You are on page 1of 84

NAME: Jinnish Dalal.

SUBJECT: Physics.
TOPIC: Communication Systems and
TEACHER: Mr. Charan Preet.


BY Jinnish Dalal



Page 2 of 84

I wish to take this opportunity to express my deep

sense of gratitude to all those who extended their co-
operation in various ways during the making of this
project work. I thank everyone for facilitating and
encouraging me from time to time at all stages for the
successful completion of this project.
I shall remain in debt to the principal of RYAN
for providing me with a good environment and
facilities to complete my project work on time. I extend
my Sincere thanks to all my faculties who helped me
with their invaluable supervision and suggestion during
the development of this project. Last but not the least,
an honourable mention goes to my family members
and classmates for their constant support to carry out
and complete this project work.

Page 3 of 84

As a part of this physics curriculum and in order to gain

practical knowledge in field of physics, we are required
to make a research on various topics and I hereby
choose to make a research on “Communication
System and Networking”. The basic objective behind
doing this project is to get knowledge about
communication systems and networks in practical field
In this project I have included various techniques,
machinery, systems using both literature and images.
Through this project we basically come across a
detailed part of a particular topic “Communication
System and Networking” is of great help.

Page 4 of 84
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………….Page 07 of 84.

Wired………………………………………………………………………………………………Page 08 of 84.

Category 1……………………………………………………………………………………………Page 09 of 84.

Category 2……………………………………………………………………………………………Page 10 of 84.

Category 3……………………………………………………………………………………………Page 11 of 84.

Category 4……………………………………………………………………………………………Page 12 of 84.

Category 5/5e………………………………………………………………………………………Page 13 of 84.

Category 6/6a………………………………………………………………………………………Page 17 of 84.

Category 7/7a………………………………………………………………………………………Page 20 of 84.

Category 8/68.1/8.2…………………………………………………………………………….Page 22 of 84.

Optical Fiber………………………………………………………………………………………..Page 23 of 84.

Registered Jacks……………………………………………………………………………….Page 33 of 84.

Network Switch………………………………………………………………………………..Page 38 of 84.

Wireless………………………………………………………………………………………...Page 41 of 84.

Ground-wave Propagation………………………………………………………………….Page 42 of 84.

Sky-wave Propagation………………………………………………………………………..Page 43 of 84.

Space-wave Propagation……………………………………………………………………Page 44 of 84.

Pager………………………………………………………………………………………………….Page 46 of 84.

Subscriber Identity Module………………………………………………………………..Page 49 of 84.

Wireless Fidelity…………………………………………………………………………………Page 52 of 84.

General Packet Radio Service……………………………………………………………..Page 53 of 84.

Global Positioning System………………………………………………………………….Page 54 of 84.

Page 5 of 84
Code-division Multiple Access……………………………………………………………Page 56 of 84.

Global System for Mobile…………………………………………………………………..Page 57 of 84.

Enhanced Data Rates For GSM…………………………………………………………..Page 57 of 84.

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System………………………………….Page 60 of 84.

Fourth Generation……………………………………………………………………………..Page 66 of 84.

Long Term Evolution…………………………………………………………………………..Page 69 of 84.

Voice over LTE……………………………………………………………………………………Page 73 of 84.

Fifth Generation…………………………………………………………………………………Page 74 of 84.

Network…………………………………………………………………………………………..Page 78 of 84.

Personal Area Network………………………………………………………………………Page 79 of 84.

Local Area Network……………………………………………………………………………Page 79 of 84.

Wireless Local Area Network……………………………………………………………..Page 79 of 84.

Campus Area Network……………………………………………………………………….Page 80 of 84.

Metropolitan Area Network……………………………………………………………….Page 80 of 84.

Wide Area Network……………………………………………………………………………Page 80 of 84.

System Area Network………………………………………………………………………..Page 81 of 84.

Storage Area Network……………………………………………………………………….Page 81 of 84.

Passive Optical Local Area Network…………………………………………………..Page 81 of 84.

Enterprise Private Network……………………………………………………………….Page 82 of 84.

Virtual Private Network…………………………………………………………………….Page 82 of 84.

Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………….Page 83 of 84.

Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………….Page 84 of 84.

Page 6 of 84

I n today’s life communication is most important factor in a relationship

between two or more people. With the advancement of technology and
better understanding of science we have come up with ways we can built a
web of signals which we call as network. There are majorly two types of
communication systems. -->

1) Wired
 The one which uses wires and cables to conduct electronic or light
 They are efficient in conducting signals.
 There is negligible jitter loss.
 Minimal disturbance in signal is observed.
 With latest technology theoretically the speeds can reach up to
100 gig-a-bits per second.
 Does not limit the range however the speeds may decrease over
longer distances there may be minor jitter losses which can be
over came by using amplifier’s also resulting in extra cost.
2) Wireless
 The system uses transmitter antennas, receiver antennas,
satellites, spectrums, dish antennas to transmit and receive radio
 Reliable system for small distance coverage.
 Disturbance at the same frequency is observed.
 Strength may decrease due to obstacles such as walls, trees,
windmills, clouds, rain.
 With the best technology the highest speed that could be
achieved is 100 gig-a-bits per second at 237.5 GHz.
 Limits the range according to the capacity of transmitters however
the satellites have a huge range to transmit but again that comes
in an extremely high cost.

Page 7 of 84

A wired network consists of components such as different categories of cables

and jacks which further enters the instruments. But prior to the wires, there is
a vast network of servers (database) which sends data to service providers
according to the demand of the data. The service provider further sends data
through cables to junction boxes, switches and again to cables and finally to
the instrument which further interprets the data in the required format. The
data could be anything ranging from someone’s voice to faxes to videos.

 Wires-
 Category 1.
 Category 2.
 Category 3.
 Category 4.
 Category 5.
 Category 5e.
 Category 6.
 Category 6a.
 Category 7.
 Category 7a.
 Category 8.
 Category 8.1.
 Category 8.2.
 Optical fiber

Page 8 of 84
 Category 1

Category 1 cable, also known as Cat 1, Level 1, or voice-grade copper,

is a grade of unshielded twisted pair cabling designed
for telephone communications, and at one time was the most
common on-premises wiring. The maximum frequency suitable for
transmission over Cat 1 cable is 1 MHz, but Cat 1 is not currently
considered adequate for data transmission (Though it was at one
time used for that purpose on the Apple Macintosh starting in the
late 80's in the form Farallon Computing's//NetTopia's PhoneNet, an
implementation of Apple's LocalTalk networking hardware standard.)
Although not an official category standard established by TIA/EIA,
Category 1 has become the de facto name given to Level 1 cables
originally defined by Anixter International, the distributor. Cat 1
cable was typically used for networks that carry only voice traffic, for
example telephones. Official TIA/EIA-568 standards have only been
established for cables of Category 3 ratings or above.

Page 9 of 84
 Category 2
Category 2 cable, also known as Cat 2, is a grade of unshielded
twisted pair cabling designed for telephone and data
communications. The maximum frequency suitable for transmission
over Cat 2 cable is 4 MHz, and the maximum bandwidth is
4 Mbit/s. Cat 2 cable contains 4 pairs of wires, or 8 wires total.
Official TIA/EIA-568 standards have only been established for cables
of Category 3 ratings or above. Though not an official category
standard established by TIA/EIA, Category 2 has become the de facto
name given to Level 2 cables originally defined by Anixter
International, the distributor.
Anixter Level 2 cable was frequently used on ARCnet and
4 Mbit/s token ring networks, it is also used in telephone networks
but it is no longer commonly used.

Page 10 of 84
 Category 3
Category 3 cable, commonly known as Cat 3 or station wire, and less
commonly known as VG or voice-grade (as, for example,
in 100BaseVG), is an unshielded twisted pair(UTP) cable used
in telephone wiring. It is part of a family of copper cabling standards
defined jointly by the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) and
the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) and published
in TIA/EIA-568-B.
Although designed to reliably carry data up to 10 Mbit/s, modern
data networks run at much higher speeds, and Cat 5e or Cat 6 is now
used for all new installations.
Cat 3 was widely used in computer networking in the early 1990s
for 10BASE-T Ethernet and, to a lesser extent,
for 100BaseVG Ethernet, token ring and 100BASE-T4. The
original Power over Ethernet 802.3af specification supports the use
of Cat 3 cable, but the later 802.3at Type 2 high-power variation
does not.
Starting in the mid-1990s, new structured cabling installations were
almost invariably built with the higher performing Cat 5e cable
required by 100BASE-TX. Cat 5e or Cat 6 is now used for all modern
structured cabling installations. Many large institutions which require
any repairs or additions to existing buildings that currently use Cat
3 have policies requiring upgrade to Cat 5e.

Page 11 of 84
 Category 4
Category 4 cable (Cat 4) is a cable that consists of four unshielded
twisted pair (UTP) copper wires supporting signals up to 20 MHz. It is
used in telephone networks which can transmit voice and data up to
16 Mbit/s.
For a brief period it was used for some token ring, 10BASE-T,
and 100BASE-T4 networks, but was quickly superseded by Category 5
cable. It is no longer common or used in new installations and is not
recognized by the current version of the TIA/EIA-568 data cabling

Page 12 of 84
 Category 5/5e
Category 5 cable, commonly referred to as Cat 5, is a twisted
pair cable for computer networks. Since 2001, the variant commonly
in use is the Category 5e specification (Cat 5e). The cable standard
provides performance of up to 100 MHz and is suitable for most
varieties of Ethernet over twisted pair up to 1000BASE-T (Gigabit
Ethernet). Cat 5 is also used to carry other signals such
as telephony and video.
This cable is commonly connected using punch-down
blocks and modular connectors. Most Category 5 cables
are unshielded, relying on the balanced line twisted pair design
and differential signaling for noise rejection.
The specification for category 5 cable was defined in ANSI/TIA/EIA-
568-A, with clarification in TSB-95. These documents specify
performance characteristics and test requirements
for frequencies up to 100 MHz.
The cable is available in both stranded and solid conductor forms.
The stranded form is more flexible and withstands more bending
without breaking. Patch cables are stranded. Permanent wiring used
in structured cabling is solid-core. The category and type of cable can
be identified by the printing on the jacket.
Cable types, connector types and cabling topologies are defined
by TIA/EIA-568-B. Nearly always, 8P8C modular connectors (often
referred to incorrectly as RJ45 connectors) are used for connecting
category 5 cable. The cable is terminated in either the T568Ascheme
or the T568B scheme. The two schemes work equally well and may
be mixed in an installation so long as the same scheme is used on
both ends of each cable.
The category 5e specification improves upon the category 5
specification by revising and introducing new specifications to
further mitigate the amount of crosstalk. The bandwidth (100 MHz)
and physical construction are the same between the two, and most
Cat 5 cables actually meet Cat 5e specifications, though they are not
Page 13 of 84
specifically certified as such. The category 5 was deprecated in 2001
and superseded by the category 5e specification.
Category 5 cable is used in structured cabling for computer
networks such as Ethernet over twisted pair. The cable standard
provides performance of up to 100 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-
T, 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet), and 1000BASE-T (Gigabit
Ethernet). 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX Ethernet connections require
two wire pairs. 1000BASE-T Ethernet connections require four wire
pairs. Through the use of power over Ethernet (PoE), power can be
carried over the cable in addition to Ethernet data.
Cat 5 is also used to carry other signals such
as telephony and video. In some cases, multiple signals can be
carried on a single cable; Cat 5 can carry two conventional telephone
lines as well as 100BASE-TX in a single cable. The USOC/RJ-61wiring
standard may be used in multi-line telephone connections. Various
schemes exist for transporting both analog and digital video over the
cable. HDBaseT (10.2 Gbit/s) is one such scheme.
The use of balanced lines helps preserve a high signal-to-noise
ratio despite interference from both external sources
and crosstalk from other pairs.

