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# State of Stress in Three Dimensions

Theories of failure
Introduction:
• Due to large numbers of examples of compound stresses met
with in engineering practice, the cause of failure or
permanent set under such conditions has attracted
considerable attention.

## • Certain theories have been advanced to explain the cause of

failure and many of theories have received considerable
experimental investigation.

## • No great uniformity of opinion has been reached and there is

still room for a great deal of further experimental
investigation.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

1
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
State of stress in Three Dimensions

## The principal theories of failure are

• Maximum principal stress theory
• Maximum shear stress or stress difference theory
• Strain energy theory
• Shear strain energy theory
• Maximum principal strain theory
• Mohr’s theory

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

2
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
State of stress in Three Dimensions
In all above said theories:
• 𝜎𝑒𝑡 , 𝜎𝑒𝑐 = Tensile stress at the elastic limit in simple tension
and compression respectively.

𝜎1 > 𝜎2 > 𝜎3 )

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

3
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
1. Maximum principal stress theory:
• This theory is usually associated with Rankine, but also received
considerable support from other writers.

## • According to this theory, failure will occur when the maximum

principal tensile stress (𝜎1 ) in the complex system reaches the value
of maximum stress at the elastic limit (𝜎𝑒𝑡 ) in simple tension or the
minimum principal stress (that is the maximum principal
compressive stress) reaches the elastic limit stress (𝜎𝑒𝑐 ) in simple
compression.
• i.e., 𝜎1 = 𝜎𝑒𝑡 ( in simple tension)
• 𝜎3 = 𝜎𝑒𝑐 ( in simple compression)
• 𝜎3 means numerical value of 𝜎3 .
Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,
4
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
1. Maximum principal stress theory:
• If the maximum principal stress is the design criterion, then
maximum principal stress must not exceed the working stress 𝜎
for the material.
Hence 𝜎1 ≤ 𝜎.

## • This theory disregards the affect of other principal stresses and of

the shearing stress on other planes through the element.

• For brittle materials which do not fail by yielding but fail by brittle
fracture, the maximum principal stress theory is considered to be
reasonably satisfactory.

## • This theory appears to be approximately correct for ordinary

cast-irons and brittle metals.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

5
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
1. Maximum Principal stress theory:
• The maximum Principal stress theory is contradicted in the
following cases:
• On a mild steel specimen when simple tension test is carried out
sliding occurs approximately 450 to the axis of the specimen; this
shows that the failure in this case is due to maximum shear
stress rather than direct tensile stress.

## • It has been found that a material which is even though weak in

simple compression yet can sustain hydrostatic pressure far in
excess of the elastic limit in simple compression.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

6
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
1. Maximum Principal stress theory - Problems

Problem 1
In a metallic body the principal stresses are +35 MN/m2 and
-95MN/m2, the third principal stress being zero. The elastic
limit stress in simple tension as well as in simple
compression is equal and is 220 MN/m2. Find the factor of
safety based on the elastic limit if the criterion of failure for
the material is the maximum principal stress theory.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

7
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
1. Maximum principal stress theory - Problems
• Solution:
The given principal stresses are:
𝜎1 = +35 MN/m2
𝜎2 = 0
𝜎3 = -95 MN/m2
and 𝜎𝑒𝑡 = 𝜎𝑒𝑐 = 220 MN/m2
• where, 𝜎𝑒𝑡 = Elastic limit stress in tension, and
• 𝜎𝑒𝑐 = Elastic limit stress in compression.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

8
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
1. Maximum principal stress theory - Problems
𝜎𝑒𝑡
• 𝜎1 =𝜎𝑡 (working stress in tension), ∴ 𝜎1 =
𝐹.𝑆.
𝜎𝑒𝑡 220
𝐹. 𝑆. = = = 6.28
𝜎1 35
𝜎𝑒𝑐
• 𝜎3 = 𝜎𝑐 ( working stress in compression), ∴ 𝜎3 =
𝐹.𝑆.
𝜎𝑒𝑐
−95 =
𝐹.𝑆.
220
𝐹.S. = = 2.3.
95

## • So the material according to the maximum principal stress theory

will fail due to compressive principal stress.
• ∴ 𝐹. 𝑆. = 2.3.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

9
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
1. Maximum principal stress theory - Problems

Problem 2
In a cast-iron body the principal stresses are +40 MN/m2 and -100
MN/m2 the third principal stress being zero. The elastic limit
stresses in simple tension and in simple compression are 80
MN/m2 and 400 MN/m2 respectively. Find the factor of safety
based on the elastic limit if the criterion of failure is the maximum
principal stress theory.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

