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# PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION & GAS LAWS

Colin Hewetson 10/6/96

1) WHAT IS REFRIGERATION In order to understand the principles of Refrigeration it is essential to grasp the concept of matter, forces, energy, volume-temperature- pressure relationships. Refrigeration can be defined as the mechanical or electrical means of transferring heat (energy) from one or more sources or forms at T1 to one or more sinks or forms at T2. 2)WHAT IS THERMODYNAMICS Defined and literally translated from Greek ‘ Thermodynamica’ means the movement of heat. 3)WHAT IS HEAT Defined as a form of energy, in transition due to a difference in temperature. Therefore, if heat is a form of energy it can be converted into other forms of energy and vice versa. Thermodynamically heat energy is a measure of matters molecular velocity or motion. Heat energy can modify the physical state or shape of all matter i.e. solid to liquid / liquid to solid / liquid to vapour / vapour to liquid / solid to vapour. Heat energy can be transferred only form matter at a higher temperature to matter at a lo1wer temperature by convection/ conduction / Radiation. 4)WHAT IS ENERGY Defined as the capacity to do work or cause motion (derived from Greek word meaning containing work) all matter possesses two kinds of energy: KINETIC ENERGY - The energy matter possesses as a result of its molecular motion or velocity and is a function of the matters molecular mass and velocity. POTENTIAL ENERGY – Defined as the sum of the molecular energy matter possesses as a result of its position due to work done on it and is therefore the ability to do work. TOTAL ENERGY – The sum of the above and is the enthalpy of the bodies system, or total heat. ENTROPY - Although energy or any form of work can be converted into heat, the reverse is not true. In any energy conversion such as electric energy into light or heat energy, some of the energy is wasted from the system into the environment. The capacity of any system to perform work is free energy and the portion unavoidably lost is reflected in the measurement of Entropy. 5) WHAT IS MATTER – Matter or any kind of material or substance that occupies space and has mass. All matter comprises: ATOMS – Subatomic particles called protons – neutrons – electrons the number of each determine what atom it is, approximately 103 different atoms exist in the universe. MOLECULES – Small particles made up of two or more atoms. The number of atoms determine what kind of molecule it is, i.e. water H2O contains two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. ELEMENTS – Substance consisting of only one kind of atom, since there are about 103 atoms there are about 103 elements i.e. oxygen / hydrogen / lead / iron.

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If no change of state takes place the addition / subtraction of heat energy merely raises or lowers the bodies temperature and heat content. c) NUCLEAR – The force which keeps the nucleus together (neutrons and protons ) by attraction. freezing / boiling point for example are different from the elements making up the compound. air is a mixture of oxygen / carbon dioxide / nitrogen and is different from a compound or element because it is not made up of only one kind of molecule or atom. MIXTURES – Made up of two or more elements or compounds i. FORCES – There are 4 known forces in the universe which control the state and shape of all bodies and matter in it. Electric charges are positive and negative in nature and will attract of repel each other depending on whether they are like of unlike charges.e. weaker than nuclear forces. Under normal circumstances objects we normally live with are electrically neutral or uncharged. a) GRAVITY – The force between 2 bodies or particles. 2 . electrons and neutrons from coalescing or forming neutrons. SOLUTIONS – A mixture formed by dissolving a substance in a liquid. encircled by negatively charged electrons generally as number of protons and neutrons are equal in number all matter is electrically neutral. The greater the distance the weaker the force (inverse square law). The unit of positive electric charge is the proton and for negative charge the electron. The greater the mass the greater the force. So to change matters shape or state you have to control its forces. The shape or state of matter is dependant on temperature and pressure. It prevents protons. All matter consists of molecules and atoms. At these points any (heat) energy added or subtracted merely increases or decreases the molecules atomic forces (gravitational / nuclear / electromagnetic ) and no increase in temperature arises. b) ELECTROMAGNETIC – the force generated from the presence of an electric charge on a body or particle. d) WEAK INTERACTION – A force not much understood but known to be greater than gravitational forces. When molecular velocity is reduced to a given point or increased to given point matter will change shape or state i. forma solid to a liquid pr a liquid to a gas these points or change are known as fusion and vaporization points. 8)PRESSURE / VOLUME / TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE – Indicates how hot or cold a body is and can be defined as a measure of the net angular velocity of the bodies molecules. All atoms contain equal numbers of protons and electrons. The nuclear force is the strongest of the 4 known forces. The electro magnetic force exists between the nucleus and its surrounding electrons. The physical properties of a compound i. Force of gravity is affected by 2 factors mass distance. All atoms consists of a nucleus comprising positively charged protons plus neutrally charged neutrons.e. Water is a compound (H2O).6) MIXTURES & COMPOUNDS COMPOUNDS – Substance made up of two or more elements and can be divided into their separate elements. 7)INTERELATION OF MATTER / FORCES / ENERGY / HEAT / PRESSURE / TEMPERATURE / VOLUME MATTER – Universally all matter exists in 3 basic forms – Solid Liquid – Vapour.e.