Page 14 of 84
Electrical characteristics

Property Nominal Tolerance Unit

Characteristic impedance, 1–
100 ± 15 Ω
100 MHz

Characteristic impedance @
100 ± 5 Ω
100 MHz

DC loop resistance ≤ 0.188 Ω/m

Propagation speed 0.64 c

Propagation delay 4.80–5.30 ns/m

Delay skew < 100 MHz < 0.20 ns/m

Capacitance at 800 Hz 52 pF/m

Inductance 525 nH/m

Corner frequency ≤ 57 kHz

Max tensile load, during

100 N

24 AWG (0.51054 mm; 0.205

Wire diameter

Insulation thickness 0.245 mm

Maximum current per

0.577 A

Page 15 of 84
Operating temperature −55 to +60 °C

Maximum operating voltage

125 V DC
(PoE uses max 57 V DC)

Pair color [cm] per turn Turns per [m]

Blue 1.38 72

Green 1.53 65

Orange 1.78 56

Brown 1.94 52

Page 16 of 84
 Category 6/6a
Category 6 cable, commonly referred to as Cat 6, is a
standardized twisted pair cable for Ethernet and other
network physical layers that is backward compatible with
the Category 5/5e and Category 3 cable standards.
Compared with Cat 5 and Cat 5e, Cat 6 features more stringent
specifications for crosstalk and system noise. The cable standard also
specifies performance of up to 250 MHz compared to 100 MHz for
Cat 5 and Cat 5e.
Whereas Category 6 cable has a reduced maximum length of 55
meters when used for 10GBASE-T, Category 6A cable (or Augmented
Category 6) is characterized to 500 MHz and has improved alien
crosstalk characteristics, allowing 10GBASE-T to be run for the same
100 meter maximum distance as previous Ethernet variants.
Cat 6 cable can be identified by the printing on the side of the cable
sheath. Cable types, connector types and cabling topologies are
defined by TIA/EIA-568.
Cat 6 patch cables are normally terminated in 8P8C modular
connectors. Connectors use either T568A or T568B pin assignments;
performance is comparable provided both ends of a cable are
terminated identically.
If Cat 6 rated patch cables, jacks and connectors are not used with
Cat 6 wiring, overall performance is degraded and may not meet
Cat 6 performance specifications.
The standard for Category 6A is ANSI/TIA-568-C.1, defined by
the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) for enhanced
performance standards for twisted pair cable systems. It was defined
in 2009. Category 6A performance is defined for frequencies up to
500 MHz—twice that of Cat 6.
Category 6A performs at improved specifications, in particular in the
area of alien crosstalk as compared to Cat 6 UTP (unshielded twisted
pair), which exhibited high alien noise in high frequencies.

Page 17 of 84
The global cabling standard ISO/IEC 11801 has been extended by the
addition of amendment 2. This amendment defines new
specifications for Cat 6A components and Class EA permanent links.
These new global Cat 6A/Class EA specifications require a new
generation of connecting hardware offering far superior
performance compared to the existing products that are based on
the American TIA standard.

TIA/EIA-568-B.1-2001 T568A Wiring TIA/EIA-568-B.1-2001 T568B Wiring

Pin Pair Wire Color Pin Pair Wire Color

1 3 1 white/green 1 2 1 white/orange

2 3 2 green 2 2 2 orange

3 2 1 white/orange 3 3 1 white/green

4 1 2 blue 4 1 2 blue

5 1 1 white/blue 5 1 1 white/blue

6 2 2 orange 6 3 2 green

7 4 1 white/brown 7 4 1 white/brown

8 4 2 brown 8 4 2 brown

The most important point is a performance difference between

ISO/IEC and EIA/TIA component specifications for the NEXT
transmission parameter. At a frequency of 500 MHz, an ISO/IEC
Page 18 of 84
Cat 6A connector performs 3 dB better than a Cat 6A connector that
conforms to the EIA/TIA specification. 3 dB equals 50% reduction of
near-end crosstalk noise signal power; see Half-power point.
Confusion therefore arises because of the different naming
conventions and performance benchmarks laid down by the
International ISO/IEC and American TIA/EIA standards, which in turn
are different from the regional European standard, EN 50173-1. In
broad terms, the ISO standard for Cat 6A is the highest, followed by
the European standard, and then the American (1 on 1 matching
Soon after the ratification of Cat 6, a number of manufacturers
began offering cable labelled as "Category 6e". Their intent was to
suggest their offering was an upgrade to the Category 6 standard—
presumably naming it after Category 5e, which was a standardized
enhancement to Category 5 cable. However, no legitimate
Category 6e standard exists, and Cat 6e is not a recognized standard
by the Telecommunications Industry Association. Category 7 is an
ISO standard, but not a TIA standard. Cat 7 is already in place as a
shielded cable solution with non-traditional connectors that are not
backward-compatible with category 3 through 6A. Category 8 is the
next UTP cabling offering to be backward compatible.

Page 19 of 84
 Category 7/7a
Class F channel and Category 7 cable are backward compatible with
Class D/Category 5e and Class E/Category 6. Class F features even
stricter specifications for crosstalk and system noise than Class E. To
achieve this, shielding was added for individual wire pairs and the
cable as a whole. Unshielded cables rely on the quality of the twists
to protect from EMI. This involves a tight twist and carefully
controlled design. Cables with individual shielding per pair such as
category 7 rely mostly on the shield and therefore have pairs with
longer twists.
The Category 7 cable standard was ratified in 2002 to allow 10
Gigabit Ethernet over 100 m of copper cabling. The cable contains
four twisted copper wire pairs, just like the earlier standards.
Category 7 cable can be terminated either
with 8P8C compatible GG45 electrical connectors which incorporate
the 8P8C standard or with TERA connectors. When combined with
GG-45 or TERA connectors, Category 7 cable is rated for transmission
frequencies of up to 600 MHz.
However, in 2008 Category 6A was ratified and allows 10 Gbit/s
Ethernet while still using the traditional 8P8C connector. Therefore,
all manufacturers of active equipment and network cards have
chosen to support the 8P8C for their 10 Gigabit Ethernet products
on copper and not the GG45, ARJ45, or TERA. These products
therefore require a Class EA channel (Cat 6A).
As of 2017 there is no equipment that has connectors supporting the
Class F (Category 7) channel.
Class FA (Class F Augmented) channels and Category 7A cables,
introduced by ISO 11801 Edition 2 Amendment 2 (2010), are defined
at frequencies up to 1000 MHz, suitable for multiple applications
including CATV (862 MHz).
The intent of the Class FA was to possibly support the future
40Gigabit Ethernet: 40Gbase-T. Simulation results have shown
that 40 Gigabit Ethernet may be possible at 50 meters and
Page 20 of 84
100 Gigabit Ethernet at 15 meters. In 2007, researchers
at Pennsylvania State University predicted that either 32 nm or
22 nm circuits would allow for 100 Gigabit Ethernet at 100 meters.
However, in 2016, the IEEE 802.3bq working group ratified the
amendment 3 which defines 25Gbase-T and 40gbase-T on Category 8
cabling specified to 2000 MHz. The Class FA therefore does not
support 40G Ethernet.
As of 2017 there is no equipment that has connectors supporting the
Class FA (Category 7A) channel.
Category 7A is not recognized in TIA/EIA.

Page 21 of 84
 Category 8/8.1/8.2
Category 8 was ratified by the TR43 working group under ANSI/TIA
568-C.2-1. It is defined up 2000 MHz and only for distances from 30
to 36m depending on the patch cords used. ISO is expected to ratify
the equivalent in 2018 but will have 2 options:

 Class I channel (Category 8.1 cable): minimum cable

design U/FTP or F/UTP, fully backward compatible and
interoperable with Class EA (Category 6A) using 8P8C connectors
 Class II channel (Category 8.2 cable): F/FTP or S/FTP minimum,
interoperable with Class FA (Category 7A) using TERA or GG45.
Category 8 is designed only for data centres where distances
between switches and servers are short. It is not intended for
general office cabling.

Page 22 of 84
 Optical Fiber
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made
by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than
that of a human hair. Optical fibers are used most often as a means
to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and find wide
usage in fiber-optic communications, where they permit
transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data
rates) than electrical cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires
because signals travel along them with less loss; in addition, fibers
are immune to electromagnetic interference, a problem from which
metal wires suffer excessively. Fibers are also used
for illumination and imaging, and are often wrapped in bundles so
they may be used to carry light into, or images out of confined
spaces, as in the case of a fiberscope. Specially designed fibers are
also used for a variety of other applications, some of them
being fiber optic sensors and fiber lasers.
Optical fibers typically include a core surrounded by a
transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light
is kept in the core by the phenomenon of total internal
reflection which causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers that
support many propagation paths or transverse modes are
called multi-mode fibers, while those that support a single mode are
called single-mode fibers (SMF). Multi-mode fibers generally have a
wider core diameter and are used for short-distance communication
links and for applications where high power must be
transmitted. Single-mode fibers are used for most communication
links longer than 1,000 meters (3,300 ft).
Being able to join optical fibers with low loss is important in fiber
optic communication. This is more complex than joining electrical
wire or cable and involves careful cleaving of the fibers, precise
alignment of the fiber cores, and the coupling of these aligned cores.
For applications that demand a permanent connection a fusion
splice is common. In this technique, an electric arc is used to melt the
ends of the fibers together. Another common technique is
Page 23 of 84
a mechanical splice, where the ends of the fibers are held in contact
by mechanical force. Temporary or semi-permanent connections are
made by means of specialized optical fiber connectors.

The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the

design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics. The
term was coined by Indian physicist Narinder Singh Kapany, who is
widely acknowledged as the father of fiber optics.
Optical fiber is used as a medium for telecommunication
and computer networking because it is flexible and can be bundled
as cables. It is especially advantageous for long-distance
communications, because light propagates through the fiber with
much lower attenuation compared to electrical cables. This allows
long distances to be spanned with few repeaters.
The per-channel light signals propagating in the fiber have been
modulated at rates as high as 111 gigabits per second (Gbit/s)
by NTT, although 10 or 40 Gbit/s is typical in deployed systems. In
June 2013, researchers demonstrated transmission of 400 Gbit/s
over a single channel using 4-mode orbital angular momentum

Each fiber can carry many independent channels, each using a

different wavelength of light (wavelength-division
multiplexing (WDM)). The net data rate (data rate without overhead
bytes) per fiber is the per-channel data rate reduced by the FEC
overhead, multiplied by the number of channels (usually up to 80 in
commercial dense WDM systems as of 2008). As of 2011 the record
Page 24 of 84
for bandwidth on a single core was 101 Tbit/s (370 channels at 273
Gbit/s each). The record for a multi-core fiber as of January 2013 was
1.05 Pbit/s. In 2009, Bell Labs broke the 100 (Pbit/s)·km barrier (15.5
Tbit/s over a single 7,000 km fiber).
For short-distance applications, such as a network in an office
building (see FTTO), fiber-optic cabling can save space in cable ducts.
This is because a single fiber can carry much more data than
electrical cables such as standard category 5 Ethernet cabling, which
typically runs at 100 Mbit/s or 1 Gbit/s speeds. Fiber is also immune
to electrical interference; there is no cross-talk between signals in
different cables, and no pickup of environmental noise. Non-armored
fiber cables do not conduct electricity, which makes fiber a good
solution for protecting communications equipment in high
voltage environments, such as power generation facilities, or metal
communication structures prone to lightning strikes. They can also
be used in environments where explosive fumes are present, without
danger of ignition. Wiretapping (in this case, fiber tapping) is more
difficult compared to electrical connections, and there are concentric
dual-core fibers that are said to be tap-proof.
Fibers are often also used for short-distance connections between
devices. For example, most high-definition televisions offer a digital
audio optical connection. This allows the streaming of audio over
light, using the TOSLINK protocol.

