

## (c) Case PtU = 0. Then R0 = 0 and R1 = 0. So,

!
t
Zð1Þ Zð0ÞP
QZð0Þ U ððV t U ÞD Þ2 V t þ QZð1ÞP t

(d) Case ind(PtQ) = 1. In this case, (PtQ)D = (PtQ)] and PtQ(PtQ)p = 0. So,
we can simplify Yp(n) = (PtQ)p and, thus, Z(n) = Xd(n) + (PtQ)p, for all n P 0.
Moreover, because s = ind(F2) 6 1 the expressions appearing in AD are
simpliﬁed.
The proof of the following result is basically the same as for the above the-
orem, so it will be omitted.
 
I Pt
Theorem 4.3. Let A ¼ , where U, V, P and Q are n · k matrices. If
Q UV t
PtU = 0 then
!
t
Zð1Þ Zð0ÞP
U R0 þ QZð0Þ U ððV t U ÞD Þ2 V t þ ðU R1 þ QZð1ÞÞP t
where,
p
X
m1
2n
Ri ¼ ðV t U Þ ðV t U Þ ðV t QZð2n þ 1 þ iÞ þ V t UV t QZð2n þ 2 þ iÞÞ
n¼0
X
s1 
þ ð1Þi ððV t U ÞD Þ2nþ3 V t QY p ð2n þ 1  iÞ
n¼0

ðV U Þ V t QY p ð2n þ 2  iÞP t Q ðP t QÞ2nþ1i
t D

 
D D
 ðV t U Þ V t QZðiÞ þ ðV t U Þ V t QZði  1Þ ; i ¼ 0; 1;

## where m = ind((VtU)2), s = ind(F2) and Z(n) = Xd(n)(PtQ)D + Yp(n + 1),

n P 1, with Xd(n) and Yp(n) given by (4.3).
N. Castro-González et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 174 (2006) 252–270 269

Special Cases

## Here we analyze some particular representations of AD derived from Theo-

rem 4.3. In all the following cases we will assume that PtU = 0.
(a) Case PtQ = 0. In this case we get
 
I Pt
U R0 þ Q U ððV t U ÞD Þ2 V t þ ðU R1 þ QÞP t
where for i = 0, 1,
X
m1
Ri ¼ ðV t U Þp ðV t U Þ2n ðI þ V t U ÞV t Q  iððV t U ÞD Þ3 V t Q
n¼0

 ðV U Þ ðI þ ðV t U ÞD ÞV t Q.
t D

## (b) Case VtU = 0. We obtain

 
D Zð1Þ Zð0ÞP t
A ¼ t
.
UV QZð1Þ þ QZð0Þ UV t QZð2ÞP t þ QZð1ÞP t
(c) Case VtQ = 0. We obtain
!
D
Zð1Þ Zð0ÞP t
A ¼ D 2 .
QZð0Þ U ððV t U Þ Þ V t þ QZð1ÞP t

Acknowledgment

## This research was partly supported by the ‘‘Agencia Española de Cooper-

ación Internacional (AECI)’’, Project 201/03/P.

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