) has a mol of it (28. the volume of the molecule 3 . since R can be found in tables if any 3 of the other 4 properties are known the fourth property can be determined. Unlike liquids. Pressure indicates the force exerted on a solid / liquid / gas per unit area. coming to 1. air. each molecule of gas in the air has 675 times its own volume to rattle around in.ABSOLUTE: ZERO – Temperature at which molecular motion is said to cease and heat content is near zero absolute temperature is –463°F or –273°C. likewise its density.4 liters. Each molecule of a gas can travel for a long distance before it encounters another molecule. When the pressure of a gas is kept constant the volume of the gas varies directly with its absolute temperature. The words vapor.4 liters Air in the gas phase at standard temperature and pressure ( 1 atmosphere of pressure and 0°C. Liquid air is over 675 times denser than the air at one atmosphere. VOLUME – As the temperature and or pressure is increased or reduced.If the gas volume is held constant as heat is added or subtracted (temperature raised or lowered) the absolute pressure will increase in direct proportion to the increase or decrease in temperature. The motion and vibration of the atoms pull the individual molecules apart from each other. The law governing a constant pressure process is Charles Law. A miasma is usually a bad-smelling or poisonous gas. fume.875 grams per milliliter. by raising the pressure the temperature rises and lowering the pressure the temperature falls. Air describes the common mixture of gases in the atmosphere. Again Charles Law governs a constant volume process written as an equation T1P2 = T2P1. The law governing a constant temperature process is Boyles Law as a equation written P1V1 = P2 V2. a mol of any gas occupies 22. the absolute pressure will vary inversely to the volume so if a gas is compressed at constant temperature its absolute temperature will increase proportionate to the volume decrease. Liquid air (with all of the molecules touching each other) has a density of 0. If a gas is heated and its pressure kept constant its volume will increase 1/492 per °F. A gas exerts a pressure on all sides of the container that holds it. the substance or compound will expand or contract. The particles of a gas have too much thermal energy to stay attached to each other. The intermolecular or interatomic forces that hold solids and liquids have been overcome by the motion of the molecules.4 liters at standard temperature and pressure (STP). gases have no definite shape. Control of pressure provides controls of temperature.96 g) in 22. that is. The words vapor and fume suggest that the gas came from a particular liquid. or miasma also describe a gas. As an estimate.If a gas volume is increased or decreased at constant temperature. We can think of a gas as having a 'point source of mass'. By Avogadro's law. The constant will be different for the various gases and the gas mass (weight). Gas can be compressed by pressures greater than the pressure the gas on its container.29 grams per liter. So the temperature / pressure / volume relationship and laws can be examined and combined into a general gas law written as a equation: P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 For any given mass of gas the product of the pressure (Psia) and volume divided by the absolute temperature will always be constant. Gases are mostly unoccupied space. and will occupy greater or lesser area or space. Unlike solids. PRESSURE – Another measurement of molecular velocity like temperature. 1 mol of any gas at STP = 22. The volume of the container is the volume of the gas in it. but they completely fill a container. Fundamental laws govern the relationship of temperature / pressure / volume. In the gaseous state matter is made of particles (atoms or molecules) that are not attached to each other. 9) WHAT IS A GAS? Gases appear to us as material of very low density that must be enclosed to keep together. gases have no definite volume. as an equation written T1V2 = T2V1. refrigerant constants can be found in tables and taking the gas weight into the equation and multiplying both sides by M (mass in lbs) the general gas law /equation can be simplifies to PMV = MRT but sine MV = V then PV = MRT therefore.

