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# Simulations of ferroresonance in transformers

## Rubén Joaquín Cetina Abreu.

Vicente Torres García.
ROPEC 2018 : XX IEEE INTERNATIONAL AUTUMN MEETING ON POWER,
ELECTRONICS AND COMPUTING
Ixtapa Guerrero México, November 14, 2018.
Introduction
Ferroresonance is a phenomenon that is present in voltage signals in the form of aperiodic
oscillations that cause transient overvoltages, mainly in transformers. This phenomenon must be
considered in the design of electrical systems, since it presents high levels of distorted voltages
causing damage to equipment, which makes it important to study.

## Generation system. Transmission system. Distribution system.

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R.J. Cetina, M. Madrigal and V. Torres ROPEC 2018
Ferroresonance
This failure event can happen in different ways.

## Circuit that present a ferroresonance.

𝑽𝑳 = 𝑽𝑭 − 𝑽𝑪 Eq. (1)

𝟏
𝑽𝑳 = 𝑽𝑭 + 𝒋 𝑰 Eq. (2)
𝝎𝑪
𝑽𝑳 = 𝒋𝝎𝑳(𝑰) Eq. (3)
Graphs of the voltages in the non-linear inductor.
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R.J. Cetina, M. Madrigal and V. Torres ROPEC 2018
Ferroresonance
If we also consider that the
parameters are fixed and only vary the value
of the capacitance C or ω, we can observe
how the slope of the straight line intersects
the curve, giving rise to the phenomenon of
ferroresonance.

## At point z we will find a sustained

ferroresonance, this is because the
capacitance is very little.

## Graphs of the behavior varying the capacitance.

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R.J. Cetina, M. Madrigal and V. Torres ROPEC 2018
Ferroresonance

## Ferroresonance in a system can also

occur through variations in the supply voltage.
b
In this figure it can be seen that at a
small increase in voltage from VF1 to VF2 the
current increases at stable operation points 1
and 2, however for point 3 it is an unstable point
decreases, which can cause instability in the
system.

## Graphs of the behavior varying the power VF.

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R.J. Cetina, M. Madrigal and V. Torres ROPEC 2018
Configuration prone to ferroresonance
Jacobson mentions seven different kinds of systems categories prone to
ferroresonance:

## • Transformer fed accidentally in one or two phases.

• Transformer energized through a capacitive gradient by opening one or more switches.
• Transformer connected to a transmission line compensated in series.
• Transformer connected to an isolated neutral system (distribution).
• Capacitive voltage transformer (Coupling Capacitive Voltage Transformer).
• Transformer connected to non-energized lines in parallel with one or more energized
lines.
• Transformer fed through a long transmission line or cable with small short-circuit power
[2,9].

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R.J. Cetina, M. Madrigal and V. Torres ROPEC 2018
Configuration prone to ferroresonance
In some power electrical systems, the LC series circuit presents the non-linear
characteristic of the transformer, the capacitive effect of the cables or lines and the
energization of the circuit, presenting the ferroresonance as shown in the figure.

## Closing of switch 1 . Closing of switches 1 and 2 .

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R.J. Cetina, M. Madrigal and V. Torres ROPEC 2018
Simulation in ATP
The electrical parameters in the transformer are: voltage levels of 13.8 kV on the
primary side with delta connection, with a resistance of 0.213 Ω, an inductance of 1.228 mH,
for the secondary side the voltage level is 220 Volts with star connection , a resistance of
0.0021 Ω and an inductance of 0.01204 mH. The magnetization resistance is 6670000 Ω,
[11,12].
Saturation curve data of transformer 300 kVA.

Current Flux
0.00798335 11.2176
0.01709179 22.0949
0.03357586 35.8556
0.05488831 41.4023
System for the analysis. 0.08041006 44.0322

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R.J. Cetina, M. Madrigal and V. Torres ROPEC 2018
Simulation in ATP

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R.J. Cetina, M. Madrigal and V. Torres ROPEC 2018
Simulation in ATP
A. Case 1 three-phase transformer with delta-star connection without load,
sequential closing of three switches.

Behavior of the voltages measured on the delta side of Behavior of the voltages measured on the delta side of
the transformer Case 1, the length of monopolar cables the transformer Case 1, the length of monopolar cables is
is 50 m. 150 m.
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R.J. Cetina, M. Madrigal and V. Torres ROPEC 2018
Simulation in ATP
B. Case 2 of three-phase transformer with delta-star connection without load,
sequential closure of only two switches.

Behavior of the voltages measured on the delta side of Behavior of the voltages measured on the delta side of
the transformer Case 2, the length of monopolar cables the transformer Case 2, the length of monopolar cables
is 50 m. is 150 m.
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R.J. Cetina, M. Madrigal and V. Torres ROPEC 2018
Simulation in ATP
C. Case 3 of three-phase transformer with delta-star connection without load,
closing a single switch

Behavior of the voltages measured on the delta side of Behavior of the voltages measured on the delta side of
the transformer Case 3, the length of monopolar cables the transformer Case 3, the length of monopolar cables
is 50 m. is 150 m.
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R.J. Cetina, M. Madrigal and V. Torres ROPEC 2018
Simulation in ATP
D. Case 4 of three-phase transformer with delta-star connection without load,
varying the voltage supply levels.

Behavior of the voltages measured on the delta side of the transformer Case 4, the length of monopolar cables
is 1000 m and voltage supply is 33 kV.
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R.J. Cetina, M. Madrigal and V. Torres ROPEC 2018
Simulation in ATP
E. Case 5 of three - phase transformer with delta - star connection without load,
effect on the location of switches.

Voltages signals with switches far to the transformer Voltage signals with switches near the transformer

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R.J. Cetina, M. Madrigal and V. Torres ROPEC 2018
Conclusions
• Ferroresonance is a type of failure that occurs under certain conditions, which can be
catastrophic, which determines its importance in analyzing it, predicting it and establishing
strategies to mitigate it through appropriate simulators.

• The presence of the radial type circuit with the transformer with delta-star connection
feeding a light load, is a common system found in several electrical systems and that can arise
due to different situations in a substation [2,10].

## • Through simulations it was possible to observe the importance of considering the

connections in the transformers and the lengths of the cables for the presence of
ferroresonance.

• Currently, this type of event is possible to be presented in wind farms, this is due to the type
of configuration of the circuit and type of connections in the transformers, so it justifies its
importance of study.
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R.J. Cetina, M. Madrigal and V. Torres ROPEC 2018
thank you very much