You are on page 1of 19
Understanding DO Self-Motivation EDWARD L. DECI WITH RICHARD FLASTE PENGUIN BOOKS Rewer Renee, eee eee ee ic elec ee, So ee aceasta See ete eink Rd 8 Se Ldn HR gd Fit pubs inthe Ud Ser of Amar by GP. Pat's Soa 1995 Repel by srngemes wit GF Pata ont abled a Fegan Boks 1796 moe isis Conic © Edward Dest an Richard Fae, 1995 ‘Age seve Des Eva ‘Why we doar we do he dei of pean stosomyby hard De wth card se Inleder biopic ern aN 0599-1409") Sao 14025526 (pbk) Thuenony Cyclo 2 Mockaon eyelo Foe Rcd TT HISTO NANDNS 985" 95.2901 1ssaaao ie inte Unie Sn of Ams Desired by An Geld ‘is conon bet sept he ee ca ‘ecnthen pine of ptr pn ps ht om ‘Seno pny of phd mee on pte he ih = red ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ‘Most ofall, am grateful ro Richard M. Ryan, with whom I have collaborated for nearly twenty years. Much of the esearch discussed in this book is mote his than mine. He read multiple versions of the manuscript and made countess important inputs, Ryan and I hhave also had several other collaborators whose contributions have helped to make this book possible. am grateful to all of thera. Fi- nally, Christopher Walsh, Jay Ryan, Betsy Whitehead, and Sebby Jacobson read a draft of the manuseripe and made useful sugges- ELD, THREE The Need for Personal Autonomy tive consequences to the use of rewards asa motivator, the research had bately begun, for thece were countless ques ‘ons remaining tobe addeessed by carefully designed laboratory ex periments and field studies To proceed, however, 2 filler theoretical account of what had happened in the reward experiments was necessary 60 it could be used for deciving farther hypotheses. Why might ithe thae people's intcnsie motivation—the vitality, spontaneity, genuineness, and cu- riosty that is intrinsic to people's nature—could be undermined by ‘extrinsic rewaeds? DeCharms's idea that people strive for personal eausation—that they strive to fel like an origin oftheir own behavior—was a start, and the contributions of others like personality psychologist Henry ‘Murray helped to fill out the conceptual picture. Murray had sug- sested that people have needs of the mind as well as needs of the body. Pethaps there isan innate or intrinsic need to feel a sense of personal autonomy or selbdetermination—to feel a sense of what