The advantages of optical fiber communication with respect to

copper wire systems are:

Page 25 of 84
 Broad bandwidth: A single optical fiber can carry over
3,000,000 full-duplex voice calls or 90,000 TV channels.
 Immunity to electromagnetic interference: Light transmission
through optical fibers is unaffected by other electromagnetic
radiation nearby. The optical fiber is electrically non-conductive,
so it does not act as an antenna to pick up electromagnetic
signals. Information traveling inside the optical fiber is immune
to electromagnetic interference, even electromagnetic
pulses generated by nuclear devices.
 Low attenuation loss over long distances: Attenuation loss can be
as low as 0.2 dB/km in optical fiber cables, allowing transmission
over long distances without the need for repeaters.
 Electrical insulator: Optical fibers do not conduct electricity,
preventing problems with ground loops and conduction
of lightning. Optical fibers can be strung on poles alongside high
voltage power cables.
 Material cost and theft prevention: Conventional cable systems
use large amounts of copper. Global copper prices experienced a
boom in the 2000s, and copper has been a target of metal theft.
 Security of information passed down the cable: Copper can be
tapped with very little chance of detection.
 Fibers have many uses in remote sensing. In some applications,
the sensor is itself an optical fiber. In other cases, fiber is used
to connect a non-fiberoptic sensor to a measurement system.
Depending on the application, fiber may be used because of its
small size, or the fact that no electrical power is needed at the
remote location, or because many sensors can
be multiplexed along the length of a fiber by using different
wavelengths of light for each sensor, or by sensing the time
delay as light passes along the fiber through each sensor. Time
delay can be determined using a device such as an optical time-
domain reflectometer.
 Optical fibers can be used as sensors to
measure strain, temperature, pressure, and other quantities by

Page 26 of 84
modifying a fiber so that the property to measure modulates
the intensity, phase, polarization, wavelength, or transit time of
light in the fiber. Sensors that vary the intensity of light are the
simplest, since only a simple source and detector are required.
A particularly useful feature of such fiber optic sensors is that
they can, if required, provide distributed sensing over distances
of up to one meter. In contrast, highly localized measurements
can be provided by integrating miniaturized sensing elements
with the tip of the fiber. These can be implemented by various
micro- and nanofabrication technologies, such that they do not
exceed the microscopic boundary of the fiber tip, allowing such
applications as insertion into blood vessels via hypodermic
 Extrinsic fiber optic sensors use an optical fiber cable, normally
a multi-mode one, to transmit modulated light from either a
non-fiber optical sensor—or an electronic sensor connected to
an optical transmitter. A major benefit of extrinsic sensors is
their ability to reach otherwise inaccessible places. An example
is the measurement of temperature inside aircraft jet
engines by using a fiber to transmit radiation into a
radiation pyrometer outside the engine. Extrinsic sensors can
be used in the same way to measure the internal temperature
of electrical transformers, where the extreme electromagnetic
fields present make other measurement techniques impossible.
Extrinsic sensors measure vibration, rotation, displacement,
velocity, acceleration, torque, and torsion. A solid state version
of the gyroscope, using the interference of light, has been
developed. The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) has no moving
parts, and exploits the Sagnac effect to detect mechanical
 Common uses for fiber optic sensors includes advanced
intrusion detection security systems. The light is transmitted
along a fiber optic sensor cable placed on a fence, pipeline, or
communication cabling, and the returned signal is monitored
and analyzed for disturbances. This return signal is digitally
Page 27 of 84
processed to detect disturbances and trip an alarm if an
intrusion has occurred.
 Optical fibers are widely used as components of optical
chemical sensors and optical biosensors.
Optical fiber can be used to transmit power using a photovoltaic
cell to convert the light into electricity. While this method of power
transmission is not as efficient as conventional ones, it is especially
useful in situations where it is desirable not to have a metallic
conductor as in the case of use near MRI machines, which produce
strong magnetic fields. Other examples are for powering electronics
in high-powered antenna elements and measurement devices used
in high-voltage transmission equipment.
Optical fibers have a wide number of applications. They are used
as light guides in medical and other applications where bright light
needs to be shone on a target without a clear line-of-sight path. In
some buildings, optical fibers route sunlight from the roof to other
parts of the building (see nonimaging optics). Optical-fiber lamps are
used for illumination in decorative applications, including signs, art,
toys and artificial Christmas trees. Optical fiber is an intrinsic part of
the light-transmitting concrete building product LiTraCon.
Optical fiber can also be used in structural health monitoring. This
type of sensor is able to detect stresses that may have a lasting
impact on structures. It is based on the principle of measuring analog
Optical fiber is also used in imaging optics. A coherent bundle of
fibers is used, sometimes along with lenses, for a long, thin imaging
device called an endoscope, which is used to view objects through a
small hole. Medical endoscopes are used for minimally invasive
exploratory or surgical procedures. Industrial endoscopes
(see fiberscope or borescope) are used for inspecting anything hard
to reach, such as jet engine interiors. Many microscopes use fiber-
optic light sources to provide intense illumination of samples being

Page 28 of 84
In spectroscopy, optical fiber bundles transmit light from a
spectrometer to a substance that cannot be placed inside the
spectrometer itself, in order to analyze its composition. A
spectrometer analyzes substances by bouncing light off and through
them. By using fibers, a spectrometer can be used to study objects
An optical fiber doped with certain rare-earth elements such
as erbium can be used as the gain medium of a laser or optical
amplifier. Rare-earth-doped optical fibers can be used to provide
signal amplification by splicing a short section of doped fiber into a
regular (undoped) optical fiber line. The doped fiber is optically
pumped with a second laser wavelength that is coupled into the line
in addition to the signal wave. Both wavelengths of light are
transmitted through the doped fiber, which transfers energy from
the second pump wavelength to the signal wave. The process that
causes the amplification is stimulated emission.
Optical fiber is also widely exploited as a nonlinear medium. The
glass medium supports a host of nonlinear optical interactions, and
the long interaction lengths possible in fiber facilitate a variety of
phenomena, which are harnessed for applications and fundamental
investigation. Conversely, fiber nonlinearity can have deleterious
effects on optical signals, and measures are often required to
minimize such unwanted effects.

Optical fibers doped with a wavelength

shifter collect scintillation light in physics experiments.
Fiber-optic sights for handguns, rifles, and shotguns use pieces of
optical fiber to improve visibility of markings on the sight.

Page 29 of 84
An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectric
waveguide (nonconducting waveguide) that transmits light along its
axis, by the process of total internal reflection. The fiber consists of
a core surrounded by a cladding layer, both of which are made
of dielectric materials. To confine the optical signal in the core,
the refractive index of the core must be greater than that of the
cladding. The boundary between the core and cladding may either
be abrupt, in step-index fiber, or gradual, in graded-index fiber.
The index of refraction (or refractive index) is a way of measuring
the speed of light in a material. Light travels fastest in a vacuum,
such as in outer space. The speed of light in a vacuum is about
300,000 kilometers (186,000 miles) per second. The refractive index
of a medium is calculated by dividing the speed of light in a vacuum
by the speed of light in that medium. The refractive index of a
vacuum is therefore 1, by definition. A typical singlemode fiber used
for telecommunications has a cladding made of pure silica, with an
index of 1.444 at 1500 nm, and a core of doped silica with an index
around 1.4475. The larger the index of refraction, the slower light
travels in that medium. From this information, a simple rule of
thumb is that a signal using optical fiber for communication will
travel at around 200,000 kilometers per second. To put it another
way, the signal will take 5 milliseconds to travel 1,000 kilometers in
fiber. Thus a phone call carried by fiber between Sydney and New
York, a 16,000-kilometer distance, means that there is a minimum
delay of 80 milliseconds (about of a second) between when one
caller speaks and the other hears. (The fiber in this case will probably
travel a longer route, and there will be additional delays due to
communication equipment switching and the process of encoding
and decoding the voice onto the fiber).
Most modern optical fiber is weakly guiding, meaning that the
difference in refractive index between the core and the cladding is
very small (typically less than 1%).
When light traveling in an optically dense medium hits a boundary at
a steep angle (larger than the critical angle for the boundary), the
Page 30 of 84
light is completely reflected. This is called total internal reflection.
This effect is used in optical fibers to confine light in the core. Light
travels through the fiber core, bouncing back and forth off the
boundary between the core and cladding. Because the light must
strike the boundary with an angle greater than the critical angle, only
light that enters the fiber within a certain range of angles can travel
down the fiber without leaking out. This range of angles is called
the acceptance cone of the fiber. The size of this acceptance cone is
a function of the refractive index difference between the fiber's core
and cladding.
In simpler terms, there is a maximum angle from the fiber axis at
which light may enter the fiber so that it will propagate, or travel, in
the core of the fiber. The sine of this maximum angle is
the numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber. Fiber with a larger NA
requires less precision to splice and work with than fiber with a
smaller NA. Single-mode fiber has a small NA.
Fiber with large core diameter (greater than 10 micrometers) may be
analyzed by geometrical optics. Such fiber is called multi-mode fiber,
from the electromagnetic analysis (see below). In a step-index multi-
mode fiber, rays of light are guided along the fiber core by total
internal reflection. Rays that meet the core-cladding boundary at a
high angle (measured relative to a line normal to the boundary),
greater than the critical angle for this boundary, are completely
reflected. The critical angle (minimum angle for total internal
reflection) is determined by the difference in index of refraction
between the core and cladding materials. Rays that meet the
boundary at a low angle are refracted from the core into the
cladding, and do not convey light and hence information along the
fiber. The critical angle determines the acceptance angle of the fiber,
often reported as a numerical aperture. A high numerical aperture
allows light to propagate down the fiber in rays both close to the axis
and at various angles, allowing efficient coupling of light into the
fiber. However, this high numerical aperture increases the amount
of dispersion as rays at different angles have different path
lengths and therefore take different times to traverse the fiber.
Page 31 of 84
In graded-index fiber, the index of refraction in the core decreases
continuously between the axis and the cladding. This causes light
rays to bend smoothly as they approach the cladding, rather than
reflecting abruptly from the core-cladding boundary. The resulting
curved paths reduce multi-path dispersion because high angle rays
pass more through the lower-index periphery of the core, rather
than the high-index center. The index profile is chosen to minimize
the difference in axial propagation speeds of the various rays in the
fiber. This ideal index profile is very close to a parabolic relationship
between the index and the distance from the axis.

Page 32 of 84
 Registered Jack
A registered jack (RJ) is a standardized telecommunication network
interface for connecting voice and data equipment to a service
provided by a local exchange carrier or long distance carrier.
Registration interfaces were first defined in the Universal Service
Ordering Code (USOC) system of the Bell System in the United States
for complying with the registration program for customer-supplied
telephone equipment mandated by the Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) in the 1970s. They were subsequently codified in
title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 68.
The specification includes physical construction, wiring, and signal
semantics. Accordingly, registered jacks are primarily named by the
letters RJ, followed by two digits that express the type. Additionally,
letter suffixes indicate minor variations. For example, RJ11, RJ14,
and RJ25 are the most commonly used interfaces for telephone
connections for one-, two-, and three-line service, respectively.
Although these standards are legal definitions in the United States,
some interfaces are used worldwide.
The connectors used for registered jack installations are primarily
the modular connector and the 50-pin miniature ribbon connector.
For example, RJ11 uses a six-position two-conductor connector
(6P2C), RJ14 uses a six-position four-conductor (6P4C) modular jack,
while RJ21 uses a 25-pair (50-pin) miniature ribbon connector.

