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The crust of brioche bread is golden-brown due to the Maillard reaction The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between an amino acid and a reducing sugar, usually requiring heat. It is vitally important in the preparation or presentation of many types of food, and, like caramelization, is a form of non-enzymatic browning. The reaction is named after the chemist Louis-Camille Maillard who first described it in the 1910s while attempting to reproduce biological protein synthesis,(p79) although it has been used in practical cooking since prehistoric times. The reactive carbonyl group of the sugar reacts with the nucleophilic amino group of the amino acid, and forms a complex mixture of poorly characterized molecules responsible for a range of odors and flavors. This process is accelerated in an alkaline environment as the amino groups are deprotonated and, hence, have an increased nucleophilicity. The type of the amino acid determines the resulting flavor. This reaction is the basis of the flavoring industry. At high temperatures, acrylamide can be formed, for which there is conflicting evidence about its potential harmfulness. In the process, hundreds of different flavor compounds are created. These compounds, in turn, break down to form yet more new flavor compounds, and so on. Each type of food has a very distinctive set of flavor compounds that are formed during the Maillard reaction. It is these same compounds that flavor scientists have used over the years to create artificial flavors.
1 Foods and products with Maillard reactions
6tetrahydropyridine 2-Acetylpyrroline The Maillard reaction is responsible for many colors and flavors in foods: • • • • • • • • • Toasted bread Biscuits Malted barley as in malt whiskey or beer Fried onions Dried or condensed milk Roasted coffee Dulce de leche The burnished surface (crust) of Brioche. Caramelization is an entirely different process from Maillard browning.5-tetrahydropyridine is responsible for the biscuit or cracker-like flavor present in baked goods like bread. Caramelization may sometimes cause browning in the same foods in which the Maillard reaction occurs. Both compounds have odor thresholds below 0. and quick breads Roasted meat  6-Acetyl-2. but the two processes are distinct.06 ng/l. The structurally related compound 2-acetylpyrroline has a similar smell and occurs also naturally without heating and gives varieties of cooked rice and the spice pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) their typical smell. but the Maillard reaction involves amino acids. whereas .3.4. though the results of the two processes are sometimes similar to the naked eye (and tastebuds). popcorn.5. The browning reactions that occur when meat is roasted or seared are complicated and occur mostly by Maillard browning with contributions from other chemical reactions including the breakdown of the tetrapyrrole rings of the muscle protein myoglobin. They both are promoted by heating. yeast. cakes. as discussed above.4. and tortilla products.• • • • • • 2 The process 3 Factors 4 Physiology 5 See also 6 External links 7 References  Foods and products with Maillard reactions 2-Acetyl-3.
forming ketosamines 3. The unstable glycosylamine undergoes Amadori rearrangement. Low moisture levels are necessary mainly because water boils into steam at 212 °F (100 °C). especially in candies: Milk is high in protein (amino acids). Different amino acids produce different amounts of browning. Although the Maillard reaction has been studied most extensively in foods.  The process 1. which reduces the amount of energy and protein available to the animals that feed on it.6 to 0. it has also shown a correlation in numerous different diseases in the human body. producing N-substituted glycosylamine and water 2. See references below. excess heat causes the Maillard reaction to occur. The carbonyl group of the sugar reacts with the amino group of the amino acid.7. these diseases are due to the accumulation of advanced glycation . Chocolate and maple syrup lightly roasted peanuts In making silage. There are several ways for the ketosamines to react further: o Produce 2 water and reductones o Diacetyl. However. The following things are a result of the Maillard browning reaction: • • • Caramel made from milk and sugar. It is tracked by measuring pentosidine. In general. and alkaline conditions all promote the Maillard reaction. in particular degenerative eye diseases. reaching a maximum at water activities in the range of 0. The rate of Maillard reactions increases as the water activity increases. whereas the Maillard reaction happens noticeably around 310 °F (154 °C): by the time something is in fact browning. aspirin. which react more than disaccharides. as the Maillard reaction produces water. Pentose sugars react more than hexoses. low moisture levels. and browning of food involving this complex ingredient would most likely include Maillard reactions. It is a step in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts. pyruvaldehyde and other short-chain hydrolytic fission products can be formed o Produce brown nitrogenous polymers and melanoidins  Factors High temperature.caramelization is simply the pyrolysis of certain sugars. all the water is vaporized. further increases in water activity may inhibit Maillard reactions.  Physiology The Maillard reaction also occurs in the human body.
The adverse effects of AGE accumulation appear to be mediated by numerous different AGE receptors.  See also Food portal . corneal edema. Glycation in Maillard reactions may lead to destabilization of the vitreous gel structure within the eye via unnecessary cross-linking between collagen fibrils. This effect is exacerbated by both diabetes and aging. Again. the receptor for AGEs.end-products. Another method is by the use of Amadorins. the accumulation of AGEs in the drusen and Bruch’s membrane has been associated with age. though its effectiveness against retinopathy is unknown. whose correlation with Maillard chemistry has been more recently studied. on nucleic acids. Apart from ocular diseases. Within the retina. or AGEs. Advanced glycation in numerous different locations within the eye can prove detrimental. which are able to prevent the reaction of Amadori intermediates. may be prevented by the inhibition of the Maillard reaction. This is manifested by the thickening of the Bruch’s membrane. and morphological changes within patients with diabetes. and neurodegeneration. CD36. This latter method. has already been achieved to some extent by the breaker ALT-711. Furthermore. whose endothelial cells have been known to express RAGE and galectin-3. and lipids. and the products of the Maillard reaction have been observed there as well. particularly diabetic retinopathy. This may be achieved in numerous ways: prevention the formation of AGEs. pulmonary fibrosis. Maillard chemistry has been studied extensively in the context of cataract formation. the formation of AGEs has also proven to contribute to a wide range of human diseases that include diabetic complications. the breaking of crosslinks. Examples include AGE-R1. In the cornea. this process is more strongly observed within diabetic patients. Within the lens. and. Furthermore. it is thought that AGE-inhibiting compounds are effective in preventing cataract formation in diabetics. it has been observed that AGE levels increase with age within the lamina cribosa. and dicarbonyl compounds are known to cause increased aggregate formation within the lens. RAGE. It has been suggested that receptor systems in the body have evolved in order to remove glycation-modified molecules such as AGEs in order to eliminate their effects. Though AGEs have numerous origins. the accumulation of AGEs is associate with thickened corneal stroma. or breaking the AGE crosslinks. reducing the effectiveness of the AGE signaling pathway and the receptor-ligand interactions. and has also been observed at a higher level among patients with age-related macular degeneration. most noted. or AMD. proteins. Advanced glycation is known to alter fiber membrane integrity in the lens. they can form from the oxidation and dehydration of Amadori adducts. galectin-3. It is believed that a wide range of ocular diseases. which themselves are products of nonenzymatic Maillard reactions. which form into AGEs by scavenging the reactive carbonyls.
4-tetrahydropyridine and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline". ^ T.acs. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1. Chem. 3. ^ SK Grandhee and VM Monnier (June 25. 778-9. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1043: 582–597.2.3.• • • • Advanced glycation endproduct Baking Beer Wok hei  External links • • • • • • Course website on Maillard reaction (archived copy) Diagram of the Maillard Reaction Food-Info. G. Scribner. Harold (2004).1021/jo051940a. ^ McGee. New York. http://albumen. Stanford. Advances in Food Research (Advances in Food and Nutrition 2. doi:10. J. Research). Stitt (2005). Chem 266 (18): 11649–11653. 1982. Carsten Zufall. http://www.org/wiki/Maillard_reaction" . On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. "An expeditious. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant published by Cornell University Press Retrieved from "http://en. O.net Official Website of the International Maillard Reaction Society The Thermochemical Joy of Cooking The secret of fresh beer: the Maillard reaction.org/cgi/content/abstract/266/18/11649. C. PMID 16037281. Org. "Formation of α-dicarbonyl compounds in beer during storage of Pilsner" ([dead link]). p. ISBN 0-12-016430-2. ^ "Albumen Photography".decagon.jbc. PMID 16356012.[dead link] 8. Adriana. Erika Scherer. ^ McGee. and ascorbate as pentosidine precursors".php. Decagon Devices. Heinrich Rübsam.html. doi:10. 6. Glucose. Dake (2005). doi:10. PMID 18461968. ^ Bravo. • Peter J. Van Soest.1021/jf703696p. Boston: Academic Press. high-yielding construction of the food aroma compounds 6-acetyl-1. 9. Harrison. http://pubs3. Julio C. Retrieved 2008-06-16. Herrera.  References 1. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen.org/acs/journals/doilookup?in_doi=10. 70 (26): 10872–10874. PMID 1904866. Jorge Madrid. 1991). Scribner. J. Retrieved 2007-12-14. p. Yon Ju-Nam. Rafael Rangel-Aldao (2008-06-11). http://www. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (11): 4134–4144. (1986). 5. 7. "Mechanism of formation of the Maillard protein cross-link pentosidine.1196/annals. 778-9. Biol. 4.1338. ^ Chichester. Harold (2004). New York. J.066.com/food_science/info/safety.stanford.wikipedia. ISSN 0021-8561. ^ Alan W.edu/library/c20/reilly1982a. R. ISBN 978-0-684-80001-1. "The Maillard Reaction in Eye Diseases".1021/jf703696p. ^ "A beginner's course in water activity". fructose.
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