WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1.
by WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG
PUBLISHED BY WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG Hammerstrasse 8 CH-8180 Buelach Switzerland Phone Fax Email: Internet: +41-44-872 70 60 +41-44-872 70 66 firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.wavecom.ch
© by WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part in any form is prohibited without written consent of the copyright owner. The publication of information in this document does not imply freedom from patent or other protective rights of WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG or others. All brand names in this document are trademarks or registered trademarks of their owners. Specifications are subject to change without further notice
Printed: Wednesday, March 26, 2008, 17:04:46
......... 8 Downconverter ............................................................................ 7 Downconverter ...... 7 General Description of the components ............................................................ 7
Overview .................................. 2
Installation ......................................................................................................... 3 Operation .... 7 Antenna ........................................ 1 Training .......................................... 8
Glossary of Terms Index
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6 Error Handling ....................................................1 User Manual
Introduction ........... 2 Setup ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7 Source .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1 Source Code ............................................................................................................................................................................... 1 Professional Version ................................................................................................................................... 8 Proven Components .................. 1 Revisions ...................................... 8 Antenna .............................................................................................. 1 Company Profile ............................................... 2 References ....................................................................... 8 PC with W61PC(s) ................................. 8 PC .................................
ISDN.wavecom. see Appendix at the end of this manual. and how you may benefit from the expertise of WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG. the MS-DOS command line with parameters. Please. For logging purposes.Welcome
Congratulations on your purchase of a WAVECOM decoder.
Source code is available for professional users.wavecom. This document describes the 'EasySatSystem' software of WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG.1 User Manual Welcome 1
. stored in some predefined directory. and INMARSAT-mini-M)..e.). fax.
Please. For registration details.
This documentation is only available in the professional version of the WAVECOM decoder software. WAVECOM maintains a mailing list of our professional customers.ch. this product is sometimes also called 'SAT-Coordination'. the ‘EasySatSystem’ graphical user interface (GUI). identified by a specific satellite-mode (INMARSAT-B. INMARSAT-M. note that when required WAVECOM is able to provide training on the WAVECOM XML interface. i. To obtain the Source Code please contact WAVECOM. Always check the latest documentation on the installation CD or on our website.e. check our website http://www.. We thank you for choosing a WAVECOM decoder and look forward to work with you in the future. the configuration interface. This chapter introduces WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG. a service (data. and mobile earth station identification number (termed MES Id in the following). Professional versions are only available to government bodies.
'EasySatSystem' controls the satellite-modes running on a system of up to 10 W61PC cards such to prevent that more than one W61PC card monitors the same satellite communications session. statistical data concerning the monitored sessions can be collected. at www. Training can be ordered to take place at the customer location or at our offices in Switzerland. The product that you bought incorporates the latest technology in data decoding together with the latest software release available at the time of shipment. the text file EasySATSystem. etc.ch for software updates. 'EasySatSystem' has 3 kinds of user interfaces: the operational status display of the coordinated cards.ini. the field of activity of the company.
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. i. The monitoring system configuration is specified in a text file using a very simple syntax.
V 0.pdf (this document)
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. Now located in Buelach it is within close vicinity of Zuerich airport. The employees at WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG are mainly engineers with experience in DSP technology.exe (the main and only executable) XMLRCICPP. RH Addition of Command Line parameter /A:<n2> Reviewed version. software engineering and radio data transmission.000
13-02-2006 29-03-2006 25-10-2006 03-11-2006 10-03-2008
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 WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG.WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK GmbH was founded in 1985 in Hohentengen.2
Initial draft Corrections after comments from RH Install. The majority of the customers are government agencies.002 1. EasySatSystem Specification. The following files can be found in <easysatsystem_dir>: EasySatSystem. Source chapters added. More than 95% of all units sold are exported.1 0.0 1. About 40% of the turnover is invested in research and development. The wide product range spans from professional. defense organizations and the telecommunication industry. Christian Kesselring. The very high quality standards combined with high system performance are appreciated by all customers worldwide. Manufacturing is outsourced to specialized companies within Switzerland which can handle today's needs for processing surface mount components and fine-pitch structures. close to the Swiss border. .dll (a required DLL) EasySATSystemUserManual. Error handling. A global network of authorized sales partners ensures that local assistance and basic level support can be provided in most places.003 1. the directory into which the software shall be installed is specified. Access to external know-how and human resources enlarges the capabilities for realizing projects. The company has focused on decoding and analysis systems for wireless data transmissions.Ini file description adapted to new format.
During the installation of the product ‘EasySatSystem’ by means of the provided setup program. high performance systems to devices for private and amateur radio use. computer and RF hardware development.1. In 1991 the company moved to Switzerland and established itself as WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG. Hereafter. Setup. Corrections after review MO. this directory is denoted as <easysatsystem_dir>.001 1. Germany. Mr.1 User Manual
. WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG does not have any juridical or financial links or connections to other companies or official bodies and is completely owned by its general manager. Glossary added optional argument /L changed New directories for config and data. under : documents and settings\All users\documents\ wavecom \easysat\config and …\data
if several are given in EasySATSystem. The collected data will be stored in the directory (referred to as <easysatsystem_data_dir>): C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\WAVECOM \EasySatSystem\Data.e.
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. Only the first valid value specified will be used. then the PCs must be connected via a network. In order to allow remote connections to a WavecomService. An alternative location can be specified by means of the environment variable EASYSATSYSTEM_CONFIG_DIR. 5. which.ini. If cards on more than one PC must be coordinated.
By default. To enable statistical logging.ini. User privileges are sufficient to modify (i. check the box ‘Allow Remote Connections’ in the tab ‘Networking Information’ of the respective W61PC WavecomServerControl GUI. Select the 'Exceptions' tab. if no MES Id is specified. by default.ini Template-EasySatSystem. 4.ini file. needs to be located in the directory <easysatsystem_config_dir>. see below). The name of the configuration file must be 'EasySATSystem. 2. Open 'Windows Firewall'. 6. Furthermore. a different directory can be specified by setting the environment variable EASYSATSYSTEM_DATA_DIR accordingly.1 User Manual
. the program looks in this <easysatsystem_config_dir> directory for the required configuration file EasySATSystem. one can also specify the sessions to exclusively be watched by listing the respective MES Ids. This is done as follows: 1.ini. In the EasySATSystem. then clear the 'Don't allow exceptions' checkbox. This directory contains the files: EasySatSystem. after start of EasySATSystem. The name of such a file is ‘Stat<dateAndTime>. a different directory can be specified by setting the environment variable EASYSATSYSTEM_CONFIG_DIR accordingly. For test purposes. In order to have ‘EasySatSystem’ working properly..txt’. a sampling interval (in seconds) greater than 0 has to be specified in EasySATSystem. where <dateAndTime> denotes the date and time (including seconds) of the log-file creation. which occurs at the end of a monitoring session with ‘EasySatSystem’. if several are given in EasySATSystem. It is also possible to specify the duration (in seconds) of the automatic level setting (ALS) performed at mode start-up. the 'XML Remote Control Interface' port has to be opened on each personal computer (PC) hosting W61PC cards to be coordinated. Click on 'Add Port…' and give a name and set the port number to the default value of 33234. Again. or to the value you have specified in the tab ‘Networking Information’ of the W61PC WavecomServerControl GUI.ini. Be aware that such a file may become quite large.ini' (case-insensitive).
