You are on page 1of 35

See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.


Chapter 1

Data · April 2014


0 2,244

1 author:

Kumar Neeraj Jha

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi


Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

Improving Productivity of Concreting Equipment: Failure Modeling View project

Stakeholders of a Construction Project View project

All content following this page was uploaded by Kumar Neeraj Jha on 26 April 2014.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.

1 Formwork for concrete structures

Dr. K.N.Jha
Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Learning objectives

… To introduce formwork and related terms in the

context of conventional formwork
… To explain the importance of formwork in RC
… To understand the requirements of formwork
… To understand the factors affecting selection of
… To understand the classification of formwork
… To have an overview of the book content
Formwork Definition

‰ A kind of temporary structure

ƒ To support its own weight and that of freshly placed concrete
ƒ To support construction live loads including materials, equipment and
‰ Formwork as a temporary structure is desired to safely
support concrete until it reaches adequate strength to stand on
its own.
‰ Complete system of temporary supporting structure includes
the surface in contact built to contain fresh concrete so as to
form it to the required shape and dimensions and to support it
until it hardens sufficiently to become self-supporting.
Source: IS:6461 (Part 5)-1972
Formwork Components

‰ Sheeting /Sheathing - That part of the form, which stays in

contact with the concrete.

‰ Form/Shutter- The part of formwork, which consists of the

sheeting and its immediate supporting or stiffening members.

‰ False-work- False work is the temporary structure erected to

support work in the process of construction. It is composed of
shores, formwork for beams or slabs (or both) and lateral bracing.

‰ Centering- It is a temporary supporting structure to a soffit. It is

the specialized formwork used in the construction of arches, shells
space structure.
Formwork Components
‰Mould - A frame for casting, precast concrete units.
‰Scaffold - A temporary structure for gaining access to higher levels of the permanent
structure during construction.

Typical formwork for slab Typical formwork for vertical surface

Requirement of Formwork

‰ Quality

‰ Safety

‰ Economy

Largely dependent on formwork

… Common defects due to poor formwork quality
1. Honey comb
Formwork needs to be designed & built accurately so that the desired
size, shape position, correct location, quality and finish of acceptable
quality of the cast concrete are attained.

2. Poor Construction Joint /Offsets in Concrete

3. Plywood Grains Stuck on the Concrete Surface

‰ In Building Construction
‰60% Failure due to Formwork Collapse, Shoring
Collapse, Inadequate Shoring & Lateral Bracing
‰8% due to premature removal of shore.
‰18% Failure is due to faulty materials.

Thus Formwork needs to be built adequately so that it is capable of

supporting all dead & live loads without danger to workmen and to the
concrete surface.

‰ Economy
‰Corresponds to profitable, careful, efficient and
prudent use of resources for making of the forms.

‰ Formwork cost = Cost of form materials + cost of labor for

making + cost of labor for fixing & removing + cost of
equipment required to handle the form + cost of consumables.

Formwork may cost up to 60% of the total cost of concrete work.

Other reasons -why formwork is important?

… Heavy investment required to be made in formwork

… A formwork system once chosen continues to be in
use by the organization for long periods. This calls
for all the more reasons to select the formwork
system carefully.
… Traditionally formwork required skilled tradesmen
which are in short supply in modern days.
… The speed of RCC construction is largely governed
by the quantity of formwork materials mobilized.
The requirements of any formwork
Formwork must be built and erected so that the required shape, size, position, quantity,
and finish of the concrete are obtained.
Formwork must be strong enough to take the pressure or weight of the fresh concrete.
Formwork should be designed and constructed so that it can be easily and quickly erected
and struck with minimum of skilled workforce leading to saving in both time and money.
Formwork must be able to be struck without damage to the concrete or to the formwork
Formwork must be able to handled using available equipment or to be manually handled,
if necessary.
Formwork arrangement must provide access for the concrete handling and placing.
Formwork must have all necessary safety arrangement relating to working areas and
Formwork arrangement must be flexible enough to get the desired finish. That is it should
be able to accommodate different types of sheathing material e.g. plywood, steel, etc. It
should also be able to accommodate any architectural features such as grooves, surface
grains etc.
Measures to achieve Quality Objectives of Formwork

… should suit the architectural & structural requirement.
… should be able to be detailed well to avoid
damage to concrete while deshuttering.
… joints should be tight enough to prevent slurry
… should be constructed within tolerable limits.
Selection of Formwork