(A completely elastic collision means that the energy of the molecules before a collision equals the energy of the molecules after a collision.degree. There is pressure within the gas that is caused by the gas molecules in motion striking each other and anything else in the gas. pressure. fats. V.0821 liter .00545 Atmospheres T = 24°C + 273° = 297K V = 0.is negligible compared to the space it occupies. you almost have the problem completely done. or. and R is the Universal Gas Constant. R. THE IDEAL GAS LAW FORMULA A gas may be completely described by its makeup.279 liters? GIVEN: P = 0. The pressure that a gas exerts on its container comes from the molecules of gas hitting the inside of the container and bouncing off. n is the number of mols of gas. or DNA in the form of a gas. they bounce off each other. can be expressed in several ways. P V = (m/Fw) R T KNOW THIS THE COMBINED GAS LAW FORMULA 4 .) The formula becomes less accurate as the gas becomes very compressed and as the temperature decreases. depending upon the units of P. temperature. VARIATIONS ON THE IDEAL GAS LAW FORMULA The Ideal Gas Law Formula is a wonderful place to begin learning almost all of the formulas for gases. to put it another way." The formula is pretty accurate for all gases as we assume that the gas molecules are point masses and the collisions of the molecules are totally elastic. there is no attraction among the molecules. but the Ideal Gas Law is a good estimation of the way gases act. The Universal Gas Constant. Where P is the pressure. There are some materials that do not appear in the form of a gas because the amount of molecular motion necessary to pull a molecule away from its neighbors is enough to pull the molecule apart. T is the absolute temperature. We will consider only the Ideal Gas Law Formula here. There are some correction factors for both of these factors for each gas to convert it to a Real Gas Law Formula. For this reason you are not likely to see large biological molecules such as proteins.atmospheres per mol . When you solve for m. When a gas molecule hits another one. and volume.00545 Atmospheres at 24 degrees Celsius if the inside volume is 0. ideally in a completely elastic encounter. PV=nRT KNOW THIS This formula is the "Ideal Gas Law Formula.279 liters FIND: mass (m) of neon. and T. It is highly recommended that you know this value for R and the Ideal Gas Law Formula. You are not likely to get out of a chemistry class without a question like: What is the mass of neon in a neon light at 0. V is the volume. One common R is 0. m/Fw can now substitute for n and P V = (m/Fw) R T or Fw P V = m R T.