'EasySatSystem' can run on any PC under the Microsoft Windows XP or Vista operating system. a respective text file is stored in the directory <easysatsystem_data_dir> or in the directory specified by the environment variable EASYSATSYSTEM_DATA_DIR if it is set. it might also be necessary to open the port for the GUI of W61PC (default value of 33233). In such a case. the respective WavecomService must be running and allow remote connections. Only the first valid value specified will be used. the <easysatsystem_data_dir> directory will be used to store statistical data files (if logging has been enabled. Open 'Control Panel'. By default. also delete) the subdirectories \Config and \Data as well as their respective contents.
FileHandler. the Helpfile
Administrator privileges are required to modify the contents of the directory <easysatsystem_dir> The Config file is stored in the directory (referred to as <easysatsystem_config_dir>): C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\WAVECOM \EasySat System\Config. 'EasySatSystem' must be told somehow which PCs with which W61PC cards it must coordinate. However.exe (a program solely needed during the installation of ‘EasySatSystem’) WAVECOM_Decoder. This is done with the configuration file EasySATSystem. 3. when exiting ‘EasySatSystem’. If desired. on each PC hosting W61PC cards to be coordinated.ini. If the 'On' button is set.chm. ‘EasySatSystem’ collects statistical data concerning the monitored sessions.exe.ini. then all sessions will be watched.
EOL means end-of-line. In Example 2. | means alternative. or the dotted IP address of the PC. A maximum of 10 card-sections can be specified. ::= char1-30 ::= serialno = <serialNo>. ::= numchar1-8 ::= <alsPeriodSectLine>EOL<periodLine>EOL ::= [als] ::= <logPeriodSectLine>EOL<periodLine>EOL ::= [log] ::= period = <seconds> .
<config> <section> <cardSection> <cardSectLine> <n> <addrLine> <nameOrIPAddress> <snLine> <serialNo> <modeLine> <mode> <mesWatchSection> <watchSectLine> <watchLine> <mesIdNo> <alsPeriodSection> <alsPeriodSectLine> <logPeriodSection> <logPeriodSectLine> <periodLine> <seconds> ::= <section>* ::= <cardSection> | <mesWatchSection> | <alsPeriodSection> | <logPeriodSection> ::= <cardSectLine>EOL <addrLine>EOL<snLine>EOL<modeLine>EOL ::= [card_<n>] running number starting at 1 ::= address = <nameOrIPAddress>. Single superscript (e. Each card can run on its own PC. All MES Ids shall be considered.g. ::= numchar
The starting point for the syntax is <config>. ::= numchar10 ::= <mode>. Terms in <…> are expanded.1) with one card and two remote hosts. Example 1 shows the configuration file for a system with 4 cards configured for INMARSAT-B. no ALS shall be performed.
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. On all cards INMARSAT-B transmissions with specific MES Ids shall be monitored.89 with one card and ComputerA with two cards. tabs) can be expanded to any length. 1 for INMARSAT-M and 5 for INMARSAT-mini-M. the syntax of the configuration file is specified. xyz1-9) means repetition with minimum and maximum bounds. 123. and no statistical data shall be collected. One PC can have a maximum of 8 cards. for which the following rules apply: Whitespace (blanks.45. * means repetition 0 or more times.Below.g.0. ALS shall be performed for a period of 5 minutes (300 seconds).0. residing on 2 different PCs (Niklaus2 and Test-w61pc).0. The number of MES Id watch-sections is not limited. Range superscript (e. Furthermore. and statistical data shall be collected every 30 seconds.
Following are two examples of valid configuration files. ::= sat-b | sat-m | sat-mini-m ::= <watchSectLine>EOL<watchLine>EOL ::= [watch] ::= mesid = <mesIdNo> . Bold words must appear exactly as shown.
Note: The string <nameOrIPAddress> can be the PC name. The local PC of 'EasySatSystem' can also be denoted by 127.67.0. so there can be a maximum of 10 PCs.1.1 User Manual
. the system to be monitored consists of 3 different PCs and 4 cards: the local one (127.. xyz10) means repetition exactly the given number of times..
Test-w61pc.45. sat-b. Test-w61pc. 0508007220. 54321. 0508001120.67. 67890. the corresponding card will not be included in the coordination process. Test-w61pc. Test-w61pc. 98765.
127. 300. 0508002120. if there is an error in the EasySATSystem. Test-w61pc. sat-b. sat-b.1. 0508008320.Example 1: [card_1] address = serialno= mode = [card_2] address = serialno= mode = [card_3] address = serialno= mode = [card_4] address = serialno= mode = [card_5] address = serialno= mode = [card_6] address = serialno= mode = [card_7] address = serialno= mode = [card_8] address = serialno= mode = [card_9] address = serialno= mode = [card_10] address = serialno= mode = Example 2: [card_1] address = serialno= mode = [card_2] address = serialno= mode = [card_3] address = serialno= mode = [card_4] address = serialno= mode = [watch] mesid = [watch] mesid = [watch] mesid = [watch] mesid = [als] period = [log] period =
Niklaus2. Niklaus2. sat-b. ComputerA.0. 0508003620. 0508004620. 0508002720.ini file. 0508001120. 0508004620.
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. sat-mini-m. sat-mini-m. sat-b. sat-b. 0508003920. sat-mini-m. 12345. 0508002720. ComputerA. sat-b. 0508005620. Test-w61pc. 30. 0508010020. 0508007220.1 User Manual
The rules must be followed strictly. Test-w61pc. sat-m.89. 123. sat-b. Test-w61pc. sat-mini-m.
