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Chapter 1

Annotated version

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 2

1.1 Background

in terms of partial differential equations. In general, solving these equa-

tions by classical analytical methods for arbitrary shapes is impossible.

Numerical methods are hence employed to solve these partial differen-

tial equations approximately with the help of computers. Engineering

problems are such as stress analysis, heat transfer, fluid flow and elec-

tromagnetics, to name a few.

Consider a plate with a hole for which we wish to find the temperature

distribution. It is straightforward to write a heat balance equation for

each point in the plate. However, the solution of the resulting PDE

for a complicated geometry, such as an engine block, is impossible by

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 3

is to divide the body into finite elements, connected by nodes, and

obtain an approximate values on these nodes by solving a system of

linear equations; the number of unknowns (which are the nodal tem-

peratures) is equal to the number of nodes. To obtain a reasonable

accurate solution, thousand of nodes are usually needed, so computers

are essential for solving these equations. Generally, the accuracy of the

solution improves as the number of elements (and nodes) increases, but

so does the computer time, and hence the cost.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 4

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 5

This part of the module consists of eight lectures and will focus on

finite elements for heat conduction and elasticity in two and three

dimensions. More specifically, you will learn

• Shape functions for two and three dimensional elements

• Isoparametric mapping and numerical integration

• Application of boundary conditions

• Assembly of element matrices and vectors

• Generalisation to elasticity

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 6

physical systems and to make predictions about the systems’ behaviour.

Newton’s second law, etc., and are described in form of partial differen-

tial equations. These equations are often very complex and are posed

on geometrically complicated regions.

Over the last three decades or so, it has become possible to solve increas-

ingly complex engineering models using computers. Many numerical

methods enable us to create computational models in order to solve

engineering models approximately. Popular methods include

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 7

proximating them with difference equations, in which finite differ-

ences approximate the derivatives). For example,

df f (t + ∆t) − f (t)

≈

dt ∆t

• Finite Volume Methods (based on conservation laws. Volume in-

tegrals in a partial differential equation that contain a divergence

term are converted to surface integrals, popular in Fluid Mechan-

ics, especially with hyperbolic equations).

Z Z

∇ · qdV = qdS

Ω ∂Ω

The method has the important physical property that certain con-

servation laws are maintained.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 8

liptical and parabolic equations, less successful with hyperbolic

equations). The fundamental idea is the replacement of continuous

functions by piecewise approximations, usually polynomials.

• Spectral Methods (high order of accuracy).

• Boundary Integral Methods (solving linear partial differential equa-

tions which have been formulated as integral equations (i.e. in

boundary integral form). It can be applied in many areas of engi-

neering and science including fluid mechanics, acoustics, electromag-

netics, and fracture mechanics).

• Lattice Boltzmann Methods (discrete Boltzmann equation is solved

to simulate the flow of a Newtonian fluid with collision models).

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 9

into small cells. The set of these small cells is called a mesh.

cell choices are quadrilateral in 2D and hexahedra in 3D. This type of

mesh is highly space efficient, i.e. since the neighborhood relationships

are defined by storage arrangement. But it is difficult to generate high

quality of mesh for industrial problems due to the highly complicated

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 10

easily be expressed as a two-dimensional or three-dimensional array in

computer memory. These meshes typically employ triangles in 2D and

tetrahedra in 3D. Compared to structured meshes, this model can be

highly space inefficient since it calls for explicit storage of neighborhood

relationships. But they are more flexible and can fit the boundaries of

complicated geometry hence the treatment of boundary conditions can

be very simple and accurate.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 11

Types of mesh.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 12

stability, adaptivity, and parallelization, which are beyond the scope

of this course.

linked to the rise of computers. To obtain a reasonably accurate solu-

tion, equations with thousands of unknowns are necessary. On today’s

computers it is possible to solve problems with about 106 equations, and

in special applications with 109 equations. The increase of the computer

speed is dictated by the Moore’s law, which says that the number of

transistors on integrated circuits doubles about every two years.

in 1943-1945 to help in the cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher. It used

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 13

regarded as the world’s first programmable, electronic, digital computer.

As of June 2016, ranked number one in the TOP500 list as the fastest

supercomputer in the world is the Chinese supercomputer Sunway Tai-

hulight, with a LINPACK benchmark rating of 93 petaflops (1015 flops).

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 14

operations per second).

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 15

• The knowledge of how the method works will enhance your analysis

skills and provide a better understanding of numerical analysis in

general.

• The intelligent use of commercial finite element software and the

correct interpretation of the output requires a basic knowledge of

the method. (You probably heard the notion of garbage in, garbage

out.)

• It is possible to extend commercial software packages by imple-

menting user defined subroutines. Understanding the finite element

method and basic programming can help you to extend commercial

software.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 16

• The finite element method is very cost effective and fast compared to

physical testing. It enables to study the influence of various design

choices (geometry, material parameters or loads) and helps to devise

better designs.

• Unlike the finite difference and finite volume methods, the finite

element method works very well on unstructured meshes, making it

a method very suitable for real industrial problems.

obtaining approximate solutions to complex problems. Many industries

such as civil, automobile and aerospace are moving towards fully virtual

product development of which numerical simulation using the finite

element method is the cornerstone.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 17

give you an idea I have included three snapshots.

section (Picture courtesy of DIANA).

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 18

courtesy of LS-Dyna).

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 19

three leaflet valve.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 20

(FEA) program that was originally developed for NASA. NASTRAN

source code is integrated in a number of different software packages,

which are distributed by a range of companies.

• ANSYS (ANalysis SYStems) was founded in 1970. Its primary pur-

pose was to develop and market finite element analysis software

for structural physics that could simulate static (stationary), dy-

namic (moving) and thermal (heat transfer) problems. Ansys now

publishes engineering analysis software across a range of disciplines

including finite element analysis, structural analysis, computational

fluid dynamics, explicit and implicit methods, and heat transfer.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 21

aided engineering, originally released in 1978. The name and logo

of this software are based on the abacus calculation tool. It was

acquired by Dassault Systèmes in 2005.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 22

tational meshes, finite element variational formulations of ordinary

and partial differential equations, and numerical linear algebra. One

of the main developer is Dr. Garth Wells.

• OpenFoam is a C++ toolbox for the development of customized

numerical solvers for the solution of continuum mechanics problems,

including computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

• Gerris is a Free Software for the solution of the PDEs describing

fluid flows under the Free Software GPL license.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 23

1.8 Literature

Meanwhile there are over five hundred books on finite elements. I mainly

used the following three books for preparing this handout.

Wiley & Sons, 2007.

• JN Reddy, An Introduction to the Finite Element Method, McGraw-

Hill, 2005.

• RD Cook, Finite Element Modeling for Stress Analysis, John Wiley

& Sons, 1995.

3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17

Chapter 2

Annotated version

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 25

In the next few chapters we will retrace the basic steps introduced for

one-dimensional problems. First we will consider two dimensional prob-

lems for which the unknown variable is a scalar, such as temperature.

Specifically, we will consider the heat equation as a representative prob-

lem.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 26

member that vectors are physical quantities that have a magnitude and

direction.

in the x- and y-directions.

q = qx i + qy j

are basis vectors. Alternatively in matrix notation a vector is written

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 27

as a column vector

qx

q=

qy

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 28

rx

q · r = q T r = qx

qy = qxrx + qy ry

ry

sented by the symbol ∇).

∂

∂x

∇=

∂

∂y

If the del operator acts on a scalar field, say temperature T (x, y), it

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 29

∂T

∂x

∇T =

∂T

∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 30

three-dimensional model (right). If T is interpreted as the height,

the vector ∇T points in the direction of the steepest slope.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 31

The scalar product of the del operator with a vector field q gives the

divergence

∂qx ∂qy

div q = ∇ · q = +

∂x ∂y

Finally, we can combine the del and divergence operator to form the

Laplace operator

∂ 2T ∂ 2T

∇2T = ∇ · ∇T = 2

+ 2

∂x ∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 32

shape. If we mean arbitrary shape, we draw in two dimensions some-

thing which resembles a potato.

denoted with Ω and the boundary with Γ.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 33

domain Ω from x = 0 to x = l we have

Z

dT

dx = T |x=l − T |x=0 = (T n)|Γ in one dimension

Ω

dx

Here n is the unit normal to the one dimensional domain. The unit

normal always points away from the domain of interest and has the

length 1.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 34

Two-dimensional integration.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 35

Z Z d Z xr Z d

∂T ∂T

dΩ = dx dy = T (xr , y) − T (xl , y)dy

Ω

∂x c xl

∂x c

I I

= T dy = T nx dΓ (2.1)

Γ Γ

Z I I

∂T

dΩ = T dx = T ny dΓ (2.2)

Ω

∂y Γ Γ

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 36

qx

q=

qy

We first insert the qx component into equation 2.1 and the qy component

into equation 2.2 and then sum the equations.