10
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
1. Maximum principal stress theory - Problems
• Solution:
Given Principal stresses are:
𝜎1 =40 MN/m2
𝜎2 = 0
𝜎3 = -100 MN/m2
𝜎𝑒𝑡 = 80 MN/m2
𝜎𝑒𝑐 = 400 MN/m2
Now, 𝜎1 =𝜎𝑡 (working stress in tension)
𝜎𝑒𝑡
𝜎1 =
𝐹.𝑆.
𝜎 80
𝐹. 𝑆. = 𝑒𝑡 = =2
𝜎1 40

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

11
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
1. Maximum principal stress theory - Problems
Also 𝜎3 = 𝜎𝑐 ( working stress in compression)
𝜎𝑒𝑐
or 𝜎3 =
𝐹.𝑆.
𝜎𝑒𝑐
−100 =
𝐹.𝑆.
400
𝐹.S. = = 4.
100
• So the material according to the maximum principal stress
theory will fail due to tensile principal stress.
∴ 𝐹. 𝑆. = 2

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

12
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
2. Maximum shear stress or stress difference theory
• It is also called Guest’s or Tresca’s theory.

• This theory implies that failure will occur when the maximum
shear stress 𝑞𝑚𝑎𝑥 in the complex system reaches the value of
the maximum shear stress in simple tension at the elastic
limit,
𝜎1 −𝜎3 𝜎𝑒𝑡
i.e., 𝑞𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = in simple tension
2 2
or 𝜎1 -𝜎3 = 𝜎𝑒𝑡 .

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

13
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
2. Maximum shear stress or stress difference theory
• In actual design 𝜎𝑒𝑡 in the above equation is replaced by the
safe stress.
• In case of any of the three principal stresses is compressive then
it must be taken as 𝜎3 and its proper sign taken in above
equation. That is, the maximum stress difference is to be equal
to 𝜎𝑒𝑡 .

## • In the case of two dimensional tensile stress system, third stress

must be taken as zero and thus the maximum stress difference
calculated to equate it to 𝜎𝑒𝑡 .

## • This theory has been found to give satisfactory results for

ductile materials.
Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,
14
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
2. Maximum shear stress or stress difference theory
• Worth noting points:
• The theory doesn’t give accurate results for the state of stress of
pure shear in which the maximum amount of shear is developed
(i.e., torsion test)

• The theory is not applicable in the case where the state of stress
consists of triaxial tensile stress of nearly equal magnitude
reducing the shear stress to a small magnitude, so that failure
would be by brittle fracture rather than by yielding.

## • The theory doesn’t give as close results as found by experiments

on ductile materials. However it gives safe results.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

15
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems

Problem 1
A mild steel shaft 120 mm diameter is subjected to a maximum
torque of 20 kNm and a maximum bending moment of 12 kNm at
a particular section. Find the factor of safety according to the
maximum shear stress theory if the elastic limit in simple tension
is 220 MN/m2.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

16
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems
Solution
• d = 120 mm = 0.12 m.
• T= 20 kNm
• M= 12 kNm
• 𝜎𝑒𝑡 = 220 MN/m2
• 𝐹. 𝑆. = ?

𝜋
𝑀= 𝑑 3 𝜎𝑏 .
32
32 𝑀 32×20×103
𝜎𝑏 = = × 10−6 𝑀𝑁/𝑚2 = 70.74 MN/m2
𝜋𝑑 3 𝜋𝑑 3

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

17
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems
𝜋
• 𝑇= 𝑓𝑠 𝑑3
16
16𝑇 16×20×103
𝑓𝑠 = = × 10−6 𝑀𝑁/𝑚2 = 58.95 N/m2
𝜋𝑑 3 𝜋(0.12)3

𝜎𝑏 𝜎𝑏 2
𝜎= ± + 𝑓𝑠 2
2 2
70.74 70.74 2
= ± + 58.952
2 2
= 35.57± 68.75 = 104.12 MN/m2 or -33.38 MN/m2

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

18
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems
• According to maximum shear stress theory
𝜎1 − 𝜎3 = 𝜎𝑡
𝜎1 = 104.12 𝑀𝑁/𝑚2
𝜎2 = 0
𝑀𝑁
𝜎3 = −33.38
𝑚2
104.12 − −33.38 = 𝜎𝑡
𝜎𝑡 = 137.5 𝑀𝑁/𝑚2
𝜎𝑒𝑡 220
• F.S. = = = 1.6
𝜎𝑡 137.5