The SAT mode configured on this card. Serial number of this card.ini has precedence over the value passed as argument on the command line. showing one line of status information for each correctly configured W61PC card. maximum length 30 characters. and MES Id watch-list. this is the service being monitored. Operational status of the card. Absence of both parameters indicates that no ALS has to be done.120. The command to start ‘EasySatSystem’ has the following format: <easysatsystem_dir>/EasySatSystem [/L:<n1>] [/A:<n2>] The optional argument /L indicates that statistics data should be collected. otherwise this field is empty. can be the (dotted) IP address or the computer name. this is the forward MES Id of the terminal being in the monitoring session. This number specifies the sampling interval for the statistics data in seconds. 'Card Ready' (transient): the card has answered. It is recommended to manually control from time to time the signal level settings at the different cards under the control of ‘EasySatSystem’. 'Host Connected' (transient): the PC has answered to ‘EasySatSystem’ and announced all its cards. (approximately) every n1 seconds a snapshot of the busy status of each card is taken and written at program termination to the statistics file Stat<dateAndTime>. then there must be an error in the respective card’s specification in the EasySATSystem. It can take some time until the program has properly terminated after pressing 'Exit' or 'Close'. as well as the specified ALS period.txt in <easysatsystem_data_dir> or in the directory specified by the environment variable EASYSATSYSTEM_DATA_DIR if it is set. The optional argument /A specifies the duration (in seconds) of the ALS that will be performed on each card. meaning that.. no statistics data will be collected.Operation
'EasySatSystem' must be started by the user. If a configured card is not shown at all.1 User Manual
. The maximum number of cards is fixed to maxN=10. 'EasySatSystem' does not automatically synchronise with the operational status of the cards. A sampling interval specified in the configuration file EasySATSystem. as will pressing the 'Close' button in the window frame. If Op Status is ' Busy Session'. a new window appears on the display. this is not shown. if a card is already in a session. and is therefore possibly not visible for the user. the ‘Op Status’ field will display the correct status. Address of the computer of this card. An ALS period specified in the configuration file EasySATSystem.ini has precedence over the value passed as argument on the command line. Pressing this button will terminate the program. So make sure to start this program with the same cards configured only once. named 'Exit'.120. Only at the next status change of the card.ini file. If this argument is not present. If less than maxN cards are configured. The number <n1> must be in the range 4. Absence of both parameters indicates that no statistical data has to be collected. sampling interval.maxN. or n1 is not in the range 4.. The system does not check if more than one instance of 'EasySatSystem' coordinates the same card(s). For each configured card the following information is shown: Column heading
Number SAT Mode Computer Name or IP Address Serial # Op Status
This is the global number of the card within the scope of the coordinated cards.. range: 1. 'Mode Running': the mode was set on the card. otherwise this field is empty
The term ‘transient’ means that this state may last only a very short time. If Op Status is ' Busy Session'. 'Busy Session': the card is monitoring a SAT session. since the window has space for exactly this number. this can be: 'Not Connected': the PC of this card is not under control of ‘EasySatSystem’. There is only one button available. After starting ‘EasySatSystem’. Note: At start-up.
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. also when ALS is enabled. the remaining lines contain empty fields.
A brief overview of the INMARSAT System is given in the help file of the W61PC.8 dB. the PC requirements: > 1 GHz. All cards not connected are shown in the ‘Op Status’ field accordingly. MES. If more than 1 W61 is to be fed with the same signal.
To obtain a Source Code License please contact WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG. LNA. at http://www. a splitter should be used to correctly match the impedance of the W61 70 MHz input (input IF70#4. L-Band to 70 MHz IF.1 User Manual
Hardware Recommendations 7
. This link contains the information from the Land Earth Station to the Mobile Earth Stations. 50 Ohm).
General Description of the components
The antenna system must have a figure of merit G/T > 0 dB/K. PC(s) with W61 card(s) and the optional W61SAT SW. The polarization of the L-
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. this is easy possible with a parabolic dish of at least 2 m diameter and a low noise amplifier with a noise figure of 0. including a low noise amplifier. 512 MB RAM. 60 GB HD. also called forward path) of the INMARSAT System.ch. Downconverter. CD.
This document describes how the WAVECOM W61PC card with the optional W61SAT SW can be used to implement a simple INMARSAT L-Band Monitoring system. These components are connected with coax cable.wavecom.
The W61SAT SW allows the monitoring of the L-Band downlink (in the 1550 MHz range.
L-Band W61 W61 W61 Antenna W61 W61 W61
PCs with W61 cards and W61SAT SW
coax signal cable
The Monitoring System consists of 3 main components: Antenna. but not connected cards approximately every 30 seconds.Error Handling
'EasySatSystem' tries to connect configured.
com/] together with a low-noise amplifier. There is no tracking of the satellite necessary. RAM >= 512 MB.
At WAVECOM a type MP-9201 Satellite Downconverter from Micro Phase Communications.
8 Hardware Recommendations
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. The L-Band signal goes directly to the converter. WAVECOM also tested a dish of only 0.de/ but not available any longer) with very useful results.
Loopyagi (low cost solution)
A L-Band loopyagi antenna. the W61 SW takes about 40 MB.Band signal is RHCP. but the disk is used by the collected data from monitoring. In order to catch also the signals from a neighboring spot beam.
A Dell computer of the type Dimension 8200 is in use at WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG. and HD of 60 GB.
WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG uses a 3. so if a parabolic reflector is used. This allows to build terminals with a small antenna. with at least 1 PCI slot for the W61 card.
This is a commercial product.de/] allows monitoring the local spot beams with reasonable success.koeditz-nachrichtentechnik. converting L-Band to 70 MHz IF with a bandwidth of +/. Inc is used (http://www. WAVECOM recommends a dish of at least 2. MKU 152 A. from Directive Systems [http://www.
A system with the following components has been tested at WAVECOM ELEKTRONIK AG. which is installed and aligned to the satellite only once.com). with an integrated Feed-LNA from Köditz Nachrichtentechnik [http://www. it is impossible to receive all spot beams at a given geographic location. from Kuhne electronic [http://www.7 m diameter with a LNA/feed from SSB electronics (http://www.microphaseinc.de/]. CPU clock rate should be > 1 GHz.
PC with W61PC(s)
These are commercially available computers. The L-Band signal is connected to the receiver directly. the antenna must have more gain.kuhne-electronic. which means a bigger dish than necessary for the local spot beam.7 m epoxy-glass resin dish reflector.1 User Manual
.20 MHz.ssb. the antenna can be of a fixed type. the feed must pick up the LHCP component (mirror effect). with a Pentium processor running under the Microsoft XP Operating System.directivesystems. but for monitoring.4 m diameter. The INMARSAT mini M system is based on spot beams for coverage. type 2045LY. and can be used.
Glossary of Terms
Analog-to-Digital Conversion. a horn. The baseband signal is caused to vary the amplitude or height of the carrier wave to create the desired information content.
Automatic Level Setting.
Automatic Gain Control. The time or location where a satellite is in line of sight. a dipole a grid such as a Yagi array. a sophisticated parabolic-shaped dish. Process of converting analog signals to a digital representation. A circuit which automatically controls the frequency of a signal. DAC represents the reverse translation.
The cross sectional area of the antenna exposed to the satellite signal. The process of ALC. antennas can take the form of a single piece of wire. a helix.
A device used to boost the strength of an electronic signal.
Amplitude Modulation. or a phase array of active electronic elements of virtually any flat or convoluted surface.
Automatic Frequency Control. A circuit which automatically controls the gain of an amplifier so that the output signal level is virtually constant for varying input signal levels.1 User Manual
Glossary of Terms 9
Acquisition of Signal. Depending on their use and operating frequency.
A device for transmitting and receiving radio waves. A circuit which automatically controls the gain of a receiver so that the output signal level is virtually constant.
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1.
Automatic Level Control.
A system developed by Bob Bruninga. For instance. of the total time a functional unit or service is capable of being used or is available to be used during a given interval to the length of the interval.
Antenna mount that requires two separate adjustments to move from one satellite to another. WB4APR. if the unit is not capable of being used for 20 minutes in a week.8 percent (10080 .Apogee
The point in an satellite orbit where the satellite is the highest (farthest distance) from the surface of the earth. A TV channel occupies a bandwidth of 6 million cycles per second (6 MHz) in terrestrial systems. a voice transmission by telephone requires a bandwidth of about 3000 cycles per second (3KHz). Can be measured with a compass.g. the availability is 99.
The process of reducing the input and output power levels of a traveling wave tube to obtain more linear operation.
The ratio. or video tape recorder.5 to 72 MHz is used to spread or "dither" the television signal in order to prevent interference.
The loss in power of electromagnetic signals between transmission and reception points. e.g. satellite television receiver.. expressed as a percentage.
Where the information or data transmission speeds for the forward and return channels differ (e.1 User Manual
. In satellite based systems a larger bandwidth of 17.
Band Pass Filter
An active or passive circuit which allows signals within the desired frequency band to pass through but impedes signals outside this pass band from getting through.
The basic direct output signal in an intermediate frequency based obtained directly from a television camera.
Automatic Position Reporting System. high speed for the forward channel and low for return). for tracking and digital communications with mobile GPS equipped stations with two-way radio. Baseband signals can be viewed only on studio 10 Glossary of Terms
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1.
A method of data transmission which allows characters to be sent at irregular intervals by preceding each character with a start bit.
A measure of spectrum (frequency) use or capacity.
Angle between true north and a particular satellite.20 minutes/10080 minutes * 100). Usually measured from the center of the earth. and following it with a stop bit.
The rate of data transmission based on the number of signal elements or symbols transmitted per second. It may be a linear transponder. tracking the satellite. 1Mbyte = 1. Tighter beam widths thus deliver higher levels of power and thus greater communications performance.
Bent Pipe Transponder
A "bent pipe" transponder is the term for a transponder that amplifies the received signal and retransmits it to earth without demodulation.
A single digital unit of information. 1 byte = 8 bits. 1 Kbyte = 1.
Bit Error Rate
The fraction of a sequence of message bits that are in error. A digital modulation scheme used in transmission communications.monitors.024 Mbytes.
The angle or conical shape of the beam the antenna projects. Limiting transponders have higher power efficiency than linear transponders.B.024 Kbytes. C.024 bytes. 1Gbyte = 1.
Binary Phase Shift Keying.
The speed of a digital transmission. A bit error rate of 10e-6 means that there is an average of one error per million bits. measured in bits per second. This tracking beacon is usually a horn or omni antenna.1 User Manual
Glossary of Terms 11
. Large antennas have narrower beam widths and can pinpoint satellites in space or dense traffic areas on the earth more precisely.
Sequence or group of eight bits. M. To display the baseband signal on a conventional television set a "modulator" is required to convert the baseband signal to one of the VHF or UHF television channels which the television set can be tuned to receive. or conducting propagation experiments. Today most digital signals are characterized in bits per second. INMARSAT A.
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1.
Block Down Converter
A device used to convert signals in the frequency range above 1 GHz down to UHF or lower frequencies (1 GHz and lower).
Slang for a communications satellite located in geosynchronous orbit. like FO-29. that will handle multiple signals as long as they are near the same signal level at the satellite or a limiting transponder that is captured by the strongest signal.
Low-power carrier transmitted by a satellite which supplies the controlling engineers on the ground with a means of monitoring telemetry data.
The carrier in an analog signal. This figure is directly related to G/T and S/N.
12 Glossary of Terms
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. data.
Carrier to Noise Ratio.
The basic radio. sometimes also called Global beam. Analog Television signals require a 6 MHz frequency band to carry all the necessary picture detail. expressed in dB. Refers to a multiple-access scheme where stations use spread-spectrum modulations and orthogonal codes to avoid interfering with one another. is modulated by manipulating its amplitude (making it louder or softer) or its frequency (shifting it up or down) in relation to the incoming signal. or telephony center of frequency transmit signal. Channel frequencies are specified in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission. Contrast with packet switching mode.
A frequency band in which a specific broadcast signal is transmitted. The ratio of the received carrier power and the noise power in a given bandwidth.
A circuit switched operational mode for transferring (transporting and switching) user information through a network.
A sequence of eight adjacent binary digits usually treated as a unit. 2. television.
This is the band between 4 and 8 GHz.
Carrier-to-noise-temperature ratio. and in a video signal the higher the C/N.
The main frequency on which a voice. the better the received picture.Broad beam
A single large circular beam that covers a large geographic area. A unit of traffic measurement. Any demand to set up a connection. or video signal is sent. Microwave and satellite communications transmitters operate above 1 GHz (a GHz is one billion cycles per second).
Code division multiple access.
The sending of one transmission to multiple users in a defined group (compare to unicast). Satellite carriers operating in the analog mode are usually frequency modulated.1 User Manual
237 miles directly above the equator where satellites can maintain a stationary position in relation to the earth. video or audio. interpretation. Up to this point there is no degradation in reception quality.
The dB power relative to an isotropic source. The algorithm (HW or SW) for compressing digital voice. a significant advantage over analog where there is a gradual deterioration. or signal loss due to resistance as expressed in logarithmic form. or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for communication.1 User Manual
Glossary of Terms 13
. or processing by humans or by automatic means. Satellites placed in these orbits.
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1.
Direct broadcast satellite (for television). Clarke in Wireless World magazine in 1945.Clarke Belt
The name given in honor of Arthur C. appear to be stationary when viewed from a point on the earth. This transmission delay for a single hop satellite connection is very close on one-quarter of a second. although traveling around the earth at thousands of miles an hour. volume.
A technique to reduce the amount of data to be transmitted that reduces the amount of bandwidth needed to transmit data. concepts.
Ability of multiple satellites to share the same approximate geostationary orbital assignment frequently due to the fact that different frequency bands are used.
Sudden breakdown or loss of digital signal reception when it contains more errors than the error correction system can cope with.
The time it takes for a signal to go from the sending station through the satellite to the receiving station. since the earth is rotating upon its axis at the same angular rate that the satellite is traveling around the earth. This orbit was first postulated by the science fiction writer Arthur C.
1. Coder/decoder system for digital television transmission. An analog unit of measure of signal strength.
The ratio of the power to one Watt expressed in decibels.
Representation of facts. Also called geo-stationary orbit. Clarke to the orbit 22.
Decibel. Refers to service that uses satellites to broadcast multiple channels of television programming directly to home mounted small-dish antennas. thus increasing the capacity of a satellite transponder. 2.
Method allows simultaneous transmission of voice.
Conversion of information into bits of data for transmission through wire. A cryptographic algorithm for the protection of unclassified computer data..
14 Glossary of Terms
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. Digital Speech Processing. fiber optic cable. issued as Federal Information Processing Standard Publication 46-1. Digital Signal Processing.e.
The satellite to earth half of a 2 way telecommunications satellite link.1 User Manual
The process for retrieving an information signal that has been modulated onto a carrier. as opposed to analog data. "0" or "1").
Digital Video Broadcasting.
A unit which extracts or "demodulates" the "wanted "signals from the received carrier.
Capability for simultaneous data transmission between a sending station and a receiving station.
The modulation level of an FM signal determined by the amount of frequency shift from the frequency of the main carrier. The European-backed project to harmonize adoption of digital video. or over air techniques. and K-Band antennas range from 18 inches to five feet. C-Band antennas range in size from five to eight feet in diameter.
A parabolic antenna which collects and focuses satellite signals. data or video. 2. satellite.
Data represented by discrete values or conditions (i.
Analog voice signals that have been converted into digital signals.
To convert analog signals into digital ones.
Data Encryption Standard. Often used to describe the receive dish end of the link.
used to receive a signal transmitted by a satellite.368 Mbit/s.
End of Life of a satellite.
The term used to describe the combination or antenna.
An electronic circuit which attenuates or eliminates the echo effect on satellite telephony links.
Ratio of antenna focal length to antenna diameter.E1
Wide-area digital transmission facility used predominantly in Europe that carries data at a rate of 2.
Frequency Division Multiple Access.
Edge of Coverage
Limit of a satellite's defined service area. WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. The transmit power value in units of dBW is expressed by the product of the transponder output power and the gain of the satellite transmit antenna.
To convert plain text into an unintelligible form by means of a cryptosystem. reception may still be possible beyond the -3dB point. This term describes the strength of the signal leaving the satellite antenna or the transmitting earth station antenna. A higher ratio means a shallower dish. This is usually employed in conjunction with Frequency Modulation. down-converter. Refers to the use of multiple carriers within the same transponder where each uplink has been assigned frequency slot and bandwidth. and is used in determining the C/N and S/N.
Effective Isotropic Radiated Power. Echo cancellers are largely replacing obsolete echo suppressors.
Angle between the earth's surface and a particular satellite at a given reception point (0° for horizontal and 90° for vertical).2 foot to 12 foot (65 centimeters to 3.
Wide-area digital transmission facility used predominantly in Europe that carries data at a rate of 34. the EOC is defined as being 3 dB down from the signal level at beam center. The typical antenna used for INTELSAT communication is today 13 to 18 meters or 40 to 60 feet.
An orbit with a plane parallel to the earth's equator. In many cases.1 User Manual Glossary of Terms 15
.048 Mbit/s. low-noise amplifier (LNA). However. Earth Station antennas vary in size from the. and receiver electronics.7 meters) diameter size used for TV reception to as large as 100 feet (30 meters) in diameter sometimes used for international communications.
As the same C-band frequency spectrum is used by telephone networks
16 Glossary of Terms
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1.
The area toward which the primary reflector (dish) reflects received signal energy. Excess bits are included in the outgoing data stream so that error-correction algorithms can be applied upon reception.
Distance from the center feed to the center of the dish. A technique for improving the robustness of data transmission.000 cycles per second.S. Different satellite transponders on the same satellite will often have different footprints of the signal strength.1 User Manual
A map of the signal strength showing the EIRP contours of equal signal strengths as they cover the earth's surface. one gigahertz. It is also used to describe the feed system of an antenna.
This term has at least two key meanings within the field of satellite communications. 1000 cycles per second.000. For the satellite standard the Viterbi code combined with the Reed Solomon code is used. This is where the feed system is typically located.
A process to eliminate frequency interference between different satellite systems or between terrestrial microwave systems and satellites.FEC
Forward Error Correction.000 cycles per second. which means that three out of four or five out of six bits contain useable information. In the U. tends to decrease slowly as the spacecraft ages. however.
The transmission path issued from the service provider and reaching the end user. one megahertz: and 1. The accuracy of EIRP footprints or contour data can improve with the operational age of the satellite. This is an array of logic elements that are interconnected via an array of busses
The number of times that an alternating current goes through its complete cycle in one second of time. one kilohertz. One cycle per second is also referred to as one hertz.
Frequency Modulation. Commercial use of transponders makes 3/4 and 5/6.000. this activity relies upon a computerized service utilizing an extensive database to analyze potential microwave interference problems that arise between organizations using the same microwave band. The feed system may consist of a sub reflector plus a feed horn or a feed horn only
The part of the satellite system that collects and focuses satellite signals reflected by the dish.
Field-Programmable Gate Array. The actual EIRP levels of the satellite. It is used to describe the transmission of video programming from a distribution center. 1.000.
As one moves above the millimeter waves. so the satellite appears to hover over one spot on the earth's equator. earth stations receiving global beam signals need antennas much larger in size (typically 10 meters and above (i. The higher the number. 30 feet and up). fault isolation. Therefore. therefore completing one revolution every 24 hours.
A figure of merit of an antenna and low noise amplifier combination expressed in dB. global beam transponders have significantly lower EIRP outputs at the surface of the Earth as compared to a spotbeam. In contrast to half duplex or simplex operation in which communications occur in only one direction at a time. or signal translators as necessary to provide system interoperability.
An antenna down-link pattern. Note: A gateway may contain devices such as protocol translators.1 User Manual
Glossary of Terms 17
. enabling all nations on each side of the ocean to receive the signal. one of the network nodes equipped for interfacing with a network using different protocols. The Internet protocol (and program) used to transfer files between hosts.
A mode of operation in which simultaneous communication in both directions may occur between two terminals.
One billion cycles per second. Because they transmit to such a wide area.
Global Area Network (INMARSAT M-4).
In a communication network. impedance matching devices..300 miles from the surface at the same rate that the Earth turns. signals begin to take on the characteristics of light-waves. rate converters. Global beams are aimed at the center of the Atlantic. they will often obtain a frequency coordination study to determine if any problems will exist. Pacific and Indian Oceans by the respective Intelsat satellites.
A measure of amplification expressed in dB.and CATV companies when they are contemplating the installation of an earth station.
File Transfer Protocol.e.
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1.
Refers to a geosynchronous satellite angle with zero inclination. Signals operating above 3 Gigahertz are known as microwaves. above 30 GHz they are known as millimeter waves. which effectively covers one-third of the globe.
Geosynchronous Orbit (GSO)
Satellite in geosynchronous orbit travel around the Earth in an area approximately 22. "G" is the net gain of the system and "T" is the noise temperature of the system. the better the system.
The master station through which all communications to. Note: Half-duplex operation may occur on half-duplex circuits or on duplex circuits. from and between micro terminals must flow.1 User Manual
. Established in 1979 to serve the maritime industry by developing satellite communications for ship management and distress and safety applications.GMDSS
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System.
That mode of operation in which communication between two terminals occurs in either direction but in only one direction at a time. In the future satellites with on-board processing will allow hubs to be eliminated as MESH networks are able to connect all points in a network together. Contrast with duplex or simplex operation.
Global Positioning System.
A satellite which carries two or more different communications payloads (i. The name given to the basic measure of radio frequency characteristics. A single Hertz is thus equal to one cycle per second.
The International Maritime Satellite Organization operates a network of satellites for international transmissions for all types of international mobile services including maritime. An electromagnetic wave completes a full oscillation from its positive to its negative pole and back again in what is known as a cycle.
