You are on page 1of 19

THE UNIVERSITY OF DODOMA

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

DERPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

DEGREE PROGRAMME: M.A. (EDUCATION)

COURSE: SE 603 PSYCHOLOGY OF HILD DEVELOPMENT

ASSIGNMENT: PROJECT WORK

1) NDAKIDEMI, Beatrice Reg: HD/ UDOM / 475 /T.2009

2) MACHIBULA, Mbobo Reg: HD/ UDOM/ 452/T.2009

3) YOHANA, Emmanuel Reg: HD/ UDOM/ 488/ T.2009

SUBMISSION DATE: 19 MAY, 2010

COURSE LECTURER : DR. S. H. KISANGA.

TITLE OF THE PROJECT: The Causes and Effects of Child Street labor to

Education in Dodoma Municipality


1. INTRODUCTION

According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), approximately 218 million of the world’s

children 5–17 years of age are in the workforce, and most of them are laboring in hazardous

occupations (Hagemann et al., 2006). Child labor: refers to children working in contravention of

ILO standards contained in Conventions 138 and 182 (Convention C-138, 1973). International

standards dictate that children less than 15 years of age are not allowed to work and that those less

than 18 years of age are not allowed to work in dangerous occupations (Convention C-138, 1973).

Unfortunately, current cultural and socio-economic circumstances in many areas of the world have

made this standard the ideal, rather than the reality. Poverty, parental unemployment, beliefs about

the advantages of child work, lack of schools, socio-economic inequalities, wars and conflicts, and

the absence of policies prohibiting child labor have all contributed to child employment (Hagemann

et al., 2006). There are street children working in most of the world’s cities, the majority of them are

working in the developing world (Frone, 1998). Street children are children under the age of

eighteen years who spend most of their life on the streets (Lugalla, 1995).These children, like most

street laborers, do not benefit from even the most basic labor regulations and tolerate low wages,

long hours, night labor, no health care coverage, and a variety of occupational risks (Pink et al.,

2002).

Many regions in Tanzania particularly in Dodoma region are full of child laborers, they can be seen

at the corners, bus stops, and parking lots while others shining shoes, selling sundry articles of

uncertain origin while others would be roaming around or gathered in small groups waiting for

something to do (Kopoka,2000). Due to higher incidence of child street labour in this geographic

area and its potential dangers, it is important to study the nature and its effect to education among

the Dodoma street children. This study will focus on the causes and effect of child labour, where an

intervention programmes will be proposed, such intervention will targets teachers, parents, NGOs,
religious group, educational manageous,and governments leaders by providing education on the

causes and effect of child labour to education.

1.1 Purpose of the Study

The project aims at exploring the causes and effect of child street labour to education in Dodoma

Municipality.

1.2 Objective of the Project.

The project has got two major specific objectives

 To assess on the causes and effects of child street labour to education in Dodoma municipal

 To propose an intervention program on the causes and effects of child street labor.

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

During the project we have discovered the following causes of child labor basing on various

scholars: Bhalotra (2003) argued that, children who live and work on the streets often come from

slums and squatter settlements, where poverty and precarious family situations are common, where

schools are overcrowded and poor, and where safe places to play simply do not exist. It is poverty

that is breaking up homes and families, it is poverty that makes grown ups turn children into sources

of income or into articles for sale. It is poverty, particularly in rural areas that is making young

children from their homes and it is poverty that is turning society into a vicious and uncaring society.

Most children work because their families are poor and their labor is necessary for their survival.

Children in developing countries start work so young because they and their families need the extra

income. Indeed, many ends up working unpaid for their employers in exchange for their board and

lodging .Yet other children come from middle class or well to do families who run away from their

homes. Poverty is often given as the key reason for children’s work, and there is much evidence to

suggest that many children work for their own or their family’s survival. When families are faced

with monetary hardships, they are often forced to send their children to work, sometimes in
extremely hazardous conditions, merely to attain basic subsistence (Varghese, 1998). Poverty is

also forcing an increasing number of child labor on the streets. In some instance it is parents or

guardians who send the children to work on the streets to support their families and others are forced

on the streets to find food and shelter which is not forthcoming from their families (Siddiq &

patrinos, 2000).

Children who work on streets face untold hardship and danger on the streets. The lack of food, clean

water and adequate health care. Living and 'working' on the streets exacts a terrible toll on child

labor. They are often playing to every physical and moral danger and as they grow older they often

become a danger to others. After such precarious childhoods, most of them are condemned to spend

their lives excluded from mainstream society (Andvig et al., 2001).

The other cause of child labor in Dodoma is improper policy that does not address the problem at the

grassroots level. The government in Dodoma region and the nation at large have no strong measures

to make sure that no child is left on the street. The government and the community in general need

to put in place viable policies or strategies that will ensure that the plight of child labor is urgently

addressed in Tanzania and Dodoma in particular (Kopoka, 2000).

Apart from that child labor is caused by the changes in economic systems that call for privatization

or market economy. The world and Dodoma in particular are witnessing rapid and wide ranging

socio economic and political changes. There is rapid urbanization, run away population growth and

increasing disparities in wealth. The introduction of structural adjustment programmes and

globalization are changing the very fabric of Dodoma society. One of the negative consequences of

the changes is the emergence of large numbers of children on the streets. In Tanzania and Dodoma in

particular they are known as 'watoto wa mitaani', in Kenya they are known as 'chokorra' and in The

Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) they are called ominous or 'sparrows'. By whatever name

they are called, what stands out is the sad fact that every where, children living and working on the
street are ignored, scorned, mistreated and misunderstood by society and by governments (Bhalotra,

2003).

Furthermore, there are those who argue that, the emergence of child labor is bound up with the

totality of urban problems - that the phenomenon is exclusively urban: there is no "rural child labor”.

So the problem extends beyond urbanization (Sakurai, 2006). Some of the children have taken

refuge in the city from natural or man-made disasters, others are the offspring of prostitutes,

Handicapped street children, rejected by their families, also constitute a distinct and relatively large

category. In addition to the "pull" of the excitement and glamour of living in great cities and the

hope of raising one's standard of living, there are also "push" factors that increase the migratory flow

from the rural areas (Beegle et al., 2007). In many rural areas, natural increase has pushed the

population above the carrying capacity of the land.

In parts of Rwanda, for example, where the average number of children per family is eight, the

resulting subdivision of the land has made agriculture a kin to gardening (Sengupta & Yadav, 2009).

Families are therefore forced to move to urban areas in search of employment and a way out of the

poverty trap (Ennew, 2003). Once in the cities, many families break up with children being forced

into the streets. Clearly, the increasing numbers of child labor also indicate a constellation of other

trends, such as cut-backs in government social and educational budgets, as well as the breakdown of

traditional family and community structures, which leaves children unprotected(Roggero et al 2007).

This had a negative implication for poor parents and the unemployed communities. It means that

they had to share the cost with government of providing education for their children. Many families

found it difficult to provide their children with school fees, uniforms, books and other educational

requirements. Thus, forcing many children to drop out from schools. Most of dropouts looked for

employment as an alternative to supplement their household income (ILO, 2006).


On the other hand, the demand for cheap labor by most employers is another reason for children to

be involved in child labor in Dodoma (Beegle et al, 2007). They further continue to argue that

employers in Dodoma prefer children below the age of 15 because they are cheaper and less

demanding compared to adult employees. Children are often employed and exploited because,

compared to adults, they are more vulnerable, cheaper to hire and are less likely to demand higher

wages or better working conditions. Some employers falsely argue that children are particularly

suited to certain types of work because of their small size and "nimble fingers". Thus, we can say

that the prevalence of child labor in Dodoma is a result of “push-pullover” effect (Roggero et al.,

2007).

Lastly, AIDS is another contributing factor which causes child labor in Dodoma. By killing so many

breadwinners, it has driven more families deeper into poverty. Discrimination of the victims on

grounds including gender, race or religion also plays its part in why some children work ( Andvig et

al., 2001).

AS it has been pointed earlier on the causes of child labor it is obvious that such causes may lead to

various effects as suggested by different scholars:

UNICEF (2004) contended that, high drop out rate from school nearly 50% of primary schools

students drop out before they complete grade five, and then gravitate towards work, swelling the

number of child laborers. International Research on Working Children (2005) showed that children

of the street were the least educated followed with those who slept at home and those who slept both

in the street and at home.

Also self esteem can be damaged; the negative psycho-social effects of works include the

physiological effects of verbal, physical or sexual abuse by employers and feeling of low esteem as

the results of doing low status work. This can be associated with physical injuries and abuse from

the employers (Save the children, 2003). This also have negative impacts for the child in the

learning system.
Unplanned pregnancy is said to be the out come of child street labor, since this expose the girls to

easily attracted environments for sex, they are easily becoming waitress or barmaids. All these

culminate to the unplanned pregnancies for the teenagers girls. Uganda Child Rights NGO Network

(2004) indicated that, girls who go to look for jobs as waitress and barmaids are some times asked

for sex as part of the interviews. They are required by their bosses to put on revealing miniskirts to

entices customers, so they accommodate un welcome touches from them some thing which lead

them to get into sexual matters which results into unplanned pregnancies. This results into high drop

out rate to school in which the Education For All policy can not be adhered.

HIV/AIDS is another impact of child labor in which many children are likely to be vulnerable to

HIV/ AIDS. UNICEF (2004) found out that, both street girls and street boys were engaged in

commercial sex with adults’ male, exchange of sex for security, comfort sex based on mutual

consent, sex with females’ sex workers, and having their “wives” sell sex as an income- generating

activity for the “couple”

Further more, Early marriages is the results of child labor in which when the girls are engaged in

street child labor they are easily robed by the adults into sexual matters where they can married in

the earliest periods. UCRNN (2004) pointed out that, poverty was also cited as causes which lead to

early marriages. The parents force their daughters to get married so that they receive the bride price

so as to solve some of the financial difficulties. Because of poverty some parents can not afford to

keep their children in school beyond primary level and hence they force them to look for labor

where they are easily engaged in sexuality and early marriage is the out come (IREWOC 2005).

Nevertheless, theft is another impact for child labor, many children who are in street as the labor

they some time get into bad moral of conducts like thefts and stealing. UNICEF (2004) portrayed

that, street child labor have been associated with theft or criminals in the street. Their normal values

and behavior are seen as different from that of other children who are not street children.
Finally, Save the Children (2003) has shown that, work can also helps girls and boys achieves their

rights to survival and development to support their families, for example, income from work can be

used to pay for food and health care. Work can enhance feelings of self esteem through the

knowledge that children are contributing to house holds. Also contemplated clearly that, work can

help children to realize their rights to education by paying for schools fees or providing children

with skills and capabilities while some children manage successfully to combine work with

education.

3.0 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

The study has used qualitative research method depending on the data which were needed by the

researchers.

3.1 Study area(s).

According to Develeux and Haddlinot (1992) Researcher needs to select a specific area for the

study, since only specific locations are ideal and suitable to test particular theories.The study was

carried out in Dodoma region, in the Dodoma municipal where there is large number of child streets

labour in different street of the municipal.

3.2 Population

(Meterns 1997) defines population as the target group to be studied in a particular place while a

sample is a part of the population. Population there fore is the total collection of elements about

which one wishes to get information. This has used 10 respondents where boys were 6 and girls

were 4.

3.3 Sampling techniques.

Krishnaswami (2002) defines sampling techniques as the process of drawing a sample from a large

population. Therefore it is the process of obtaining the number of elements about which one would

wish to make inferences. In this research study purposive sampling has been used.

3.3.1Purpose sampling techniques.


Purposive sampling procedure was used in which only those information rich respondents were

interviewed and also were observed by the researcher. A purposive sample is a rich case sample

where a researcher chooses a few individuals who he/she considers to be knowledgeable about the

issues under study. (Meterns 1997) if used properly, purposive sampling can be powerful tools in

research to obtain an in-depth knowledge of the problems

3.4 Data collection techniques.

This study has involved primary and secondary data collections methods.

3.4.1 Primary data

Primary data are first –hand information collected through methods such as observation,

interviewing, mailing, and questionnaire (Krishnaswami, 2002). The researchers in this study have

used interviews method in data collection procedure where semi-structured interviews was used in

which the respondents were asked to answer the questions from the questionnaire. Mugenda and

Mugenda (1999) pointed out that, semi-structured interviews involves the uses of open ended

questions and closed ended questions. In this study the respondents were asked to answer the

questions.

3.4. 2 Secondary data

Kothari (2004) asserted that, secondary data are those data which have already been collected by

some one else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. i.e. journal,

magazines, books, publics reports and statistics, historical documents etc. in this project we have

used journals, books, and articles for our study project.

3.5 Ethical issues

Confidentiality in this project was observed and unauthorized person had not had access to the data

collected. Data were only accessed by the researcher and respondents participated in the project

voluntarily and no one was forced to participate. (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999) pointed out that,
respondents should be protected by keeping the information’s given confidential, especially if

confidentiality has been promised

4.0 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS

The findings collected through this project were analyses through tables and discussed.

Table 1: Represents the sample of population of child street labor in Dodoma municipal in terms of

age, gender and occupation. The finding shows that most of the child street labor that were

interviewed and observed were of 9-11 years, and most of them were male. The preferred activities

by the street child was selling of burns which indicate (50%) and only few percentage indicate the

collection of bottles (10%) while female of age between 13 and 15 were mostly interested in

collections of charcoal and bones on the dumping hole. As it is shown in appendix 1

Table two

Table 2 in appendix 2 represents the causes of child street labor. It was found that in our interview

and observation most of the children who are engaged in child street laborers were looking to get

money for food, cloth and paying school fees this is almost (60%) of the interviewees. Two children

narrated that, “were collecting charcoal so as to sell into the hotel and bones to the poultry keepers,

so as to get money for food, cloth, and school fees”

20% indicate that, they are engaged in child street labor because of poverty with no any means or

alternative to life. 10% of the respondents who were interviewed reveled that they are engaged in

child street labor because of failure to schooling and finally it was found that children are doing

these work because of urbanization specifically due to rural-urban migration. One child boy revealed

that, “I’ m selling burns because, once I had been selected to secondary school my parents had no

money to assist me, then I decided to come in town to look for job”

Table three

Table 3 in appendix 3represent the effect of child street labor to education.


In this table it was observed that, the highest percentage of child street labor effect to education is

truancy to school, this consist 40% of those who were interviewed. 20% have complained from

injuries e.g. cutting with bottles. Finally 10% of child street labor said that they are earning money

from their labor in order to get money for their basic needs. Four children lamented that, were not

going to school because most of the time were spending on collecting charcoal and bones.

5.0 INTERVENTIONS.

In this intervention we shall cooperate with various educational stake holders such as parents,

teachers, education managers, and ministry officials Ministry of Education and Vocational Training

and Ministry of Women, Genders and Children Affairs. Also, we shall cooperate with various NGOs

like Haki Elimu, Mkombozi and Fema Tanzania. The intervention will involve the victims (street

children) in Dodoma town where a sample will be selected and involved.

Proposed intervention.

Access to education,

Here, we will provide education to those participants in forms of seminars, workshop and drama.

Seminars will be conducted to enable each stake holder such as teachers at school, parents at home

and NGOs play their significant role to stop child labor. The education also will concentrate in

minimizing biases between girls and boys in accessing education. International trade unions

confederation (2008) contended that, the government should provide free, public and compulsory

education to encourage parents to send children to school and reduce the drop out rate. Removing

barriers to girls education and in some places barriers to boys education, addressing the under

representation of girls in education, changing traditional thinking that may prevent girls from

attending school, making the ambience of schools more welcoming to girls and provide women

teachers who can act as the role model.

Another intervention measure to address child labor is through building various children centers.

These will be opened in Dodoma town where counseling to the victims will be conducted.
Supported by the governments and other NGOs, expert will be hired to conduct counseling to the

victims. Centers will resemble the Dogodogo center, and Kiwohege center in Dar es Salaam.

Teachers will be encouraged to form counseling team to address truancy and drop out rate.

Kopoka (2000) cemented that, children living on the street without home or families pose a greatest

challenges in terms of rehabilitation. Preventives measures are there fore vital to protect children

from the risk of full expose to life on the street.

Laws and act implementation.

It is suggested that the unions’ constitutions should be amended to guarantee children rights

(Makaramba, 1999). There is no doughty that, there is an agent need for the government to reviews

the existing law and enact a specific child act to ensure the protection of child rights in Dodoma and

Tanzania in general (Kopoka, 2000). In this aspect we will advice the government to act accordingly

to implements the laws that protect children rights in order to make sure that laws do not remain into

written words. Moreover, education center that we are going to open will provide education from

pre-primary to secondary education. Fund raising from various donors will be done to make sure

that the centers are run smoothly and accordingly. Andvig et al (2007) pointed out that, education is

also a means of helping children on the street. Most of the street children are illiterate with no basic

skills to help them get proper jobs. Education may help break the vicious circle of marginalization

and help potential street children towards a better life.

Welfare

The government, donors, NGOs and religions institutions will be advised to provide basic needs

such as foods, clothes, shelter and health facilitates to children both at schools and at the centers.

This will minimize truancy and drop out rate which are the causes of street children. Provision of

welfare to the street children, can not be motivated to educate themselves while they remain hungry,

homeless and in poor health. So education must be accompanied by adequate welfare for the

children (Kopoka, 2000). There will be deliberate efforts to advise the government to strengthen the
basic economy of the family. This includes loans and subsides to peasants so that they can maximize

the family income. A well established family income will help the parents to be able to sustain their

children needs such as school fees and other charges. Also, parents will be educated and encouraged

to use family planning methods so that to have fewer children which can be handled (Siddiq, 1988).

Strengthening Family Institutions

This is another way to lessen the incidence of children roaming on the street. It is to strengthen the

institutions of the family, as a basic component of the society. The family has hardly been given

adequate recognition by governments. Although many governments have developed policies aimed

at assisting the elderly, the unemployed or single working women, few have focused specifically on

strengthening the cohesion of the family as the component of development strategies. Families and

guardians must take responsibilities for their children by providing the conducive environment free

of neglect, violence and abuse. The shameful exploitation of children by parents and their families

can only lead to more children on our streets. Collaboration between parents, schools, the

community and government will lead to viable solutions to the problems of street children (ILO,

2006)

Supervision of NGOs

Furthermore, we will advise the government to cross check all the NGOs and make sure that they

use the funds for children as directed by the donors. This will help to make sure that there is value

for money on the services provided to the victims. For instance, many NGOs solicit and receive

money to help street children or disabled children but end up using most of the money for

administration services. UNICEF (2004) asserted that, there is there fore, a need to clearly define the

role of NGOs in addressing the problem of street children and welfare of children in general. A code

of conduct based on ethical consideration for children is necessary if NGOs are to assist in the

advancement of children welfare.

Campaign
Nevertheless, special campaigns will be done to all stake holders who are involved in matters

pertaining with children. Such stake holders include parents, teachers and religions leaders. This will

be purposely done to raise the voices of the children and make sure that their concerns are heard and

fulfilled. There will be the use of posters, and announcement on TV and Radio. There is little likely

hood of findings a lasting solution to the problem of street children without involving the street

children themselves. Very often the tendency has been to formulate plans and strategies for children

without consulting them. Families, the government and the community at large must seek out the

street children and have a meaningful dialogue with them. We must speak and listen to the street

children if we are to help them. We must find out more about their problems and prospects and how

we can best help them (Ennew, 2003)

Drama

We will go to schools and centers and advise the managers to give the opportunity to children to

dramatize various performing theatres concerning child labor. This will help young people to

express themselves in a powerful and meaningful way on how to address child labor and street

children. This is done by developing and performing a theatre peace on child labor. This stimulates

dramatic expression and provides an outlet where by young people can express themselves in

powerful and meaningful way. Creates a strong platform for community integration and awareness

raising (ILO, 2002).

Recommendations.

The elimination of child labor in Tanzania and Dodoma in particular should not only be left to

NGOs and religious institutions. Because religious and NGOs are playing very greater role than the

government. The Ministry of Women, Gender and Children affair should take its responsibility

effectively and efficiently to identify, to assist, and ensure that these children who are roaming into

the street are taken to school. At the same time the government should provide some favorable
environments and policies which minimizes poverty along the family level, this will enhance the

parents to stay with their children at home and enabling them to access education.

Conclusion.

To conclude, we can say that, child labor in Dodoma is a very critical problem where many children

are roaming into the street doing informal activities. The government should take this problem into

serious consideration instead of ending up with written documents which were not implemented at

all. Serious step should be taken in order to save the nation and the children in general for the

betterment of the next generations.

APPENDICES

Appendix 1

Table 1: Represent the sample of 10 child street- laborers


Age Gender Occupation Percentage
Male Female

5_____7 - - - 0
7_____9 1 Porter 10
9____11 5 - Selling of burns 50
11___13 1 2 Collecting of charcoal and
30

bones
13___18 - 1 Collection of bottle 10
Total 100%

Sources: Researcher 2010

Appendix 2

Causes of child labor

Reasons factors No of respondents Percentage


To get money 6 60
Failure to schooling 1 10
Poverty 2 20
Urbanization 1 10
Total 10 100%
Sources: Researcher 2010

Appendix 3

Effects of child labor

Effect No of Respondents Percentages


Truancy 4 40

Drop out/ Termination 3 30

Injuring 2 20

Earning money 1 10
Total 10 100

Sources: Researcher 2010

References

Andviq, J, C, Canagerajah, S & Kielland, A. (2001) Issue in Child Labor in Africa. Oslo: The World

Bank.

Beegle, K, Dehejia, K, H, Gatti, R & Krutiko, S. (2007). The Consequences of Child Labor:

Evidence from Longitudinal Data in Rural Tanzania, Oxford.

Bilques, F & Saqib, N, U. (2004). Drop out Rates and Inter-School Movements: Evidences from

Panel Data. Islamabad: P.I.D.E

Bholotra, S. (2003). Child labor in Africa. Bristol: Organization for Economic Cooperation and

Development (OECD)

Devereux. J, S & Hoddlnot, J. (1992). Field Work in Developing Countries. Tokyo: Harvester

Wheat Sheaf.

Ennew J. (2003). Difficult Circumstances: Some reflections on “Street Children” in Africa:

Children, Youth and Environments 13(1), spring

Frone, M. (1998). Predictors of Work related injuries among employed Adolescents. J Appl Pschol.

83(4):565-76.

ILO. (2002). Supporting Children Rights through Education, The Arts and the Media. Turin:

International Training of the ILO.

ILO. (2006). The end of Child Labor: Within Reach. Geneva: ILO
International Research on Working Children. (2005). Studying Child labor Policy Implication of

Child centered Research. Amsterdam: IREWOC

International Trade Unions Confederation. (2008). Child Labor. New Delhi: ITUC

Kopoka P, A. (2000). The Problem of Street Children in Africa: An Ignored Agenda. Dar es Salaam:

University press

Kothari C.R. (2004). Research Methodology: Method and Techniques: New Delhi; New Age

International

Krishnaswani, O.R. (2002). Methodology of Research in Social sciences. Delhi

Himalaya.

Hagemann, F, Diallo, Y. & Etienne, A. (2004). Geneva Child Labor Trends 2000 to 2004.Geneva,

Switzerland: International Labor-SIMPOC.

Makaramba, R (1999). “Gaps in the law and Policy for the implementations for the Implementation

Of the treaty-Based Rights of women and Children in Tanzania” paper

presented at a work shop at the New African Hotel, Dar es Salaam. Merterns

D.M. (1997) Research Methods in Education and Psychology; Integrating diversity with

Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. London Sage Publications

Minimum Age Convention C-138. (1973). Governing Body of the International Labor Office. 58

(0619/1976). Available from:

http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/convidsp1.htm.access 14 June 2009

Mugenda,O.M. & Mugenda, A.G. (1999). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Data.

Nairobi: Act Press.

Pick W, Ross M, D Y. The Reproductive and Occupational Health of Women Street Vendors in

Johanesburg, South Africa. Soc ScieMed.2002; 54(2)(Jan): 193-204.

Roggero, P, Mangiaterra, V, Bustereo ,F & Rosati ,F. (2007). The Health Impacts of Child Labor in
Developing Countries: Evidences from cross-country Data. American

Journal of Public Health vol.97, no.2.

Sakurai, R. (2006). Child Labor and Education. Paris: UNESCO

Save the Children. (2003). Children and Work. Nicaragua: International saves the Children

Alliances

Sengupta G & Yadav, S.K. (2009). Environmental and Occupational Health Problems of Child

Labor: Some Issues and Challenges for Future. New Delhi Hum Ecol,

28(2):143-148.

Siddiqi, f, & Patrinos, H.A. (1988). Child Labor: Issues, Causes and Interventions. New York:

HCO.

Uganda Child Rights NGOs Network. (2004). Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation Study Report.

Kampala: UCRNN

UNICEF. (2004). The Underlying Factors affecting Child Health and Development and Family

Functioning. Melbourne: UNICEF.

USA, Department of state/Bureau of International Informations Programs. (2005). Economic

Perspectives Ending Abusive Child Labor. Washington D.C: Department of State.