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

19
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems

Problem 2
A shaft is subjected to a maximum torque of 10 kNm and a
maximum bending moment of 7.5 kNm at a particular section. If
the allowable equivalent stress in simple tension is 160 Mn/m2 ,
find the diameter of the shaft according to the maximum shear
stress theory.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

20
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems

Solution:
Maximum torque, T= 10 kNm
Maximum bending moment, M = 7.5 kNm
Allowable equivalent stress in simple tension is, 𝜎𝑡 =
160 𝑀𝑁/𝑚2
Diameter of the shaft is d
𝜋 3 32 𝑀
• M =𝜎𝑏 𝑑 𝜎𝑏 =
32 𝜋𝑑 3

𝜋 16 𝑇
• T= 𝑓𝑠 𝑑3 𝑓𝑠 =
16 𝜋𝑑 3

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

21
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems
• Principal stresses are given by,
𝜎𝑏 𝜎𝑏 2
𝜎1,3 = ± + 𝑓𝑠 2
2 2

## 1 2 2 1 32𝑀 32𝑀 2 32𝑇 2

= 𝜎𝑏 ± 𝜎𝑏 + 4𝑓𝑠 = ± +
2 2 𝜋𝑑 3 𝜋𝑑 3 𝜋𝑑 3

16 2 2
= 𝑀± 𝑀 + 𝑇
𝜋𝑑 3
16 2 2
• 𝜎1 = 𝑀+ 𝑀 + 𝑇
𝜋𝑑 3
• 𝜎2 = 0
16 2 2
• 𝜎3 = 𝑀− 𝑀 + 𝑇
𝜋𝑑 3

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

22
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems
• According to maximum shear stress theory,
𝜎𝑡 =𝜎1 − 𝜎3 =
16 2 2 16 2 2
𝑀+ 𝑀 + 𝑇 − 3 𝑀− 𝑀 + 𝑇
𝜋𝑑 3 𝜋𝑑
32 2 2
= 𝑀 + 𝑇
𝜋𝑑 3

32 2 2 32×103 2 2
• d3 = 𝑀 + 𝑇 = 7.5 + 10
𝜋𝜎𝑡 𝜋160×106
=7.957× 10−4
• d= 0.0926 m or 92.6 mm
• ∴ 𝑑 = 92.6 𝑚𝑚

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

23
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
3. Strain energy theory
• This theory which has a thermodynamic analogy and a logical
basis is due to Haigh.

## • This theory states that the failure of a material occurs when

the total strain energy in the material reaches the total strain
energy of the material at the elastic limit in simple tension.

## • In a three dimensional stress system, the strain energy per unit

volume is given by
1 2 2 2
2
• U= 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1
2𝐸 𝑚
• where 𝜎1 , 𝜎2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜎3 are of the same sign.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

24
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
3. Strain energy theory
Hence at the point of failure,
1 2 2 22 𝜎𝑒 2
𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1 =
2𝐸 𝑚 2𝐸

2
𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 + 𝜎3 2 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1 = 𝜎𝑒 2
𝑚
• In actual design 𝜎𝑒 in the above equation is replaced by the
allowable stress obtained by dividing factor of safety.
• Taking two dimensional case (𝜎3 = 0) the equation reduces to
2 2 2
• 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 = 𝜎𝑒 2
𝑚
• If 𝜎 is the working stress in the material, the design criteria may
be stated as follows
2
• 𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 ≤ 𝜎2
𝑚 Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,
25
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
3. Strain energy theory
• Worth noting points:
• The results of this theory are similar to the experimental results
for ductile materials ( i.e., the materials which fail by general
yielding, for which 𝜎𝑒𝑡 = 𝜎𝑒𝑐 approximately. It may be noted that
order of 𝜎1 , 𝜎2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜎3 is immaterial)

## • The theory doesn’t apply to materials for which 𝜎𝑒𝑡 is quit

different from 𝜎𝑒𝑐 .

