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Running head: MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 1

Multisensory Instruction: Modifications and Enhancers for Children with Special Needs

Danielle Petri

Colorado State University


MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 2

Table of Contents
Background Information……….……………………………………………………….…………3

Literature Review…….……………………………………………………………….……….…..6

Methods…………………………………………………………………………………………..12

Evidence of Assessment…………………………………………...…………………………….14

Reflection………………………………………………...………………………………………15

References……………………………………………………………………………………..…18

Appendices……………………………………………………………….………………………20

Appendix A- Supports for Children with Special Needs………………………...………20

Appendix B- Mini Curriculum Unit Examples…………………………………………..21

Appendix C- IEP Table…………………………………………………………….…….30

Appendix D- Multisensory Components……………………………………….………..33

Appendix E- T.S. GOLD Assessments Examples……………………………………….34


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Introduction

Children with special needs are an exceptional group of students that require a different

level of learning and support than their typically developing peers. With the help of tools,

modifications, and instructional methods, the general education classroom can be accessible to

all children. More importantly, in order for the children to be successful in academics and their

interactions, teachers and professionals must view these children as competent and capable

(Tzivinikou & Papoutasaki, 2016). This view is what this thesis is grounded in. There are three

main categories that align with making the classroom a better place for all accessible learning

which include multi-sensory education, modifications, and inclusivity. This project explores each

of these concepts in an inclusive, public school preschool setting.

Background Information

This semester, I had the privilege of completing my practicum in the preschool room at

Shepardson Elementary School. This school is founded in science, technology, engineering, and

math (STEM) with a problem based learning focus. Shepardson is located in a fairly wealthy

neighborhood; the school looks well built, safe, updated, and clean which matches the way the

neighborhood surrounding the school looks. According to the Colorado Department of

Education, Shepardson itself is mainly Caucasian with only 30% of the students being Hispanic

and African American. The children in the school are mainly from the middle class to the upper

class with less than 22% of children qualifying for free or reduced lunch (Colorado Department

of Education, 2018). This matches the demographics of Fort Collins since 88.6% of the

population is White and the overall poverty rate is 17.83% (United States Census Bureau, 2018).

The preschool classroom which is the site for this project was an integrated general education

classroom that included children with special needs. There were 13 students total, four are girls
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and nine are boys. Eight of the 13 children are Caucasian, with four multi-ethnic children.

There are six children total with IEPs; three have minor disabilities while the other three have

more severe special needs. All of the children with IEPs have a type of communication or

language delay. There are many modifications and additions added to the classroom and lessons

that accommodate for the children with the different IEPs. These modifications are outlined in

every lesson plan for the three children with mild to severe special needs.

Based on my observations, I was able to see what types of activities would be most

beneficial for the students and what would be able to be modified or enhanced. Most of the

children love dramatic play and movement during routine activities and play. They also love

science and engineering types of activities, for example, sink or float activities and playing with

magna tiles to make different structures. This demonstrates how curious the children are and

how much they want to learn. Curiosity was a strength that all the children demonstrated, and

this followed them into everything they did at school.

Description of children being assessed. There are three boys being specifically

assessed and accommodated. All three boys have special needs and developmental delays. Each

of the boys were given the following pseudonyms: Luke, Tyler and Conner. Starting with Luke,

he is three years old and it states he has another health impairment on his IEP. Luke has other

professional supports such as speech and language specialist and occupational therapist, he has

glasses and his gross motor skills are between eight- and twelve-month levels. Tyler is almost

five years old and will be going to kindergarten soon. On his IEP it says he has a developmental

delay, but recently his team has been assessing him for being on the Autism spectrum. He

struggles with emotional regulation, communication, and social interactions. Apart from this he

is at or above his age range in all academic areas. Lastly, Conner is four years old and his
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primary disability is visual impairment including blindness. This impairment has led to other

developmental delays including speech and physical delays. He has limited verbal output. He

also has a lack of focus and attention when it comes to play, interactions, and his academic work.

All three boys have specific accommodations for every part of their school day which include

focus tools, hand over hand assistance, and one on one interactions from teachers, paras, and

specialized professionals. See appendix A. Many professionals that come into the classroom to

work with these boys include an occupational therapist, physical therapist, speech therapist, and

vision specialist.

Expectations of students, social interactions and the classroom environment.

All students are held to high expectations because in order to receive high quality work

and behavior, one must expect that from the children. With that said, there are different

expectations for each individual child based on their developmental age and abilities in order to

promote equity. There are also different expectations for the children who have special needs;

these expectations are based on each child’s IEPs. All students are expected to respect the

teachers, other peers, and classroom equipment and materials. Other expectations include

focusing, listening quietly, and raising hands to speak during whole group. Focus tools and

verbal guidance is used to support the children in reaching these expectations. They are also

expected to follow the directions laid out for them during whole group and small group time, as

well as, following safety and health routines.

Peer interactions within the classroom look different on a day to day basis as they would

with three to five-year olds who change their minds constantly. Most children take turns, share,

and play together well, but some have a hard time taking turns and will get frustrated if the play
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does not go their way. Many peers will also be seen scaffolding for their peers with special

needs.

Literature Review

Multisensory Education

Multisensory materials and methods are just another way for children with special needs

to learn in school, and it might even make learning more accessible. These components are

materials and instructional methods that include different learning styles such as touch, audio,

verbal, and visual aspects. Multisensory education not only benefits students with special needs,

but also students who are typically developing, which is why they are valuable and used in many

classrooms. Multisensory environments and methods have been around for a long time.

Stephenson and Carter (2011) wrote that these types of environments have been around since the

1970s in Holland with the intervention called “Snoezlen” and started as a place for leisure for

people with disabilities. They are now popular within classrooms for children with special

needs. Children with special needs especially benefit from them as they are a way to gain and

maintain focus, an outlet for anxieties, and a unique way to learn. Multisensory education comes

with all different types of methods and materials including but not limited to, seats, hand held

squishy items, vibrating devices, music, visual pictures and cues. All of these materials and

methods incorporate various ways of learning and focusing, which are not only beneficial to

children with special needs but for typically developing children too.

Stephenson and Carter (2011) wrote “children with severe and multiple disabilities need

multisensory experiences in order to develop cognitive and social skills” (p. 276). Benefits of a

multisensory environment include improvements in sensory and motor development,

communication skills, attention span, and quality of life. Multisensory materials and items also
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provide a calming effect for children with disabilities that will help them with their attention

span, difficult behaviors, and learning of subjects. Pagliano (2012) also stated that “the more

multisensory the stimulation, the more likely it will be perceived in more accurate, valid, and

dependable ways” (p.7). This demonstrates the importance of multisensory environments and

materials for children with special needs, because the more multisensory methods they encounter

the more engaged they become in their learning.

The study done by Stephenson and Carter (2011) interviewed two schools who used

multisensory environments. Both schools used materials and equipment that provided visual,

olfactory, tactile, and auditory stimulation. Both schools also reported the benefits of

multisensory environments included reduction of distractibility, calming effects, increase in

motivation, being able to give assessments to the children better, eliciting responses, teaching

cause and effect relationships, and overall benefits to learning (Stephenson & Carter, 2011).

Overall, one can see the benefits of multisensory education can have for children with special

needs through Stephenson and Carter’s (2011) study and Pagliano’s (2012) book on multisensory

environments.

Importance of Modifications

All children, whether they are typically developing or have disabilities, learn in different

ways. Children with special needs especially learn in unique ways that need to be supported by

the teaching methods within the classroom. According to Lee, Wehmeyer, Soukup, and Palmer

(2010), modifications are critical for students with disabilities to achieve access to the general

education curriculum and to make progress within it as well. There are two ways to modify the

curriculum for the children. One way refers to curriculum adaptations which is to alter the way

the content is represented or presented. The second way refers to curriculum augmentations
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which is to add in additional content that teaches students different strategies such as learning to

learn, problem solving skills, self-monitoring skills, and goal-setting skills. In these ways, the

general education curriculum is modified, so the children are still learning the same material as

their typically developing peers. These modifications give the children a more effective way to

engage and learn the curriculum content (Lee et al., 2010). Additionally, Lee et al. (2010) found

that students with disabilities report positive student academic responses due to having access to

the general education curriculum through modifications. This shows how valuable modifications

to the general education curriculum can be to a child with special need’s learning and academic

progress.

Inclusive Education

Inclusive education is a “process of strengthening the capacity of an education system to

reach out to all learners” as defined by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural

Organization (UNESCO) (Poon-McBrayer & Wong, 2013). This definition demonstrates the

importance of inclusivity because it gives more children the opportunity to learn and be

successful in school. Inclusive education is a right all children with special needs should have;

they have a right to learn and interact with their typically developing peers in a classroom

setting. More and more classrooms are starting to incorporate inclusion, in fact the percentage of

students with disabilities who are in a general education classroom for most of the day has

increased from 34% in the early 90s to 58% in 2007 (McLeskey, Waldron, & Redd, 2014). This

supports children in this right of access to the general education curriculum and quality

instruction.

Social interactions. Social interactions are important in an inclusive classroom, because

everyone should be able to participate and interact with everyone regardless of their ability. If
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the children with disabilities feel included and accepted, they will have a better time participating

and learning in school. Hanline and Correa-Torres’s (2012) study focused on three preschoolers

with severe disabilities and seven preschoolers without disabilities. The study focused on adult-

child and peer-peer social interactions and strategies that were used to promote social and

communication skills. The strategies used to promote social skills included having the

expectation that the children with severe disabilities would participate in all the activities and

encouraging them to do so, modeling appropriate social behaviors, and enlisting the help of the

children’s typically developing peers. The results showed the children with severe disabilities

having more interactions with adults rather than peers, however, when the children would

interact with their peers, the peers expressed pleasure, sensitivity, and acceptance (Hanline &

Correa-Torress, 2012). This study demonstrates how an inclusive classroom can promote

participation and social interactions, by allowing the children to participate in all the activities

and modeling social interactions for them. A future implication could be to look at strategies to

support the peer to peer interactions better.

Academic achievement. In addition to social interactions, inclusion is also beneficial to

academic achievement. A study done by Dessemontet, Bless, and Morin (2012), reviewed 34

students who had intellectual disabilities (ID) who were in a general education class and 34

students with IDs who were in a special education classroom. The children who were in the

inclusive general education classroom made a more significant amount of progress in literacy

than the children who were in special education classrooms (Dessemontet et al., 2012).

According to McLeskey et al. (2014), schools all over are becoming more welcoming to children

with special needs in their general education and are more supportive of raising the achievement

levels for these students. There is a reason some inclusive classrooms are more effective than
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others in increasing academic achievement in students. According to Hanline and Correa-Torres

(2012), inclusion contributes to the children’s achievement. For example, through these

inclusive methods, research has shown that there is an increase in language, literacy, cognitive,

and especially social development.

The role of the teacher. The most effective inclusive classrooms focused on “meeting

the needs of all students; providing recognizably high-quality instruction in general education

classrooms; used resources efficiently, but flexibly to meet student needs; and used data systems

to monitor student progress (McLeskey et al., 2014). The teachers also need high-quality

professional development and to be engaged in the decision making about the approach to the

instruction that they use. All of these methods contribute to a more effective inclusive classroom

which then more effectively raises the academic achievement for students with special needs

(McLeskey et al., 2014).

After reviewing the benefits of inclusive education, one must know how to get that

effective inclusive education. There are many aspects that go into making an effective classroom

as mentioned above by McLeskey et al. (2014). Research by Robinson (2016) went more into

depth on what makes the inclusive classroom more valuable and effective, which comes from

having strong and competent inclusive teachers. Robinson (2016) wrote collaboration, carefully

planned field experiences, adopting a research orientation, and having critical theoretical

approaches such as inclusive practice being a matter for the head, heart, and hands, as methods to

developing effective inclusive teachers who will in return make their classrooms effective. This

study found that there needs to be a career long research orientation in which the school staff,

university tutors, and pre-service teachers collaborate with a sound pedagogic framework in

order to improve inclusive practices. Additionally, inclusivity demands collaboration, it cannot


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be done by one person. Overall, “inclusive teacher education must adopt a complex, multi-

modal, collective, critical theoretical, socially situated, research-oriented and partnership-

oriented pedagogic model if it is to advance” (Robinson, 2017, p. 176). All of these aspects

mentioned in this study demonstrates what it takes to develop effective inclusive teachers and

classrooms.

Conclusion

Children with special needs are just as good of learners and students as their typically

developing peers, the only difference is that they require more support to make them more

successful. The three main aspects of support include multisensory education, modifications,

and inclusion. Multisensory education provides a variety of materials and environments that

help children with special needs focus and learn better. Modifications to lessons, environments,

and processes are a way to teach children the content in a way that is more effective and

beneficial. Lastly, inclusion is a way to keep the children in the general education classroom

where their social skills and academics are benefitted, valued, and improved. In fact, Cosier

(2010) mentioned another article that found for every additional hour children with specials

needs are in the general education classroom, the more significant gain of achievement (as cited

in Theoharis & Causton, 2014). Multisensory education, modifications, and inclusion are the

key to teaching children with special needs.

Research Questions

This thesis aimed at exploring the answers to two research questions. The first question

was does multisensory education, modifications, and inclusion lead to more success in school?

Do these aspects have benefits for both children with special needs and children who are

typically developing? My hypotheses stated yes, these aspects lead to more success in school for
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both groups of children. Through implementing lessons, making modifications, adding in

multisensory components, and setting up an inclusive classroom, one can see explore these

answers.

Methods

Context

The root of this project started in Education 425 Early Childhood Education I, which is a

required professional education course in the undergraduate early childhood education program

at Colorado State University. EDUC 425 I is an interdisciplinary course that touches on aspects

such as: integrated methods for curriculum planning, the role of the teacher, the environment,

and assessments. This course included a lecture and a practicum. The practicum’s location was

an inclusive education preschool classroom at Shepardson Elementary School that served general

education and children with special needs.

Curriculum. Before I planned and implemented my lessons, I took time to observe the

children’s interests and activities. I saw that they enjoyed reading and movement, so I

incorporated these interests into my lesson plans. I also noticed that they loved music, so I

integrated that into my lesson about movement by utilizing the YMCA dance, which was a

multisensory component. I noticed that the other three children who have IEPs that are not Luke,

Tyler, or Conner, had speech delays. To help support this goal for the children as well as support

language within the classroom as a whole, I integrated language, vocabulary, and discussion for

each lesson and topic. Lastly, I supported Luke, Tyler, and Conner by looking at their IEPs in

order to design lessons that would be most beneficial to them.

Procedures and Timeline


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Being implemented was a mini curriculum unit based off the EDUC 425 project,

“Candidate Work Sample”. This project started in the spring of 2018. For the thesis, instead of

designing and implemented three lesson plans needed for the project, I did a total of 12. See

examples of lessons plans in appendix B. There is an example of a small group lesson plan that

incorporate individual modifications and enhancements for each child in order to see how one

lesson plan can be adapted in a variety of ways. One on one lessons for each of the three boys

are also included.

Observations and notes on the children’s IEPs were taken before designing the lesson

plans. See appendix C. The IEPs were used to design the modifications and multisensory

components needed for each lesson the mini curriculum unit was implemented across three

separate days with a whole group lesson, small group lesson, centers lesson, and one on one

interaction for each day. Examples of multisensory components can be seen in appendix D

which include audio, verbal, movement, and touch aspects. Data and assessments were also

being collected for the duration and at the end of the practicum.

Rationale

The rationale behind this thesis was to gain understanding of the importance multisensory

and inclusive education that include modifications is for children with special needs. The lesson

plans were used to incorporate the goals set for each child in their IEP which helps enhance their

learning and education. Teaching methods supported by the references mentioned in the

literature review were used in the lesson plans being implemented. Overall, this project led to

the child’s success in learning as well as my success as an inclusive teacher.


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Evidence of Assessment

To begin designing lessons for the children, I needed to attain information on what skills

I should enhance and what activities I should implement. Therefore, before the lesson plans

were implemented, I gathered observational data based on what they could do presently, what

they need help on, and what they could learn. This was all a part of authentic assessment.

Observations I gathered was that Tyler was higher in literacy and mathematics, but was lower in

social development. He was at a 2nd grade reading level so I knew I needed to enhance the

content for him and make some of the activities that required reading more challenging. I also

found that he was lower in the social emotional domain because he did not work well in a group

and had a hard time controlling him emotions. For Luke and Conner, I found that they both were

lower in the domains of literacy, language, math, social emotional, and physical. Luke was at an

infant level for academics and physical development.