Boyle's Law is in the classic form of. The same amount of the same gas is given at two different sets of conditions. To get a feel for Boyle's Law. etc. R is always the same Universal Gas Constant. The Combined Law Formula is the one to use if you have any doubt about which of the Gas Laws to use. and volume of an ideal gas. so we can cancel the two temperatures in the Complete Gas Law Formula and get: P1 V1 = 1 P2 V2 or P1 V1 = P2 V2 the usual Boyle's Law P1 V1 = P2 V2 KNOW THIS The usual expression of Boyle's Law was lurking right there in the Combined Gas Law Formula. "Always Boyle's at the same temperature!") No change in temperature means T1 = T2. temperature. the volume increases as the pressure decreases.' We could label the pressure. The formulas that most books call the Gas Laws are all contained in the Combined Gas Law. temperature and volume symbols each with the subscripted number of the condition it represents. When you push your hands together the volume of the gas in the balloon decreases as the pressure increases. The balloon is so small that you can push all sides of it together between your hands without any of the balloon pouching out at any point. Since they are both equations. so P1 V1 = n R T1 and P2 V2 = n R T2. V1 is the volume at condition #1. If we are considering the same gas only at two different conditions. The gas laws apply to both conditions. visualize a small balloon between your hands. we could divide one equation by the other to get: P1 V1 = n1 R T1 or P1 V1 = T1 or P1 V1 P2 V2 = n2 R T2 P2 V2 = T2 P2 V2 = T1 T2 The last form can be a very useful one." We could predict that from the P and V being together in the numerator of the same side of the equation. P2 is the pressure at condition #2. This is the form of the Combined Gas Law Formula that Chemtutor finds easiest to remember. P1 is the pressure at condition #1. 'condition #1. "P is inversely proportional to V. CHARLES'S LAW 5 . As you can see. then n1 = n2. Let's call the first set of measurements.The Combined Gas Law Formula is the relationship of changing pressure. When you let up on the pressure. P 1 V 1 = T1 P 2 V 2 T2 KNOW THIS BOYLE'S LAW Boyle's Law is useful when we compare two conditions of the same gas with no change in temperature. (Remember. 'condition #2.' and the second set of measurements.

the relationship between the pressure and temperature of a gas. P1 V1 = T1 P2 V2 T2 And so we get the third law. The balloon expands in proportion to the Kelvin temperature. You can still see the P V = n R T in it if you look hard enough. Amonton in others. When the same balloon is take out of the car and put into a home freezer. so P1 = P2. P1 V1 = T1 P 2 V 2 T2 If you cancel out the two pressures.Again we start with the Combined Law to get Charles's Law. but now there is no change in the pressure volume. and not named in a large number of books. A balloon is partially filled at room temperature and placed in the sun inside a car on a hot day in summer. "Charles is under constant pressure." To get a better feeling for Charles's Law. Remember it by.) the pressure and absolute temperature of a gas are directly proportional. consider a child's toy balloon. The third law is the relationship of pressure and temperature with constant volume (V1 = V2. V 1 = T1 V2 T2 KNOW THIS You may have seen this written differently. you get a form of Charles's Law that I consider easiest to remember. It is sometimes amusing to read a book that does not name the third law and needs to refer to it. P1 = T1 P 2 T2 KNOW THIS 6 . the change in internal pressure of a balloon is negligible as the balloon increases in size. as in the following form: V1 = V2 T1 T2 These two expressions are mathematically exactly the same. At points between the beginning of filling of a balloon and the maximum stretching of a balloon. the volume of the balloon decreases. but the first one shows its origin in the Combined Law. THE THIRD LAW The third gas law from the Combined Gas Law has been named for Gay-Lussac in some books.