Page 33 of 84
The registered jack designations originated in the standardization
processes in the Bell System in the United States, and describe
application circuits and not just the physical geometry of the
connectors; inspection of the connector does not necessarily show
which registered jack wiring is used. The same modular connector
type may be used for different registered jack applications.
Strictly, Registered Jack refers to both the female physical connector
(modular connector) and its wiring, but the term is often used
loosely to refer to modular connectors regardless of wiring or
gender, such as in Ethernet over twisted pair. There is much
confusion over these connection standards. The same six-position
plug and jack commonly used for telephone line connections may be
used for RJ11, RJ14 or even RJ25, all of which are names of interface
standards that use this physical connector. The RJ11 standard
dictates a single wire pair connection, while RJ14 is a configuration
for two lines, and RJ25 uses all six wires for three telephones lines.
The RJ designations, though, only pertain to the wiring of the jack,
hence the name Registered Jack; it is commonplace, but not strictly
correct, to refer to an unwired plug by any of these names.
Modular connectors were developed to replace older telephone
installation methods that used either hardwired cords, or bulkier
varieties of telephone plugs. The common nomenclature for modular
connectors includes the number of contact positions and the number
of wires connected, for example 6P indicates a six-position modular
plug or jack. A six-position modular plug with conductors in the
middle two positions and the other four positions unused has the
designation 6P2C. RJ11 uses a 6P2C connector. The connectors could
be supplied with more pins, but if more pins are actually wired, the
interface is not an RJ11.
The most widely implemented registered jack in telecommunications
is the RJ11. This is a modular connector wired for one telephone line,
using the center two contacts of six available positions, and is used
for single-line telephones in homes and offices in most countries.

Page 34 of 84
RJ14 is similar to RJ11 but is wired for two lines and RJ25 has three
lines. RJ61 is a similar registered jack for four lines.
The RJ45(S) jack is rarely used, but the designation RJ45 commonly
refers to any 8P8C modular connector for application in computer
networking (Ethernet).
The officially recognized types of registered jacks are listed in the
following table:

Code Connector Usage

RJA1X 225A adapter Connector for a modular plug to a four-prong jack

RJA2X 267A adapter Connector for splitting one modular jack to two modular jacks

RJA3X 224A adapter Connector for adapting a modular plug to a 12-prong jack

RJ2MB 50-pin 2–12 telephone lines with make-busy arrangement

Establishes a bridged connection for one telephone line (6P4C if

RJ11(C/W) 6P2C
power on second pair)

Establishes a bridged connection for one telephone line with key

RJ12(C/W) 6P6C
telephone system control ahead of line circuit

RJ13(C/W) 6P4C Similar to RJ12, but behind the line circuit

RJ14(C/W) 6P4C For two telephone lines (6P6C if power on third pair)

RJ15C For one telephone line for boats in marinas

RJ18(C/W) 6P6C For one telephone line with make-busy arrangement

Page 35 of 84
RJ21X 50-pin Multiple (up to 25) line bridged T/R configuration

RJ25(C/W) 6P6C For three telephone lines

RJ26X 50-pin For multiple data lines, universal

RJ27X 50-pin For multiple data lines, programmed

Allows an alarm system to seize the telephone line to make an

outgoing call during an alarm. Jack is placed closer to the
RJ31X 8P8C
network interface than all other equipment. Only 4 conductors
are used.

Like RJ31X, this wiring provides a series tip and ring connection
through the connecting block, but is used when the customer
RJ32X 8P8C
premises equipment is connected in series with a single station,
such as an automatic dialer.

This wiring provides a series tip and ring connection of a KTS

line ahead of the line circuit because the registered equipment
requires CO/PBX ringing and a bridged connection of the A and
RJ33X 8P8C
A1 lead from behind the line circuit. Tip and ring are the only
leads opened when the CPE plug is inserted. Typical usage is
for customer-provided automatic dialers and call restrictors.

Similar to RJ33X, but all leads are connected behind the line
RJ34X 8P8C

This arrangement provides a series tip and ring connection to

RJ35X 8P8C whatever line has been selected in a key telephone set plus a
bridged A and A1 lead.

Similar to RJ31X, with a continuity circuit. If the plug is

RJ38X 8P4C disconnected from the jack, shorting bars allow the phone circuit
to continue to the site phones. Only 4 conductors are used.

Page 36 of 84
RJ41S 8P8C, keyed For one data line, universal (fixed loop loss and programmed)

RJ45S 8P8C, keyed For one data line, with programming resistor

RJ48C 8P4C For four-wire data line (DSX-1)

RJ48S 8P4C, keyed For four-wire data line (DDS)

8P4C with
RJ48X For four-wire data line (DS1)
shorting bar

RJ49C 8P8C For ISDN BRI via NT1

RJ61X 8P8C For four telephone lines

12 line series connection using 50-pin connector (with bridging

RJ71C 50-pin adapter) ahead of customer equipment. Mostly used for call
sequencer equipment.

Many of the basic names have suffixes that indicate subtypes:

 C: flush-mount or surface mount

 F: flex-mount
 W: wall-mount
 L: lamp-mount
 S: single-line
 M: multi-line
 X: complex jack
For example, RJ11 comes in two forms: RJ11W is a jack from which a
wall telephone can be hung, while RJ11C is a jack designed to have a
cord plugged into it. A cord can be plugged into an RJ11W as well.

Page 37 of 84
 Network switch
A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub,
officially MAC bridge) is a computer networking device that connects
devices together on a computer network by using packet
switching to receive, process, and forward data to the destination
A network switch is a multiport network bridge that uses hardware
addresses to process and forward data at the data link layer (layer 2)
of the OSI model. Some switches can also process data at
the network layer (layer 3) by additionally
incorporating routing functionality. Such switches are commonly
known as layer-3 switches or multilayer switches.
Switches for Ethernet are the most common form of network switch.
The first Ethernet switch was introduced by Kalpana in
1990. Switches also exist for other types of networks including Fibre
Channel, Asynchronous Transfer Mode, and InfiniBand.

Unlike less advanced repeater hubs, which broadcast the same data
out of each of its ports and let the devices decide what data they
need, a network switch forwards data only to the devices that need
to receive it.
A switch is a device in a computer network that connects other
devices together. Multiple data cables are plugged into a switch to
enable communication between different networked devices.
Switches manage the flow of data across a network by transmitting a
received network packet only to the one or more devices for which
the packet is intended. Each networked device connected to a switch
can be identified by its network address, allowing the switch to direct

Page 38 of 84
the flow of traffic maximizing the security and efficiency of the
A switch is more intelligent than an Ethernet hub, which simply
retransmits packets out of every port of the hub except the port on
which the packet was received, unable to distinguish different
recipients, and achieving an overall lower network efficiency.
An Ethernet switch operates at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI
model to create a separate collision domain for each switch port.
Each device connected to a switch port can transfer data to any of
the other ports at any time and the transmissions will not
interfere. Because broadcasts are still being forwarded to all
connected devices by the switch, the newly formed network
segment continues to be a broadcast domain. Switches may also
operate at higher layers of the OSI model, including the network
layer and above. A device that also operates at these higher layers is
known as a multilayer switch.
Segmentation involves the use of a switch to split a larger collision
domain into smaller ones in order to reduce collision probability, and
to improve overall network throughput. In the extreme case (i.e.
micro-segmentation), each device is located on a dedicated switch
port. In contrast to an Ethernet hub, there is a separate collision
domain on each of the switch ports. This allows computers to have
dedicated bandwidth on point-to-point connections to the network
and also to run in full-duplex mode. Full-duplex mode has only one
transmitter and one receiver per collision domain, making collisions
The network switch plays an integral role in most modern
Ethernet local area networks (LANs). Mid-to-large sized LANs contain
a number of linked managed switches. Small office/home
office (SOHO) applications typically use a single switch, or an all-
purpose device such as a residential gateway to access small
office/home broadband services such as DSL or cable Internet. In
most of these cases, the end-user device contains a router and
components that interface to the particular physical broadband

Page 39 of 84
technology. User devices may also include a telephone interface
for Voice over IP (VoIP).
Switches are most commonly used as the network connection point
for hosts at the edge of a network. In the hierarchical
internetworking model and similar network architectures, switches
are also used deeper in the network to provide connections between
the switches at the edge.
In switches intended for commercial use, built-in or modular
interfaces make it possible to connect different types of networks,
including Ethernet, Fibre Channel, RapidIO, ATM, ITU-
T and 802.11. This connectivity can be at any of the layers
mentioned. While the layer-2 functionality is adequate for
bandwidth-shifting within one technology, interconnecting
technologies such as Ethernet and token ring is performed more
easily at layer 3 or via routing. Devices that interconnect at the
layer 3 are traditionally called routers, so layer 3 switches can also be
regarded as relatively primitive and specialized routers.
Where there is a need for a great deal of analysis of network
performance and security, switches may be connected between
WAN routers as places for analytic modules. Some vendors
provide firewall, network intrusion detection, and performance
analysis modules that can plug into switch ports. Some of these
functions may be on combined modules.
Through port mirroring, a switch can create a mirror image of data
that can go to an external device such as intrusion detection
systems and packet sniffers.
A modern switch may implement power over Ethernet (PoE), which
avoids the need for attached devices, such as a VoIP
phone or wireless access point, to have a separate power supply.
Since switches can have redundant power circuits connected
to uninterruptible power supplies, the connected device can
continue operating even when regular office power fails.

Page 40 of 84
Wireless system is the system that we use in our daily life. This
system transmits data in the form of radio waves. The system
consists of several instruments such as modem, spectrum, receiver,
wireless-n-router, AM. All of the above mentioned instruments
depend upon wired network with the data centre all the instruments
convert electrical signals to the required Hz of signal which is
received using our mobile phones.
For example Wi-Fi transmits a signal of 14 channels at 2.4 GHz and 5
GHz with dual bandwidth support.
In communication an antenna at the transmitter radiates radio
waves (EM Waves) which travels through space and reach the
receiving antenna at the other place by a particular mode of
propagation depending upon the frequency range of the radio
waves, distance between the transmitting and receiving antennas
etc. Several factors influence the propagation of radio waves and the
path they follow. Composition of the earth’s atmosphere also plays a
vital role in the proportion of these waves. There are three modes of
propagation of radio waves.
1. Ground-wave propagation.
2. Sky-wave propagation.
3. Space-wave propagation.

Page 41 of 84
 Ground-wave propagation

When the radio waves emitted from the transmitting antenna

propagate following the surface of the earth so as to reach the
receiving antenna, the wave propagation is called ground-wave
propagation. This type of propagation can exist when the
transmitting and receiving antenna are close to the surface of earth.

In ground-wave propagation, the transmitted waves bend round the

curvature of the earth, and their intensity falls with distance over the
surface of the earth. Hence, ground-wave propagation cannot take
place up to very large distances. Moreover, the attenuation of
surface waves increases very rapidly with increase in frequency. The
maximum range of coverage depends upon the transmitted power
and frequency, because high-frequency waves suffer more
absorption of energy by the atmosphere.

Ground wave propagation is possible only up to 1.5 MHz frequency

(wavelength 200 m or more). Hence, all amplitude-modulation (AM)
medium-wave, long-wave radio broadcasts and radio-navigational
aids adopt ground-wave propagation.