‰Dependent on a number of quantitative and qualitative factors. For

example: cost and construction time, familiarity, flexibility, quality, and
safety considerations.
‰The design of a building, site constraints, available resources, the
contractor’s experience with different systems, and their availability are
some of the variables that affect the selection of a particular formwork.
‰According to Horner and Thomson (1981), the important parameters
affecting the choice of formwork are:
‰type of building element to be formed,
‰type of sheathing material,
‰safety and serviceability of the structural frame
‰Typically, a senior member of the contractor’s organization makes the
decision of selection of a formwork system and the decision to select a
particular system is heavily based on his individual experience.
Selection of Formwork

‰Hanna et al (1992) developed an expert system by systematically

capturing the expertise of people involved in all phases to assist the
formwork selector/designer in making that decision.
‰Hanna (1999) characterized the factors affecting selection of formwork
system into four classes and 18 evaluation factors. The four classes are:
‰Building design

‰Job specification

‰Local conditions

‰Supporting organization
Classification of Formwork

Form Work

Traditional Classification based According to items

classification on Hanna used in DSR

Conventional Patented/
system proprietary See Table 1.1

system Horizontal Vertical
formwork formwork
system system
Source: IS-6461
Delhi Schedule of Rates
Hanna, Concrete formwork system
Conventional Formwork

‰ Predominant use of timber planks and

‰ Hold in position by nailing.
‰ Limited reuse value and uneconomical.

Conventional formwork system

Conventional Formwork

Conventional column formwork

Patented/Proprietary Formwork

‰ Standard factory made components.

‰ Less time and labor at site to assemble.
‰ Higher productivity with uniform quality.
‰ High reuse value.

‰ Usually of two types

ƒ Ready-made for general purpose
ƒ Tailor-made for special purpose

Modular Formwork

‰ Standard factory made modules – high Precision.

‰ Simple installation process, saving Time and Labor .
‰ Wide repetitions (reuse) of modular formwork saves Money.
‰ Improves quality and appearance of concrete face.
‰ Increased productivity and safety.

‰ Usually of two types

ƒ Ready-made for general purpose
ƒ Tailor-made for special purpose

Comparison of Features

Comparison of various features

Features Conventional Proprietary / patented Modular formwork system
Flexibility It has high flexibility. It has reasonably good The system brings in
flexibility. standardization and makes
entire formwork operation very
Reuse Limited reuse value. The system has high A large number of repetitions
Values Nailing renders reuse value. (reuse) of modular formwork are
materials unusable possible
after a few uses.
Making There is large making There is very little making Very less making at site, only
involved at of formwork involved of formwork involved at assembly of standard
site at site. site. components required

Expertise Considerable expert These can be assembled The work can be accomplished
required at carpentry effort is and dismantled easily with even by the less skilled worker.
site required. unskilled/semiskilled labor.
Comparison of Features

Comparison of various features

Features Conventional system Proprietary / patented Modular formwork system

Assembling Considerable effort is Uses features and Assembled very quickly at site.
at site required for assembly at accessories developed considerable reduction in the
site over many to save time erection time . The installation
and labor and gives higher process is also simple
Quality of The quality of formwork uniform quality The quality of concrete surface
concrete and productivity varies obtained is extremely good
surface depending on the skill of
Productivity Low High Higher
Cost Non-economical for large Very economical compared Cost of formwork being
projects. to conventional formwork considerably on a lower side.
for large projects.
Planning Planning is difficult. The Preplanning is easy and The standardization offers
requirement indiscriminate cutting of effective and also ease in planning.
timber is difficult to be contributes to the efficiency
controlled . of work at site.
Classification based on Hanna
Classification Based on DSR

Sl. DSR Item

Formwork item
No. Reference
1 Foundations, footings, bases of columns, etc. 5.9.1
Walls (any thickness) including attached pilasters, buttresses, plinth of string 5.9.2
2 course
3 Suspended floors, roofs, landings, balconies, and access platforms 5.9.3
4 Shelves 5.9.4
5 Lintels, beams, plinth beams, girder, bressumers, and cantilevers 5.9.5
6 Columns, pillars, piers, abutments, posts, and struts 5.9.6
7 Stairs (excluding landings) except spiral staircases 5.9.7
8 Spiral staircases (including landings) 5.9.8
9 Arches, domes, vaults upto 6 m span and exceeding 6 m span 5.9.9
10 Chimneys and Shafts 5.9.11
11 Well Steining 5.9.12
Vertical and horizontal fins individually or forming box louvers band, facias, 5.9.13
and eaves boards
13 Centering in circular work 5.9.14
14 Small lintels 5.9.15
15 Cornices and mouldings 5.9.17
16 Weather shade, chajjas, corbels etc. 5.9.19
Organisation of the book

… Chapter 1-Introduction
† the introductory aspect of the formwork;
† the classifications of different formwork systems;

† the decision variables affecting selection of particular

formwork systems.
… Chapter 2-Formwork materials
† form materials;
† support materials;

† coating and release agent;

† tie systems;

† form anchor; and

† form Liner.
Organisation of the book…contd.