I also assessed the children before implementing lesson plans by connecting their IEP

goals to my observations. By seeing what skills they needed to work on, I matched them with

IEP goals that also needed to be worked on. For Tyler this included improving on expressive

language and increasing positive interactions. Luke was needing to work on completing a

project or action, advocating for himself using words and gestures instead of crying, and

increasing strength and endurance. For Conner this included improving fine motor skills,

communicating needs with gestures and words instead of crying, and focusing on one action or

project for five minutes. I used these authentic assessments to write up the lesson plans as well

as write out the modifications and adaptations for each individual child.

At the end of the semester I assessed the three boys to see if they had grown in the

domains they were struggling in at the beginning. I had taken observational notes during and
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right after each lesson based on what the boys were doing developmentally for each domain. I

then matched those observations onto the TS Gold assessment to see where they fall within the

continuum. See Appendix E. On the assessments they go by the initials of Luke, Tyler, and

Conner. These initials match the initials used for the specific description of them in the group

description and the modifications of the lesson plan. There are different levels of development

for each objective for TS Gold. Levels one and two refer to what birth to two-year olds should

be able to accomplish. Levels three to six refer to what three- to five-years old should be able to

accomplish and levels seven to nine refer to what five-year olds and older should be able to

accomplish.

Based on my notes and what TS GOLD demonstrated, I could see that Tyler, Conner, and

Luke were still low in some categories but had made growth. Tyler was able to keep a positive

conversation with a peer that included compliments and turn taking. He was also able to help 2/3

times without crying or screaming. Luke was able to stand by pulling himself up by a table as

well as walk with the guidance of an adult. He was also able to verbalize his needs by saying,

“up please” whenever he wanted to be held. Lastly, Conner was able to put two out of the four

puzzle pieces in the correct slot on an adapted puzzle board with verbal guidance from an adult.

He also kept attention on the puzzle for five minutes straight. The three boys had made growth

in the short time that I was there which the help of the lesson plans I designed that supported

these skills. By assessing the boys, I was not only able to see the growth but what further

accommodations and enhancements I should make for future lessons.

Reflection

In regard to this thesis project, the research and experiences I have gained from it will

carry through to my future career. This thesis was a project of exploration, meaning it was more
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about real field experiences and the relationships with these three boys rather than quantitative

data. This was an exploration of concepts related to multisensory education, modifications, and

inclusion within a public preschool setting. From the research I completed for the literature

review, I was able to see how my actions and lesson plans were supported by current research.

My assessments and observations also supported my hypotheses. I was able to see the benefits

multisensory components, modifications, and inclusion have on children with special needs as

well as typically developing children which current research has found as well. It is important to

note that typically developing children have more success in school when using enhancements,

inclusion, and multisensory aspects in their learning. I was able to see the boys’ peers

incorporating acceptance and scaffolding into their interactions which aligns with the research

done specifically by Hanline & Correa-Torress (2012). The assessments and the growth I found

within them also demonstrated the benefits of these concepts that research has backed up. My

findings connected to the findings found in other studies because both had seen growth and

success with learning when using these methods. I can see why inclusion, modifications, and

multisensory components are being used more and more in general education classrooms.

Implementing the Lessons during the Practicum

As I reflect on my practicum experience I am reminded of what a privilege it was to work

in the integrated preschool room that I did. The children were all engaged and curious

throughout my lessons and we had great conversations surrounding the topic the lesson focused

on. It is amazing how much preschoolers know on different topics. The modifications and

adaptations that I planned out for Luke, Tyler, and Conner also had great success and my

assessment findings demonstrated this. I have also learned that flexibility is key, when

interactions are child focused and flexible, it is easier to adapt based on what the child needs.
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I also learned behavior strategies because Tyler has trouble regulating his emotions and

communicating. Through the semester, I learned the tricks on how to calm Tyler down and

communicate with him. This included pulling him from the group to have a one on one

interaction, getting on his level, having him directly at me, and applying pressure to his

shoulders.

The Future as a Teacher

I have equipped myself with more current research based knowledge and have

demonstrated that knowledge within the classroom. I want to continue gaining knowledge

through conferences and discussions on inclusion and the importance of modifications and

multisensory education. Through all of this I have gained a new passion. Working with the

three boys, watching them benefit from my lessons, and watching their growth has sparked this

love of working with children with special needs. I intend to graduate with a master’s in Special

Education and work in inclusive general education classrooms.

In conclusion, through this thesis I have gained confidence with taking initiative, leading

lessons, supporting children with special needs, and using current research to base my

instructional methods off of. I have also continued to evolve my philosophy by seeing all

children as capable and competent. I will continue to use a child focused and strengths based

approach because the children can do anything with a little support from adults and peers. I have

learned to appreciate the small things when working with children and celebrating them. I now

know when I connect multisensory education, modifications, and inclusion within a classroom,

all children will have the best opportunity to learn and be successful in school.
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 18

References

Colorado Department of Education. (2018). School dashboard: Shepardson elementary school

(7834). Retrieved from http://www2.cde.state.co.us/schoolview/dish/schooldashboard.asp

Dessemontet, R. S., Bless, G., & Morin, D. (2012). Effects of inclusion on the academic

achievement and adaptive behavior of children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of

Intellectual Disability Research, 56 (56), 579-587. doi:10.1111/j.13652788.2011.01497.x

Hanline, M. F., & Correa-Torres, S. M. (2012). Experiences of preschoolers with severe

disabilities in an inclusive early education setting: A qualitative study. Education and

Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 47 (1), 109-121. Retrieved from

https://www-jstor-org.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu/stable/23880566

Lee, S., Wehmeyer, M., Soukup, J., and Palmer, S. (2010). Impact of curriculum modifications

on access to the general education curriculum for students with disabilities. Exceptional

Children, 76 (2), 213-233. Retrieved from

http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=3&sid=

8e4fa341-6168-4984-972c-b1c02e251467%40pdc-v-

sessmgr01&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWNvb2tpZSxpcCx1cmwsY3BpZCZjdXN0aWQ9cz

Q2NDA3OTImc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZl#db=aph&AN=47591786

Mcleskey, J., Waldron, N. L., & Redd, L. (2014). A case study of a highly effective, inclusive

elementary school. Journal of Special Education, 48 (1), 59-70. doi:

10.1177/0022466912440455

Pagliano, P. (2012). The multisensory handbook: A guide for children and adults with sensory

learning disabilities. New York, NY: Routledge.


MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 19

Poon-McBrayer, K. F., & Wong, P. (2013). Inclusive education services for children and youth

with disabilities: Values, roles, and challenges of school leaders. Children and Youth

Services Review, 35 (9), 1520-1525. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2013.06.009

Robinson, D. (2017). Effective inclusive teacher education for special educational needs and

disabilities: Some more thoughts on the way forward. Teaching and Teacher Education,

61, 164-178. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2016.09.007

Stephenson, J., & Carter, M. (2011). Use of multisensory environments in schools for students

with severe disabilities: Perceptions from schools. Education and Training in Autism and

Developmental Disabilities, 46 (2), 276-290. Retrieved from

http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu/stable/23879697

Theoharis, G., & Causton, J. (2014). Leading inclusive reform for students with disabilities: A

school- and systemwide approach. Theory into Practice, 53 (2), 82-97. doi:

10.1080/00405841.2014.885808

Tzivinikou, S., & Papoutsaki, K. (2016). Studying teaching methods, strategies, and best

practices for young children with special educational needs. Early Child Development

and Care, 186 (6), 971-980. doi: 10.1080/03004430.2015.1071101

United States Census Bureau. (2018). QuickFacts: Fort Collins, CO. Retrieved from

https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fortcollinscitycolorado
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 20

APPENDIX A: Supports for Children with Special Needs

Focus Tools
Sensory items for children to touch and Here, L is sitting on a sensory seat in Sensory seat that lights up and
play with so that their hands are busy, and the special chair. This helps him sit up vibrates, so children have extra
they can focus on speaking and listening right so that he can see properly. The sensory input. Can use on various
seat helps him have the sensory input parts of body, not just as a seat
he needs to focus

Here, L is chewing on a rubber focus Here, C is jumping on the


tool. His mouth and hands are busy, so trampoline to relieve energy in
he can focus on listening order to regain focus

Hand over Hand Assistance

The para will start with her hand over The para knows his zone of proximal
his and then will slowly release development enough to know he
responsibility over to C and let him would not be able to color on his own,
have the independence to do it on his so she helps him bridge that gap by
own providing assistance
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 21

APPENDIX B: Mini Curriculum Unit Examples

Lesson 2 out of 12 Title: Nature Small Group Lesson

Lesson Idea/Topic and Three Little Pigs; connects to the curriculum unit of Nature through
Rational/Relevance: concept of wind
W- Letter of the week

Content Standard(s) addressed by this lesson: (Write Content Standards directly from the standard)

Physical Domain: Standard 4.4: Manipulate writing, drawing, and art tools
● TS GOLD Motor 7.b

Social- Emotional Domain: Standard 2.2: Demonstrate age-appropriate independence in a


range of activities, routines, and tasks
● TS GOLD Social Emotional 1.c

Language Domain: Standard 2.3: Use increasingly complex and varied vocabulary
● TS GOLD Language 9.a

Literacy Domain: Standard 1.5: Retell stories or information from books through conversation,
artistic works, creative movement, or drama
● TS GOLD Literacy 18.c

Mathematics Knowledge and Skills Domain: Standard 5.5: Sequence a simple set of activities
or events
Understandings: (Big Ideas)
Put together the Three Little Pigs story using sequencing with pictures
Inquiry Questions: (Essential questions relating knowledge at end of the unit of instruction, select
applicable questions from standard)
What color should the pig be?
What happened first in the story?
What happened next?
What happened last?
Evidence Outcomes: (Learning Targets)
Every student will be able to: (Create your own lesson objectives from the standard using student voice)
I can:
Physical: use tools to make my own Three Little Pigs book
Social-Emotional: use the tools on my own
Language: use vocabulary I learned in the book and from my teacher
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 22

Literacy: retell the story through pictures and putting them in order
Mathematics Knowledge and Skills: put the four pictures in order
This means:
Physical: having control of small muscles through fine motor skills
Social-Emotional: having the perception that one is capable of successfully
accomplishing tasks and building up one’s self-concept and self-efficacy
Language: use expressive language
Literacy: having the ability to understand and get meaning from the story in order to
retell the story in the correct order
Mathematics Knowledge and Skills: understanding how to order events
List of Assessments: (Write the number of the learning targets associated with each assessment)
● TS GOLD for Physical, Social Emotional, Language, and Literacy Standards

● Observations for Mathematics Standard

Multisensory Components:
● Touch

● Visual

Name and Purpose of Sequencing the Three Little Pigs; to retell the story using standards
Lesson mentioned above and using pictures

Co-Teaching Which model(s) will be used?


Will co-teaching models One teach, one assist
be utilized in this lesson? Why did you choose this model(s) and what are the teachers’ roles?
Yes _X__ No ___ I will have the primary instructional responsibility, but I need other
teachers to help assist the children who have special needs in the
classroom
Approx. Time and Time: 15 minutes
Materials Materials: crayons, scissors, glue, pictures of straw, stick, and brick
house, picture of wolf in boiling pot of water, picture of top of pig and
picture of bottom of pig
~Students are currently ~Knowledge and skills on how to use materials, knowledge of the story
demonstrating:
~We will know the ~Use tools on their own, put the pictures of the story in order
students are successful
when:
Procedures The strategy I intend to use is: Task Analysis
I am using this strategy here because: I will give them tasks for a
multistep activity

Teacher Actions Student Actions


~have materials out ~color pig
~show model of the activity ~cut out straw, stick, and
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 23

~assist when needed brick houses, cut out wolf in


~give out one tool at a time boiling pot
~ask questions while they are doing the ~put the pictures in order
activity matching the numbers on the
~fold book up like an accordion paper (1-4)
~glue pictures down
~glue pig head and bottom
onto paper with ordered
pictures
~answer questions along the
way
Closure I will tell them they can take these books into centers in order to look off
of them when playing out the story through dramatic play
Differentiation L. T. C.
Modifications Content: have Content: n/a Content: use
laminated cut out Process: one-word
pieces of the Teacher should phrases
story; show story sit down next to Process: hand
to him in order; him to monitor over hand
point to picture his process; assistance;
and narrate the (should be able special scissors;
story with them to cut, glue, and special crayons
Process: color color on his Product:
the pig only, own) teacher can
hand over hand Environment: make the end
assistance one on one product for him
Product: teacher interactions if they want to
can make the end Extra Environment:
product for him if Multisensory: n/a
they want to N/A Extra
Environment: Multisensory:
n/a touch
Extra
Multisensory:
touch
Extensions Content: ask challenging questions about wind and the
story
Process: have them try to do each step by themselves;
add in more story pieces
Mathematics Standard 5.5:
L- was not able to sequence on his own, did not understand sequencing
Assessment: Observations C- was not able to sequence on his own, did not understand sequencing
T- was able to sequence on his own and retell the story using sequencing
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 24

Lesson 4 out of 12 Title: One on One Interactions with C.C

Lesson Idea/Topic and One on one interaction with C.C.


Rational/Relevance:
Student Profile: Four years old. His primary disability is visual impairment including
blindness. Has other delays developmentally including speech and
physical delays with limited verbal output. He also has a lack of focus and
attention when it comes to play, interactions, and his academic work.
Content Standard(s) addressed by this lesson: (Write Content Standards directly from the standard)

Approaches to Learning Domain: Standard 2.1: Maintain interest in a project or activity until
completed
Social-Emotional Domain: Standard 3.3: Follow simple rules, routines, and directions
● TS GOLD Social Emotional 1.b

Physical Domain: Standard 4.1: Develop hand strength and dexterity


● TS GOLD Motor 7.a

Understandings: (Big Ideas)


Child will complete an activity (puzzle)
Inquiry Questions: (Essential questions relating knowledge at end of the unit of instruction, select
applicable questions from standard)
Where does this piece go?
Evidence Outcomes: (Learning Targets)
Every student will be able to: (Create your own lesson objectives from the standard using student voice)
I can:
Physical: Place the correct puzzle piece in the puzzle with assistance
Social-Emotional: follow directions
Approaches to learning: complete the puzzle with assistance
This means:
Physical: Begin to use fine motor skills to build up hand strength and dexterity
Social-Emotional: Begin to recognize and regulate emotions, attention, impulses, and behavior
Approaches to learning: Begin to have the ability to begin and finish activities with persistence
and attention
List of Assessments: (Write the number of the learning targets associated with each assessment)

● TS GOLD for Physical and Social Emotional Standards


MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 25

● IEP

● Observations for Approaches to Learning Standard

Multisensory Components:
● Touch/Kinesthetic

Name and Purpose of One on one interaction with C.C.; purpose is to enhance IEP goals
Lesson that were not enhanced during whole group and small group lessons

Co-Teaching Which model(s) will be used?


Will co-teaching models be None
utilized in this lesson? Yes Why did you choose this model(s) and what are the teachers’
___ No X___ roles?
N/A

Approx. Time and Time: 5 minutes


Materials Materials: Puzzle

~This student is currently ~Awareness and responding to one step directions after repetition
demonstrating: ~Complete the whole puzzle and listen to two step directions all with
~We will know this student minimal assistance
is successful when:
Procedures The strategy I intend to use is: Task Analysis and Scaffolding
I am using this strategy here because: I will give him tasks for a
multistep activity, but I will also be there to scaffold his learning. I
will challenge him, but I will also assist in helping him reach that
challenge.

Teacher Actions Student Actions


~Give two step directions to pick ~Complete a four-piece puzzle
out the puzzle piece and put it
where it belongs
~Model how to do the puzzle if
he needs help
Closure I will praise him for all he had done

Differentiation Content Process Environment


Modifications Explain Use simple Take him away in
animals very phrases; use the corner of the
simply and modeling; room where there
use repetition are less
distractions
Assessment: Observations Approaches to Learning Standard 2.1
Kept interest for five minutes total, 3 with adults’ support of hand
over hand assistance and 2 without adult support
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 26

Lesson 8 out of 12 Title: One on One Interactions with L.R.