For high frequency and TV frequency –modulated (FM) radio signals,

the ground-wave propagation cannot be used, because at high
frequencies the ground wave is progressively absorbed by the
atmosphere near the earth and becomes insignificant beyond few
kilometres, around the transmitting antenna. Ground-wave
propagation is, however, very reliable, whatever be the atmospheric

Page 42 of 84
 Sky- wave propagation

When the radio waves emitted from the transmitting antenna at high
angles, travel upward and reach the receiving antenna after being
reflected from the ionosphere. This mode of wave propagation is
called sky-wave propagation. This type of propagation is used for
waves in the frequency range from few MHz to 30 to 40 MHz.
Ionosphere extends from a height of ~65 km to about 400 km above
the earth’s surface. The degree of isolation (with the ions present in
a layer) varies with the height the ionospheric layer acts as a
reflector for range of frequencies (3 to 30 MHz). The radio waves of
frequencies higher than 30 MHz penetrate the ionosphere and
escape. The bending of radio waves due to which they are diverted
towards the earth is similar to phenomenon of total internal
reflection in optics.

As the angle of emission of radio waves with respect to earth is

increased, a stage comes when the ionospheric layers do not reflect
the waves towards the earth, but transmit them through.

Page 43 of 84
 Space-wave propagation.

When the radio waves from the transmitting antenna reach the
receiving antenna either directly, or after reflection from earth’s
surface or after reflection from a communication satellite, the wave
propagation is called space-wave propagation. Space waves are used
for line of sight (LOS) communication as well as satellite
communication. At these frequencies antennas are relatively smaller
and can be placed at heights of many wavelength above the ground.

The space-wave propagation is adopted to transmit waves in very

high frequency (UHF) band (300 MHz- 3 GHz) and microwaves (above
100 GHz). For example, television signals (54-806 MHz) and radar
beams (microwaves) utilise space-wave propagation.

Page 44 of 84
All the above mentioned systems are not practical until instruments
and connectivity like the following are used:

 Instruments
 Pager.
 Subscriber Identity Module (Sim Card).
 Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi).
 Connectivity
 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS).
 Global Positioning System (GPS).
 Code-division Multiple Access (CDMA).
 Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM).
 Enhanced Data Rates for GSM (EDGE).
 Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS).
 4th Generation (4-G).
 Long-Term Evolution (LTE).
 Voice over Long-Term Evolution (VoLTE).
 5th Generation (5-G).

Page 45 of 84
 Pager.

A pager (also known as a beeper) is a wireless telecommunications

device that receives and displays alphanumeric or voice
messages. One-way pagers can only receive messages,
while response pagers and two-way pagers can also acknowledge,
reply to, and originate messages using an internal transmitter.
Pagers operate as part of a paging system which includes one or
more fixed transmitters (or in the case of response pagers and two-
way pagers, one or more base stations), as well as a number of
pagers carried by mobile users. These systems can range from a
restaurant system with a single low-power transmitter, to a
nationwide system with thousands of high-power base stations.
Pagers were developed in the 1950s and 1960s, and became widely
used by the 1980s. In the 21st century, the widespread availability
of cellphones and smartphones has greatly diminished the pager
industry. Nevertheless, pagers continue to be used by some
emergency services and public safety personnel, because modern
pager systems' coverage overlap, combined with use of satellite
communications, can make paging systems more reliable than
terrestrial-based cellular networks in some cases, including during
natural and man-made disasters. This resilience has led public safety
agencies to adopt pagers over cellular and other commercial services
for critical messaging.
The UK National Health Service is thought to use over 10% of
remaining pagers in 2017, 130,000 with an annual cost of £6.6

Page 46 of 84
Paging systems are operated by commercial carriers, often as a
subscription service, and they are also operated directly by end users
as private systems. Commercial carrier systems tend to cover a larger
geographical area than private systems, while private systems tend
to cover their limited area more thoroughly and deliver messages
faster than commercial systems. In all systems, clients send
messages to pagers, an activity commonly referred to as paging.
System operators often assign unique phone numbers or email
addresses to pagers (and pre-defined groups of pagers), enabling
clients to page by telephone call, e-mail, and SMS. Paging systems
also support various types of direct connection protocols, which
sacrifice global addressing and accessibility for a dedicated
communications link. Automated monitoring and escalation software
clients, often used in hospitals, IT departments, and alarm
companies, tend to prefer direct connections because of the
increased reliability. Small paging systems, such as those used in
restaurant and retail establishments, often integrate a keyboard and
paging system into a single box, reducing both cost and complexity.
Paging systems support several popular direct connection protocols,
including TAP, TNPP, SNPP, and WCTP, as well as proprietary
modem- and socket-based protocols. Additionally, organizations
often integrate paging systems with their Voice-
mail and PBX systems, conceptually attaching pagers to a telephone
extensions, and they set up web portals to integrate pagers into
other parts of their enterprise. A paging system alerts a pager (or
group of pagers) by transmitting information over an RF channel,
including an address and message information. This information is
formatted using a paging protocol, such as 2-tone, 5/6-tone,
GOLAY, POCSAG, FLEX, ERMES, or NTT. Two-way pagers and
response pagers typically use the ReFLEX protocol.
Modern paging systems typically use multiple base transmitters to
modulate the same signal on the same RF channel, a design
approach called simulcast. This type of design enables pagers to
select the strongest signal from several candidate transmitters

Page 47 of 84
using FM capture, thereby improving overall system performance.
Simulcast systems often use satellite to distribute identical
information to multiple transmitters, and GPS at each transmitter to
precisely time its modulation relative to other transmitters. The
coverage overlap, combined with use of satellite communications,
can make paging systems more reliable than terrestrial based cellular
networks in some cases, including during natural and man-made
disaster. This resilience has led public safety agencies to adopt
pagers over cellular and other commercial services for critical

Page 48 of 84
 Subscriber Identity Module (SIM Card).

A subscriber identity module or subscriber identification

module (SIM), widely known as a SIM card, is an integrated
circuit that is intended to securely store the international mobile
subscriber identity (IMSI) number and its related key, which are used
to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices
(such as mobile phones and computers). It is also possible to store
contact information on many SIM cards. SIM cards are always used
on GSM phones; for CDMA phones, they are only needed for
newer LTE-capable handsets. SIM cards can also be used in satellite
phones, smart watches, computers, or cameras.
The SIM circuit is part of the function of a universal integrated circuit
card (UICC) physical smart card, which is usually made of PVC with
embedded contacts and semiconductors. SIM cards are transferable
between different mobile devices. The first UICC smart cards were
the size of credit and bank cards; sizes were reduced several times
over the years, usually keeping electrical contacts the same, so that a
larger card could be cut down to a smaller size.
A SIM card contains its unique serial number (ICCID), international
mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number, security authentication
and ciphering information, temporary information related to the
local network, a list of the services the user has access to, and two
passwords: a personal identification number (PIN) for ordinary use,
and a personal unblocking code (PUC) for PIN unlocking.

Page 49 of 84
There are three operating voltages for SIM cards: 5 V, 3 V and 1.8
V (ISO/IEC 7816-3 classes A, B and C, respectively). The operating
voltage of the majority of SIM cards launched before 1998 was 5 V.
SIM cards produced subsequently are compatible with 3 V and 5 V.
Modern cards support 5 V, 3 V and 1.8 V.

Modern SIM cards allow applications to load when the SIM is in use
by the subscriber. These applications communicate with the handset
or a server using SIM Application Toolkit, which was initially specified
by 3GPP in TS 11.14. (There is an identical ETSI specification with
different numbering.) ETSI and 3GPP maintain the SIM specifications.
The main specifications are: ETSI TS 102 223, ETSI TS 102 241, ETSI TS
102 588, and ETSI TS 131 111. SIM toolkit applications were initially
written in native code using proprietary APIs. To provide
interoperability of the applications, ETSI chose Java Card. Additional
standard size and specifications of interest are maintained by Global

Page 50 of 84
SIM cards store network-specific information used to authenticate
and identify subscribers on the network. The most important of
these are the ICCID, IMSI, Authentication Key (Ki), Local Area Identity
(LAI) and Operator-Specific Emergency Number. The SIM also stores
other carrier-specific data such as the SMSC (Short Message Service
Center) number, Service Provider Name (SPN), Service Dialing
Numbers (SDN), Advice-Of-Charge parameters and Value Added
Service (VAS) applications.
SIM cards can come in various data capacities, from 8 KB to at
least 256 KB. All can store a maximum of 250 contacts on the SIM,
but while the 32 KB has room for 33 Mobile Network Codes (MNCs)
or network identifiers, the 64 KB version has room for 80 MNCs. This
is used by network operators to store data on preferred networks,
mostly used when the SIM is not in its home network but is roaming.
The network operator that issued the SIM card can use this to have a
phone connect to a preferred network that is more economic for the
provider instead of having to pay the network operator that the
phone 'saw' first. This does not mean that a phone containing this
SIM card can connect to a maximum of only 33 or 80 networks, but it
means that the SIM card issuer can specify only up to that number of
preferred networks. If a SIM is outside these preferred networks it
uses the first or best available network.

Page 51 of 84
 Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi).
Wi-Fi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of
devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. Wi-Fi is a trademark of
the Wi-Fi Alliance, which restricts the use of the term Wi-Fi
Certified to products that successfully
complete interoperability certification testing.
Devices that can use Wi-Fi technologies include desktops and
laptops, video game consoles, smartphones and tablets, smart TVs,
digital audio players and modern printers. Wi-Fi compatible devices
can connect to the Internet via a WLAN and a wireless access point.
Such an access point (or hotspot) has a range of about 20 meters (66
feet) indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can be
as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or as
large as many square kilometers achieved by using multiple
overlapping access points.
Wi-Fi most commonly uses the 2.4 gigahertz (12 cm) UHF and 5.8
gigahertz (5 cm) SHF ISM radio bands, these bands are subdivided
into multiple channels. Each channel can be time-shared by multiple
networks. These wavelengths work best for line-of-sight. Many
common materials absorb or reflect them, which further restricts
range, but can tend to help minimize interference between different
networks in crowded environments. At close range, some versions of
Wi-Fi, running on suitable hardware can achieve speeds of over 1
Anyone within range with a wireless network interface controller can
attempt to access a network; because of this, Wi-Fi is more
vulnerable to attack (called eavesdropping) than wired networks. Wi-
Fi Protected Access is a family of technologies created to protect
information moving across Wi-Fi networks and includes solutions for
personal and enterprise networks. Security features of Wi-Fi
Protected Access have included stronger protections and new
security practices as the security landscape has changed over time.

Page 52 of 84
 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS).
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile
data standard on the 2G and 3G cellular communication
network's global system for mobile communications(GSM). GPRS was
established by European Telecommunications Standards Institute
(ETSI) in response to the earlier CDPD and i-mode packet-switched
cellular technologies. It is now maintained by the 3rd Generation
Partnership Project (3GPP).
GPRS is typically sold according to the total volume of data
transferred during the billing cycle, in contrast with circuit
switched data, which is usually billed per minute of connection time,
or sometimes by one-third minute increments. Usage above the
GPRS bundled data cap may be charged per Mb of data, speed
limited, or disallowed.
GPRS is a best-effort service, implying variable throughput
and latency that depend on the number of other users sharing the
service concurrently, as opposed to circuit switching, where a
certain quality of service (QoS) is guaranteed during the connection.
In 2G systems, GPRS provides data rates of 56–114 kbit/sec. 2G
cellular technology combined with GPRS is sometimes described
as 2.5G, that is, a technology between the second (2G) and third (3G)
generations of mobile telephony. It provides moderate-speed data
transfer, by using unused time division multiple access (TDMA)
channels in, for example, the GSM system. GPRS is integrated into
GSM Release 97 and newer releases.