8 atmospheres and 265°C would you get from 533 grams of nitrogen? Given: m H2 = 533 g (Now hydrogen is the known material. would zero pressure extrapolate out to absolute zero? Remember what you are measuring. For gases not at STP. and volume to know the amount of material given. you will be able to substitute P V = n R T for the given side and plug it directly into the mols place by solving the equation for 'n'. What if either the given material or the material you are asked to find is a gas? In stoichiometry you need to know the amount of one material. If you are given a gas not at STP. You will need to solve P V = n R T for the dimension you need to find and attach it to the end of the sequence using the roadmap to find 'n' for the gas. consider an automobile tire. There is some expansion of the air in the tire. If you add atmospheric pressure to your tire gauge. What mass of ammonia would you get from enough nitrogen with 689 liters of hydrogen gas at 350°C and 4587 mmHg? Given: 689 l H2 = V T = 350°C + 273° = 623K P = 4587 mmHg (change to Atm) Notice we have all three of the bits of data to know the amount of hydrogen. What volume of ammonia at 7. it alters its shape and becomes hot. you would certainly come closer to extrapolating to absolute zero. The pressure of a car tire is actually the air pressure above atmospheric pressure. or temperature of a gas not at STP. ( PV RT given )( mols NH3 mols H2 mol ratio )( Fw NH3 mols NH3 Fw find )= ammonia mass mass find Things are a bit different when you need to find the volume. P1 = P2 T1 T2 To get a feel for the third Law. temperature. it can be arranged so that it appears in the same form you see in most books. When cool. With a tire gauge measure the pressure of the tire before and immediately after a long trip.Similarly to Charles's Law. GAS STOICHIOMETRY MATH Stoichiometry is the calculation of an unknown material in a chemical reaction from the information given about another of the materials in the same chemical reaction. Here is a sample problem using a gas not at STP as the given. As the tire turns on the pavement. you must know the pressure.) Find: Volume of ammonia at P = 7. as seen by the tire riding slightly higher.8 Atm and T = 265°C + 273° = 538K The outline plan is now: (mass given) (Fw given) mols NH3 mols H2 mol ratio (mols given) (mol ratio) (gas laws) ( mass of H2 1 given )( mols H2 Fw of H2 Fw given )( )= mols of ammonia mols find 7 . Let's take another problem based on the same chemical equation to explore how to set up finding a gas not at STP. the tire has a lower pressure. If you were to plot the temperature versus pressure of a car tire. but we can ignore that small effect. Find: Mass (m) of NH3 3 H2 + N2 2 NH3 The outline plan of direction from the stoichiometry roadmap is: (gas laws) (mols given) (mol ratio) (formula weight find) (mass find) The ideal gas law ( P v = n R T ) must be solved for 'n' so it can be used as the 'given' of the outline. pressure.

6.6 liter tire at 23°C and 3. whatever you choose. V2 = 20. You can use the Combined Gas Law Formula for any of these problems. One mole of any gas takes up a volume of 22. A 20.8 liters at 235°C. Know the units and dimensions of pressure.4 liters at standard temperature and pressure (STP). The tire is now 20. V1 = 20. The gas laws require an absolute temperature. or we can tack ( RT/P ) onto the end of the stoichiometry. but not the pressure. we have: P1 V1 = n1 R T1 P2 V2 = n2 R T2 The R's are the same. What is the pressure in the hot tire? You must group the V = 20.21 Atmospheres. and you need to find P2. Know the number and units of 'R' to use in the gas equations.6 liters. Solve for the unknown. V = n R T/P and insert the numbers with 'n' coming from the stoichiometry. and T1 = 296 K The second condition has a missing component. 4. and the P's can be cancelled. and T = 296 K as one condition. insert the given quantities. Carefully label the dimension and condition of each variable. P1 = P2 = 1 atmosphere.Now the result of the stoichiometry is the number of mols of ammonia. but you must carefully cancel any dimensions that are the same in both conditions. The first part of this section introduced you to Avogadro's Law. At standard pressure. 5. Know how to convert any temperature measurement you are given to Kelvin. AVOGADRO'S LAW There is even more we can do with good old P V = n R T. Each of these measurements must have the same subscript. Remember to convert all the units to the units of the 'R' you use to cancel the units. volume and temperature and how to convert them to what you want. T1 = T2 = 273K.6 liters. P1 = 3. When all the canceling has been done. The dimensions of the same condition must be labeled with the same subscript.8 Liters. You are given the volume and temperature. usually Kelvin. If we go back to the comparison of two formulas of the Ideal Gas Law. For instance. and cancel the units to make sure your answer will come out right. 8 . At standard temperature. 2. We solve for the volume we want to find.21 Atmospheres. P = 3. ( mass of H2 1 given )( mols H2 Fw of H2 Fw given )( mols NH3 mols H2 mol ratio )( RT P gas law )= V of NH3 volume POINTERS ON GAS LAW MATH PROBLEMS 1.21 Atmospheres inside pressure is run on the Interstate for four hours. and the T's can be cancelled. 3. so they can be cancelled. in the formulas. T2 = 508 K. 'n' in the ideal gas formula.

This time there is no notable significance to the k.0821 L . P1 is the partial pressure of 'gas #1'. we could number and add the pressures and mols. Do the math. Pn is the pressure of the last gas. there is a constant. and this is where it comes from. k. + Pn GRAHAM'S LAW OF DIFFUSION (OR EFFUSION) Gases under no change of pressure that either diffuse in all directions from an original concentration or effuse through a small hole move into mixture at a rate that is inversely proportional to the square root of the 9 . If we were to have P1 of gas #1 due to n1 mols of it and P2 of another gas (#2) due to n2 mols of it.4 Liters.0821 Liter . so we will just say that P is proportional to n when the temperature and pressure are constant. In conditions when more than one gas is mixed. the A's (for Atmosphere) and the K's.4 liters KNOW THIS DALTON'S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURES Similarly to the way we derived V = k n for Avogadro's Law above when the pressure is constant. those two gases in the same volume (They must be at the same temperature. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures says that. we can derive P = k n for conditions when the volume does not change. k is 22.K) (237 K) / (1 A) Cancel the mols. the pressure is one atmosphere and the temperature is 273K. V = k n. P V = n R T and V = n R T/P V = (1 mol) (0.) can be added together. n1 + n2 = nT and P1 + P2 = PT This has nothing to do with whether gas #1 is the same as gas #2.V1 = n1 V2 n2 If the volume is proportional to the number of mols of a gas..degree. V = 22. whatever number (n) it is.. 1 mol of any gas at STP = 22.A/ mol . PT is the total pressure and nT is the total number of mols. to express the proportionality of V and n.4 Liters We have seen this number before in Avogadro's Law.atmospheres per mol . that we can use in the formula.. The Universal Gas Constant is still 0..4 Liters/mol. PT = P1 + P2 + . When n is one mol and V is 22. What is that proportionality constant? At standard temperature and pressure." Where PT is the total pressure. Let's set n at one to find out what k is. " The sum of all the partial pressures of the gases in a volume are equal to the total pressure. P2 is the partial pressure of 'gas #2'.

What is its volume at 48°C? 7. Gases diffuse more quickly than liquids because the energy of motion is higher and the available path for unobstructed straight movement is much greater in gases. but someone leaves it out in the sun to warm to 65°C.8 atmospheres? 5.7 PSI at 24°C? (That pressure is the same as the 32 PSI difference you usually measure as the tire pressure 32 PSI + 14. (v1)2 = Fw2 (v2)2 Fw1 KNOW THIS Notice in the above formula that 'v1' is over 'v2' and that 'Fw2' is over 'Fw1'. E = 1/2 m v2 is the formula for energy of motion. Temperature is the way we feel the motion of the molecules. 257 mL of oxygen in a gas tube goes from 17°C to 42°C from being out in the sun. A SCUBA tank is filled with air at 16.71 liters at O°C and 3. What is the volume of the same helium at 32°F and 800 mmHg? 2.The mental picture of diffusion could be the drop of ink (with the same specific gravity as water) being carefully placed in the center of a glass of water. This is so that the inverse relationship can be expressed in the formula. The pressure in the tube is 39 #/in2. What is the tank pressure? 10 . An enormous (57. This is the easiest way to remember Graham's Law.7 Atm at 24°C.01 Atm has propane in it at 15°C when it is at 255 cubic meters. The ink will diffuse from the original point where it was deposited with no mixing of the glass of water. you might take the square root of both sides to get the other useful Graham's Law formula. Temperature is a type of energy. but it does not change as the temperature increases. What volume of air at standard pressure gets packed into an 11 ft3 SCUBA tank at the same temperature at 15. Air is 20% oxygen and 80% nitrogen. To what temperature must the balloon get in order to fill out to 60.formula weight of the gas particle.7 L and internal pressure of 46.) 6. A constant pressure tank of gas at 1. If you are solving for the effusion velocity of a particle. Helium takes up 5.95 atmospheres. This very motion of the molecules is the operating motion of the mixing action of diffusion. From the formula for energy of motion we can see that the mass of the particle (the formula weight) is inversely proportional to the square of the velocity of the particle. The mass of the molecule is the formula weight or molecular weight of the gas particle. There will be a small increase in pressure from 785 mmHg to 790 mmHg. What is the volume of the tube after it has heated? 3. The mixing of diffusion is due to the movement of the molecules. You will have to use a weighted average for the molar mass of air. but the major effect wanted is an increase in volume so the balloon can lift its cargo.7 PSI. What is the mass of air in an automobile tire of 19.500 cubic meters? 4. GAS LAW MATH PROBLEMS 1.400 cubic meter) expandable helium balloon at 22°C is heated up by a fire under it and the action of the sun on the dark plastic covering on top.

C3H7OH ..7E6 m3 of hydrogen in its gas bags at 1.9°C 4. What is the mass of 25 liters of fluorine gas at 2. Isopropyl alcohol. makes a good fuel for cars.4 L 2. What volume does 4 Kg of nitrogen gas take up at 27°C and 3 atm? 23. air pressure begin to become "light-headed" at about 0. the air pressure decreases one inch of mercury each thousand feet of altitude above sea level. 21. People used to 1 Atm. What is the volume of hydrogen? 20. What is the pressure in the (same sized) cylinder after the explosion? 19. 39. Five grams of octane (C8H18) and enough oxygen to burn it are in an automobile cylinder compressed to 20 atm at 28°C. How many milliliters of hydrogen at 0°C and 1400 mmHg are produced if 15g of magnesium reacts with sulfuric acid? 14. Which diffuses faster. As a rule of thumb. What is the mass of 15 liters of chlorine gas at STP? 12. 279 ml 3.8.10 Atm oxygen. The usual partial pressure of oxygen that people get at sea level is 0. 450°C? 15. The mixture explodes and heats the cylinder to 150°C. a fifth of the usual sea level air pressure.85 atm. it makes hydrogen gas and magnesium chloride. What is the added mass of the tank due to the gas? 16. The hydrogen is collected at 23°C and 735mmHg. or MSL.20 Atm.515g of magnesium is added to HCl. At what altitude should airplane cabins be pressurized? Up to about what altitude should you be able to use unpressurized pure oxygen? (Express your answer in feet above Mean Sea Level. What is the mass of 150 liters of propane gas (C3H8) at 37°C and 245 inHg? 21. the bad smell from a cat-pan due to ammonia or an expensive French perfume with an average molecular weight of 170 g/mol? "How much faster does the faster one diffuse? 10.) 9. What is the mass of neon in a 625 mL neon tube at 357 mmHg & 25°C? 11. that is. A nine liter tank has 150 atmospheres of bromine in it at 27°C. 174 ft 3 11 . What volume of carbon dioxide is produced at 1 Atm? 17. The dirigible Hindenberg had 3. What volume of oxygen at 735 mmHg and 23°C is needed to burn one kilogram of isopropyl alcohol? 22.1 atm and 7°C. What was the weight of the hydrogen in pounds? ANSWERS TO GAS LAW MATH PROBLEMS 1. How many liters of product at 950 mmHg and O°C is produced by the burning of three liters of acetylene (C2H2) at 5 atm and 20°C? 18. If 0. How many liters of ammonia at STP are produced when 10 g of hydrogen is combined with nitrogen? 13. A 250 Kg tank of liquid butane (C4H1O) burns to produce carbon dioxide at 120°C.

27.51 L 17. 7. 8.242 g 14. 45.000 ft. 532 ml 23.17 KL 6.5. 7.5 g 15.000 ft.4 Atm.80 E5 L 12. 209 KL 12 . 33. 2.9 g 8b.6 g 18. MSL 9. 284 cubic meters 7.16 times faster (Wouldn't you KNOW it?) 11.56 E5 L 20.7 L 16.0 Atm 8a. 22. 5. MSL 10. 19. 1. 15. 47. 0.12 Kg 13. 35.76 Kg 19. 74. 73.5 L 21. Ammonia diffuses 3.