The angle between the orbital plane of a satellite and the equatorial plane of the earth.
INTELSAT Business Services. and land mobile. aeronautical. fax and data system INMARSAT-B: Digital successor to INMARSAT-A INMARSAT-B HSD: 64 Kbit/s high speed data option INMARSAT-C: Store-and-forward data through briefcase terminals
18 Glossary of Terms
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. but it may not occur on simplex circuits.
High Power Amplifier (HPA)
Equipment used to amplify signals. INMARSAT-A: INMARSAT original phone..e. INMARSAT currently operates a global satellite system which is used by independent service providers to offer an unparalleled range of voice and multimedia communications for customers on the move or in remote locations.
Hughes Global Services. Inc. C-band and Ku-band).
However.544 and 2. The networks involved may be of the same type.2 B & 1 D channel) and Primary Rate .
The frequency range from 18 to 31 GHz.
Kilobit per second. internal protocols. so multiple signals will be combined with each signal unintentionally modulating others in the pass band to some extent. with its own addresses.
ISO Joint Picture Expert Group standard for the compression of still pictures. A CCITT standard for integrated transmission of voice.
An active electronic counter-measures (ECM) device designed to deny intelligence to unfriendly detectors or to disrupt communications. video and data. WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. or ghosting from reflecting objects such as mountains and buildings. such as fading from airline flights.PRI (1. and administration. messaging and paging system. The amount of distortion increases with the signal power levels.
A LEO based satellite voice. fax and data INMARSAT Aero-I: INMARSAT latest aeronautical satcoms service
Energy which tends to interfere with the reception of the desired signals. The third order intercept is most important for linear transponders and the power level of the thirdorder distortion products increases at three times the rate at which the original signal levels increase.1 User Manual Glossary of Terms 19
.048 Mbps). D+: Global messaging and data broadcasts to pager-sized terminals INMARSAT-E: Global alerting services via INMARSAT INMARSAT-mini-M: INMARSAT smallest satellite phones for voice.
No amplifier is perfectly linear.INMARSAT-D. RF interference from adjacent channels. each network is distinct.BR (144 Kbps .
A hypothetical omni-directional point-source antenna that serves as an engineering reference for the measurement of antenna gain.
Integrated Services Digital Network.
International Telecommunication Union.
The process of interconnecting a number of individual networks to provide a path from a terminal or a host on one network to a terminal or a host on another network. Bandwidths include: Basic Rate Interface . access methods. or they may be of different types.
000 Hertz. Thermal noise characteristics of LNA are measured in Kelvin. allowing the use of receiver antennas as small as 18 inches. (b) has a specific user group. A preamplifier usually mounted on a receiving dish antenna designed amplify weak signals and contribute the least amount of thermal noise to the received signal.
Local Area Network.
Low Noise Amplifier. Zero K represents absolute zero.000 bits per second.9 to 17 GHz.
The temperature measurement scale used in the scientific community. The first is the 11.
Kilohertz. requiring a three to five foot antenna for clear reception.
The amount of signal in dB by which the satellite system exceeds the minimum levels required for operation.
The frequency range from 10. minus the path and transmission line losses. and there are 22 FSS Ku-Band satellites in orbit over North America today. A data communications system that (a) lies within a limited spatial area.5 to 1.7 GHz segment is known as BSS (Broadcasting Satellite Service). Refers to a unit of frequency equal to 1. This is usually determined by adding transmitter power and antenna gain.
Amplifier used in the middle of a network to re-amplify a signal.5 GHz. This band has been split into two segments by the Federal Communications Commission. The 12. (c) has a specific topology. and (d) is not a public switched telecommunications network.1 User Manual
Low Earth Orbit.Refers to transmission speed of 1. They range in power from 20 to 60 watts per transponder.2 GHz band known as FSS (Fixed Satellite Service). Also used to refer to the 950 to 1450MHz used for mobile communications. Satellites placed in orbit less than 22.
A dedicated circuit typically supplied by the telephone company.300 miles above the earth.2-12. but may be connected to one. Satellites in this band range in power from 100-200 watts per transponder. and corresponds to minus 459 degrees Fahrenheit or minus 273 Celsius.
20 Glossary of Terms
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1.
The frequency range from 0.
The process of manipulating the frequency or amplitude of a carrier in relation to an incoming video. often stronger signal. from a local telephone terrestrial microwave relay transmitter. or cycles per second. Line of Sight. the television industry's informal standards group. Microwaves are also used for data. The time or point when a satellite passes from being in line of sight of a ground station. Relocating the antenna by only several feet will often completely eliminate the microwave interference. and indeed all types of information transmission.
Medium Earth Orbit.
Interference which occurs when an earth station aimed at a distant satellite picks up a second. Loss of Signal. The growth of fiber optic networks have tended to curtail the growth and use of microwave relays. point-to-point transmission of signals at high frequency. Many CATV systems receive some television signals from a distant antenna location with the antenna and the system connected by microwave relay.
Acronym for MOdulator-DEModulator. voice. building.1 User Manual
Glossary of Terms 21
Low Noise Block converter.
The Moving Pictures Experts Group.
The amount of signal in dB by which the satellite system exceeds the minimum levels required for operation.
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1.
A device which modulates a carrier.…) exists between the transmitter and receiver antenna.
Line-of-sight. A small device mounted at the focal point of a satellite dish which converts and amplifies high-frequency satellite signals into lower frequencies. The successor to the LNA.
Refers to a frequency equal to one million Hertz. Note: Modems are primarily used for converting digital signals into quasi-analog signals for transmission over analog communication channels and for reconverting the quasi-analog signals into digital signals. Microwave interference can also be produced by nearby radar transmitters as well as the sun itself. A device that modulates and demodulates signals. If no obstruction (mountain.
1. voice or data signal.
Techniques that allow a number of simultaneous transmissions over a single circuit. control signals. unlike the circuit mode of transmission. are arranged in a specific format.
22 Glossary of Terms
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. that is transmitted and switched as a composite whole.
A packet switched operational mode for transferring (transporting and switching) user information through a network without establishing a connection.
Mobile Satellite Service. a grouping of a sequence of binary digits. called packets.
Any unwanted and unmodulated energy that is always present to some extent within any signal. but not necessarily to all users in that group. The data. expressed in dB. See packet switching.
Electronic availability on demand from a computer-based system without mounting removable media such as magnetic tape or disks.
Multicast is a subset of broadcast that extends the broadcast concept of one to many by allowing "the sending of one transmission to many users in a defined group. which compares the device with a perfect device.
In data communication. including data and control signals.MPEG-2
The agreed standard covering the compression of data (coding and encoding) for digital television. such as an LNA or receiver.
A term which is a figure of merit of a device. The packets do not necessarily arrive at their destination in the order they were sent. The packet can be of either fixed or variable length.
Data transmission method that divides messages into standard-sized packets for greater efficiency of routing and transport through a network. allowing for more efficient use of channel capacity and reliability of transfer. and possibly error control information.
A telecommunication service condition wherein a user is deprived of service due to a malfunction of the communication system.
A process where stored data is transmitted in discrete units.1 User Manual
To successfully receive and decode these signals on earth. The function of the parabolic shape is to focus the weak microwave signal hitting the surface of the dish into a single focal point in front of the dish. the earth station must be outfitted with a properly polarized feed horn to select the vertically or horizontally polarized signals as desired. Although the two sets of frequencies overlap. It is at this point that the feed horn is usually located. A time division modulation technique in which analog signals are sampled and quantized at periodic intervals into digital signals.
Polarization offset angle
The angle from vertical that the LNB needs to be set at for maximum reception efficiency. the feed horn has the capability of receiving the vertical and horizontal transponder signals simultaneously.
Personal Communications System. the other half horizontally polarize their down links. they are 90 degree out of phase.
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1.Parabolic Antenna
A type of antenna which takes its name from the shape of the dish described mathematically as a parabola.
A device that can be manually or automatically adjusted to select one of two orthogonal polarizations.
A technique used by the satellite designer to increase the capacity of the satellite transmission channels by reusing the satellite transponder frequencies. The actual angle depends on the geographical location of the reception site. the Intelsat series use a technique known as left-hand and right-hand circular polarization.
An orbit with its plane aligned in parallel with the polar axis of the earth. and routing them into separate LNAs for delivery to two or more satellite television receivers. The values observed are typically represented by a coded arrangement of 8 bits of which one may be for parity.
The frequency range over which the amplifier or transponder reproduces signals.1 User Manual
Glossary of Terms 23
Phase-Locked Loop. half of the transponders beam their signals to earth in a vertically polarized mode.
Antenna mechanism permitting steering in both elevation and azimuth through rotation about a single axis. While an astronomer's polar mount has its axis parallel to that of the earth. In some installations. satellite earth stations utilize a modified polar mount geometry that incorporates a declination offset. In linear cross polarization schemes. Unlike most domestic satellites. A type of electronic circuit used to demodulate satellite signals. and will not interfere with each other.
Pulse Code Modulation.
and converts the signal format into a format for video. Refers to operating agencies directly or indirectly controlled by governments in charge of telecommunications services in most countries of the world.or Ka-Band frequencies due to absorption and increased sky-noise temperature caused by heavy rainfall. Routers forward packets from one network to another based on network layer information.
An electronic device which enables a particular satellite signal to be separated from all others being received by an earth station.
Expressed in dBm this tells how much power the detector must receive to achieve a specific baseband performance.
Post Telephone and Telegraph Administration.
Public Switched Telephone Network. The values observed are typically represented by a coded arrangement of 8 bits of which one may be for parity. voice or data.
Loss of signal at Ku. A modulation technique that involves phase shifting the carrier to reflect a digital stream. but it could be applied more generally to other switched networks.
Radio Frequency Interference.. Note: The term is usually applied to the public switched telephone network. System of modulating a satellite signal.
Network layer device that determines the optimal path along which network traffic should be forwarded.
Pulse Code Modulation
A time division modulation technique in which analog signals are sampled and quantized at periodic intervals into digital signals. e. such as a specified bit error rate or signal to noise ratio.
Phase Shift Keying. A term used to denote apparent disturbance or distortion to satellite signals.Protocol
Any set of standard procedures that permit devices to intercommunicate. packet switched public data networks.
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying.1 User Manual
. Any common carrier network that provides circuit switching among public users.g.
24 Glossary of Terms
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1.
Solar outages can be exactly predicted as to the timing for each site.
Satellite signal that falls on locations outside the beam pattern's defined edge of coverage.S/N
Signal to Noise Ratio. Contrast with half duplex or duplex operation.
That longitudinal position in the geosynchronous orbit into which a communications satellite is "parked".
A sophisticated electronic communications relay station orbiting 22.
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. communications satellites are typically positioned in slots which are based at two to three degree intervals. The ratio of the signal power and noise power. data and television.
A passive device (one with no active electronic components) which distributes a signal carried on a cable in two or more paths and sends it to a number of receivers simultaneously.
A form of satellite stabilization and attitude control which is achieved through spinning the exterior of the spacecraft about its axis at a fixed rate. the better the quality of the signal.000 mph east to west). The better the signal to noise ratio.237 miles above the equator moving in a fixed orbit at the same speed and direction of the earth (about 7. Above the United States.1 User Manual
Glossary of Terms 25
Solar outages occur when an antenna is looking at a satellite.
The range of electromagnetic radio frequencies used in transmission of voice.
A type of horn antenna feed which uses a series of concentric rings to capture signals that have been reflected toward the focal point of a parabolic antenna. An economical way to get multiple signals on one transponder. and the sun passes behind or near the satellite and within the field of view of the antenna. This field of view is usually wider than the beam width.
Single Channel Per Carrier.
That mode of operation in which communication between two points occurs in only one direction at a time.
Off-axis response of an antenna.
A combination of transmitter and receiver.
Minor orbital adjustments that are conducted to maintain the satellite's orbital assignment within the allocated "box" within the geostationary arc. In satellite television transmission.
A second signal "piggybacked" onto a main signal to carry additional information.
Solid state power amplifier.
26 Glossary of Terms
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. Refers to a form of multiple access where a single carrier is the shared by many users. sending simultaneous data streams interleaved using a clock to separate the various data packets. A method of accessing a satellite using time separation.1 User Manual
. The corresponding audio is sent via an FM sub carrier. Both techniques produce low levels of interference Between the users.Spot Beam
A focused antenna pattern sent to a limited geographical area. Multiple users can receive their data on the same frequency. land or ground-based telecommunications systems. TDM avoids the intermodulation problem entirely as each user's signal is presented serially and the downlink transmitter can be more power efficient than FDM. the video picture is transmitted over the main carrier.
A device located on board the satellite which receives signals up linked by a programmer and transmits them back to earth on a different frequency. Some satellite transponders carry as many as four special audio or data sub carriers whose signals may or may not be related to the main programming.
The transmission of a signal using a much wider bandwidth and power than would normally be required. modulator and other circuits which produce a radio or television electromagnetic wave signal for radiation into the atmosphere by an antenna. Spot beams are used by satellites to deliver certain transponder signals to geographically well defined areas.
Time Division Multiplexing. this refers to Earth. Spread spectrum also involves the use of narrower signals that are frequency hopped through various parts of the transponder.
Time Division Multiple Access. Both military and civil satellite applications have developed for spread spectrum transmissions.
An electronic device consisting of oscillator.
In communications parlance. They also provide security in that the signals appear as though they were random noise to unauthorized earth stations.
ITU-T standard describing a synchronous. The earth station used to transmit signals to a satellite.A combination of receiver. The band in the 500 to 900 MHz range. Ku.
Television Receive Only. and sometimes Ka Bands or in effect typically in the microwave spectrum. operate over a frequency band with a 36 to 72 megahertz bandwidth in the L. Terminals that use antenna reflectors and associated electronic equipment to receive and process television and audio communications via satellite. WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1.
Universal Serial Bus. including TV channels 14 through 83.
The transmitter and antenna system used to transmit signals from a ground station to a satellite.
A unicast application transmits a copy of every packet to every receiver. The host communicates with the I/O devices by polling each device in a 1 ms (full speed) or 1/8 ms (high speed) cycle. C. and a traveling-wave tube.
Ultra High Frequency.
TWT (Traveling-wave tube)
A microwave tube of special design using a broadband circuit in which a beam of electrons interacts continuously with a guided electromagnetic field to amplify microwave frequencies. TV Communications satellites typically have between 12 and 24 onboard transponders although the INTELSAT VI at the extreme end has 50. Means of accessing the control systems in a spacecraft in order to position and configure the spacecraft. and transmitter package. frequency converter. V. physically part of a communications satellite.
Telemetry. except for mobile satellite communications.
V.5 MBPS (low speed) 12 MBPS (full speed) or 480 MBPS (high speed). physical layer protocol used for communications between a network access device and a packet network.
TWTA (Traveling-wave-tube amplifier)
A combination of a power supply. TV Transponders have a typical output of 5 to 10 watts. a modulator (for pulsed systems).35 is most commonly used in the United States and in Europe.1 User Manual Glossary of Terms 27
. or the facility which monitors and controls the health of a satellite.
The process of adjusting an electronic receiver circuit to optimize its performance. and is recommended for speeds up to 48 Kbit/s. Also the frequency the satellite expects to receive transmissions. often packaged in a common enclosure. Typically small home systems. Local communication network used to connect PC I/O devices to the host PC. Tracking and Control. The communication link uses differential signaling over twisted pair wire at 1.
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio.VC
Virtual Circuit. typically used in business applications. including TV channels 2 through 13
Virtual Private Network. typically rectangular in shape.
A metallic microwave conductor. A means of narrowcast transmission of video. The band in the 30 to 300 MHz range.
Very Small Aperture Terminal. or antenna system.
28 Glossary of Terms
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. A measurement of mismatch in a cable. used to carry microwave signals into and out of microwave antennas. A communication arrangement in which data from a source user may be passed to a destination user over various real circuit configurations during a single period of communication.
Very High Frequency.
Wide Area Network. waveguide. voice and data by SCPA means to a satellite. A capability that allows users to create their own private information network.25
A set of packet switching standards published by the CCITT.1 User Manual
1 User Manual
ADC 9 AFC 9 AGC 9 ALC 9 ALS 9 AM 9 Amplifier 9 Antenna 7. 9 AOS 9 Aperture 9 Apogee 10 APRS 10 Asymmetric transmission 10 Asynchronous transmission 10 Attenuation 10 Availability 10 AZ/EL Mount 10 Azimuth 10
Codec 13 Co-Location 13 Company Profile 1 Compression 13
Data 13 dB 13 dBi 13 DBS 13 dBW 13 Delay 13 Demodulation 14 Demodulator 14 DES 14 Deviation 14 Digital 14 Digital data 14 Digital voice 14 Digitize 14 Dish 14 Dish antenna 8 Downconverter 8 Downlink 14 DSP 14 Duplex Transmission 14 DVB 14
Backoff 10 Band Pass Filter 10 Bandwidth 10 Baseband 10 Baud 11 Beacon 11 Beam width 11 Bent Pipe Transponder 11 Bird 11 Bit 11 Bit Error Rate 11 Bit Rate 11 Block Down Converter 11 BPSK 11 Broad beam 12 Broadcast 12 Byte 12 E1 15 E3 15 Earth Station 15 Echo Canceller 15 Edge of Coverage 15 EIRP 15 Elevation 15 Encrypt 15 EOL 15 Equatorial Orbit 15 Error Handling 7
F/D 15 FDMA 15 FEC 16 Feed 16 Feed horn 16 FM 16 Focal Length 16 Focal Point 16 Footprint 16 Forward path 16 FPGA 16 Frequency 16 Frequency Coordination 16 FTP 17 Full-duplex operation 17
C/N 12 C/T 12 Call 12 Carrier 12 Carrier Frequency 12 C-Band 12 CDMA 12 Channel 12 Circuit mode 12 Clarke Belt 13 Cliff effect 13 WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1. 8.
G/T 17 Gain 17 GAN 17 Gateway 17 General Description of the components 7 Geostationary 17 Geosynchronous Orbit (GSO) 17 GHz 17 Global Beam 17 Glossary of Terms 9 GMDSS 18 GPS 18
Loopyagi (low cost solution) 8 LOS 21
Margin 21 Megahertz (MHz) 21 MEO 21 Microwave 21 Microwave Interference 21 Modem 21 Modulation 21 Modulator 21 MPEG 21 MPEG-2 22 MSS 22 Multicast 22 Multiplexing 22
Half-duplex operation 18 Hardware Recommendations 7 HGS 18 High Power Amplifier (HPA) 18 Hub 18 Hybrid satellite 18 Hz 18
Noise 22 Noise Figure 22
IBS 18 Inclination 18 INMARSAT 18 Installation 2 Interference 19 Intermodulation 19 Internetworking 19 Introduction 1 IRIDIUM 19 ISDN 19 Isotropic Antenna 19 ITU 19
On-line 22 Operation 6 Outage 22 Overview 7
Packet 22 Packet Data 22 Packet mode 22 Packet Switching 22 Parabolic Antenna 23 Pass band 23 PC 8 PC with W61PC(s) 8 PCM 23 PCS 23 PLL 23 Polar Mount 23 Polar Orbit 23 Polarization 23 Polarization offset angle 23 Polarization Rotator 23 Professional Version 1 Protocol 24 Proven Components 8 PSK 24 PSTN 24 PTT 24 Pulse Code Modulation 24
Jammer 19 JPEG 19
Ka-Band 19 kbps 19 Kelvin (K) 20 kHz 20 Ku-Band 20
LAN 20 L-Band 20 Leased Line 20 LEO 20 Line amplifier 20 Link Margin 20 LNA 20 LNB 21 30 Index
WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1.1 User Manual
Rain Outage 24 Receiver (Rx) 24 Receiver Sensitivity 24 References 2 Revisions 2 RFI 24 Router 24
WAN 28 Waveguide 28 Welcome 1
X.1 User Manual Index 31
S/N 25 Satellite 25 Scalar Feed 25 SCPC 25 Setup 3 Side lobe 25 Simplex operation 25 Slot 25 Software 2 Solar Outage 25 Source 7 Source Code 1 Spectrum 25 Spillover 25 Spin Stabilization 25 Splitter 25 Spot Beam 26 Spread Spectrum 26 SSPA 26 Stationkeeping 26 Sub carrier 26
TDM 26 TDMA 26 Terrestrial 26 Training 1 Transceiver 26 Transmitter 26 Transponder 26 TT&C 27 TVRO 27 Tweeking 27 TWT (Traveling-wave tube) 27 TWTA (Traveling-wave-tube amplifier) 27
UHF 27 Unicast 27 Uplink 27 USB 27
V.35 27 VC 28 VHF 28 VPN 28 VSAT 28 WAVECOM EasySatSystem Software W61 v1.