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LABORATORY EXERCISE 2

DRYNESS FRACTION OF STEAM

OBJECTIVE:
To further gain familiarity with the main components and operation of a Diesel/Crude-Oil–
fired steam boiler.
To determine the dryness fraction of steam sampled from a pipeline.

THEORY:
A separating calorimeter uses mechanical means to separate the liquid from the vapour in wet
steam sample. The separated vapour is then passed through a water-cooled condenser, so that
it can be collected as a liquid.
Let mf = mass collected from separator
mg = mass collected from condenser
Then, apparent dryness fraction of steam sample:
xa = mass of vapour/mass of sample = mg/(mf + mg)
However, the separation process is imperfect, and some amount of liquid is included with mg.
If a throttling calorimeter is placed after the separator, the fall in pressure during the
throttling process carries the separated vapour over into the superheat region. This then
allows the enthalpy of the superheated vapour, h2, to be determined from steam tables, if the
pressure and temperature after throttling are measured.
Assuming constant enthalpy for throttling process, h2 = h1 = hf1 + xhfg1.
Hence, dryness fraction of vapour entering throttling calorimeter, xb = (h2 – hf1) / hfg1
Therefore, actual mass of separated vapour = xb(mg).
So then, actual dryness fraction of steam sample = xb(mg)/(mf + mg) = xb.xa

APPARATUS:

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Diagram

[Specifications]

BOILER Tubeless Steam Boiler (Vertical) Fire Tube Steam Boiler (Horizontal)
Manufacturer HURST STEAMBLOC
Model 0850823 Size 60
Serial V86–200–4 1673
Working Pressure 150 psig (~10.3 bar) 145 psig (~10 bar)
Fuel Diesel Diesel/Crude Oil
Equivalent 1035 lbs (~469.5 kg) from and @ 1500 lbs (~680.4 kg) from and @ 212oF
Evaporation 212oF (100oC) (100oC)

Combined Separating and Throttling Calorimeter (Norwood Instruments, England).


Thermometer
Large and small cylindrical collection vessels
Triple Beam Balance
Fortin Barometer

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PROCEDURE:

Students should observe –


1. Observe and sketch the arrangement of the boiler being used, showing the main
components and control accessories (A sketch of the fire-tube boiler may be obtained on
request). A technologist or technician will explain the firing sequence and supervise
the firing of the boiler.
2. Check the water level in the boiler; it should be within the operating range on the sight glass.
If necessary (i.e. usually in cold start-up), open the Air Vent Valve at the top of the boiler [to
ensure that air is expelled from the boiler].
3. Open the Treatment Chemical dosing line valve and the feed water line valve to the boiler.
4. The Boiler Feed-Water Pump will automatically start when the motor Isolator Switch is ON,
if the water level is low.
5. Open the lock-off valve on the Diesel Fuel supply line. Fire the boiler by turning on the
control switch on the boiler panel. Observe the start-up sequence. Allowtime for the boiler
to generate steam. On issuance of steam from the Air Vent Valve, allow time for all air to
be vented by slowly closing the Valve so preventing the water level from rising in the Sight
Glass.
6. Allowthe Boiler to pressurize.

Students should do –
7. Determined the masses of the small and large containers by weighing.
8. When the boiler has run-up to pressure open valves A (known as the Boiler Crown Valve)
and E (located at the top of the steam lagging apparatus) just wide enough to allow a slow
“bleed” of steam through the pipeline. This will heat the pipeline and evaporate any
condensate that is present.

Now, prepare the DRYNESS FRACTION APPARATUS as follows:


Warm up & Preparation:
a) Ensure that valve D is closed
b) Open valve C … very slowly!
c) “Crack-open” valve F (on the upper lagged leg on the Lagging Apparatus) to the
MARKED POSITION so permitting a slight “bleed” of steam (in order to
minimize condensation on the steam line). When adequately heated — above 90oC
on Throttled Steam Thermometer, T2… then
d) Close valve C.
e) Being careful to use gloves, place large container at the outlet of valve D and slowly
open the valve to drain all liquid from the mechanical separator, then re-close valve
D and discard the liquid collected. Without wasting any time
Data collection:
9. Turn on the cooling water flow to the condenser. Only a moderate flow rate should be
needed (Needle Valve opened about 1½ turns). Ensure that valve D is closed. Position the
large container below the condenser to collect the condensate. Then slowly re-open fully,
valve C to allowthe steam to flowthrough the apparatus.
10. When it is observed that the steam is superheated, readings can be taken. Record steam-line
pressure, water manometer, and thermometer readings [If there is too much water in the

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manometer, the excess can be jettisoned by momentarily blocking the condenser outlet-tube
by pinching (1” to 1½” on the left-hand-side pressured limb is adequate)].
11. When an adequate volume of water (say, 1.5 litres [container is marked on the inside]) has
collected in the large container, close valve C. After an interval sufficient to allow all
condensate to drain from the condenser, again using gloves place the small container at the
outlet of valve D and gradually slowly, open valve D so as to collect all the water from
the mechanical separator and finally re-close valve D. [Note: Should the superheat
temperature be lost while the condensate is being collected, it will be NECESSARY
to close valve C and drain the Separating Calorimeter as described above, in order to
restore operation at superheated condition]. Now, weigh the small and large containers
with their contents. If time allows, another set of readings can be taken (by another
group).

To take the atmospheric pressure -

12. In order to perform calculations, the atmospheric pressure must be taken:


13. Rotate the cistern adjusting screwat the base of the Fortin barometer until the surface of the
mercury in the cistern just touches the tip of the tapered zero pointer.
14. Position the vernier scale such that the lower edge of the scale is level with the top of the
mercury meniscus with two triangular spaces visible on each side of the mercury column and
record its height. Record also the temperature in barometer closet and the corresponding
correction multiplier from the table in the closet.

READINGS:
Record results as follows:

Instrument GROUP 1 GROUP 2


PARAMETER SI UNITS
UNITS Readings Readings
Mass (Small Empty kg
Container) With Contents kg
Mass (Large Empty kg
Container) With Contents kg
Line Steam Pressure, P1 MN/m2 (psig) Pa or Bar
o
Line Steam Temperature, T1 C K
Throttled Steam Pressure, P2 Inch (w.g.) Pa or Bar
o
Throttled Steam Temperature, T2 C K
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
Mercury Column Height, h Mm m
o
Fortin Barometer Temperature C K
Height Correction Factor Null Null

Assume local value of g at UTech = 9.784 m/s2.

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TREATMENT OF RESULTS:

1. Produce a labelled sketch showing the main features of the boiler.


2. Describe the method of firing the boiler sequence of operations, safety provisions, etc.
3. Calculate the dryness fraction of the steam sample taken from the pipeline. Comment on
the value.
4. What are some of the sources of error in this experiment?
5. Is the sample passed to the calorimeter truly representative of the steam in the pipeline?