Page 53 of 84
 The Global Positioning System (GPS).
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a
satellite-based radio-navigation system owned by the United
States government and operated by the United States Air Force. It is
a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation
and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the
Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more
GPS satellites. Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the
relatively weak GPS signals.
The GPS does not require the user to transmit any data, and it
operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception,
though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS
positioning information. The GPS provides critical positioning
capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world.
The United States government created the system, maintains it, and
makes it freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.
The GPS project was launched by the U.S. Department of Defense in
1973 for use by the United States military and became fully
operational in 1995. It was allowed for civilian use in the 1980s.
Advances in technology and new demands on the existing system
have now led to efforts to modernize the GPS and implement the
next generation of GPS Block IIIA satellites and Next Generation
Operational Control System (OCX). Announcements from Vice
President Al Gore and the White House in 1998 initiated these
changes. In 2000, the U.S. Congress authorized the modernization
effort, GPS III. During the 1990s, GPS quality was degraded by the
United States government in a program called "Selective
Availability"; this was discontinued in May 2000 by a law signed by
President Bill Clinton. New GPS receiver devices using the L5
frequency to begin release in 2018 are expected to have a much
higher accuracy and pinpoint a device to within 30 centimeters or
just under one foot.

Page 54 of 84
The GPS system is provided by the United States government, which
can selectively deny access to the system, as happened to the Indian
military in 1999 during the Kargil War, or degrade the service at any
time. As a result, several countries have developed or are in the
process of setting up other global or regional navigation systems. The
Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) was
developed contemporaneously with GPS, but suffered from
incomplete coverage of the globe until the mid-2000s. GLONASS can
be added to GPS devices, making more satellites available and
enabling positions to be fixed more quickly and accurately, to within
two meters. China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is due to
achieve global reach in 2020. There are also the European
Union Galileo positioning system, and India's NAVIC. Japan's Quasi-
Zenith Satellite System (scheduled to commence in November 2018)
will be a GPS satellite-based augmentation system to enhance GPS's

Page 55 of 84
 Code-division multiple access (CDMA).
Code-division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access
method used by various radio communication technologies.
CDMA is an example of multiple access, where several transmitters
can send information simultaneously over a single communication
channel. This allows several users to share a band of frequencies
(see bandwidth). To permit this without undue interference between
the users, CDMA employs spread spectrum technology and a special
coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code).
CDMA is used as the access method in many mobile phone
standards. IS-95, also called "cdmaOne", and
its 3G evolution CDMA2000, are often simply referred to as "CDMA",
but UMTS, the 3G standard used by GSM carriers, also uses
"wideband CDMA", or W-CDMA, as well as TD-CDMA and TD-
SCDMA, as its radio technologies.

Page 56 of 84
 Global System for Mobile communications (GSM).
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard
developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute
(ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular
networks used by mobile devices such as tablets. It was first
deployed in Finland in December 1991. As of 2014, it has become the
global standard for mobile communications – with over 90% market
share, operating in over 193 countries and territories.
2G networks developed as a replacement for first generation (1G)
analog cellular networks, and the GSM standard originally described
a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full duplex voice
telephony. This expanded over time to include data communications,
first by circuit-switched transport, then by packet data transport
via GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) and EDGE (Enhanced Data
rates for GSM Evolution, or EGPRS).
Subsequently, the 3GPP developed third-generation (3G) UMTS
standards, followed by fourth-generation (4G) LTE Advanced
standards, which do not form part of the ETSI GSM standard.
"GSM" is a trademark owned by the GSM Association. It may also
refer to the (initially) most common voice codec used.

Page 57 of 84
GSM is a cellular network, which means that cell phones connect to
it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. There are five
different cell sizes in a GSM network—macro, micro, pico, femto,
and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to
the implementation environment. Macro cells can be regarded as
cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a
building above average rooftop level. Micro cells are cells whose
antenna height is under average rooftop level; they are typically used
in urban areas. Picocells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a
few dozen meters; they are mainly used indoors. Femtocells are cells
designed for use in residential or small business environments and
connect to the service provider’s network via a broadband internet
connection. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of
smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells.
Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna
gain, and propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to
several tens of kilometres. The longest distance the GSM
specification supports in practical use is 35 kilometres (22 mi). There
are also several implementations of the concept of an extended
cell, where the cell radius could be double or even more, depending
on the antenna system, the type of terrain, and the timing advance.
Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by
using an indoor picocell base station, or an indoor repeater with
distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters, to deliver
the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor
distributed antenna system. These are typically deployed when
significant call capacity is needed indoors, like in shopping centers or
airports. However, this is not a prerequisite, since indoor coverage is
also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from any
nearby cell.

GSM networks operate in a number of different carrier frequency

ranges (separated into GSM frequency ranges for 2G and UMTS

Page 58 of 84
frequency bands for 3G), with most 2G GSM networks operating in
the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Where these bands were already
allocated, the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands were used instead (for
example in Canada and the United States). In rare cases the 400 and
450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries because
they were previously used for first-generation systems.
For comparison most 3G networks in Europe operate in the 2100
MHz frequency band. For more information on worldwide GSM
frequency usage, seeGSM frequency bands.
Regardless of the frequency selected by an operator, it is divided
into timeslots for individual phones. This allows eight full-rate or
sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency. These eight
radio timeslots (or burst periods) are grouped into a TDMA frame.
Half-rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The
channel data rate for all 8 channels is 270.833 kbit/s, and the frame
duration is 4.615 ms.
The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2
watts in GSM 850/900 and 1 watt in GSM 1800/1900.

Page 59 of 84
 Enhanced data for global evolution (EDGE).

Enhanced data for global evolution (EDGE) is a high-speed mobile

data standard, intended to enable second-generation global system
for mobile communication (GSM) and time division multiple access
(TDMA) networks to transmit data at up to 384 kilobits per second
(Kbps). As it was initially developed just for GSM systems, it has also
been called GSM384. Ericsson intended the technology for those
network operators who failed to win spectrum auctions for third-
generation networks to allow high-speed data transmission.

EDGE provides speed enhancements by changing the type of

modulation used and making a better use of the carrier currently
used, for example the 200kHz carrier in GSM systems. EDGE also
provides an evolutionary path to third-generation IMT-2000-
compliant systems, such as universal mobile telephone systems
(UMTS), by implementing some of the changes expected in the later
implementation in third-generation systems.

EDGE builds upon enhancements provided by general packet radio

service (GPRS) and high-speed circuit switched data (HSCSD)
technologies that are currently being tested and deployed. It enables
a greater data-transmission speed to be achieved in good conditions,
especially near the base stations, by implementing an eight-phase-
shift keying (8 PSK) modulation instead of Gaussian minimum-shift
keying (GMSK).

Evolved EDGE, also called EDGE Evolution, is a bolt-on extension to

the GSM mobile telephony standard, which improves on EDGE in a
number of ways. Latencies are reduced by lowering the Transmission
Time Interval by half (from 20 ms to 10 ms). Bit rates are increased
up to 1 Mbit/s peak bandwidth and latencies down to 80 ms using
dual carrier, higher symbol rate and higher-order
modulation (32QAM and 16QAM instead of 8PSK), and turbo
codes to improve error correction. This results in real world downlink

Page 60 of 84
speeds of up to 600kbit/s. Further the signal quality is improved
using dual antennas improving average bit-rates and spectrum
The main intention of increasing the existing EDGE throughput is that
many operators would like to upgrade their existing infrastructure
rather than invest on new network infrastructure. Mobile operators
have invested billions in GSM networks, many of which are already
capable of supporting EDGE data speeds up to 236.8 kbit/s. With a
software upgrade and a new device compliant with Evolved EDGE
(like an Evolved EDGE smartphone) for the user, these data rates can
be boosted to speeds approaching 1 Mbit/s (i.e. 98.6 kbit/s per
timeslot for 32QAM). Many service providers may not invest on a
completely new technology like 3G networks.
Considerable research and development happened throughout the
world for this new technology. A successful trial by Nokia Siemens
and "one of China's leading operators" has been achieved in a live
environment. With the introduction for more advanced wireless
technologies like UMTS and LTE, which also focus on a network
coverage layer on low frequencies and the upcoming phase-out and
shutdown of 2G mobile networks, it is very unlikely that Evolved
EDGE will ever see any deployment on live networks. Up to now (as
of 2016) there are no commercial networks which support the
Evolved EDGE standard (3GPP Rel-7).
The Global mobile Suppliers Association (GSA) states that, as of May
2013, there were 604 GSM/EDGE networks in 213 countries, from a
total of 606 mobile network operator commitments in 213 countries.
It provides average data speeds between 75-135 Kbps. Although
Cingular callsEDGE a "third-generation" technology, it is commonly
called a "2.75G" network, as it does not offer the true speed of a 3G

Page 61 of 84
 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System


The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third

generation mobile cellular system for networks based on
the GSM standard. Developed and maintained by the 3GPP (3rd
Generation Partnership Project), UMTS is a component of
the International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard set
and compares with the CDMA2000standard set for networks based
on the competing cdmaOne technology. UMTS uses wideband code
division multiple access (W-CDMA) radio access technology to offer
greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile network
UMTS specifies a complete network system, which includes the radio
access network (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network, or UTRAN),
the core network (Mobile Application Part, or MAP) and the
authentication of users via SIM (subscriber identity module) cards.
The technology described in UMTS is sometimes also referred to
as Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access (FOMA) or 3GSM.
Unlike EDGE (IMT Single-Carrier, based on GSM) and CDMA2000
(IMT Multi-Carrier), UMTS requires new base stations and new
frequency allocations.
UMTS supports maximum theoretical data transfer rates of
42 Mbit/s when Evolved HSPA (HSPA+) is implemented in the
network. Users in deployed networks can expect a transfer rate of up
to 384 kbit/s for Release '99 (R99) handsets (the original UMTS
release), and 7.2 Mbit/s for High-Speed Downlink Packet Access
(HSDPA) handsets in the downlink connection. These speeds are
significantly faster than the 9.6 kbit/s of a single GSM error-corrected
circuit switched data channel, multiple 9.6 kbit/s channels in High-
Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD) and 14.4 kbit/s for CDMAOne

Page 62 of 84
Since 2006, UMTS networks in many countries have been or are in
the process of being upgraded with High-Speed Downlink Packet
Access (HSDPA), sometimes known as 3.5G. Currently, HSDPA
enables downlink transfer speeds of up to 21 Mbit/s. Work is also
progressing on improving the uplink transfer speed with the High-
Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA). Longer term, the 3GPP Long
Term Evolution (LTE) project plans to move UMTS to 4G speeds of
100 Mbit/s down and 50 Mbit/s up, using a next generation air
interface technology based upon orthogonal frequency-division
The first national consumer UMTS networks launched in 2002 with a
heavy emphasis on telco-provided mobile applications such as
mobile TV and video calling. The high data speeds of UMTS are now
most often utilized for Internet access: experience in Japan and
elsewhere has shown that user demand for video calls is not high,
and telco-provided audio/video content has declined in popularity in
favor of high-speed access to the World Wide Web—either directly
on a handset or connected to a computer via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or

Page 63 of 84
UMTS combines three different terrestrial air interfaces, GSM's
Mobile Application Part (MAP) core, and the GSM family of speech
The air interfaces are called UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA).
All air interface options are part of ITU's IMT-2000. In the currently
most popular variant for cellular mobile telephones, W-CDMA (IMT
Direct Spread) is used.
Please note that the terms W-CDMA, TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA are
misleading. While they suggest covering just a channel access
method (namely a variant of CDMA), they are actually the common
names for the whole air interface standards.

W-CDMA or WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access),

along with UMTS-FDD, UTRA-FDD, or IMT-2000 CDMA Direct
Spread is an air interface standard found in 3G mobile
telecommunications networks. It supports conventional cellular
voice, text and MMS services, but can also carry data at high speeds,
allowing mobile operators to deliver higher bandwidth applications
including streaming and broadband Internet access.
W-CDMA uses the DS-CDMA channel access method with a pair of
5 MHz wide channels. In contrast, the competing CDMA2000 system
uses one or more available 1.25 MHz channels for each direction of
communication. W-CDMA systems are widely criticized for their large
spectrum usage, which delayed deployment in countries that acted
relatively slowly in allocating new frequencies specifically for 3G
services (such as the United States).
The specific frequency bands originally defined by the UMTS
standard are 1885–2025 MHz for the mobile-to-base (uplink) and
2110–2200 MHz for the base-to-mobile (downlink). In the US, 1710–
1755 MHz and 2110–2155 MHz are used instead, as the 1900 MHz
band was already used. While UMTS2100 is the most widely
deployed UMTS band, some countries' UMTS operators use the
850 MHz and/or 1900 MHz bands (independently, meaning uplink
and downlink are within the same band), notably in the US by AT&T
Page 64 of 84
Mobility, New Zealand by Telecom New Zealand on the XT Mobile
Network and in Australia by Telstra on the Next G network. Some
carriers such as T-Mobile use band numbers to identify the UMTS
frequencies. For example, Band I (2100 MHz), Band IV
(1700/2100 MHz), and Band V (850 MHz).
UMTS-FDD is an acronym for Universal Mobile Telecommunications
System (UMTS) - frequency-division duplexing (FDD) and a 3GPP
standardized version of UMTS networks that makes use
of frequency-division duplexing for duplexing over an UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) air interface.
W-CDMA is the basis of Japan's NTT DoCoMo's FOMA service and the
most-commonly used member of the Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS) family and sometimes used as a
synonym for UMTS. It uses the DS-CDMA channel access method and
the FDD duplexing method to achieve higher speeds and support
more users compared to most previously used time division multiple
access (TDMA) and time division duplex (TDD) schemes.
While not an evolutionary upgrade on the airside, it uses the same
core network as the 2G GSM networks deployed worldwide, allowing
dual mode mobile operation along with GSM/EDGE; a feature it
shares with other members of the UMTS family.

Page 65 of 84
 Fourth Generation (4-G).

4G is the fourth generation of broadband cellular

network technology, succeeding 3G. A 4G system must provide
capabilities defined by ITU in IMT Advanced. Potential and current
applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony,
gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing,
and 3D television.
The first-release Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard was
commercially deployed in Oslo, Norway, and Stockholm, Sweden in
2009, and has since been deployed throughout most parts of the
world. It has, however, been debated whether first-release versions
should be considered 4G.
In March 2008, the International Telecommunications Union-Radio
communications sector (ITU-R) was specified a set of requirements
for 4G standards, named the International Mobile
Telecommunications Advanced (IMT-Advanced) specification, setting
peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 megabits per
second (Mbit/s)(=12.5 megabytes per second) for high mobility
communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 gigabit per
second (Gbit/s) for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians
and stationary users).
Since the first-release versions of Mobile WiMAX and LTE support
much less than 1 Gbit/s peak bit rate, they are not fully IMT-
Advanced compliant, but are often branded 4G by service providers.
According to operators, a generation of the network refers to the
deployment of a new non-backward-compatible technology. On
December 6, 2010, ITU-R recognized that these two technologies, as
well as other beyond-3G technologies that do not fulfill the IMT-
Advanced requirements, could nevertheless be considered "4G",
provided they represent forerunners to IMT-Advanced compliant
versions and "a substantial level of improvement in performance and
capabilities with respect to the initial third generation systems now
Page 66 of 84
Mobile WiMAX Release 2 (also known as WirelessMAN-
Advanced or IEEE 802.16m') and LTE Advanced (LTE-A) are IMT-
Advanced compliant backwards compatible versions of the above
two systems, standardized during the spring 2011, and promising
speeds in the order of 1 Gbit/s. Services were expected in 2013.
As opposed to earlier generations, a 4G system does not support
traditional circuit-switched telephony service, but all-Internet
Protocol (IP) based communication such as IP telephony. As seen
below, the spread spectrum radio technology used in 3G systems is
abandoned in all 4G candidate systems and replaced by OFDMA
multi-carrier transmission and other frequency-domain equalization
(FDE) schemes, making it possible to transfer very high bit rates
despite extensive multi-path radio propagation (echoes). The peak
bit rate is further improved by smart antenna arrays for multiple-
input multiple-output (MIMO) communications.
In the field of mobile communications, a "generation" generally
refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service, non-
backwards-compatible transmission technology, higher peak bit
rates, new frequency bands, wider channel frequency bandwidth in
Hertz, and higher capacity for many simultaneous data transfers
(higher efficiency in bit/second/Hertz/site).
New mobile generations have appeared about every ten years since
the first move from 1981 analog (1G) to digital (2G) transmission in
1992. This was followed, in 2001, by 3G multi-media support, spread
spectrum transmission and, at least, 200 kbit/s peak bit rate, in
2011/2012 to be followed by "real" 4G, which refers to all-Internet
Protocol (IP) packet-switched networks giving mobile ultra-
broadband (gigabit speed) access.
While the ITU has adopted recommendations for technologies that
would be used for future global communications, they do not
actually perform the standardization or development work
themselves, instead relying on the work of other standard bodies
such as IEEE, The WI MAX Forum, and 3GPP.

Page 67 of 84
In the mid-1990s, the ITU-R standardization organization released
the IMT-2000 requirements as a framework for what standards
should be considered 3G systems, requiring 200 kbit/s peak bit rate.
In 2008, ITU -R specified the IMT – Advanced (International Mobile
Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G systems.
The fastest 3G-based standard in the UMTS family is the HSPA+
standard, which is commercially available since 2009 and offers 28
Mbit/s downstream (22 Mbit/s upstream) without MIMO, i.e. only
with one antenna, and in 2011 accelerated up to 42 Mbit/s peak bit
rate downstream using either DC-HSPA+ (simultaneous use of two
5 MHz UMTS carriers) or 2x2 MIMO. In theory speeds up to 672
Mbit/s are possible, but have not been deployed yet. The fastest 3G-
based standard in the CDMA2000 family is the EV-DO Rev. B, which is
available since 2010 and offers 15.67 Mbit/s downstream.
Mobile 4G network using several frequencies which are 700 MHz,850
MHz, 1800 MHz, 1900 MHz, 2100 MHz, 2300 MHz, 2600 MHz. In case
of Australia, The 700 MHz band was previously used for analogue
television and became operational with 4G in December 2014. The
850 MHz band is currently operated as a 3G network by Telstra and
as a 4G network by Vodafone in Australia.

Page 68 of 84
 Long-Term Evolution (LTE).

In telecommunication, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for

high-speed wireless communication for mobile devices and data
terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies. It
increases the capacity and speed using a different radio interface
together with core network improvements. The standard is
developed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) and is
specified in its Release 8 document series, with minor enhancements
described in Release 9. LTE is the upgrade path for carriers with both
GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks. The different LTE
frequencies and bands used in different countries mean that only
multi-band phones are able to use LTE in all countries where it is
LTE is commonly marketed as 4G LTE & Advance 4G, but it does not
meet the technical criteria of a 4G wireless service, as specified in the
3GPP Release 8 and 9 document series for LTE Advanced. The
requirements were originally set forth by the ITU-R organization in
the IMT Advanced specification. However, due to marketing
pressures and the significant advancements that WiMAX, Evolved
High Speed Packet Access and LTE bring to the original 3G
technologies, ITU later decided that LTE together with the
aforementioned technologies can be called 4G technologies. The LTE
Advanced standard formally satisfies the ITU-R requirements to be
considered IMT-Advanced. To differentiate LTE Advanced
and WiMAX-Advanced from current 4G technologies, ITU has defined
them as "True 4G".

Page 69 of 84
Adoption of LTE technology

Countries and regions with commercial LTE service

Countries and regions with commercial LTE network deployment on-going or


Countries and regions with LTE trial systems (pre-commitment)

LTE stands for Long Term Evolution and is a registered trademark

owned by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
for the wireless data communications technology and a development
of the GSM/UMTS standards. However, other nations and companies
do play an active role in the LTE project. The goal of LTE was to
increase the capacity and speed of wireless data networks using
new DSP(digital signal processing) techniques and modulations that
were developed around the turn of the millennium. A further goal
was the redesign and simplification of the network architecture to
an IP-based system with significantly reduced
transfer latency compared to the 3Garchitecture. The LTE wireless
interface is incompatible with 2G and 3G networks, so that it must be
operated on a separate radio spectrum.
LTE was first proposed in 2004 by Japan's NTT DoCoMo, with studies
on the standard officially commenced in 2005. In May 2007, the
LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) alliance was founded as a global
collaboration between vendors and operators with the goal of

Page 70 of 84
verifying and promoting the new standard in order to ensure the
global introduction of the technology as quickly as possible. The LTE
standard was finalized in December 2008, and the first publicly
available LTE service was launched
by TeliaSonera in Oslo and Stockholm on December 14, 2009 as a
data connection with a USB modem. The LTE services were launched
by major North American carriers as well, with the Samsung SCH-
r900 being the world’s first LTE Mobile phone starting on September
21, 2010 and Samsung Galaxy Indulge being the world’s first LTE
smartphone starting on February 10, 2011 both offered
by MetroPCS, and the HTC ThunderBolt offered by Verizon starting
on March 17 being the second LTE smartphone to be sold
commercially.In Canada, Rogers Wireless was the first to launch LTE
network on July 7, 2011 offering the Sierra Wireless AirCard 313U
USB mobile broadband modem, known as the "LTE Rocket stick"
then followed closely by mobile devices from both HTC and
Samsung.Initially, CDMA operators planned to upgrade to rival
standards called UMB and WiMAX, but major CDMA operators (such
as Verizon, Sprint and MetroPCS in the United States, Bell and Telus
in Canada, au by KDDI in Japan, SK Telecom in South Korea and China
Telecom/China Unicom in China) have announced instead they
intend to migrate to LTE. The next version of LTE is LTE Advanced,
which was standardized in March 2011.Services are expected to
commence in 2013. Additional evolution known as LTE Advanced
Pro have been approved in year 2015.The LTE specification provides
downlink peak rates of 300 Mbit/s, uplink peak rates of 75 Mbit/s
and QoS provisions permitting a transfer latency of less than 5 ms in
the radio access network. LTE has the ability to manage fast-moving
mobiles and supports multi-cast and broadcast streams. LTE supports
scalable carrier bandwidths, from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz and supports
both frequency division duplexing(FDD) and time-division
duplexing (TDD). The IP-based network architecture, called
the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) designed to replace the GPRS Core
Network, supports seamless handovers for both voice and data to
cell towers with older network technology such as GSM, UMTS and