… Chapter 3-Form design

† the various issues pertaining to dead load, superimposed load, and
environmental loads;
† The provisions of ACI method, CIRIA method, Indian Standard methods,
and DIN standards to compute the lateral pressure on the formwork;
† Illustrative examples;
† The permissible stresses for the commonly used materials;
† The formulas for bending moment, shear forces, and deflection
… Chapter 4-Formwork for foundations
† The conventional foundation formwork and proprietary formwork
† Some design issues pertaining to foundation formwork
Organisation of the book…contd.
… Chapter 5-Wall formwork
… Conventional and proprietary wall formwork
† Climbing scaffold,
† Traveling climbing scaffold and
† Automatic climbing scaffold.
… Some real life illustrations of wall formwork
… The different design steps for wall formwork and illustration of design
… Chapter 6-Column formwork
… the conventional and proprietary column formwork
† Doka formwork and
† Peri formwork
… Some real life illustrations of column formwork
… the different design steps for column formwork and illustration of design
Organisation of the book..contd.
… Chapter 7-Slab and beam formwork
… Conventional and different proprietary slab formwork
† Doka formwork,
† Peri formwork, and
† MIVAN formwork.
… Some real life illustrations of slab formwork
… The different design steps for slab and beam formwork and illustration
… Chapter 8-Formwork for special structure
… Domes,
… Shells,
… Folded plates,
… Tunnels,
… Cooling towers,
… Overhead water tanks
Organisation of the book…contd.

… Chapter 9-Formwork for bridges

† Cutting edge,
† Kerb,
† Well steining,
† Pier and pier caps
† Deck slab formwork,
† Girder formwork, and
† Formwork for crash barrier
… Chapter 10- Flying formwork
† The working procedure, advantages and limitations of table form
† The working procedure, advantages and limitations of tunnel form.
Organisation of the book…contd.

… Chapter 11-Slipform
† The various types of slipform such as straight, tapered, and inclined
† The components of slipforming operation and their function
† The assembly and dismantling practices of slipform
† The design, productivity, and safety issues in slipform
… Chapter 12- Formwork Supports
† Introduction, classification, and comparison of shoring towers.
† The design aspects and work inputs of shoring tower
† The reuse and work inputs of high shoring towers
† The recommendations for Practitioners
Organisation of the book…contd.

… Chapter 13-Scaffold
† Introduction to the scaffold system.
† The design guidelines and check list
† The possible causes for collapse of scaffold system
† The recommendations and check list for the safe implementation of
scaffold system
… Chapter 14-Formwork for precast construction
† The advantages of pre-casting over cast-in-situ concrete
† The different types of moulds used for pre-casting
† The various stages and steps involved in pre-casting
† The real life cases in pre-casting
Organisation of the book…contd.

… Chapter 15-Pre-award formwork management

† Understanding the requirement of customer,
† Study of drawings,
† Layouts of the structure and
† Estimation of cycle time of formwork activities.
† The issues involved in the selection of formwork
† Some guidelines for selection of formwork
† Formwork economy considerations in planning and design stage of a
† Computations of formwork material requirement,
† Cost estimation of formwork
Organisation of the book…contd.

… Chapter 16-Post-award formwork management

… One immediately on award of contract and
… detailed planning just before execution.
† Preparation and finalization of formwork scheme,
† Preparation of mobilization schedule of formwork materials,
† Effective usage of systems/materials and
† Proper implementation, upkeep/ maintenance of formwork materials,
† Accountability for materials,
† Training, monitoring of formwork cost, and
† Preparation of demobilization schedule of formwork materials.
… Key positions and their responsibilities in formwork
Organisation of the book…contd.

… Chapter 17-Formwork failure

… The causes of formwork failure such as
† triggering,
† enabling, and
† procedural causes
… Some case studies in formwork failure
… Some checklists relevant for formwork related activities
View publication stats

Organisation of the book…contd.


… Chapter 18-Formwork Issues In Multi-Storeyed Building

† Distribution of Loads on Shores and Slabs in Multi-storey
Structures-simplified Analysis;
† Load Distribution for Slabs and Shores in One, Two, Three,
and Four Levels of Shores;
† Load Distribution for Slabs and Shores in Two Levels of
Shores and One Level of Reshores;
† Limitations of Simplified Analysis and Discussion on Other
† Computation of Strength of Concrete Slab at a Given Point
of Time
… Glossary of Formwork Related Terms