## • The theory doesn’t give results exactly equal to the experimental

results even for ductile materials, even though the results are
close to the experiments.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

26
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
3. Strain energy theory

Problem 1
A shaft is subjected to a maximum torque of 10 kNm and a
maximum bending moment of 7.5 kNm at a particular section. If the
allowable equivalent stress in simple tension is 160 MN/m2 , find
the diameter of the shaft according to the strain energy theory. Take
1
poisson’s ratio, = 0.24.
𝑚

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

27
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
3. Strain energy theory
Solution
16 2 2
• 𝜎1 = 𝑀+ 𝑀 + 𝑇 ; 𝜎2 = 0
𝜋𝑑 3
16 2 2
• 𝜎3 = 3 𝑀 − 𝑀 + 𝑇
𝜋𝑑
Now according to strain energy theory,
2 2 2 2 2
• 𝜎𝑡 = 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1
𝑚
2
= 𝜎1 2 + 𝜎3 2 − 𝜎1 𝜎3 (since 𝜎2 = 0)
𝑚
16 2 2
= 2 𝑀2 + 𝑀2 + 𝑇 2 − (𝑀2 − 𝑀2 − 𝑇 2 )
𝜋𝑑 3 𝑚
16 2 1
= 4𝑀2 + 2𝑇 2 (1 + )
𝜋𝑑 3 𝑚

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

28
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
3. Strain energy theory
16 1
• 𝜎𝑡 = 4𝑀2 + 2 1 + 𝑇2
𝜋𝑑 3 𝑚

1
32 1+
= 3 𝑀2 + 𝑚
𝑇2
𝜋𝑑 2
32
= 3 𝑀2 + 0.62𝑇 2
𝜋𝑑

32
d3 = 𝑀2 + 0.62𝑇 2
𝜋𝜎𝑡
32×103
= 6 7.52 + 0.62 × 102
𝜋×160×10

d = 0.0885 m = 88.5 mm
d = 88.5 mm.
Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,
29
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
3. Strain energy theory
• A bolt is under an axial thrust of 9.6 kN together with a
transverse force of 4.8 kN. Calculate its diameter according to:
(i) Maximum principal stress theory
(ii) Maximum shear stress theory, and
(iii) Strain energy theory.
Given: Factor of safety =3, yield strength of material of bolt = 270
N/mm2 and Poisson’s ratio = 0.3.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

30
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
3. Strain energy theory
• A solid circular shaft is subjected to a bending moment of 60
kNm and a torque of 6 kNm. Design the diameter of the shaft
according to
(i) Maximum principal stress theory
(ii) Maximum shear stress theory
(iii) Maximum strain energy theory
Take 𝜇 = 0.25, stress at elastic limit 250 N/mm2 and factor of
safety =2.5.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

31
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory
• Maximum shear strain energy theory (or) Maximum distortion
energy theory:
• This theory also known as von-misses Henkey criteria of elastic
failure of elastic bodies.
• According to this theory, part of strain energy causes only
changes in volume of the material and rest it causes distortion.
• At failure, the energy causing distortion per unit volume is
equal to the distortion energy per unit volume in uniaxial state
of stress at elastic limit.
• To derive the condition, let us split the state of stress at a point
in case (i) into the two cases (Case (ii) and case (iii))

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

32
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory
𝜎3 𝜎2

𝜎1 𝜎1

Case (i)
𝜎2
𝜎3
𝜎3 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜎2 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣
𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜎𝑎𝑣
𝜎1 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣
𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜎𝑎𝑣
𝜎1 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣
𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜎2 -𝜎𝑎𝑣
𝜎𝑎𝑣 Case (ii) 𝜎3 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 Case (iii)
Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,
33
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory
𝜎1 +𝜎2 +𝜎3
• 𝜎𝑎𝑣 is average stress and is given by, 𝜎𝑎𝑣 = .
3
• Since, in case (ii) stress in three mutually perpendicular direction is
identical, there will be uniform change in all directions.

𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝜎𝑎𝑣
𝜎𝑎𝑣 Case (ii)

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

34
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory
𝜎3 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜎2 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣

• In case (iii),
𝜎1 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣
𝛿𝑉 𝜎1 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣
= 𝑒1 + 𝑒2 + 𝑒3
𝑣 𝜎2 -𝜎𝑎𝑣
𝜎1 −𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜇 𝜎3 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣
= − 𝜎2 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 +
𝐸 𝐸
𝜎2 −𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜇 Case (iii)
− 𝜎3 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 + 𝜎1 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 +
𝐸 𝐸
𝜎3 −𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜇
− 𝜎1 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 + 𝜎2 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣
𝐸 𝐸
𝜎1 +𝜎2 +𝜎3 −3𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜇
= − × 2 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 3𝜎𝑎𝑣
𝐸 𝐸
𝜎 +𝜎 +𝜎 −3𝜎
= 1 2 3 𝑎𝑣 1 − 2μ
𝐸
𝜎 +𝜎 +𝜎
=0 ( since 1 2 3 = 𝜎𝑎𝑣 ).
3
There is no change in volume in case (iii). It causes only distorsion.
Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,
35
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory
Strain energy in Case (i) = Strain energy in case (ii)+ strain energy
in case (iii)
=Strain energy in Case (ii) + distortion energy
in case (iii)
∴Distortion energy = Strain energy in case (i) – Strain energy in case (ii)

