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Oracle Database Startup and Shutdown

Procedure
For a DBA, starting up and shutting down of oracle database is a routine and
basic operation. Sometimes Linux administrator or programmer may end-up
doing some basic DBA operations on development database. So, it is important
for non-DBAs to understand some basic database administration activities. In
this article, let us review how to start and stop an oracle database.

How To Startup Oracle Database

1. Login to the system with oracle username


Typical oracle installation will have oracle as username and dba as group. On
Linux, do su to oracle as shown below.

$ su - oracle

2. Connect to oracle sysdba


Make sure ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME are set properly as shown
below.

$ env | grep ORA

ORACLE_SID=DEVDB

ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0

You can connect using either “/ as sysdba” or an oracle account that has DBA
privilege.

$ sqlplus '/ as sysdba'

SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sun Jan 18 11:11:28 2009

Copyright (c) 1982, 2006, Oracle. All Rights Reserved.

Connected to:
Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.3.0 - Production

With the Partitioning and Data Mining options

SQL>

3. Start Oracle Database


The default SPFILE (server parameter file) is located under
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs. Oracle will use this SPFILE during startup, if you don’t
specify PFILE.

Oracle will look for the parameter file in the following order under
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs. If any one of them exists, it will use that particular
parameter file.
1. spfile$ORACLE_SID.ora
2. spfile.ora
3. init$ORACLE_SID.ora

Type “startup” at the SQL command prompt to startup the database as shown
below.

SQL> startup

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 812529152 bytes

Fixed Size 2264280 bytes

Variable Size 960781800 bytes

Database Buffers 54654432 bytes

Redo Buffers 3498640 bytes

Database mounted.

Database opened.

SQL>
If you want to startup Oracle with PFILE, pass it as a parameter as shown
below.

SQL> STARTUP PFILE=/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/dbs/init.ora

How To Shutdown Oracle Database


Following three methods are available to shutdown the oracle database:

1. Normal Shutdown
2. Shutdown Immediate
3. Shutdown Abort

1. Normal Shutdown
During normal shutdown, before the oracle database is shut down, oracle will
wait for all active users to disconnect their sessions. As the parameter name
(normal) suggest, use this option to shutdown the database under normal
conditions.

SQL> shutdown

Database closed.

Database dismounted.

ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL>

2. Shutdown Immediate
During immediate shutdown, before the oracle database is shut down, oracle
will rollback active transaction and disconnect all active users. Use this option
when there is a problem with your database and you don’t have enough time to
request users to log-off.

SQL> shutdown immediate;

Database closed.

Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL>

3. Shutdown Abort
During shutdown abort, before the oracle database is shutdown, all user
sessions will be terminated immediately. Uncomitted transactions will not be
rolled back. Use this option only during emergency situations when the
“shutdown” and “shutdown immediate” doesn’t work.

$ sqlplus '/ as sysdba'

SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sun Jan 18 11:11:33 2009

Copyright (c) 1982, 2006, Oracle. All Rights Reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> shutdown abort

ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL>