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Sankalp Institute of Innovation and Creation Revision Notes for Second Term Sub-English Grammar Created By-Dr.Shalinee Pandya B.E, M.Tech.P.hd Speeches And Their Changes Class-Seventh .ICSE Board Index: 1. What is speech? a. Direct and Indirect b. Reporting verb c. Reported Speech 2. Pronouns 3. Changes in speech 4. Change in pronoun 5. Change in Tenses 6. Change in Conjunctive word 7. Interrogative 8. WH word Sentences 9. Exclamatory 10.Words expressive time and nearness 11.Changes in words expressing 12.Some Rules to remember Speech: Basically speech is the thought or feeling we express in our words. Some times we express our self (own words) and some times we Express the thought or the tall of any other person to any other person. So there is some difference in expression of both of the things.
Speech/Narration-whenever a speaker speaks i.e. called narration. (a) Direct and Indirect: In this way, the exact words of the speaker are reproduced before someone. This way uses the inverted commas for the part of the sentence which is expressed by speaker. So there are two parts of the sentence: Reporting verb: Outwards of the inverted comma Reported Speech: Inwards the inverted comma Example: Teacher said to students,” You all should complete your work.” Here the bold pert is inside the inverted commas so known as reported speech And another part is reporting verb. (b)Indirect speech: Indirect speech is the way in which the speech of the speaker (actual speaker) is converted into the words of the person who is repeating the speech of the actual speaker.

Pronouns: Pronouns are the replacement of noun so that we need not repeat any noun. comma is put after the reporting verb. tense of the reporting verb is never changed..See the person in the reported speech. Here we will study the personal pronoun: Person Nominative Objective Reflexive pronoun pronoun pronoun First I/We Me /us Myself/ourselves Second You you Yourself Third He /She/they Him/Her/their Himself/Herself/themselves Actually why we do we change pronoun. Tense of Reporting Speech Changes Past Simple present->Simple Past Present Continuous->Past Continuous Present Perfect->Past perfect PPC->Past Perfect contn. Indirect speech: comma is removed which was there after reporting verb.2 Ex: Ram said to me. *The reported speech is universal truth or historical event. Change in tense and pronouns in reported speech according to the rule.” Ram told me that he will go to fair. letter is always capital. mind: Direct speech: Inverted commas. We should understand now which type of changes in pronouns is required now. . Step 1.  If it is (a)Third person---NO change (b) NOUN-------No change (c) First person----According to the subject of the reporting verb (d) Second person--According to the Object of the reporting speech. The following rules will help you to understand this thing: There is no any change in tense if the *Pronoun change is in only reported speech. Here inverted comma is removed. because the way to express the narration is now changed. Reported speech firstand I is converted into He. inverted comma is removed. Change in tenses: Keep in Mind: There will be no any change in tense if *Reporting verb is in present tense.” I will go to fair. that used. Keep it inThe bold letters are showing the changes. And the changes in reported speech depend upon the tense of the reporting speech.

make the sentence assertive. these-those.who. We use the same wh word as “that” instead of wh word. promise. Exclamatory sentences are converted into assertive.3 Simple Past->Past perfect Past Past Cont. Remove the question marks.thus-so.) Exclamatory: Reporting verb is changed into some verb of expression. object. when any interrogative sentence is inward the “ “then we will use “If” or “Whether” instead of that. cmplaiun. Agobefore *These changes will not be done if the speech is reported during the same period. there will be no any change in tense when we will convert it into indirect. All exclamations and interjections are omitted.cme-go.hither-thither. do changes according to the rules in pronouns and tenses. How beautiful!-very beautiful What a good idea!-a very good idea . today-that day. Place full stop. Some words which are used instead of “said” Add. *Note: If simple past and Past continuous tense in the direct speech . remark. explain. Maymight Changes in Word: Here-there. (wh words –what.last-previous. Now-then. as at the same place. Inverted commas are removed. Sign of exclamation is replaced by full stop. deny.why. then make the sentence assertive.how many etc.expresses two actions which took place at the same time. this–that. *If there is not any object mentioned after: Said: in reporting verb then there is not any requirement to change the word said into “told “. replace question mark with full stop. admit. point out Interrogative: Interrogative sentences start with helping verb and end with question mark.yesterdayprevious day. Next week-following week. tomorrow-the next day. WH word: No conjunction is used to introduce the indirect speech. tonight-that night.->Past perfect Contn Will/Shall->would Can->could.

”Did you dance at Garba night?” Step. Second person-you Change it according to obj. Mohan said to Sheela.How is the reported speech Interrogative So we will use “if “instead of that. and comma. No.of reporting verb-Sheela You –she Step-3. Sub of reporting verb-HE . make the sentence assertive Did you dance at garba night You did dance at garba night She had done dance at garba night.Change in tense Reporting verb is past simple So reported speech will convert Reported speech is past simple Past simple->past perfect Step-4. Step-4How is the reported speech. WH. What is the speech? Inverted comma is used so it is direct speech. Then use that. remove inverted commas.2 See the reported speech Pronoun-I First person Change in pronoun-first person changes according to the subject of the reporting verb.”I shall go to school”. Now said to-asked Ans-Mohan asked Sheela if she had done dance at garba night.4 Practice Sheet He says.I->He Step -3 Changes in tense Reporting verb is in present tense so there is not any change. Interr. Step 1. He says that he will go to school. .1 Speech-direct Step 2-person in reported speech. Excla. Step.

Hurrah!. I would like to go to some hill station. Dir: You said to me. for shame!-reproof Nonsense!-Anger Look. 09545038611 Sankalp Institute of Innovation and Creation Siit4students@gmail.” In: The leader bidded to his friends and countrymen. Dir: He said to me. “Good Morning Sir!” In: He wished me Good morning. my friends and countrymen.” You are very ambitious. I said to him. Hah!hah!hah!-Joy or delight Alas!. farewell-Bid. Ah.” In: I told him that he is very ambitious.”Farewell. Sachin.Oh! Alack!-pain.siit4students.” In: The spectators encouraged Sachin to play well. Good Morning.” Which school do you go to?” In: Sushama asked me which school I went to. Hark! Lo! Hush!--attention Shalinee Pandya. Dir: Sushma asked me.5 Solutions of Exercises: Dir. Dir: The teacher said to student. shame on you. Dir: The leader said. grief sorrow.” Bravo! Well played.com . In: The teacher ordered student to stand up on the bench. In: You told me that you were feeling very uneasy and tired and you would like to go to some hill station. Dir: The spectators said. “Stand up on the bench”.webstarts. Good Heavens! What! Oh!-surprise Pooh! Pshaw!-contempt Fie! .com www. Good Evening-Wish Good Bye. “I am feeling very uneasy and tired.

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