Z Z I I

∂qx ∂qy

dΩ + dΩ = qxnx dΓ + qy ny dΓ

Ω

∂x Ω

∂y Γ Γ

Z I

∂ ∂

qx nx

∂x ∂y dΩ = qx qy dΓ

Ω qy ny

Z IΓ

∇ · q dΩ = q · n dΓ

Ω Γ

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 37

Z I

div q dΩ = q · n dΓ

Ω Γ

The divergence theorem has been derived in Part I Vector Calculus and

has been used in Fluid Mechanics.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 38

angular domain

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 39

divergence of q is

Z

∂c ∂0

div q = + =0 ⇒ div q dΩ = 0

∂x ∂y Ω

I Z Z Z

q · n dΓ = q · n dΓ + q · n dΓ + q · n dΓ

AB BC CA

" #

√1

Z Z Z

5

= 0 dΓ + c 0 dΓ + −c dΓ

√2

AB BC 5 CA

c √

= √ 5−c·1=0

5

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 40

the temperature is not dependent on time). The plate contains a heat

source s(x, y) (energy per unit volume and time).

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 41

To derive the strong form we look at the energy balance for an in-

finitesimal control volume.

control volume.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 42

The energy balance requires that the heat flux q (energy per unit area

and time) through the boundaries equals the heat generated s.

∂qx ∂qy

qxdy− qx + dx dy+qy dx− qy + dy dx+s(x, y)dxdy = 0

∂x ∂y

Dividing by dxdy, the energy balance equation is written as

∂qx ∂qy

+ −s=0 (or, div q − s = 0)

∂x ∂y

The first two terms are the divergence of the heat flux, which is the

heat flowing out from the point. This is equal to the heat source s.

dT

q = −k

dx

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 43

or concrete) to two dimensions with

∂T

∂x

qx k 0

=−

qy 0 k ∂T

∂y

The energy balance equation combined with Fourier’s law leads to

∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T

k + k +s=0

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y

∂ 2T ∂ 2T

k 2

+ 2 + s = k∇2T + s = 0 (2.3)

∂x ∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 44

law is generalised to

∂T

∂x

qx kxx kxy

=− (or, q = −D∇T )

qy kyx kyy ∂T

|{z} | {z }

q D ∂y }

| {z

∇T

The physical implication of this equation is that, for example, a given

temperature gradient in the x-direction leads to a heat flux in x as well

as y directions.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 45

Finally, the heat equation for a problem with an anisotropic and non-

constant heat conductivity is written in matrix notation as:

∇·(D∇T ) + s = 0

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 46

heat flow in the domain and to solve it we need boundary conditions.

There are two different types of boundary conditions possible; either

the temperature T or the heat flux q can be prescribed.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 47

part of boundary Γq the normal flux q̄ is prescribed.

T = T̄

ΓT

(q · n) = q̄

Γq

Using Fourier’s law the heat flux boundary condition can be written in

terms of the temperature gradient.

(q · n) = −k∇T · n = q̄

Γq Γq

tions and the ones on Γq as Neumann boundary conditions.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 48

In preparation for the finite element method we consider next the weak

form of the heat equation. In the weak form the heat equation is

restated in the form of an integral. The weak form is equivalent to the

partial differential equation for heat (strong form).

structural mechanics it is called the principle of virtual work.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 49

To derive the weak form of the heat equation, first the energy balance

equation is multiplied with a function w(x, y), and integrated over the

domain Ω Z

w (∇ · q − s) dΩ = 0 (2.4)

Ω

The function w(x, y) is the weight function (sometimes called the test

function). The arbitrariness of w(x, y) is important if the weak form

should be equal to the strong form of the heat equation.

The first term in the above equation is modified first using integration

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 50

by parts

Z Z

∂qx ∂qy ∂(wqx) ∂(wqy )

w + dΩ = + dΩ

Ω

∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

ZΩ

∂w ∂w

− qx + qy dΩ

Ω

∂x ∂y

or in matrix notation

Z Z Z

w∇ · q dΩ = ∇ · (wq) dΩ − ∇w · q dΩ

Ω Ω Ω

Next we apply the divergence theorem to the first integral on the right

hand side Z Z

∇ · (wq) dΩ = wq · n dΓ (2.5)

Ω Γ

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 51

perature and prescribed flux boundaries

Z Z Z

wq · n dΓ = wq dΓ + wq · n dΓ (2.6)

Γ Γq ΓT

Inserting the last two equations 2.6 and 2.5 into the energy balance

equation 2.4 yields

Z Z Z Z

− ∇w · q dΩ + wq dΓ + wq · ndΓ − ws dΩ = 0

Ω Γq ΓT Ω

Next, the test functions are chosen so that they are zero on Dirichlet

boundaries, i.e. w0(x, y) = 0 on ΓT . Therefore, the integral on ΓT

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 52

Z Z Z

∇w0 · q dΩ + w0s dΩ = w0q dΩ

Ω Ω Γq

the temperature

Z Z Z

(∇w0)T D∇T dΩ = w0s dΩ − w0q dΓ

Ω Ω Γq

In the coming lectures this equation will be the starting point for de-

riving the finite element approach in two dimensions.

in the weak formulation only first derivatives are needed.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 53

∂ 2T ∂ 2T s

+ + =0

∂x2 ∂y 2 k

s is zero and as the Poisson equation if the domain term s is nonzero.

The Poisson and Laplace equations appear in various physical contexts.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 54

Heat conduction temperature heat conductivity heat flux

Structural

membrane transversal deflection tension in membrane -

Seepage piezometric head permeability seepage veloci

Potential flow stream function density fluid velocity

Electrostatics voltage dielectric constant electric field

···

will be applicable to any of the problems listed in the above table.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 55

In the following the basic matrix operations needed for this module

are summarised.

3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17

Chapter 3

Annotated version

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 22

As you learned for one dimensional problems, in FEM the weight func-

tions and the trial solutions are constructed by subdividing the problem

domain into elements and considering shape functions within each ele-

ment.

two-dimensional problems.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 23

finite element solution becomes more accurate as the number of elements

increases. As the element size goes to zero, the finite element solution

should converge to the exact solution.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 24

The main requirement for the shape functions is that the approximation

of the temperature T and the weight function w is continuous (since

the weak form contains the first order derivatives of both).

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 25

most versatile and simplest finite element.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 26

The first step is to rewrite the integral in the weak formulation on the

whole domain as a sum of the integrals on each individual element:

Z XZ

(...) dxdy = (...) dxdy .

Ω Ωe

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 27

We could also use a clockwise orientation. The same orientation is used

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 28

The nodal coordinates of the element e are denoted (xe1, y1e), (xe2, y2e)

and (xe3, y3e). The temperature is only given at the three nodes. The

temperature within each triangular element is approximated by a linear

function.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 29

Here the three α’s are parameters which we will determine. Denote the

nodal values of the temperature by T1e, T2e and T3e, to give the following

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 30

T2e = α0e + α1exe2 + α2ey2e

T3e = α0e + α1exe3 + α2ey3e

or in matrix notation

e

1 xe1 y1e α0e T1

1 xe ye αe = T e

2 2 1 2

1 xe3 y3e α2e T3e

This linear system of equations can be symbolically solved for the α’s

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 31

e e e

−1 e

α0 1 x1 y 1 T1

αe = 1 xe2 y2e T2e

1

α2e 1 xe3 y3e T3e

Substituting the α’s into the equation 3.1 yields an expression for the

temperature depending only on the nodal values.

where N1(x, y), N2(x, y) and N3(x, y) are the shape functions (we

will see that in chapter 5 there is a clever way to deduce these functions

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 32

e 1

xe2y3e − xe3y2e + (y2e − y3e)x + (xe3 − xe2)y

N1 (x, y) =

2Ae

1

N2e(x, y) = xe3y1e − xe1y3e + (y3e − y1e)x + (xe1 − xe3)y

2Ae

e 1 e e e e e e e e

N3 (x, y) = x1y2 − x2y1 + (y1 − y2 )x + (x2 − x1)y

2Ae

where Ae is the area of the element

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 33

nodal coordinates and making sure that the values are correct at the

nodes.

N1e(xe2, y2e) = 0 N2e(xe2, y2e) = 1 N3e(xe2, y2e) = 0

N1e(xe3, y3e) = 0 N2e(xe3, y3e) = 0 N3e(xe3, y3e) = 1

Each shape function vanishes at all nodes except one. This can be

confirmed by the next figure showing the three shape functions. Notice

the shape functions are linear along the triangle edges.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 34

matrix notation:

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 35

e

T1

T e = N eae with N e = N1e N2e N3 ae = T2e

e

T3e

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 36

We will compute the shape functions for the following triangular element

Example.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 37

mial e

α0

T e(x, y) = α0e + α1ex + α2ey = 1 x y α1e

α2e

e e

T1 1 2 1 α0

T e = 1 5 3 αe

2 1

T3e 1 3 4 α2e

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 38

−1

1 2 1 11 −5 1

1

1 5 3 = −1 3 −2

7

1 3 4 −2 −1 3

e

11 −5 1 T1

e

1

T = 1 x y −1 3 −2 T2e

7

−2 −1 3 T3e

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 39

e

1 T1e

= (11 − x − 2y) (−5 + 3x − y) (1 − 2x + 3y) T2

7

T3e

e

T1

= N1e N2e N3e T2e

T3e

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 40

closed form expressions derived in this section. The area of the triangle

is

2Ae = (5 · 4 − 3 · 3) − (2 · 4 − 3 · 1) + (2 · 3 − 5 · 1) = 7

e 1 1

N1 = (5 · 4 − 3 · 3 + (3 − 4)x + (3 − 5)y) = (11 − x − 2y)

7 7

e 1 1

N2 = (3 · 1 − 2 · 4 + (4 − 1)x + (2 − 3)y) = (−5 + 3x − y)

7 7

e 1 1

N3 = (2 · 3 − 5 · 1 + (1 − 3)x + (5 − 2)y) = (1 − 2x + 3y)

7 7

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 41

weight function locally on each element. The global approximation

over the entire domain is obtained by gathering the contributions from

individual elements.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 42

a four element mesh:

Finite element mesh with four elements and local and global node

numberings.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 43

The temperatures at the nodes can be identified either with the global

or local numbering. For example, the temperature at node 4 is denoted

by T4 with respect to the global node numbering and by T31, T22, T23 or

T14 with respect to the local node numberings for elements 1, 2, 3 and

4, respectively.