We know that
Strain energy per unit volume =
1 2 2 2 2
𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1
2𝐸 𝑚

Apply the above equation to case (i) and case (ii), we get
1 2
Distortion energy = 𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 + 𝜎3 2 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1 −
2𝐸 𝑚
3𝜎𝑎𝑣 2 (1−2𝜇)
2𝐸
Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,
36
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory
Distortion energy
1 2 2 2 2
2 1
= 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 3𝜎𝑎𝑣 − × 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1 − 3𝜎𝑎𝑣 2
2𝐸 𝑚 2𝐸
1 1
= 1+ 𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 + 𝜎3 2 − 3𝜎𝑎𝑣 2
2𝐸 𝑚
2
1 1 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3
= (1 + ) 𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 + 𝜎3 2 − 3
2𝐸 𝑚 3
1 1 3𝜎1 2 + 3𝜎2 2 + 3𝜎3 2 − 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 2
= (1 + )
2𝐸 𝑚 3
1 1
= (1 + ) 3𝜎1 2 + 3𝜎2 2 + 3𝜎3 2 − 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 2
6𝐸 𝑚
1 1
= (1 + ) 2𝜎1 2 + 2𝜎2 2 + 2𝜎3 2 − 2𝜎1 𝜎2 − 2𝜎2 𝜎3 − 2𝜎3 𝜎1
6𝐸 𝑚
1 1 2 2 2
= (1 + ) 𝜎1 − 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 − 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 ---(i)
6𝐸 𝑚
Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,
37
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory
In uniaxial direction, the state of stress at elastic limit is 𝜎1 = 𝜎𝑒 ,
𝜎2 = 𝜎3 = 0.
1 1
Distortion energy at the elastic limit = (1 + ) 𝜎𝑒 2 + 0 + 𝜎𝑒 2
6𝐸 𝑚
1 1
= (1 + ) 2𝜎𝑒 2 ------(ii)
6𝐸 𝑚

## Equating (i) and (ii), we get criteria for failure is,

1 1 1 1
(1 + ) 𝜎1 − 𝜎2 2 + 𝜎2 − 𝜎3 2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 2 = (1 + ) 2𝜎𝑒 2
6𝐸 𝑚 6𝐸 𝑚

∴ 𝝈𝟏 − 𝝈𝟐 𝟐 + 𝝈𝟐 − 𝝈𝟑 𝟐 + 𝝈𝟑 − 𝝈𝟏 𝟐 = 𝟐𝝈𝒆 𝟐

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

38
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory - Problem
Problem:
In a steel member, at a point, the major principal stress is 200 MN/m2
and the minor principal stress is compression. If the tensile yield point
of the steel is 235 MN/m2; find the value of minor principal stress at
which yielding will commence, according to each of the following
criteria of failure.
(i) Maximum shear stress
(ii) Maximum total strain energy
(iii) Maximum shear strain energy . Take 𝜇 = 0.26

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

39
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory - Problem
Solution:
𝜎1 = 200 MN/m2
𝜎2 =?
𝜎𝑡 = 235 MN/m2
𝜇 = 0.26
(i) Maximum shear stress criteria:
𝜎1 − 𝜎2 = 𝜎𝑒
200 − 𝜎2 = 235
∴ 𝜎2 = −35MN/m2
(ii) Maximum total strain energy criteria:
2 2 22
𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1 = 𝜎𝑒 2
𝑚
Here 𝜎3 = 0
2
𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 = 𝜎𝑒 2
𝑚
Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,
40
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory - Problem
2
𝜎1 + 𝜎2 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 = 𝜎𝑒 2
2 2
𝑚
2002 + 𝜎2 2 − 104𝜎2 − 55225 = 0
𝜎2 2 − 104𝜎2 − 15225 = 0
104 ± 1042 + 4 × 15225
𝜎2 =
2
104 − 267
=
2
= 81.89MN/m2(comp.)
(iii) Maximum shear strain energy criteria:
𝝈𝟏 − 𝝈𝟐 𝟐 + 𝝈𝟐 − 𝝈𝟑 𝟐 + 𝝈𝟑 − 𝝈𝟏 𝟐 = 𝟐𝝈𝒆 𝟐
𝜎3 = 0
𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 − 2𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 2 + 𝜎1 2 = 2σe 2
2𝜎1 2 + 2𝜎2 2 − 2𝜎1 𝜎2 = 2σe 2
2+𝜎 2−𝜎 𝜎 =σ 2
𝜎1Dr.P.Venkateswara
2 Rao, Associate
1 2 Professor,e
41
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory - Problem
𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 = σe 2
2002 + 𝜎2 2 − 200𝜎2 = 2352
𝜎2 2 − 200𝜎2 − 15225 = 0
200 ± 2002 + 4 × 15225
𝜎2 =
2
= 58.82MN/m2(comp.)