Lesson Idea/Topic and One on one interaction with L.R.
Rational/Relevance:
Student Profile: 2 years and 9 months old; has other health impairment with an IEP; has
other professional supports such as speech/language specialist and
occupational therapist; has glasses; gross motor skills are between 8- and
12-month levels
Content Standard(s) addressed by this lesson: (Write Content Standards directly from the standard)

Physical Domain: Standard 3.1: Develop motor control and balance for a range of physical
activities, such as walking, propelling a wheelchair or mobility device, skipping, running,
climbing, and hopping
● TS GOLD Motor 6

Language Domain: Standard 2.2: Use language to express ideas and needs
● TS GOLD Language 9.a

Understandings: (Big Ideas)


Using words and gross motor development to stand with assistance
Inquiry Questions: (Essential questions relating knowledge at end of the unit of instruction, select
applicable questions from standard)
What are you wanting?
Can you say I want up?
Evidence Outcomes: (Learning Targets)
Every student will be able to: (Create your own lesson objectives from the standard using student voice)
I can:
Physical: Pull myself up and stand with assistance
Language: Say, “I want up”
This means:
Physical: Use gross motor skills to have control of large muscles for movement, navigation and
balance and work on standing alone
Language: Begin to use language to express needs and wants
List of Assessments: (Write the number of the learning targets associated with each assessment)
● TS GOLD/ IEP for all standards

Multisensory Components:
● Movement/Kinesthetic
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 27

● Audio

Name and Purpose of Lesson One on one interactions with L.; purpose is to enhance IEP goals
that were not enhanced during whole group and small group lessons

Co-Teaching Which model(s) will be used?


Will co-teaching models be None
utilized in this lesson? Yes ___ Why did you choose this model(s) and what are the teachers’
No _X__ roles?
N/A

Approx. Time and Materials Time: 5 minutes


Materials: Light table, cars

~This student is currently ~Sitting up on knees without assistance, saying “up”


demonstrating: ~Standing up by grabbing onto light table, saying “I need/want
~We will know this student is help” or “I want up”
successful when:
Procedures The strategy I intend to use is: Scaffolding
I am using this strategy here because: I know where he is at
developmentally. I will use scaffolding to try to challenge him, but I
will also be there to assist and coach in getting him to reach that
challenge.

Teacher Actions Student Actions


~Bring him to light table ~Use words to express what
~Say “I want up” he wants
~Place his hands on the light table ~Use strength to pull himself
~Let him use most of his strength up and lean on table
to pull himself up, being there to
catch him if he falls backward
~Fix footing after he is standing

Closure I will close by giving him praise for all he had done

Differentiation Process Environment


Modifications Use repetition and Have light table be sturdy
modeling on how to and at the right height for
say “I want help” or him to be able to reach
“I want up” from being on his knees
and at the right height to
be able to lean on it but
not be uncomfortable
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 28

Lesson 12 out of 12 Title: One on One Interaction with T.


Lesson Idea/Topic and One on one interaction with T.
Rational/Relevance:
Student Profile: T is almost five years old. On his IEP it says he has a developmental delay,
but recently his team has been assessing him for ASD. He has problems
with emotional regulation, communication, and social interactions. Apart
from this he is at or above his age range in all academic areas
Content Standard(s) addressed by this lesson: (Write Content Standards directly from the standard)

Social-Emotional Domain: Standard 4.2: Refrain from disruptive, aggressive, angry, or defiant
behaviors
● TS GOLD Social Emotional 1.a

Mathematics Knowledge and Skills Domain: Standard 3: Geometry and Spatial Sense (The
understanding of shapes, their properties, and how objects are related to one another)
● TS GOLD Mathematics 21.b

Understandings: (Big Ideas)


Understanding the differences in shapes
Inquiry Questions: (Essential questions relating knowledge at end of the unit of instruction, select
applicable questions from standard)
What shape is this?
What color is this?
How are these two shapes different?
How could we group these shapes?
What can you do to calm down?
What are you feeling right now?
Evidence Outcomes: (Learning Targets)
Every student will be able to: (Create your own lesson objectives from the standard using student voice)
I can:
Mathematics Knowledge and Skills: Use words to describe the shapes, follow directions to
order the shapes
Social-Emotional: Control my behavior and anger when I get frustrated
This means:
Mathematics Knowledge and Skills: Beginning to have an understanding of shapes, their
properties, and how objects are related to one another
Social-Emotional: Beginning to work on learning positive alternatives to aggressive or isolating
behaviors
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 29

List of Assessments: (Write the number of the learning targets associated with each assessment)
● TS GOLD/IEP for all standards

Multisensory Components:
● Touch/Kinesthetic

Name and Purpose of One on one interaction with T.; purpose is to enhance IEP goals that were
Lesson not enhanced during whole group or small group lessons

Co-Teaching Which model(s) will be used?


Will co-teaching models None
be utilized in this Why did you choose this model(s) and what are the teachers’ roles?
lesson? Yes ___ No N/A
_X__

Approx. Time and Time: 5 minutes


Materials Materials: shapes, easel

~The student is ~Knowledge of shapes


currently ~Answers questions about shapes, sort shapes based on a specific attribute,
demonstrating: refrain from screaming and crying when frustrated
~We will know the
student is successful
when:

Procedures The strategy I intend to use is: Effective Praise and Modeling
I am using this strategy here because: I know he is able to sort and make
patterns, but he needs praise and encouragement. I will also encourage him
to calm down when he starts to get frustrated and I will model this
emotional regulation process to him myself.

Teacher Actions Student Actions


~Set up shapes on the easel board ~Move shapes around on easel
~Bring T. to the easel and model a ~Make patterns
pattern ~Answer questions about
~Ask guiding questions shapes and patterns
~Soothe him when needed ~Stay calm throughout activity

Closure I will give him praise for all he had done


Differentiation Content Process Environment
Modifications ~ask the ~use repetition; ~have him be
challenging use calming by himself at
questions about techniques (i.e. the easel so
shapes and patterns squeezes on there are no
shoulders) distractions
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 30

APPENDIX C: IEP Table

L C T
Goal 1: Pre-academics: Physical Motor: Communication:
will complete an adult will be able to use his will improve his
directed activity after hands and fingers to expressive language
set up with supportive complete a coloring skills to communicate
positioning and project as well as a thoughts/ideas
following the teacher puzzle with only verbal successfully (request a
directions (complete cues (be able to pick up variety of
adult directed activity crayon and color 50% of objects/actions using 4-
using classroom tools to the picture, be able to 6 word phrases, ask and
feed himself and put 4 chunky puzzle answer “who, what,
complete projects, pieces into a wooden where” questions using
participate in a 5 minute frame) 3-4 word phrases)
teacher directed small
or large group activity)
Goal 2: Social/Emotional Communication: Social/Emotional
Wellness: will communicate his Wellness:
will respond calmly to needs, wants and will increase positive
peers when they initiate feelings using interactions with peers
an interaction using eye pictures/gestures/signs and adults (sharing and
contact, gestures, or /words (have an accepting no)
vocalization (turn taking expressive vocabulary
activity, advocate for of 50 words and a
himself by gesturing or receptive vocabulary of
using a word rather 60 words as
than crying, pushing demonstrated by
their face away, or pointing to pictures or
clawing a peers face) objects and/or labeling
with
signs/words/communic
ation device, accurately
indicate “yes” or “no” by
a head nod or shake,
verbal response or sign
to answer a question
presented, imitation of
CV and VC
combinations)
Goal 3: Physical Motor: Vision:
will increase his will demonstrate
strength and endurance improved visual
by walking and response in his daily
changing positions with activities as evidenced
assistance such as an by increased time of
adult hand or his gait visual attending and
trainer (walk with gait increase in turning to
trainer or while holding look toward peoples or
an adult’s hands, move sounds (demonstrate
from standing to visual attention for 4
squatting to standing minutes to complete an
using his gait trainer activity, follow 10
with verbal cues) simple two step
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 31

directions using vision


and other senses,
respond when name is
called)
Goal 4: Communication: Vision:
will indicate choices, will demonstrate
wants, and needs using improved visual
words, signs, or attention in travel and
gestures (respond to balance through core
yes/no questions, label strengthening to
classroom vocabulary negotiate familiar and
meaning labeling a less familiar areas (walk
picture or object when in line with class, locate
asked “what is this?”) 4 areas within school,
follow a sidewalk safely
while waiting at corners
to cross, identify 10
environmental features
like tree, grass,
sidewalk, curb, corner,
rocks, wall, playground,
when requested)
Goal 5: Pre-academics:
will actively participate
in the classroom
activities 75% of the
time with minimum
adult support (will
participate in whole
group time for 8+
minutes with no
physical adult prompts,
functionally use
classroom tools to meet
his needs, such as
crayons to draw, spoons
to eat, etc., will choose
between two centers
and remain at that
center, playing for about
5 minutes)
Academic and Turns pages, pats Language has increased Uses two word phrases
Functional Strengths pictures in books, greatly, can pick up to request and respond
squeezes toys, feeds large beads to peers, answering
himself crunchy finger independently, able to yes/no questions, at and
foods, can pull his shoes grab large puzzle pieces above age range in all
and socks off, off of table and attempt academic areas
to put them into the (cognitive, literacy, and
visually adapted board math), knows all letters
frame, able to identify and sounds, reads
and label using familiar books, identify
approximations 15 numbers to 20 and
items at school matches them to their
(including apple, carrot, quantities, makes
milk, ice cream, banana, simple patterns and
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 32

cup, cracker, car, book), identifies shapes


looks at objects and
lights for about 10-15
seconds at a time,
respond to his name
more frequently, avoids
obstacles and
negotiating drop-offs
when exploring,
remains at whole group
for 10 minutes with
adult support
Difficulties Manipulating tools using Not able to indicate a Gets frustrated easily,
appropriate grasps, low choice for center time especially when things
muscle tone, fatigues and move to it do not go his way, hard
quickly, often cries independently, time accepting “no”,
when peers are actively attending to activities hard time calming
moving toward him, has and people visually for himself down, does not
30 words that are long periods of time, like to share
understood by struggles with fine
caregivers but difficult motor skills, limited
for others to understand verbal output
Accommodations/ Opportunities to crawl, High contrast colors, Person picture schedule
Modifications pull to stand, and small crayons to for daily routines,
exploration, wheelchair encourage finger use, communication
for long distances and structured seating for notebook, consistent
supported seating, circle support, use of vibrating reminders of rules at
time adaptive seating, switch/tolls to increase whole group time (quiet
hand over hand support, engagement, weekly mouth, calm body),
picture schedule to communication with encourage calming
make transitions easier, parents, facilitate peer strategies (taking deep
lessons with distinct interactions, direct breaths)
beginning and end, teaching of social skills,
visuals to support simple narration during
communication, classroom activities,
opportunities for close supervision for
functional heavy work safety, clear auditory
activities (pushing a box and kinesthetic models
of toys or chair around when cueing for
room), quiet place to articulation skills, high
deescalate, deep contrast visual cues,
pressure (hugs or increased processing
weighted lap tools) time for visual and
verbal information, low
volume fidgets at circle
time
Interests Music, playdoh, Likes school, exploring Books, playdoh, puzzles,
movements play when environment, greeting water table, building
well supported, books, everyone, toys that with blocks, tag
dolls make noise, books,
music, engage with
peers during play
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 33

APPENDIX D: Multisensory Components

Visual:
Visual Schedules
Visual Models

Supports:
Focus Tools
Texture on Seats Audio:
Hand over Hand Repeating Directions
Assistance
Checking for Understanding

Physical/ Movement:
Dancing
Dramatic Play
Deep Pressure
Slime, Playdoh, Sensory Table
Sandpaper Letters
Weighted Backpack
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 34

APPENDIX E: TS GOLD Assessments Examples


Lesson Two: TS GOLD
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 35

Lesson Four: TS GOLD

Lesson Eight: TS GOLD

L
MULTISENSORY EDUCATION AND MODIFICATIONS 36

Lesson Twelve: TS GOLD