National Academy of Sciences Committee on Naval Engineering in the 21st Century

Workshop for Examining the Science and Technology Enterprise in Naval Engineering Session One: Future Needs for S&T Output

Naval Shipbuilding Perspective Larry Dreher, DDG1000 Technical Director, Bath Iron Works/General Dynamics 13-14 January 2010

Larry Dreher
• Total 33 years of Naval Ship Operations, Repair, Construction, Engineering and Design
– 20 years naval service (12 Active, 8 Reserve) on ships, Engineering Duty (Design, Construction and Repair) – 20 years New Construction support, Engineering and Design at BIW
• Machinery and Auxiliaries Manager • DD-21 Ship IPT lead, Deputy Technical Director • DDX/DDG-1000 Technical Director

• Education
– BS RPI, Materials Engineering – MS ME, Ocean Engineer, MIT

• Other
– Past Program Chair, Secretary, ASNE NNE – PE Virginia, Maine – ASNE Brand Award

Bath Iron Works – Who We Are
• • Located in Bath, Maine Construction, Design, Engineering, and Life Cycle Support of advanced Surface Combatants Lead Ship Designer and Builder for DDG 51, DDG 1000, LCS 2, FFG 7 Over 5,000 personnel, ~1100 Engineers Designers Access to GD enterprise

BIW Homeport & Support Facilities Everett

Yokosuka, Japan San Diego
Adelaide, Australia

Wash, DC Norfolk Mayport

Pearl Harbor



• • •

Main Shipyard

Builder of Large and Small Surface Combatants for Over 125 Years

“How S&T drives the enterprise”
• BIW participates in S&T efforts
– BIW recognizes that early S&T participation
• Enables lower implementation costs of systems • BIW focus to develop fully compliant and cost-competitive proposals for subsequent construction award

– BIW historically responsive to Navy’s needs and acquisition approach

Industry led ship design 1980’s Navy in-house design

• National Defense act 1994 • 1996 Acquisition reform Act

Evolving S&T strategy for surface combatants is not clear today

Past BIW Support of R&D and Transition of Technology to Construction
• R&D – ONR • High Speed Sea Lift (HSSL), High Speed Connectors, High Capacity at-Sea Sustainment of Seabase (HICASS) – Missile Defense Agency studies – Other Studies • LCS ISP, CG(X), JHSV, Fast Response Cutter (FRC), Sea Basing, Maritime Pre-Positioning Force (Futures) Transition of Technology to Construction – BIW production personnel provide support and fab/construction of EDMs and prototypes. – Weapons Effects testing, Fire Suppression (AFSS), Structural Units, etc.

Flush Deck Nozzle Light Off

“How S&T drives the enterprise”
• S&T Environment from 1996~2003 has shaped BIW resource planning
– Section 845 approach rewarded industry investment
• Full Service Contractor (design, construction, and life cycle support) incentive to provide ship life-time support

– BIW DD-21 acquisition approach enabled long-term technical staffing plans
• Created structure to assess and pursue technologies
– – – – Built up In-house engineering staff Explored Non-traditional capabilities Established partnering (MOUs) with Navy organizations Linked with Production for assistance and assessment of EDMs

• Focused on Engineering employee development
– System Engineering process – CAIV and Total Ownership Costs (TOC)

“How S&T drives the enterprise” • BIW Engineering has maintained Core staffing skills and levels
– Unique skills developed in DD-21/DD(X) program shared across current Navy S&T tasks – Demonstrated capability through DDG-1000, LCS, DDG Modernization, CG(X), FSC studies, etc – Technical staff planned to transition construction and life cycle support

Future - Shipyards Minimize Total Ownership Costs through timely S&T involvement
• Transition the right ship technology into cost effective System Engineering solutions for:
– Acquisition Costs
• Insertion of technology into ship design process • Vendor and material costs
Verification Process Input Requirements Analysis
• Analyze Mission and Environments • Identify Functional Requirements • Define/Refine Performance and Design Constraint Requirements

System Analysis and Control
• Select Preferred Alternatives • Trade Studies • Effectiveness Analyses • Risk Management • CM and DM • Metrics: MOEs, TPMs, and Technical Reviews

Requirements Loop

Functional Analysis and Allocation
• Decomposition to Lower Level Functions • Allocate Performance to Lower Level Functions • Define/Refine Internal and External Functional I/Fs • Define/Refine/Integrate Functional Architecture

Design Loop Synthesis
• Transform Physical and Functional Architectures • Define Alternative Product Concepts • Define/Refine Internal and External Physical Interfaces • Define Alternative Product and Process Solutions

– Life Cycle Costs
• HSI and manning analysis • System design for RM&A


– Producibility
• Costs associated with installation and process

Transition of selected technology through Construction Phase


– Continuity through detail design and production planning – Direct production support through construction, test, and activation

Outlook for S&T shipyard staffing
• Recommendations
– Establish win-win environment for collaboration of industry-Navyacademia
• Review current skill drivers • Identify new and unique skills • Assess core technical disciplines for relevance

– More partnering in S&T activities to reduce costs, improve efficiencies between organizations

Academia 6.1 6.2

Industry 6.7

6.3 6.4 6.5 DoD RDT&E Budget Account

BIW ready to collaborate in S&T efforts to advance ship design and construction

• Backup
– Specific Skill Sets needed to effect transition of S&T initiatives on recent navy programs.

Skill Set demands
• Future S&T related Skill sets and capabilities needed current and future shipbuilding programs:
– Electrical Power Engineers: driven by new Navy requirements (IPS), high power electronics, and distributed high voltage – Controls and Instrumentation Engineers: Numbers of signals and interfaces have increased 10-fold since last combatant class, in support of reduced manning. – Software Engineers: Shipyards are procuring equipment with significant SW content. Focus on process and integration – Advanced Structural Analysis – Structural analysis is back to first principals (ABS) and less rule governed. Also more use of structural dynamic models

Skill Set demands
• Future Skill sets:
– System Integration – Naval Architecture, arrangements and ship design/build. Systems Engineering skills to assess life cycle, producibility, and other total ownership costs – HSI – knowledge of processes for the full range of human integration activities unique to ship operation, construction, task analysis, safety, and Human Factor skills required to integrate and assess combatant design; Damage Control and Crew Design – Environmental – Energy

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