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

42
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
Glimpse of theories of failure
(i) Maximum principal stress theory,
𝝈𝒆𝒕
𝝈𝟏 =
𝑭. 𝑺.
𝜎𝑒𝑐
𝜎3 =
𝐹.𝑆.
(ii) Maimum shear stress ( stress difference) theory,
𝝈𝒆𝒕
𝜎1 -𝜎3 =
𝑭.𝑺.
(iii) Maximum strain energy theory,
2 2 2
2 𝜎𝑒𝑡 2
𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1 =
𝑚 𝐹.𝑆.
(iv) Maximum shear strain energy (Distortion energy) theory,
2 2 2 𝜎𝑒𝑡 2
𝜎1 − 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 − 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 =2
𝐹.𝑆.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

43
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
Problems
• A thick steel cylinder with an internal diameter 200 mm has to
withstand an internal fluid pressure of 30 N/mm2, calculate the
thickness of the metal by using,
(i) Maximum principal stress theory
(ii) Maximum shear stress theory
The tensile stress at yield point is 250 N/mm2 use factor of safety
of 2.5.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

44
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
Problems
(i) Maximum principal stress theory:
b=650000, a=35
𝑟0 = 136.27 mm
t=36.27 mm
(ii) Maximum shear stress theory:
b=50× 104 , a=20
𝑟0 = 158.11 mm
t=58.11 mm
Hence minimum thickness of metal required is 58.11 mm.
∴Provide 60 mm thickness.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

45
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
Problems
• A cylindrical shell 1.2 m diameter is to be made of mild steel
plates. It is subjected to an internal pressure of 1.5 MN/m2. If
the material yields at 200 MN/m2, calculate the thickness of the
plate on the basis of following theories of failure assuming a
factor of safety of 3 in each case.
(i) Maximum principal stress theory
(ii) Maximum shear stress theory
(iii) Maximum shear strain energy theory.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

46
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
Problems
• At a point , the major principal stress is 120 N/mm2 (tensile)
and the minor principal stress is compressive. If the yield stress
of steel is 250 N/mm2. Find the value of minor principal stress
at which yielding takes place according to each of following
theories of failure.
(i) Maximum shear stress theory
(iii) Maximum principal stress theory

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

47
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
Problems
• A solid circular shaft is subjected to a bending moment of 60
kNm and a torque of 6 kNm. Design the diameter of the shaft
according to
(i) Maximum principal stress theory
(ii) Maximum shear stress theory
(iii) Maximum strain energy theory
Take 𝜇 = 0.25, stress at elastic limit 250 N/mm2 and factor of
safety =2.5.

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

48
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
A.U. Question Paper Problems
• A mild steel shaft is subjected to an end thrust producing a stress
of 120 MPa and the maximum shearing stress on the surface
arising from torsion is 90 MPa. The yield point of the material in
simple tension was found to be 450 MPa. Calculate the factor of
safety of the shaft according to
(i) Maximum shear stress theory and
(ii) Maximum distortion energy theory. (Nov/ Dec 2014)

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

49
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
A.U. Question Paper Problems
• The inside and outside diameters of a cast iron cylinder are 240
mm and 150 mm respectively. If the ultimate strength of a cast
iron is 180 MN/m2 find, according to each of the following
theoriesthe internal pressure which would cause rupture:
(i) Maximum principal stress theory,
(ii) Maximum strain theory and
(iii) Maximum strain energy theory.
Poisson’s ratio =0.25. Assume no longitudinal stress in the cylinder.
(May/ June 2013)

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

50
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE
A.U. Question Paper Problems
• State the Haigh’s theory. Also explain the maximum strain energy
theory. (Nov/ Dec 2014)

## Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

51
Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE