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IDENTIFICATION OF ROCKS AND MINERALS


Rocks are the materials that form the essential part of the earth’s crust and are
generally hard mass of mineral matter comprising one or more rock forming minerals. The
study of rocks is called petrology which in Greek means rock science (Petra- rock, logos –
science). Petrography deals with the description of rocks while petrogenesis is the study of
genesis of rocks.
Formation of rocks
 Primary or Igneous rocks : Cooling and consolidation of molten magma within or on
the surface of earth
 Sedimentary or secondary rocks: Transportation and cementation of weathered
materials of pre existing rocks
 Metamorphic rocks : Alteration of the existing primary and secondary rocks
A. Igneous Rocks
Most
Average
Essential common
Rocks Texture specific Remarks
minerals accessory
gravity
minerals
Predominant Hornblende, White or
Plutonic
Granite Quartz 20-35% Mica, 2.64 reddish or
Halocrystalline
Orthoclase Magnetite blackish
Predominance
Quartz 10% plus Hornblende,
Syenite ---do--- Orthoclase, Biotite, 2.80 ---do---
Nepheline and Magnetite
Albite
Intermediate
Quartz Medium
Granodiorite ---do--- Plagioclase ---do--- 2.70 coloured
exceeds reddish
Orthoclase
Intermediate
Diorite ---do--- ---do--- 2.85 Darker
Plagioclase
LabradoriteAugite Hornblende,
Gabbro ---do--- 3.00 Blackish
plus Olivine Ilmenite
Hypabyssal LabradoriteAugite
Dolerite ---do--- 3.00 ---do---
Ophitic texture plus Olivine
Volcanic,
Basalt Microcrystalline ---do--- ---do--- 3.00 ---do---
with glossy mass
Plagioclase, Light
Vesicular Orthoclase and Muscovite, weight
Pumice 1.00
texture quartz biotite and floats in
Hornblende water
B. Sedimentary Rocks

Name Mineral composition Colour and structure


Sandstone Mainly quartz with cementing Light to red. Usually
agents, such as calcium carbonate, granular and porous
iron oxides and clays structure
Shale Clay minerals, quartz, and some Light to dark. Thinly
organic matter laminated structure
Limestone Mainly calcite or calcite dolomite Usually light grey to
with iron oxides, clay, phosphate and yellow.
organic matter Fine grained and compact
Conglo- Composition of this rock consists of a Extremely variable due to
merate variety of rock structures known as mixture of fragments
the clasts and contains mineral
particles like quartz and igneous,
sedimentary and metamorphic rock
fragments. The binding matrix is a
mixture of sand, mud and chemical
cementing agent

C. Metamorphic rocks

Gneiss Formed from granite, mineral Alternating light and dark


composition like that of granite colours, Banded and
foliated texture
Schist Formed from basalt or shale. Mineral As original rock, foliated
composition as that of original rock structure
Quartzite Formed from sandstone and of same Light to brown. Compact
composition and uniform in texture with
Non-foliated structure
Slate Formed from shale and of same Grey to black; compact and
composition uniform in texture with
foliated structure
Marble Formed from limestone, consists Light red to green to black.
mainly of calcite and dolomite with Compact, fine to coarse
minor amounts of pigments such as texture, non-foliated
iron oxide structure
IGNEOUS ROCKS

Granite and Rholite Gabro and Basalt

Diorite and Andesite

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

Shale Sandstone

Conglomerate
METAMORHIC ROCKS

Gneis White Marble

Schist
A. Primary minerals

Chemical Hard Specific


S.No Mineral Colour Streak Lusture Transparency
composition ness gravity
I. Orthosilicates/ Neosilicates
Transparent to
1. Olivine (FeMg)SiO4 Green White Vitreous 6.5-7.0 3.2-4.3
Translucent
Transparent,
Yellow, Adamantine,vitreous,
2. Zircon ZrSiO4 White Translucent, 7.5 4.6-4.7
reddish brown greasy
opaque
Wine red to
X2+3Y3+2Si3O12
reddish Transparent to
3. Garnet (X= Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg Y = Colourless Vitreous 6.5-8.0 3.5-4.3
brown, yellow, Translucent
Al, Cr, Fe 3+)
green black
II. Inosilicates
Green, grayish
Phyroxine green, Light Opaque,
(Ca,Na) (Mg,Fe,Al)
1. group - greenish green to Vitreous to dull Translucent in 5-6 3.2-3.6
(Al, Si)2O6
Augite brown, dark colourless thin sections
brown, black
Amphiboles (Ca,Na)2- Opaque,
Dark green to
2. group - 3(Mg,Fe,Al)5(Al,Si)8 Colourless Vitreous to dull Translucent in 6.0 3.0-3.4
black
Horneblende O22(OH,F)2. thin sections
III. Phyllosilicates
Mica group- Colourless to
1. KAl2 (AlSi3O10) White Pearly to vitreous ---do--- 2.5 2.8-3.1
Muscovite white
Mica group- K(Mg,Fe)3 Brown to dark 2.5 –
2. Grey Vitreous to pearly Transparent 2.8 - 3.4
Biotite (AlSi3OH) (OH)3 grey 3.0
(Mg,Fe)3(Si,Al)4O10 Brownish grey Greyish Earthy to pearly ---do---
1.5 -
3. Chlorite (OH)2. white 2.6 - 3.3
2.5
(Mg,Fe)3(OH)6
IV. Tectosilicates
SiO2 group- Opaque to
1. SiO2 Various White Various 7.0 2.6-2.7
Quartz Translucent
2. Feldspar group
a. Orthoclase feldspar
Microcline Grey to White
1. K AlSi3O8 ---do--- ---do--- 6.0 2.56
(Triclinic) pinkish white Vitreous
Orthoclase Colourless to White
2. K AlSi3O8 ---do--- ---do--- 6.0 2.56
(Monoclinic) pinkish white Vitreous
b. Plagioclase feldspar
1. Albite NaAlSi3O8 Grayish white White Sub-vitreous ---do--- 6.0 2.6 - 2.7
2. Anorthite CaAl2Si2O8 ---do--- White ---do--- ---do--- 6.0 2.6 -2.78
B. Secondary minerals

Chemical
S.No Mineral Colour Streak Lusture Transparency Hardness Specific gravity
composition
I.Nonsilicates
a.Oxides
1. Haematite Fe2O3 Steel Red Metallic --- 5 - 6.5 4.9-5.2
Black
2. Magnetite Fe3O4 Black Opaque Metallic Opaque 5.5 - 6.5 4.9-5.2
Metallic
b.Hydroxides
Greenish
1. Gibbsite Al (OH)3 White ---do--- Transparent 2.5 - 3.5 2.4
White
Yellowish Brownish
2. Limonite 2(Fe2O3).3H2O Earthy Opaque 5 - 5.5 3.6-4
brown Yellow
c. Carbonates
1. Calcite CaCO3 Colourless White ---do--- ---do--- 3 2.71
Vitreous to
2. Dolomite CaCO3.MgCO3 White White ---do--- 3.5 – 4 2.85
pearly
d. Sulphates
Greenish Vitreous to Transparent
1. Gypsum CaSO4.2H2O White 3.5 2.96
white pearly to translucent
e. Phosphates
1. Apatite Ca3(PO4)2.X Pink to yellow White Vitreous Transparent 5 3.1-3.2
f. Sulphides
Brownish Greenish
1. Iron pyrite FeS2 Metallic Opaque 6 - 6.5 5.01
Yellow black
g.
Secondary clay minerals – Kaolinite, Montmorillonite, Vermiculite, Illite, Chlorite, etc.,
Silicates