Page 71 of 84
CDMA2000. The simpler architecture results in lower operating costs
(for example, each E-UTRA cell will support up to four times the data
and voice capacity supported by HSPA).
Long-Term Evolution Time-Division Duplex (LTE-TDD), also referred
to as TDD LTE, is a 4G telecommunications technology and standard
co-developed by an international coalition of companies, including
China Mobile, Datang Telecom, Huawei, ZTE, Nokia Solutions and
Networks, Qualcomm, Samsung, and ST-Ericsson. It is one of the two
mobile data transmission technologies of the Long-Term Evolution
(LTE) technology standard, the other being Long-Term Evolution
Frequency-Division Duplex (LTE-FDD). While some companies refer
to LTE-TDD as "TD-LTE", there is no reference to that acronym
anywhere in the 3GPP specifications. There are two major
differences between LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD: how data is uploaded
and downloaded, and what frequency spectra the networks are
deployed in. While LTE-FDD uses paired frequencies to upload and
download data, LTE-TDD uses a single frequency, alternating
between uploading and downloading data through time. The ratio
between uploads and downloads on a LTE-TDD network can be
changed dynamically, depending on whether more data needs to be
sent or received LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD also operate on different
frequency bands, with LTE-TDD working better at higher frequencies,
and LTE-FDD working better at lower frequencies. Frequencies used
for LTE-TDD range from 1850 MHz to 3800 MHz, with several
different bands being used. The LTE-TDD spectrum is generally
cheaper to access, and has less traffic. Further, the bands for LTE-
TDD overlap with those used for WiMAX, which can easily be
upgraded to support LTE-TDD.
Despite the differences in how the two types of LTE handle data
transmission, LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD share 90 percent of their core
technology, making it possible for the same chipsets and networks to
use both versions of LTE. A number of companies produce dual-
mode chips or mobile devices, including Samsung and Qualcomm,
while operators CMHK and Hi3G Access have developed dual-mode
networks in Hong Kong and Sweden, respectively.
Page 72 of 84
 Voice over Long-Term Evolution (VoLTE).
Voice over Long-Term Evolution (VoLTE) is a standard for high-
speed wireless communication for mobile phones and data terminals
- including IoT devices and wearables. It is based on the IP
Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) network, with specific profiles
for control and media planes of voice service on LTE defined
by GSMA in PRD IR.92. This approach results in the voice service
(control and media planes) being delivered as data flows within the
LTE data bearer. This means that there is no dependency on (or
ultimately, requirement for) the legacy circuit-switched voice
network to be maintained. VoLTE has up to three times more voice
and data capacity than 3G UMTS and up to six times more than 2G
GSM. Furthermore, it frees up bandwidth because VoLTE’s
packets headers are smaller than those of unoptimized VoIP/LTE.
To ensure compatibility, 3GPP demand at least AMR-NB codec
(narrow band), but the recommended speech codec for VoLTE
is Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband (AMR-WB), also known as HD
Voice. This codec is mandated in 3GPP networks that support 16 kHz
sampling. Volte Fraunhofer IIS has proposed and demonstrated "Full-
HD Voice", an implementation of the AAC-ELD (Advanced Audio
Coding – Enhanced Low Delay) codec for LTE handsets. Where
previous cell phone voice codecs only supported frequencies up to
3.5 kHz and upcoming wideband audio services branded as HD
Voice up to 7 kHz, Full-HD Voice supports the entire bandwidth range
from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. For end-to-end Full-HD Voice calls to succeed
however, both the caller and recipient's handsets as well as networks
have to support the feature.

Page 73 of 84
 Fifth Generation (5-G).
5G is a marketing term for some new mobile technologies.
Definitions differ and confusion is common. The ITU IMT-2020
standard provides for speeds up to 20 gigabits per second and has
only been demonstrated with millimeter waves of 15 gigahertz and
higher frequency. The more recent 3GPP standard includes any
network using the NR New Radio software. 5G New Radio can
include lower frequencies, from 600 MHz to 6 GHz. However, the
speeds in these lower frequencies are only modestly higher than
new 4G systems, estimated at 15% to 50% faster. At least at the
lower frequencies, "5G is evolutionary".
5G NR speed in sub-6 GHz bands can be modestly higher than 4G
with a similar amount of spectrum and antennas. Adding LAA
(Licensed Assisted Access) to a 4G configuration can add hundreds of
megabits per second to the speed.
Until there is substantial field testing, 5G speeds can only be
estimated. Qualcomm, the leading chipmaker, presented at Mobile
World Congress a model that has been cited by many. The simulation
predicts 490 Mbit/s median speeds for a common configuration of
3.5 GHz 5G Massive MIMO. It predicts a 1.4 Gbit/s median speed for
a configuration using 28 GHz millimeter waves.
Some 3GPP 5G networks will be slower than some advanced 4G
networks. T-Mobile's LTE/LAA network is deployed and serving
customers at over 500 megabits per second in Manhattan. The 5G
specification allows LAA as well but it has not yet been
5G systems in line with IMT-2020 specifications,are expected to
provide enhanced device- and network-level capabilities, tightly
coupled with intended applications. The following eight parameters
are key capabilities for IMT-2020 5G:

Page 74 of 84
Capability Description 5G target

Peak data rate Maximum achievable data rate 20 Gbit/s eMBB

User experienced Achievable data rate across coverage

1 Gbit/s eMBB
data rate area

Radio network contribution to packet

Latency 1 ms URLLC
travel time

Maximum speed for handoff and QoS

Mobility 500 km/h eMBB/URLLC

Total number of devices per unit area 106/km2 MMTC

Data sent/received per unit energy

Energy efficiency Equal to 4G eMBB
consumption (by device or network)

Spectrum Throughput per wireless bandwidth

3-4x 4G eMBB
efficiency and per network cell

Area traffic 10
Total traffic across coverage area eMBB
capacity (Mbit/s)/m2

Note that 5G as defined by 3GPP includes spectrum below 6 GHz, with

performance closer to 4G. The 3GPP definition is commonly used.
In order to support increased throughput requirements of 5G, large
quantities of new spectrum (5G NR frequency bands) have been
allocated to 5G, particularly in mmWavebands. For example, in July
2016, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of the United

Page 75 of 84
States freed up vast amounts of bandwidth in underutilized high-
band spectrum for 5G. The Spectrum Frontiers Proposal (SFP)
doubled the amount of millimeter-wave (mmWave) unlicensed
spectrum to 14 GHz and created four times the amount of flexible,
mobile-use spectrum the FCC had licensed to date. In March
2018, European Union lawmakers agreed to open up the 3.6 and
26 GHz bands by 2020.
Initial 5G launches in the sub-6 GHz band will not diverge
architecturally from existing LTE 4G infrastructure. Leading network
equipment suppliers are Nokia, Huawei, and Ericsson.
Traditional cellular modem suppliers have significant investment in
the 5G modem market. Qualcomm announced its X50 5G Modem in
October 2016, and in November 2017, Intel announced its XMM8000
series of 5G modems, including the XMM8060 modem, both of
which have expected productization dates in 2019. In February
2018, Huaweiannounced the Balong 5G01 terminal device with an
expected launch date for 5G-enabled mobile phones of
2018 and Mediatek announced its own 5G solutions targeted at 2020
production. Samsung is also working on the Exynos 5G modem, but
has not announced a production date.
The air interface defined by 3GPP for 5G is known as New Radio (NR),
and the specification is subdivided into two frequency bands, FR1
(<6 GHz) and FR2 (mmWave), each with different capabilities
The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR1 is 100 MHz. Note
that beginning with Release 10, LTE supports 100 MHz carrier
aggregation (five x 20 MHz channels.) FR1 supports a maximum
modulation format of 256-QAM while LTE has a maximum of 64-
QAM, meaning 5G achieves significant throughput improvements
relative to LTE in the sub-6 GHz bands. However LTE-
Advanced already uses 256-QAM, eliminating the advantage of 5G in
The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR2 is 400 MHz, with
two-channel aggregation supported in 3GPP Release 15. The
maximum phy rate potentially supported by this configuration is
Page 76 of 84
approximately 40 Gbit/s. 5G Networks. In Europe, 24.25-27.5 GHz is
the proposed frequencies range.
Massive MIMO (multiple input and multiple output Antennas)
increases sector throughput and capacity density using large
numbers of Antenna and Multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO). Each
antenna is individually-controlled and may embed radio transceiver
components. Nokia claims 5x capacity increase for a 64-Tx/64-
Rx Antennas system. The term "massive MIMO" was first coined by
Nokia Bell Labs researcher Dr. Thomas L. Marzetta in 2010. and has
been launched in 4G networks, such as Softbank in Japan.

Page 77 of 84
A network consists of multiple devices that communicate with one
another. It can be as small as two computers or as large as billions of
devices. While a traditional network is comprised of desktop
computers, modern networks may
include laptops, tablets, smartphones, televisions, gaming consoles,
smart appliances, and other electronics.
Types of network are
 Personal Area Network (PAN).
 Local Area Network (LAN).
 Wireless Area Network (WAN).
 Campus Area Network (CAN).
 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN).
 Wide Area Network (Wan).
 Storage Area Network (SAN).
 System Area Network (SAN).
 Passive Optical Local Area Network (POLAN).
 Enterprise private network (EPN).
 Virtual Private Network (VPN).

Page 78 of 84
 Personal Area Network (PAN).

The smallest and most basic type of network, a PAN is made up of a

wireless modem, a computer or two, phones, printers, tablets, etc.,
and revolves around one person in one building. These types of
networks are typically found in small offices or residences, and are
managed by one person or organization from a single device.

 Local Area Network (LAN).

We’re confident that you’ve heard of these types of networks before

– LANs are the most frequently discussed networks, one of the most
common, one of the most original and one of the simplest types of
networks. LANs connect groups of computers and low-voltage
devices together across short distances (within a building or between
a group of two or three buildings in close proximity to each other) to
share information and resources. Enterprises typically manage and
maintain LANs. Using routers, LANs can connect to wide area
networks (WANs, explained below) to rapidly and safely transfer

 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN).

Functioning like a LAN, WLANs make use of wireless network

technology, such as Wi-Fi. Typically seen in the same types of
applications as LANs, these types of networks don’t require that
devices rely on physical cables to connect to the network.

Page 79 of 84
 Campus Area Network (CAN).

Larger than LANs, but smaller than metropolitan area networks

(MANs, explained below), these types of networks are typically seen
in universities, large K-12 school districts or small businesses. They
can be spread across several buildings that are fairly close to each
other so users can share resources.

 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN).

These types of networks are larger than LANs but smaller than WANs
– and incorporate elements from both types of networks. MANs span
an entire geographic area (typically a town or city, but sometimes a
campus). Ownership and maintenance is handled by either a single
person or company (a local council, a large company, etc.).

 Wide Area Network (WAN).

Slightly more complex than a LAN, a WAN connects computers

together across longer physical distances. This allows computers and
low-voltage devices to be remotely connected to each other over
one large network to communicate even when they’re miles apart.
The Internet is the most basic example of a WAN, connecting all
computers together around the world. Because of a WAN’s vast
reach, it is typically owned and maintained by multiple
administrators or the public.

Page 80 of 84
 Storage Area Network (SAN).

As a dedicated high-speed network that connects shared pools of

storage devices to several servers, these types of networks don’t rely
on a LAN or WAN. Instead, they move storage resources away from
the network and place them into their own high-performance
network. SANs can be accessed in the same fashion as a drive
attached to a server. Types of storage-area networks include
converged, virtual and unified SANs.

 System Area Network (SAN).

This term is fairly new within the past two decades. It is used to
explain a relatively local network that is designed to provide high-
speed connection in server-to-server applications (cluster
environments), storage area networks (called “SANs” as well) and
processor-to-processor applications. The computers connected on a
SAN operate as a single system at very high speeds.

 Passive Optical Local Area Network (POLAN).

As an alternative to traditional switch-based Ethernet LANs, POLAN

technology can be integrated into structured cabling to overcome
concerns about supporting traditional Ethernet protocols and
network applications such as PoE (Power over Ethernet). A point-to-
multipoint LAN architecture, POLAN uses optical splitters to split an
optical signal from one strand of singlemode optical fiber into
multiple signals to serve users and devices.

Page 81 of 84
 Enterprise Private Network (EPN).

These types of networks are built and owned by businesses that

want to securely connect its various locations to share computer

 Virtual Private Network (VPN).

By extending a private network across the Internet, a VPN lets its

users send and receive data as if their devices were connected to the
private network – even if they’re not. Through a virtual point-to-
point connection, users can access a private network remotely.

Page 82 of 84

The research work carried out for the successful

completion of the project helped a lot in better
understanding of how the systems work and what it
takes to for communicating to someone sitting on the
other end of the globe.

The research taught us various number of cables that

exist around. Different types of networks, connectivity
carriers and switches, bridges, routers etc.

This project also taught us about how we surf the web

and what are the various things that are involved for
data transfer, over long and short distances.

Page 83 of 84



Page 84 of 84