For example, the temperatures at the six nodes map to three nodes of

element 1 as follows:

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 44

T1

1 T2

T1 0 1 0 0 0 0 T3

T 1 = 0 0 0 0 1 0

2 T4

T31 0 0 0 1 0 0 T5

T6

or in matrix notation

a1 = L1a

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 45

represent the temperature T h over the entire mesh. The superscript h

indicates that it is a discretized representation.

nel

X nel

X

Th = N eae = N e Le a

e=1 e=1

two terms in the summation for the shown mesh are

1 1 2 2

2

N L + N L = N1 N11 N32 N31 + N22 N21 0

N 1 L1 + N 2 L2 + N 3 L3 = · · ·

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 46

nel

X

N= N e Le

e=1

Notice there are as many global shape functions as there are nodes in

the mesh. Using the global shape functions the temperature T h over

the entire domain is computed with

T1

nnp T2

X

Th = Na =

NI aI = N1 N2 N3 ··· N6 T

3

I=1 · · ·

T6

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 47

where nnp is the number of nodes in the mesh. For the sample mesh

with four elements, two global shape functions N4 and N5 are shown

below:

Finite element mesh with four elements and the global shape

functions N5 and N4.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 48

N5 is one at node 5 and zero at all the other nodes and N4 is one at

node 4 and zero at all the other nodes. The global shape functions are

also known as tent functions.

uous representation of T h. This means that along element edges the

interpolation for T h on the left and right of the edge match up exactly.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 49

T h. To this end first the gradient of the temperature within an element

e is computed.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 50

∂N1e(x, y) e ∂N2e(x, y) e ∂N3e(x, y) e

∂x T1 + ∂x

T2 +

∂x

T3

∇T e(x, y) =

∂N e(x, y) ∂N e(x, y) ∂N3e(x, y) e

1 2

T1e + T2e + T3

∂y ∂y ∂y

∂N1e(x, y) ∂N2e(x, y) ∂N3e(x, y) T1e

∂x ∂x ∂x

=

e

∂N e(x, y) ∂N e(x, y) ∂N e(x, y) T2

1 2 3 e

∂y ∂y ∂y T3 }

| {z

| {z e

} ae

B

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 51

with:

e − y e) (y e − y e) (y e − y e)

1 (y

Be = 2 3 3 1 1 2

2Ae (xe3 − xe2) (xe1 − xe3) (xe2 − xe1)

Note that the B e matrix is constant in each element and only depends

on the nodal coordinates of the element. Thus, the gradient of the tem-

perature is constant over each element and is in general discontinuous

over the element edges.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 52

linear distribution of the temperature within each element was assumed.

It is also possible to derive shape functions which give a quadratic tem-

perature distribution within each element.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 53

To determine the six α parameters the element has to have six nodes

at which temperature is given. In addition to the three corner nodes a

node along the middle of each side is introduced.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 54

element.

approach sketched. However, elements of very high order (≈ higher

than cubic) are seldom used because the resulting stiffness matrix is

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 55

3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17

Chapter 4

Annotated version

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 57

the weak form of the heat equation.

element analysis.

2. Formulation of the discrete finite element equations

3. Solving the discrete equations to obtain the nodal temperatures

4. Computing and displaying the temperature and fluxes over the entire

domain (postprocessing)

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 58

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 59

starting point for the finite element formulation

Z Z Z

(∇w0)T D∇T dΩ = − w0q dΓ + w0s dΩ (4.1)

Ω Γq Ω

with

∂T

∂x

kxx kxy

∇T = and D =

∂T kyx kyy

∂y

The zero in the subscript w0 indicates that the test functions are chosen

to be zero on prescribed temperature (Dirichlet) boundaries.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 60

element contributions. The area of each element is denoted by Ωe

nel Z Z Z !

X

(∇we)T D∇T dΩ + wq dΓ − ws dΩ =0

e=1 Ωe Γeq Ωe

by interpolated values. The finite element approximation for the tem-

perature and the weight function within each element is

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 61

nen

X

T e = N eae = NIeTIe

I=1

nen

X

w e = N ew e = NIewIe

I=1

functions, T e is the element nodal temperature vector and we is the

element nodal weight function vector.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 62

e ∂N1e ∂N2e e

∂T ∂Nen T1 e

···

e

∂x

∂x ∂x ∂x T e

∇T = 2 = B eae

∂T e =

···

∂N1e ∂N2e e

∂Nen

··· T e

∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y en

| {ze }

B

Similarly, the gradient of the weight function is

∇we = B ewe

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 63

nel Z Z Z !

X T

w (B e)T DB eae dΩ +

e N eweq dΓ − N ewes dΩ =0

e=1 Ωe Γeq Ωe

(4.2)

Recall (B ewe)T = weT B eT .

function vectors are related to the global temperature and global weight

function vectors via the scatter matrix Le

ae = Lea w e = Le w

The matrix Le maps global node numbers to local node numbers and

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 64

consists of ones and zeros. Le introduced into the equation 4.2 gives

" nel Z Z Z !#

X T T T T

wT L e B DB e dΩ Lea +

e e

N q dΓ − e

N s dΩ =

e=1 Ωe Γeq Ωe

Z

T

Ke = B DB e dΩ

e

Ωe

the second and third vectors are the element flux vector

Z Z

T T

fe = − e

N q dΓ + e

N s dΩ

Γeq | Ωe {z }

| {ze } e

fΓ fΩ

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 65

flux. Using these definitions the weak form can be written as

" nel nel

#

X T

X T

wT L K e Le a −

e L fe

e =0

e=1 e=1

Now the global conductance matrix is defined with

nel

X T

K= L K e Le

e

e=1

nel

X T

f= L fe

e

e=1

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 66

which leads to

wT [Ka − f ] = 0

For the left hand side to be zero, the expression within the bracket has

to be zero because the test function vector w is arbitrary. This leads

to the final finite element equation

Ka = f

form the multiplications with Le. The element conductance matrices

are added to the proper positions in the global conductance matrix

based on the correspondence of local and global node numberings. This

procedure is also referred to as assembly. The assembly of the element

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 67

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 68

The heat fluxes are prescribed with q = 0 on the top and bottom

domain boundaries and with q = 20 on the right domain boundary.

The temperature is prescribed with T = 0 on the left domain boundary.

The conductivity is isotropic with

5.0 0.0

D=

0.0 5.0

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 69

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 70

Z

T

Ke = e

B DB e dΩ

Ωe

will be computed and later assembled to a global conductance matrix.

To compute the element conductivity matrices the matrix B e is needed.

For the three-noded element B e was

1 (y2e − y3e) (y3e − y1e) (y1e − y2e)

Be =

2Ae (xe3 − xe2) (xe1 − xe3) (xe2 − xe1)

where Ae is the element area. For the first element the B 1 matrix is

1 1 −1.0 1.0 0.0

B =

2 −2.0 0.0 2.0

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 71

−1.0 −2.0

1 1 1 T

1 1 5.0 0.0 −1.0 1.0 0.0

K = A B DB = 1.0 0.0

4 0.0 5.0 −2.0 0.0 2.0

0.0 2.0

6.25 −1.25 −5.0

= −1.25 1.25 0.0

−5.0 0.0 5.0

element is

2 1 0 1 −1

B =

2 −2 2 0

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 72

5.0 −5.0 0.0

K 2 = −5.0 6.25 −1.25

0.0 −1.25 1.25

Note the matrix K is symmetrical!!!. To assemble the global con-

ductance matrix the mapping between the local and global node num-

bers is established. Looking at the figures 4.2 and ?? the global node

numbering corresponding to the local numbering can be established as

follows:

6.25 −1.25 −5.0 1 5.0 −5.0 0.0 2

K 1 = −1.25 1.25 0.0 2 K 2 = −5.0 6.25 −1.25 4

−5.0 0.0 5.0 3 0.0 −1.25 1.25 3

1 2 3 2 4 3

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 73

added to the global conductance matrix give

6.25 −1.25 −5.00 0.0

−1.25 1.25 + 5.0 0.0 + 0.0 −5.00

K=

−5.00 0.0 + 0.0 5.00 + 1.25 −1.25

0.0 −5.00 −1.25 6.25

Note that global nodes 2 and 3 receive contributions from both ele-

ments as they are attached to both elements. Note the matrix K is

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 74

symmetrical!!!.

Z

T

f eΩ = e

N s dΩ

Ωe

The shape functions for a three-noded triangular element are given with

e 1 e e e e e e e e

N1 (x, y) = x2y3 − x3y2 + (y2 − y3 )x + (x3 − x2)y

2Ae

1

N2e(x, y) = xe3y1e − xe1y3e + (y3e − y1e)x + (xe1 − xe3)y

2Ae

e 1 e e e e e e e e

N3 (x, y) = x1y2 − x2y1 + (y1 − y2 )x + (x2 − x1)y

2Ae

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 75

Z 1.0

e e T sAe

fΩ = s N dΩ = 1.0

Ωe

3

1.0

R

where we have used the relation Ωe NIe dΩ = Ae/3. The element

source vectors are

1.0 1 1.0 2

f 1Ω = 1.0 2 f 2Ω = 1.0 4

1.0 3 1.0 3

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 76

The assembly of the two element vectors leads to the global source

vector

1.0

1.0 + 1.0

fΩ =

1.0 + 1.0

1.0

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 77

and hence a non-zero boundary flux vector. To compute the boundary

flux vector of element 2 we consider the line integral over the element

edges, of which only edge 1-2 has a non-zero contribution

Z Z

T T

f 2Γ = −q 2

N dΓ = −q 2

N dΓ

Γ2q edge 1−2

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 78

For computing this line integral, the edge between nodes 1 and 2 is

considered as an one dimensional element. If we recall the visualisation

of the two-dimensional shape functions, it is clear that we have on edge

1-2 the one dimensional shape functions.

N12(t) = 1 − t N22(t) = t

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 79

Z 1−t −10.0

f 2Γ = −q t dt = −10.0

edge 1−2 0 0.0

The last row in the above equation is zero because the shape function

belonging to node 3 is identical to zero along edge 1-2.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 80

between the local and global node numberings

−10.0 2

f 2Γ = −10.0 4

0.0 3

0.0

−10.0

fΓ =

0.0

−10.0

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 81

4.2.4 Solution of Ka = f

1.0

−8.0

f = fΩ + fΓ =

2.0

−9.0

6.25 −1.25 −5.00 0.00 T1 1.0

−1.25 6.25 0.00 −5.00 T2 −8.0

=

−5.00 0.00 6.25 −1.25 T3 2.0

0.00 −5.00 −1.25 6.25 T4 −9.0

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 82

at the left domain boundary.

6.25 −1.25 −5.00 0.00 0.0 1.0

−1.25 6.25 0.00 −5.00 T2 −8.0

=

−5.00 0.00 6.25 −1.25 0.0 2.0

0.00 −5.00 −1.25 6.25 T4 −9.0

From this linear equation system, the first row and column and the third

row and column can be removed because of the temperature boundary

conditions.

6.25 −5.00 T2 −8.0

=

−5.00 6.25 T4 −9.0

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 83

T2 = −6.76

T4 = −6.84

2.0

2

3 1

−1.0 0

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 84

ample, Z Z

T T

Ke = B DB e dΩ = 5

e B B e dΩ

e

Ωe Ωe

Let a solid-body transformation be defined as

x̄ = x0 + RT x, or x = x̄0 + Rx̄, RT R = I ,

Then

N̄ i(x̄) = N i(x), B̄ = ∇¯ N̄ e = RB

Z Z

eT e eT

K̄ e = 5 B̄ B̄ dΩ̄ = 5 (RB) (RB)e dΩ̄

Ω̄e Ω̄e

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 85

Z Z

eT eT

=5 (B) RT R (B)e dΩ̄ = 5 (B) (B)e |RT | dΩ = K e ,

Ω̄e Ω̄e

chain rule and integration by substitution (Jacobian) As an example,

the triangle element shown in the above figure is obtained by rotating

element 1 anticlockwise 90 degree, the element conductance matrix is

unchanged.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 86

4.2.5 Postprocessing

and the flux vector at any point in the element are computed

∇T e(x, y) = B e(x, y)ae

q(x, y) = −D∇T e(x, y)

across the edge between elements 1 and 2. Moreover, the computed

heat flux along the flux boundary (element 2, edge 1-2) will be different

from the applied flux q.

The jumps in the heat fluxes across the element boundaries as well as at

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 87

the flux boundary are physically not reasonable (the discrete solution

violates energy conservation!).

The absolute value of the jumps in the gradients of T will tend to zero

if successively finer meshes (with more and more elements) are used. At

the same time the discrete solution converges to the analytic solution.

The jumps in the gradients can be used as a crude error measure to

assess the quality of the finite element solution.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 88

Many finite element software expects all the input as numbers without

the units. It is the user’s responsibility to make sure that the set of

units used is ”consistent”.

System of Units (SI) base units, i.e., meters (m) for length, kilograms

(kg) for mass, kelvin (K) for temperature and seconds (s) for time.

There are in total three more base units of which not all are relevant

for this module.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 89

If the SI base units are used, the corresponding derived units have to

be used, i.e., newtons (N ) for force, joules (J) for energy, watts (W )

for power, watts per square meter (W/m2) and so on.

A basic mix up with units led to the destruction of the Mars Climate

Orbiter in 1999. According to wikipedia, the costs for this mission were

£225 million, of which £63 millions were launch costs.

3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17

Chapter 5

Annotated version

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 44

cepts. It enables us to construct shape functions over quadrilaterals

and elements with curved boundaries, which are crucial for practical

engineering structures.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 45

mension, it is very helpful for understanding the general approach.

In the first set of four lectures, the following shape functions for two-

noded elements were introduced.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 46

x − xe1 x − xe1

N1(x) = 1 − e N2(x) = e

x2 − xe1 x2 − xe1

Next, we consider a coordinate transformation which transforms (maps)

the coordinate x into a local (element specific) coordinate ξ

x = xe1 at ξ = −1 and x = xe2 and ξ=1

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 47

tion

1 e

e

x(ξ) = x1 + (x2 − xe1)(1 + ξ)

2

x1 + xe2 xe2 − xe1

e

= + ξ

2 2

The shape functions N1e and N2e can also be expressed using ξ

e 1 e 1

N1 (ξ) = (1 − ξ) N2 (ξ) = (1 + ξ)

2 2

The key idea of the isoparametric concept is to use these shape functions

for writing the coordinate transformation between x and ξ

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 48

We can show that this gives the same result as equation 5.1

1 1

x(ξ) = (1 − ξ)x1 + (1 + ξ)xe2

e

2 2

xe1 + xe2 xe2 − xe1

= + ξ

2 2

This coordinate transformation can be visualised as a mapping from a

parent element in the ξ-coordinate system to the physical element in

the x-coordinate system.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 49

lies by definition between −1 and +1. The parent element is solely for

numerical purposes. The finite element analysis is still performed over

the physical domain.

approximated with the same set of shape functions as those used for

the coordinate transformation.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 50

To compute the derivatives which appear in the weak form the chain

rule is used

dT dT dξ

=

dx dξ dx

x (eq. 5.1).

e.g. quadratic, shape functions.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 51

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 52

will determine the shape functions for a four-node rectangular element.

numbered counter-clockwise.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 53

that has four parameters.

As shown for the triangular element, it is possible to express (α0e, α1e, α2e, α3e)

in terms of the nodal temperature values (T1e, T2e, T3e, T4e). A deriva-

tion along the lines of the three-node element is tedious as it is necessary

to invert a 4 × 4 matrix.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 54

functions by the tensor product method. This is based on taking

products of one-dimensional shape functions.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 55

For example, N2e, which has to have the value one at node 2 and

zero at the other nodes, is obtained by taking the product of the one-

e,1d e,1d

dimensional shape functions N2 (x) and N1 (y).

e,1d e,1d

N2e = N2 (x) × N1 (y)

e,1D e,1D

As visible in the figure above the product N2 (x) × N1 (y) has

the value one at node 2 and is zero at nodes 1, 3 and 4.

Hence, the four shape functions, also called bilinear shape functions, for

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 56

x − xe2 y − y4e 1

N1e(x, y) = = e (x − xe2)(y − y4e)

xe1 − xe2 y1e − y4e A

x − xe1 y − y4e 1

N2e(x, y) = = − e (x − xe1)(y − y4e)

xe2 − xe1 y1e − y4e A

(5.2)

x − xe1 y − y1e 1

N3e(x, y) = = e (x − xe1)(y − y1e)

xe2 − xe1 y4e − y1e A

x − xe2 y − y1e 1

N4e(x, y) = = − e (x − xe2)(y − y1e)

xe1 − xe2 y4e − y1e A

where Ae is the area of the element. The four shape functions are

plotted in the following figure:

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 57

Four shape functions of the rectangular element (on [0, 2] × [0, 2]).

The computed shape functions are suitable for rectangles and could be

used with meshes consisting only of rectangles, but they are not suitable

for arbitrary quadrilaterals.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 58

for arbitrary quadrilateral elements

element in the physical space.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 59

The bi-unit square is the parent domain and ξ and η are its natural co-

ordinates. To map points from the parent domain onto the quadrilateral

in the physical domain the four nodal shape functions are used

natural coordinates and xe and y e are the vectors of the element coor-

dinates e e

x1 y1

e

xe e

ye

x = 2e y = 2e

x y

3 3

xe4 y4e

Above, the notation has been changed from N e to N 4Q to emphasize

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 60

that the shape functions are no longer shape functions of the element

coordinates. They are identical for every quadrilateral element.

As the parent element is a bi-unit square its shape functions are identical

to those of the rectangular element expressed in ξ and η coordinates.

4Q 1

N1 (ξ, η) = (1 − ξ)(1 − η)

4

4Q 1

N2 (ξ, η) = (1 + ξ)(1 − η)

4

4Q 1

N3 (ξ, η) = (1 + ξ)(1 + η)

4

4Q 1

N4 (ξ, η) = (1 − ξ)(1 + η)

4

T e = N 4Q(ξ, η)ae

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 61

mation and the mapping of the geometry is accomplished with the same

shape functions.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 62

ements is slightly more involved because the shape functions are ex-

pressed in natural coordinates ξ and η.

lateral element is

∇T = B eae

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 63

with

4Q 4Q 4Q 4Q

∂N1 ∂N2 ∂N3 ∂N4

∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x

Be =

∂N14Q ∂N24Q ∂N34Q 4Q

∂N4

∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y

To compute shape function derivatives the chain rule will be used

4Q 4Q 4Q

∂NI ∂NI ∂x ∂NI ∂y

= +

∂ξ ∂x ∂ξ ∂y ∂ξ

4Q 4Q 4Q

∂NI ∂NI ∂x ∂NI ∂y

= +

∂η ∂x ∂η ∂y ∂η

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 64

4Q ∂x ∂y ∂N 4Q

∂NI

I

∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂x

=

4Q 4Q

∂N ∂x ∂y ∂N

I I

∂η{z∂η } ∂y

∂η | e

J

nates with respect to the natural coordinates. The derivatives required

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 65

for the weak form are computed by inverting the above expression

4Q 4Q

∂NI ∂NI

∂ξ

∂x

= (J e)−1

4Q

4Q (5.3)

∂N ∂N

I I

∂y ∂η

The inverse of J e is

∂y ∂y

−

1 ∂η ∂ξ

(J e)−1 = e

|J |

∂x ∂x

−

∂η ∂ξ

where |J e| is the determinant of the Jacobian. Remember that the de-

terminant of the Jacobian is the ratio of an area element in the physical

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 66

which leads to

4Q 4Q 4Q 4Q

∂N1 ∂N2 ∂N3

e ∂N4

∂ξ 1x y1e

∂ξ x∂ξ

e ∂ξ y2e

Je = 2

e

4Q x

∂N ∂N 4Q ∂N 4Q ∂N 4Q 3e

y3e

1 2 3 4 x4 y4e

∂η ∂η ∂η ∂η

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 67

edges. The advantage of curved edges is that fewer elements can be

used around holes and other curved surfaces than with straight-sided

elements.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 68

physical space (right).

of the one-dimensional quadratic shape functions.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 69

mapping.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 70

quadrilateral element

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 71

∂x ∂y

∂ξ ∂ξ

Je =

∂x ∂y

∂η ∂η

is computed from

4Q 4Q 4Q 4Q

x = 0.0N1 + 5.0N2 + 3.0N3 + 0.0N4

1 1

= 2ξ − η − ξη + 2

2 2

4Q 4Q 4Q 4Q

y = 0.0N1 + 0.0N2 + 3.0N3 + 5.0N4

1 1

= − ξ + 2η − ξη + 2

2 2

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 72

η 1 1

2− − − η

2 2 2

Je =

1 1 1

− − ξ 2− ξ

2 2 2

The Jacobian has to be invertible for computing the derivatives of the

shape functions with respect to the physical coordinates (see eq. 5.3).

to be larger than zero over the entire element

e 5

det J = (3 − ξ − η) > 0

4

which is the case for this mapping.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 73

shown

non-convex corner.

Notice that some region of the parent element close to node 3 is mapped

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 74

in the finite element mesh, the results of the finite element computation

will be useless.

domains for a three noded triangular element is shown below

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 75

η y

3 (0,1) 3

2

1

x

2 (1,0)

1 (0,0) ξ

element in the physical space.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 76

constructed easily.

N13T = 1 − ξ − η

N23T = ξ

N33T = η

To map the parent domain to the triangle of the physical domain, the

three nodal shape functions are used

y = y1 + ξ(y2 − y1) + η(y3 − y1)

Note that the edges of the element in the physical domain are all

straight. From the above linear equations, it is easy to represent ξ

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 77

element in the physical domain, as NIe(x, y) = NIe(ξ, η) The B e of the

parent element is a constant matrix:

−1 1 0

Be =

−1 0 1

x2 − x1 x3 − x1

Je =

y2 − y1 y3 − y1

gular elements simple.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 78

parent domains for a six noded triangle is shown below

η y

3 (0,1) 3 5

6

2

5 (0.5,0.5)

6 (0,0.5)

1 4

2 (1,0)

x

1 (0,0) 4 (0.5,0) ξ

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 79

The shape functions for the six-node parent triangle are constructed

easily from those of three-node parent triangle.

N26T = ξ(2ξ − 1)

N36T = η(2η − 1)

N46T = 4ξ(1 − ξ − η)

N56T = 4ξη

N66T = 4η(1 − ξ − η)

used for the mapping between the parent and physical domains. Note

that we only need curved edge elements on the physical boundary of

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 80

elements in the interior of the physical domain. In this case, if the nodes

4, 5 and 6 are the middle points of the relevant edge, the map of the six-

noded element is degenerated into the one of the three-node element.

The linearity of the three-node element makes FEM calculation much

simpler. It is a common usage to use six-noded elements to present

the physical field (temperature field) to gain accuracy but three-noded

elements for the mapping between the parent element and that of the

physical domain for computational efficiency.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 81

One Dimension

The two shape functions two noded element on the reference interval

[0, 1] are

N12 = 1 − ξ , N22 = ξ .

The three shape functions three noded element on the reference interval

[0, 1] are

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 82

ate node of coordinate c is

linear mapping:

a+b

x = (1 − ξ)(1 − 2ξ)a + ξ(2ξ − 1)b + 4ξ(1 − ξ) = a + ξ(b − a) .

2

3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17

Chapter 6

Annotated version

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 84

In this chapter we will develop the finite element analysis for arbitrar-

ily shaped quadrilateral and triangular elements. Isoparametric shape

functions developed in the previous chapter will be used.

various quantities, for instance the conductance matrix or source vec-

tors. For isoparametric elements these quantities must in general be

integrated numerically due to the presence of the Jacobian.

finite elements Gauss integration is prefered.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 85

Z b

f (x)dx

a

b−a

xI = a + Ih with h = for I = 0, 1, · · · , N

N

There are various schemes for approximating the integral using the

function values at N positions

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 86

x = b.

Z b

f (x)dx ≈ h (f (x0) + f (x1) + f (x2) · · · + f (xN −1))

a

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 87

x = b.

Z b

h

f (x)dx ≈ (f (x0) + 2f (x1) + 2f (x2) + · · · + 2f (xN −1) + f (xN ))

a

2

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 88

Z b

1

f (x)dx ≈ h(f (x0)+4f (x1)+2f (x2)+4f (x3) · · ·+4f (xN −1)+f (xN ))

a

3

Notice that all these integration rules can be written in the following

form

Z b N

X

f (x)dx ≈ wI f (xI )

a I=0

where wI are the integration weights and xI are the integration points.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 89

that are (almost) polynomials, like finite element shape functions.

as the integration rules discussed in the previous section.

computations since the fewer the integration points the faster the finite

element analysis will be.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 90

The Gauss integration formulas are always given over the parent domain

[−1, 1]

Z +1 N

X

f (ξ)dξ ≈ wI f (ξI )

−1 I=1

For example, in case of two integration points (Gauss points) the pre-

viously considered integral is approximated with

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 91

points.

Z +1

f (ξ)dξ ≈ 1.0f (− √1 ) + 1.0f ( √1 )

3 3

−1

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 92

The Gauss integration weights and the positions for up to three inte-

gration points are tabulated below.

N location ξI weight wI

1 0 2

√

2 −1/ 3 1

√

1/ 3 1

√

3 − 0.6 5/9

0 8/9

√

0.6 5/9

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 93

Notice the distances between the integration points are not constant as

in conventional schemes.

exact up to polynomial order (2N − 1). For example, using two

integration points (N = 2) linear, quadratic and cubic functions are

exactly integrated.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 94

dimensional Gaussian integration in each coordinate direction in turn.

For the integration over the bi-unit parent element we have

!

Z +1 Z +1 Z +1 Z +1

f (ξ, η) dξdη = f (ξ, η) dξ dη

−1 −1 −1 −1

M N

!

X X

= f (ξI , ηJ )wI wJ

J=1 I=1

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 95

square.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 96

For triangles the integration rules are different than those for quadri-

laterals. We will not attempt to derive them. For completeness the

following integration formula

Z N

X

f (ξ, η) dξdη = f (ξI , ηI ) wI

Ωe I=1

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 97

One point (left) and three point (right) integration over the unit

triangle.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 98

The integration domain for finite element matrices and vectors is the

physical element domain. Therefore, we need to consider the isopara-

metric mapping from the the parent domain ([−1, +1] × [−1, +1]) to

the physical element domain Ωe.

puted with

Z Z

T T

Ke = B (x, y)DB e(x, y) dΩ =

e B (x, y)DB e(x, y) dx dy

e

ZΩ+1

e

Z +1

Ωe

T

= e

B (ξ, η)DB e(ξ, η) |J e(ξ, η)| dξ dη

−1 −1

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 99

of the mapping of infinitesimal area elements from parent to the physical

domain.

dx dy = |J e|dξ dη

N X

X M

T

Ke = B (ξI , ηJ )DB e(ξI , ηJ ) |J e(ξI , ηJ )|wI wJ

e

I=1 J=1

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 100

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 101

5 0

D=

0 5

First, we compute the Jacobian of the mapping from the parent to the

physical domain. The Jacobian is given by (see section 5.2.2)

4Q 4Q 4Q 4Q

∂N1 ∂N2 ∂N3 ∂N4 e

e

∂ξ x 1 y1

∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ xe

y2e

Je = 2

e

4Q x

∂N ∂N 4Q ∂N 4Q ∂N 4Q 3e

y3e

1 2 3 4 x4 y4e

∂η ∂η ∂η ∂η

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 102

4Q

where NI are the four-node shape functions in natural coordinates.

Introducing nodal element coordinates gives

0 1

e 1 η − 1 1 − η 1 + η −η − 1 0 0 0 0.125η − 0.375

J = =

4 ξ − 1 −ξ − 1 1 + ξ 1 − ξ 2 0.5 1 0.125ξ + 0.125

2 1

The B e matrix contains the derivatives of the shape functions with

respect to physical coordinates

4Q 4Q 4Q 4Q

∂N1 ∂N2 ∂N3 ∂N4

∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x

Be =

∂N14Q ∂N24Q ∂N34Q 4Q

∂N4

∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 103

4Q 4Q

∂N1 ∂N1

∂x

4Q ∂y4Q

4Q 4Q 4Q 4Q

∂N1 ∂N2 ∂N3 ∂N4

Z ∂N2 ∂N2

∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x

5 0

∂x4Q ∂y4Q

Ke = dΩ

Ωe ∂N ∂N 0 5 4Q 4Q 4Q 4Q

3 3 ∂N1 ∂N2 ∂N3 ∂N4

∂x ∂y

∂N 4Q ∂N 4Q ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y

4 4

∂x ∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 104

In the following we will compute the K11

conductance matrix by numerical integration with 2 × 2 Gauss points

4Q

Z +1 Z +1 4Q ∂N1

4Q 5 0

e ∂N 1 ∂N 1 ∂x

e

4Q |J |dξ dη

K11 =

∂x ∂y 0 5 ∂N1

−1 −1

∂y

!2 !2

Z +1 Z +1 4Q 4Q

∂N1 ∂N1

= 5 + |J e|dξdη

−1 −1

∂x ∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 105

4Q 4Q

∂N1 ∂N1

∂ξ

∂x

−1

e

= (J )

4Q 4Q

∂N1 ∂N

1

∂y ∂η

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 106

e is computed as

The contribution of each Gauss point to K11

√ √

Gauss point 1 ξ = −1/ 3 η = −1/ 3

0.0 −0.447 −1 0.1182 1.0

Je = |J e| = 0.4472 J e =

1.0 0.0524 −2.24 0.0

4Q

∂N1

∂x

= J e−1 1 η − 1 = J e−1 −0.394 = −0.441

4Q 4 ξ−1 −0.394 0.882

∂N1

∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 107

√ √

Gauss point 2 ξ = 1/ 3 η = −1/ 3

0.0 −0.447 −1 0.441 1.0

Je = |J e| = 0.4472 J e =

1.0 0.197 −2.24 0.0

4Q

∂N1

∂x

= J e−1 −0.394 = −0.280

4Q

∂N1 −0.106 0.882

∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 108

√ √

Gauss point 3 ξ = 1/ 3 η = 1/ 3

0.0 −0.303 −1 0.651 1.0

Je = |J e| = 0.3028 J e =

1.0 0.197 −3.30 0.0

4Q

∂N1

∂x

= J e−1 −0.106 = −0.174

4Q

∂N1 −0.106 0.349

∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 109

√ √

Gauss point 4 ξ = −1/ 3 η = 1/ 3

0.0 −0.303 −1 0.174 1.0

Je = |J e| = 0.3028 J e =

1.0 0.0528 −3.30 0.0

4Q

∂N1

∂x

= J e−1 −0.106 = −0.413

4Q

∂N1 −0.394 0.349

∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 110

K11

points

e = 5[(0.4412 + 0.8822)0.4472]

K11

+ 5[(0.2802 + 0.8822)0.4472]

+ 5[(0.1742 + 0.3492)0.3028]

+ 5[(0.4132 + 0.3492)0.3028] = 4.76

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 111

evaluated very accurately. On the other hand with too few integration

points the finite element integrals may be evaluated poorly.

In particular the conductance matrix integrated with too few points can

cause rank-deficiency and can render the problem unsolvable.

and vectors are accurately computed for an undistorted isoparametric

element (with constant Jacobian).

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 112

the following integration rules are to be used.

four-node 2×2

nine-node 3×3

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 113

in the parent element is mapped into a zero area in the physical element,

which is not acceptable.

parent element is mapped into a nearly zero area. To ensure that

det(J )e is safely larger than zero, certain severely distorted element

shapes must be avoided.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 114

Notice for higher order elements, like the nine-noded one, the position

of the mid-nodes contribute to the element distortion. Therefore, they

must lie at a certain distance from the corner nodes.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 115

quadrilateral element.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 116

son’s rule, the position of the integration points is chosen so that max-

imum accuracy is achieved.

want to integrate an arbitrary cubic polynomial over the parent domain

[−1, 1]

f (ξ) = α1 + α2ξ + α3ξ 2 + α4ξ 3

where α1, α2, α3 and α4 are constants. The integral will be approxi-

mated with two integration points

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 117

points.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 118

Z +1

f (ξ) dξ = w1f (ξ1) + w2f (ξ2)

−1

= w1(α1 + α2ξ1 + α3ξ12 + α4ξ13)

+ w2(α1 + α2ξ1 + α3ξ12 + α4ξ23)

Z +1 Z +1

α1 + α2ξ + α3ξ 2 + α4ξ 3 dx

f (ξ) dξ =

−1

−1 +1

ξ2 ξ3 ξ 4

= α1ξ + α2 + α3 + α4

2 3 4

−1

2

= 2α1 + 0 + α3 + 0 (6.1)

3

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 119

obtain the following four equations

w1 + w2 = 2 (6.2)

w1ξ1 + w2ξ2 = 0

2 2 2

w1ξ1 + w2ξ2 = (6.3)

3

w1ξ13 + w3ξ22 = 0

w1, w2, ξ1 and ξ2.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 120

equation 6.2 is solved to obtain

w1 = w2 = 1

1 1

ξ1 = − √ and ξ2 = √

3 3

3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17

Chapter 7

Annotated version

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 122

linear elasticity equations. Linear elastic analysis is usually referred to

as stress analysis and is one of the most common applications of the

finite element method.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 123

In this chapter we derive the finite element formulation for linear elastic-

ity following a similar approach to the one used for the heat equation.

The essential difference is that the governing equations now have as

variables the two components of the displacement vector (instead

of the one scalar temperature).

7.1 Kinematics

The displacement vector for planar elasticity is a vector with two com-

ponents

ux

u=

uy

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 124

element.

The strains xx and yy are a measure of the extension of infinitesimal

line segments in the x− and y−directions, respectively

∂ux ∂uy

xx = yy =

∂x ∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 125

The shear strain, γxy , is a measure of the change of the right angle

during the deformation

∂u

1 1 ∂ux

y

xy = γxy = +

2 2 ∂x ∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 126

efficient to arrange the strains in a column vector

∂

0

∂x

xx

0 ∂ ux

= yy =

∂y

uy

2xy

∂ ∂

∂y ∂x

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 127

gradient operator ∇S , which will be referred to as the symmetric

gradient operator

∂

0

∂x

0 ∂

= ∇S u with ∇S =

∂y

∂ ∂

∂y ∂x

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 128

able problems was

∂

∂x

∇=

∂

∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 129

below

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 130

face. A positive face has its normal pointing in the positive direction.

Furthermore, from moment equilibrium in a unit square, we know that

σyx = σxy .

σxx

σ = σyy

σxy

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 131

per area) on the surface of the body can be computed.

solid. Shown are its dimensions and normal vector.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 132

n = [sin α cos α]T

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 133

ty · 1 = σyy cos α + σxy sin α

tx σxx σyx nx

= ⇒ t = σn

ty σxy σyy ny

the crucial link between the stresses in a body and the tractions on the

surface.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 134

small area element are considered.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 135

∂σxx ∂σxy

+ + bx = 0

∂x ∂y

∂σyx ∂σyy

+ + by = 0

∂x ∂y

which can be written

∂ as ∂

0

∂x ∂y σ xx

σyy + bx = 0

∂ ∂

by 0

0 σxy

∂y ∂x

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 136

∇TS σ + b = 0

The strains and stresses are related to each other through Hooke’s law.

σ = D

tions are assumed.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 137

A plane strain model assumes that the body is thick relative to the

xy-plane, like the following earth dam

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 138

is zero. The D matrix for an isotropic material under plane strain

conditions is

1−ν ν 0

E ν 1−ν

D= 0

(1 + ν)(1 − 2ν)

0 0 (1 − 2ν)/2

and the Poisson’s ratio ν.

the matrix becomes infinite. Therefore, special elements (which will

be not developed in this module) need to be used for incompressible

materials.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 139

thin in comparison to its dimensions in the xy-plane.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 140

1 ν 0

E

D= ν 1 0

1 − ν2

0 0 (1 − ν)/2

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 141

The strong form of the elasticity equation is deduced from the equations

derived above.

Equilibrium equation

∇TS σ + b = 0

Strain-displacement relation

= ∇S u

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 142

Stress-strain relation

σ = D

∇TS (D∇S u) + b = 0

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 143

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 144

are prescribed and on the parts Γt (Neumann boundary) the tractions

are prescribed

u = u on Γu

σn = t on Γt

work which you already know from Part I of your studies.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 145

along the lines of the weak form derivation for the heat equation (section

2.3) is sketched.

To derive the weak form the equilibrium equations are first multiplied

T

with a test function vector w = wx wy and then integrated over

the domain Ω Z

wT (∇TS σ + b) dΩ = 0

Ω

After integrating the first term by parts and applying the divergence

theorem we obtain the equilibrium equations in weak form

Z Z Z

(∇S w)T σ dΩ = wT t dΓ + wT b dΩ

Ω Γt Ω

Introducing the stress-strain and strain-displacement relationships the

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 146

Z Z Z

(∇S w)T D∇S u dΩ = wT t dΓ + wT b dΩ

Ω Γt Ω

variables and will be approximated using the same shape functions.

There are two-degrees of freedom per finite element node corresponding

to the two displacement components.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 147

quadrilateral element.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 148

Over one finite element, the displacements and test functions are ap-

proximated with the element shape functions and the corresponding

nodal values.

uex(x, y) = N1e(x, y)uex1 + N2e(x, y)uex2 + · · · + Nneen (x, y)uexnen

uey (x, y) = N1e(x, y)uey1 + N2e(x, y)uey2 + · · · + Nneen (x, y)ueynen

e + N e(x, y)w e + · · · + N e (x, y)w e

2 x2 nen xnen

wye (x, y) = N1e(x, y)wy1

e + N e(x, y)w e + · · · + N e (x, y)w e

2 y2 nen ynen

where nen is the number of nodes of one element. After introducing

the shape function matrix

N1e0 N2e 0 · · · Nneen 0

Ne =

0 N1e 0 N2e · · · 0 Nneen

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 149

e

e e e e e e

T

a = ux1 uy1 ux2 uy2 · · · uxnen uynen

e

e e e e e e

T

w = wx1 wy1 wx2 wy2 · · · wxnen wynen

form

we(x, y) = N e(x, y)we

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 150

Next, the domain and boundary integrals in the weak form are com-

puted by summing up the element contributions.

nel Z Z Z !

X T T

(∇S we)T D∇S ue dΩ − e

w t dΓ − e

w b dΩ =0

e=1 Ωe Γet Ωe

In terms of the shape functions and the nodal displacements the strains

are

e = ∇S ue = ∇S N eae = B eae

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 151

∂

0

∂x

e e e

0 ∂ N1 0 N2 0 · · · Nnen 0

e e

B = ∇S N =

∂y 0 N1e 0 N2e · · · 0 Nneen

∂ ∂

∂y ∂x

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 152

∂x 0 ∂x 0 · · · ∂x 0

e e e

∂N1 ∂N2 ∂Nnen

= 0 0 ··· 0

∂y ∂y ∂y

∂N e ∂N e ∂N e ∂N e ∂N e ∂N e

1 1 2 2 nen nen

···

∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x

The strains corresponding to the weight functions are

T T T T

e e e e

(∇S w ) = (B w ) = w B e

Introducing the discretized strains and weight functions into the weak

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 153

form leads to

nel Z Z Z !

X T T T T T T

e

w B DB eae dΩ −

e e e

w N t dΓ − e e

w N b dΩ =

e=1 Ωe Γet Ωe

Next recall the mapping between the global degrees of freedom and

local degrees of freedom (see Section 4.1)

T T

ae = Lea e T

w =w L e

" nel Z Z Z !#

X T T T T

wT L e B DB e dΩ Lea −

e e

N t dΓ − e

N b dΩ =

e=1 Ωe Γet Ωe

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 154

Z

T

Ke = B D eB e dΩ

e

Ωe

Z Z

T T

fe = e

N b dΩ + e

N t dΓ

| Ωe

{ze } | Γet

{ze }

fΩ fΓ

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 155

nel ! n

!

el

X T X T

T

w L e K e L e a − L e f e =0

| e=1 {z } | e=1 {z }

K f

or

wT (Ka − f ) = 0

As the nodal values of the test functions (in other terms the virtual dis-

placements) are arbitrary, this leads to the final finite element equation

Ka = f

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 156

per element so that

T

ae = uex1 uey1 uex2 uey2 uex3 uey3

ux N1e 0 N2e 0 N3e 0 T

= uex1 uey1 uex2 uey2 uex3 uey3

uy 0 N1e 0 N2e 0 N3e

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 157

The B e matrix for this element is computed using the shape functions

given on the Data Sheet

(y2e − y3e) 0 (y3e − y1e) 0 (y1e − y2e) 0

e 1 e − xe ) e − xe ) e − xe )

B = 0 (x 0 (x 0 (x

2Ae 3 2 1 3 2 1

(xe3 − xe2) (y2e − y3e) (xe1 − xe3) (y3e − y1e) (xe2 − xe1) (y1e − y2e)

is readily integrated

K e = Ae(B e)T DB e

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 158

Equations

component form

∂σxx ∂σxy

+ + bx = 0

∂x ∂y

∂σyx ∂σyy

+ + by = 0

∂x ∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 159

test function wx, which is zero on prescribed displacement boundaries,

and integrated over the entire domain

Z

∂σxx ∂σxy

wx + + bx dΩ = 0 (7.1)

Ω

∂x ∂y

Z h Z h

∂ ∂ ∂σxx ∂σxy

i i

(wxσxx) + (wxσxy ) dΩ = wx + dΩ

Ω

∂x ∂y Ω

∂x ∂y

Z h

∂wx ∂wx

i

+ σxx + σxy dΩ

Ω

∂x ∂y

(7.2)

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 160

and apply the divergence theorem to the integral on the left hand side

Z h Z

∂ ∂

i

(wxσxx) + (wxσxy ) dΩ = wx σxxnx + σxy ny dΓ

Ω

∂x ∂y Γ | {z }

tx

(7.3)

Inserting equations 7.3 and 7.2 into equation 7.1 and introducing the

traction boundary conditions gives

Z h Z Z

∂wx ∂wx

i

σxx + σxy dΩ = wxbx dΩ + wxtx dΓ (7.4)

Ω

∂x ∂y Ω Γt

Similarly, we can multiply the equilibrium equation in the y-direction

with a second test function wy and obtain

Z h Z Z

∂wy ∂wy

i

σyx + σyy dΩ = wy by dΩ + wy ty dΓ (7.5)

Ω

∂x ∂y Ω Γt

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 161

Adding the equations 7.4 and 7.5 gives the weak form in the component

notation

Z h σxx Z Z

∂wy ∂wy ∂wx ∂wy

i

+ σyy dΩ = wxbx dΩ + wxtx dΓ

Ω

∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x Ω Γt

σxy

Z Z

+ wy by dΩ + wy ty dΓ

Ω Γt

3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17

Chapter 8

and Modelling

Annotated version

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 163

In the first part of this chapter, we will consider the practical aspects

of the discretization of the elasticity equations.

few common pitfalls of linear elastic finite element analysis.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 164

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 165

0.33) and plane stress is assumed

1 ν 0 1 0.33 0

E = 7.86 · 1010 0.33 1 0

D= ν 1 0

1 − ν2

0 0 1−ν

2 0 0 0.34

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 166

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 167

The node numberings and degrees of freedom (in brackets) for the

two elements. The local ones are indicated within the elements

and the global ones outside the elements.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 168

matrix B e for a three-node triangle was given in Section 7.8

xx

= yy = B eae

2xy

and

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 169

(y2e − y3e)

0 0 (y3e − y1e) 0 (y1e − y2e)

e 1 e − xe ) e − xe ) e − xe )

B = 0 (x 0 (x 0 (x

2Ae 3 2 1 3 2 1

(xe3 − xe2) (y2e − y3e) (xe1 − xe3) (y3e − y1e) (xe2 − xe1) (y1e − y2e)

The coordinates of the first element inserted into the above expression

gives

0 0 1.0 0 −1.0 0

1 1

B = 0 −2.0 0 0.0 0 2.0

2

−2.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 −1.0

As B 1 is constant the stiffness matrix is easily integrated

K 1 = A1(B 1)T DB 1

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 170

The stiffness matrix for element 1 is as follows (for clarity the global

degrees of freedom have been written next to and below the matrix)

2.63 0.00 0.00 −1.32 −2.63 1.32 1

0.00 7.86 −1.30 0.00 1.30 −7.86 2

1 9

0.00 −1.30 1.97 0.00 −1.97 1.30 7

K = 10

−1.32 0.00 0.00 0.66 1.32 −0.66 8

−2.63 1.30 −1.97 1.32 4.60 −2.61 5

1.32 −7.86 1.30 −0.66 −2.61 8.51 6

1 2 7 8 5 6

Note that in the element stiffness matrix the first two rows (and also

the first two columns) correspond to the two degrees of freedom (1, 2)

of the node 1, i.e. u1x1 and u1y1, and so on.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 171

The stiffness matrix for element 2 and the correspondence between the

local and global degrees of freedom is

1.97 0.00 −1.97 1.30 0.00 −1.30 1

0.00 0.66 1.32 −0.66 −1.32 0.00 2

2 9

−1.97 1.32 4.60 −2.61 −2.63 1.30 3

K = 10

1.30 −0.66 −2.61 8.52 1.32 −7.86 4

0.00 −1.32 −2.63 1.32 2.63 0.00 7

−1.30 0.00 1.30 −7.86 0.00 7.86 8

1 2 3 4 7 8

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 172

the single degree of freedom per node problems.

In the present example there are four nodes so that there are eight

degrees of freedom. The rows and columns corresponding to global

degrees of freedom (1, 2) and (5, 6) can be deleted because of the zero

displacement boundary conditions

4.60 −2.61 −2.63 1.30 3

9

−2.61 8.52 1.32 −7.86 4

K = 10

−2.63 1.32 4.60 0.00 7

1.30 −7.86 0.00 8.51 8

3 4 7 8

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 173

The external force vector for element 2 is

Z

T

f 2Γ = 2

N t dΓ

Γ2t

N12 0 N22 0 N32 0

N2 =

0 N12 0 N22 0 N32

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 174

edge 2-3 (in local numbering).

integral we consider the edge between nodes 2 and 3 as a one dimensional

element.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 175

0 0

0 0

Z 1

2

(1 − t) · 10 5

fΓ = dt =

(1 − t) · 20 10

0

t · 10 5

t · 20 10

The first two rows in the above vector are zero because the shape

function belonging to node 1 is identical to zero along edge 2-3.

the integral of the external traction vector.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 176

The global external force vector is assembled using the mapping between

the local and global degrees of freedom.

5

10

f =

5

10

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 177

8.1.3 Solution of Ka = f

4.60 −2.61 −2.63 1.30 ux2 5

−2.61 8.52 1.32 −7.86 uy2

10

109 =

−2.63 1.32 4.60 0.00 ux4 5

1.30 −7.86 0.00 8.51 uy4 10

Solving this equation system gives

ux2 0.82

uy2 2.61

= 10−9

ux4 −0.17

uy4 2.41

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 178

matrix of an undistorted element (with constant Jacobian) is accurately

integrated. For a quadrilateral element the following rules were given

four-noded 2×2

nine-noded 3×3

However if these rules are used, the stiffness of the discretized structure

is often overestimated compared to the real stiffness of the structure

(i.e. the computed displacements are much smaller than the true dis-

placements).

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 179

Since the plate is slender, simple beam theory can be used to compute

its stresses.

M

σxx = y

I

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 180

We discretize the slender plate with five four-noded elements with one

element across it’s height.

elements.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 181

The four-noded element is not able to reproduce the stress state of pure

bending. The shape functions of the four-noded element allow only for

displacements of the form

strains xx and stresses σxx, spurious shear strains xy and stresses

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 182

σxy .

only one integration point instead of 2 × 2 integration points.

(left) and 2 × 2 integration points (right).

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 183

(From here non-examinable) On the other hand, the use of too few in-

tegration points (or so-called reduced integration) leads to numerical

instabilities due to mechanisms in the discretized structure. Mecha-

nisms occur if there are deformation modes possible which display zero

stress at all Gauss points, like the following hourglass instability

integration.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 184

The discretized structure can be deformed into this state without ap-

plying any external loading. In practice these modes may appear su-

perposed on ’realistic’ deformations but the results are unusable.

integration point (right).

called stabilised elements are used to avoid hourglass instabilities.

3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17

Chapter 9

simple elliptic Partial Differential Equation in a two-dimensional space.

Consider the Poisson’s equation

∂ 2u ∂ 2u

− 2

+ 2 = f in Ω (9.1)

∂x ∂y

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 186

u = 0 on Γ = ∂Ω (9.2)

Z Z

∇u · ∇vdx = f vdx , (9.3)

Ω Ω

where v is a weight function.

by a function in a subspace of functions Vh that are defined as low-

degree polynomials on small pieces (elements) of the original domain.

Fig. 9.1. The original domain is thus approximated by the union Ωh of

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 187

i k

j

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 188

m triangles Ki,

m

[

Ωh = Ki (9.4)

i=1

Then the finite dimensional space Vh is defined as the space of all func-

tion which are piecewise linear and continuous on the polygonal re-

gion Ωh, and which vanish on the boundary Γ. More specifically,

φi in Vh can be associated with each node xi, so that the family of

functions φi’s satisfies the following condition:

1 if i = j,

φi(xj ) = δij = (9.6)

0 if i 6= j.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 189

form a basis of the space Vh. Each function of Vh can be expressed as

n

X

φ(x) = Tiφi(x) (9.7)

i=1

where Ti is the nodal value of φ at the vertex xi. The finite element

approximation consists of writing the the weak formulation for for func-

tions in Vh. This defines the approximate problem:

Z Z

Find uh ∈ Vh such that ∇uh ·∇vhdx = f vhdx , vh ∈ Vh.

Ω Ω

(9.8)

Since uh is in Vh, there are n degrees of freedom. By the linearity with

respect to v, it is only necessary to choose vh = φi for i = 1, ... , n.

This results in n equations.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 190

n

X

u= Tjφj(x) (9.9)

j=1

n

X

Aij Tj = bi (9.10)

j=1

where Z Z

Aij = ∇φi∇φj dx, bi = f φidx (9.11)

Ω Ω

The above equations form a linear system of equations

Ax = b (9.12)

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 191

in which the coefficients of A are Aij ’s; those of b are the bi’s. In

addition, A is a Symmetric Positive Definite matrix.

Indeed, Aij is nonzero only when the two basis functions φi and φj

have common support triangles, or equivalently when nodes i and j

are the vertices of a common triangle. Specifically, for a given node i

(marked by a full circle in the figure), the coefficient Aij will be nonzero

only when the node j (marked by empty circles) is one of the nodes of

a triangle that is adjacent to node i.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 192

Z X

∇φi · ∇φj dx = aK (φi, φj ) (9.13)

Ω K

in which the sum is over all the triangles K and

Z

aK (φi, φj ) = ∇φi · ∇φj dx (9.14)

K

Note that aK (φi, φj ) is zero unless the nodes i and j are both vertices

of K. Thus, a triangle contributes to its three vertices from the above

formula. The 3 × 3 matrix

aK (φi, φi) aK (φi, φj ) aK (φi, φk )

AK = aK (φj , φi) aK (φj , φj ) aK (φj , φk ) (9.15)

aK (φk , φi) aK (φk , φj ) aK (φk , φk )

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 193

element stiffness matrix In order to form matrix A, it is necessary to

sum up all the contributions aK (φi, φj ) to the position i, j position of

the matrix. This process is called an assembly process. In the assembly,

the matrix is computed as

nel

X

A= A[e] (9.16)

e=1

in which nel is the number of the elements. Each matrix A[e] is of the

form

A[e] = P eAKe P Te (9.17)

where AKe is the element matrix for the element Ke as defined above.

Also P e (is the transpose of the scatter matrix Le in previous chapters)

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 194

the 3 × 3 matrix AKe into the coordinates of the full matrix A.

Consider the finite element mesh shown in Fig 9.2. The four elements

are numbered from bottom to top as indicated by labels located at their

centers. There are six nodes in this mesh and their labeling is indicated

in the circled numbers. The four matrices A[e] associated with these

elements are shown in Fig. 9.3. Thus the first element will contribute

to the nodes 1, 2, 3, the second nodes 2, 3, 5, the third 2, 4, 5, and the

fourth to nodes 4, 5, 6.

In fact there are two different ways to represent and use the matrix

A. We can form all the element matrix one by one and then store

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 195

often called the unassembled form of A. Then the matrix A may be

assembled if it is needed. However, element stiffness matrices can also

be used in different ways without having to assemble the matrix.

the alert assembly of the matrix. All the elements are scanned one by

one and the nine associated contributions aK (φk , φm), k, m ∈ {i, j, k}

added to the corresponding positions in the global “stiffness” matrix.

The assembled matrix must now be stored but the element matrices

may be discarded. The structure of the assembled matrix depends on

the ordering of the nodes. To facilitate the computations, a widely used

strategy transforms all triangles into a reference triangle with vertices

(0, 0), (1, 0) and (0, 1). The area of the triangle is then simply the

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 196

Assembled matrix

6

111

000

000

111 000

111

000

111 000

111

000

111

4

000

111

000

111 000

111

000

111 000

111

000

111 000

111

000

111 000

111

000

111

4 5

000

111 000

111 000

111 000

111

3

000 111

111 000

000

111 000

111 000

111 000

111

000

111 000

111

2 000

111

000

111 000

111 000

111

000

111 000

111

000

111 000

111

000

111

2 3

000 111

111 000 111

000

000

111 000

111

000

111 000

111

000 111

000

1

000 111

111 000

111

1

Figure 9.2: A simple finite element mesh and the pattern of the corre-

sponding assembled matrix

from one set of axes to the other.

do not cause any difficulty.

February 8, 2018 3D7 - Finite Element Methods 2016/17 197

A A A A

00

11000

11111000

111

00111

11000

000000

111000

111 111

000

000111

111000

000

111 111

000

000

111 111

000

000

111 111

000

000111

111000

000

111

00111

11000111

000 000111

111000 000

111 000

111 000

111000

111 111

000

000

111 000

111000

111 000 11001100111

111 000

000

111

111 11001100

000 000

111

000

111 000

111 000

111

000111

111000

000

111 111

000

000

111 0011000 111

000 11001100111

111 000

000

111

Figure 9.3: The element matrix A[e], e = 1, ..., 4 for the finite element

mesh in Fig. 9.2.

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