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Failure theories (Theory of Plasticity)

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Theories of failure

Introduction:

• Due to large numbers of examples of compound stresses met

with in engineering practice, the cause of failure or

permanent set under such conditions has attracted

considerable attention.

failure and many of theories have received considerable

experimental investigation.

still room for a great deal of further experimental

investigation.

1

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

State of stress in Three Dimensions

• Maximum principal stress theory

• Maximum shear stress or stress difference theory

• Strain energy theory

• Shear strain energy theory

• Maximum principal strain theory

• Mohr’s theory

2

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

State of stress in Three Dimensions

In all above said theories:

• 𝜎𝑒𝑡 , 𝜎𝑒𝑐 = Tensile stress at the elastic limit in simple tension

and compression respectively.

𝜎1 > 𝜎2 > 𝜎3 )

there is no cyclic or impact loading).

3

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

1. Maximum principal stress theory:

• This theory is usually associated with Rankine, but also received

considerable support from other writers.

principal tensile stress (𝜎1 ) in the complex system reaches the value

of maximum stress at the elastic limit (𝜎𝑒𝑡 ) in simple tension or the

minimum principal stress (that is the maximum principal

compressive stress) reaches the elastic limit stress (𝜎𝑒𝑐 ) in simple

compression.

• i.e., 𝜎1 = 𝜎𝑒𝑡 ( in simple tension)

• 𝜎3 = 𝜎𝑒𝑐 ( in simple compression)

• 𝜎3 means numerical value of 𝜎3 .

Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

4

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

1. Maximum principal stress theory:

• If the maximum principal stress is the design criterion, then

maximum principal stress must not exceed the working stress 𝜎

for the material.

Hence 𝜎1 ≤ 𝜎.

the shearing stress on other planes through the element.

• For brittle materials which do not fail by yielding but fail by brittle

fracture, the maximum principal stress theory is considered to be

reasonably satisfactory.

cast-irons and brittle metals.

5

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

1. Maximum Principal stress theory:

• The maximum Principal stress theory is contradicted in the

following cases:

• On a mild steel specimen when simple tension test is carried out

sliding occurs approximately 450 to the axis of the specimen; this

shows that the failure in this case is due to maximum shear

stress rather than direct tensile stress.

simple compression yet can sustain hydrostatic pressure far in

excess of the elastic limit in simple compression.

6

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

1. Maximum Principal stress theory - Problems

Problem 1

In a metallic body the principal stresses are +35 MN/m2 and

-95MN/m2, the third principal stress being zero. The elastic

limit stress in simple tension as well as in simple

compression is equal and is 220 MN/m2. Find the factor of

safety based on the elastic limit if the criterion of failure for

the material is the maximum principal stress theory.

7

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

1. Maximum principal stress theory - Problems

• Solution:

The given principal stresses are:

𝜎1 = +35 MN/m2

𝜎2 = 0

𝜎3 = -95 MN/m2

and 𝜎𝑒𝑡 = 𝜎𝑒𝑐 = 220 MN/m2

• where, 𝜎𝑒𝑡 = Elastic limit stress in tension, and

• 𝜎𝑒𝑐 = Elastic limit stress in compression.

8

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

1. Maximum principal stress theory - Problems

𝜎𝑒𝑡

• 𝜎1 =𝜎𝑡 (working stress in tension), ∴ 𝜎1 =

𝐹.𝑆.

𝜎𝑒𝑡 220

𝐹. 𝑆. = = = 6.28

𝜎1 35

𝜎𝑒𝑐

• 𝜎3 = 𝜎𝑐 ( working stress in compression), ∴ 𝜎3 =

𝐹.𝑆.

𝜎𝑒𝑐

−95 =

𝐹.𝑆.

220

𝐹.S. = = 2.3.

95

will fail due to compressive principal stress.

• ∴ 𝐹. 𝑆. = 2.3.

9

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

1. Maximum principal stress theory - Problems

Problem 2

In a cast-iron body the principal stresses are +40 MN/m2 and -100

MN/m2 the third principal stress being zero. The elastic limit

stresses in simple tension and in simple compression are 80

MN/m2 and 400 MN/m2 respectively. Find the factor of safety

based on the elastic limit if the criterion of failure is the maximum

principal stress theory.

10

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

1. Maximum principal stress theory - Problems

• Solution:

Given Principal stresses are:

𝜎1 =40 MN/m2

𝜎2 = 0

𝜎3 = -100 MN/m2

𝜎𝑒𝑡 = 80 MN/m2

𝜎𝑒𝑐 = 400 MN/m2

Now, 𝜎1 =𝜎𝑡 (working stress in tension)

𝜎𝑒𝑡

𝜎1 =

𝐹.𝑆.

𝜎 80

𝐹. 𝑆. = 𝑒𝑡 = =2

𝜎1 40

11

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

1. Maximum principal stress theory - Problems

Also 𝜎3 = 𝜎𝑐 ( working stress in compression)

𝜎𝑒𝑐

or 𝜎3 =

𝐹.𝑆.

𝜎𝑒𝑐

−100 =

𝐹.𝑆.

400

𝐹.S. = = 4.

100

• So the material according to the maximum principal stress

theory will fail due to tensile principal stress.

∴ 𝐹. 𝑆. = 2

12

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

2. Maximum shear stress or stress difference theory

• It is also called Guest’s or Tresca’s theory.

• This theory implies that failure will occur when the maximum

shear stress 𝑞𝑚𝑎𝑥 in the complex system reaches the value of

the maximum shear stress in simple tension at the elastic

limit,

𝜎1 −𝜎3 𝜎𝑒𝑡

i.e., 𝑞𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = in simple tension

2 2

or 𝜎1 -𝜎3 = 𝜎𝑒𝑡 .

13

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

2. Maximum shear stress or stress difference theory

• In actual design 𝜎𝑒𝑡 in the above equation is replaced by the

safe stress.

• In case of any of the three principal stresses is compressive then

it must be taken as 𝜎3 and its proper sign taken in above

equation. That is, the maximum stress difference is to be equal

to 𝜎𝑒𝑡 .

must be taken as zero and thus the maximum stress difference

calculated to equate it to 𝜎𝑒𝑡 .

ductile materials.

Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

14

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

2. Maximum shear stress or stress difference theory

• Worth noting points:

• The theory doesn’t give accurate results for the state of stress of

pure shear in which the maximum amount of shear is developed

(i.e., torsion test)

• The theory is not applicable in the case where the state of stress

consists of triaxial tensile stress of nearly equal magnitude

reducing the shear stress to a small magnitude, so that failure

would be by brittle fracture rather than by yielding.

on ductile materials. However it gives safe results.

15

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems

Problem 1

A mild steel shaft 120 mm diameter is subjected to a maximum

torque of 20 kNm and a maximum bending moment of 12 kNm at

a particular section. Find the factor of safety according to the

maximum shear stress theory if the elastic limit in simple tension

is 220 MN/m2.

16

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems

Solution

• d = 120 mm = 0.12 m.

• T= 20 kNm

• M= 12 kNm

• 𝜎𝑒𝑡 = 220 MN/m2

• 𝐹. 𝑆. = ?

𝜋

𝑀= 𝑑 3 𝜎𝑏 .

32

32 𝑀 32×20×103

𝜎𝑏 = = × 10−6 𝑀𝑁/𝑚2 = 70.74 MN/m2

𝜋𝑑 3 𝜋𝑑 3

17

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems

𝜋

• 𝑇= 𝑓𝑠 𝑑3

16

16𝑇 16×20×103

𝑓𝑠 = = × 10−6 𝑀𝑁/𝑚2 = 58.95 N/m2

𝜋𝑑 3 𝜋(0.12)3

𝜎𝑏 𝜎𝑏 2

𝜎= ± + 𝑓𝑠 2

2 2

70.74 70.74 2

= ± + 58.952

2 2

= 35.57± 68.75 = 104.12 MN/m2 or -33.38 MN/m2

18

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems

• According to maximum shear stress theory

𝜎1 − 𝜎3 = 𝜎𝑡

𝜎1 = 104.12 𝑀𝑁/𝑚2

𝜎2 = 0

𝑀𝑁

𝜎3 = −33.38

𝑚2

104.12 − −33.38 = 𝜎𝑡

𝜎𝑡 = 137.5 𝑀𝑁/𝑚2

𝜎𝑒𝑡 220

• F.S. = = = 1.6

𝜎𝑡 137.5

19

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems

Problem 2

A shaft is subjected to a maximum torque of 10 kNm and a

maximum bending moment of 7.5 kNm at a particular section. If

the allowable equivalent stress in simple tension is 160 Mn/m2 ,

find the diameter of the shaft according to the maximum shear

stress theory.

20

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems

Solution:

Maximum torque, T= 10 kNm

Maximum bending moment, M = 7.5 kNm

Allowable equivalent stress in simple tension is, 𝜎𝑡 =

160 𝑀𝑁/𝑚2

Diameter of the shaft is d

𝜋 3 32 𝑀

• M =𝜎𝑏 𝑑 𝜎𝑏 =

32 𝜋𝑑 3

𝜋 16 𝑇

• T= 𝑓𝑠 𝑑3 𝑓𝑠 =

16 𝜋𝑑 3

21

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems

• Principal stresses are given by,

𝜎𝑏 𝜎𝑏 2

𝜎1,3 = ± + 𝑓𝑠 2

2 2

= 𝜎𝑏 ± 𝜎𝑏 + 4𝑓𝑠 = ± +

2 2 𝜋𝑑 3 𝜋𝑑 3 𝜋𝑑 3

16 2 2

= 𝑀± 𝑀 + 𝑇

𝜋𝑑 3

16 2 2

• 𝜎1 = 𝑀+ 𝑀 + 𝑇

𝜋𝑑 3

• 𝜎2 = 0

16 2 2

• 𝜎3 = 𝑀− 𝑀 + 𝑇

𝜋𝑑 3

22

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

2. Maximum shear stress theory - Problems

• According to maximum shear stress theory,

𝜎𝑡 =𝜎1 − 𝜎3 =

16 2 2 16 2 2

𝑀+ 𝑀 + 𝑇 − 3 𝑀− 𝑀 + 𝑇

𝜋𝑑 3 𝜋𝑑

32 2 2

= 𝑀 + 𝑇

𝜋𝑑 3

32 2 2 32×103 2 2

• d3 = 𝑀 + 𝑇 = 7.5 + 10

𝜋𝜎𝑡 𝜋160×106

=7.957× 10−4

• d= 0.0926 m or 92.6 mm

• ∴ 𝑑 = 92.6 𝑚𝑚

23

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

3. Strain energy theory

• This theory which has a thermodynamic analogy and a logical

basis is due to Haigh.

the total strain energy in the material reaches the total strain

energy of the material at the elastic limit in simple tension.

volume is given by

1 2 2 2

2

• U= 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1

2𝐸 𝑚

• where 𝜎1 , 𝜎2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜎3 are of the same sign.

24

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

3. Strain energy theory

Hence at the point of failure,

1 2 2 22 𝜎𝑒 2

𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1 =

2𝐸 𝑚 2𝐸

2

𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 + 𝜎3 2 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1 = 𝜎𝑒 2

𝑚

• In actual design 𝜎𝑒 in the above equation is replaced by the

allowable stress obtained by dividing factor of safety.

• Taking two dimensional case (𝜎3 = 0) the equation reduces to

2 2 2

• 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 = 𝜎𝑒 2

𝑚

• If 𝜎 is the working stress in the material, the design criteria may

be stated as follows

2

• 𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 ≤ 𝜎2

𝑚 Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

25

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

3. Strain energy theory

• Worth noting points:

• The results of this theory are similar to the experimental results

for ductile materials ( i.e., the materials which fail by general

yielding, for which 𝜎𝑒𝑡 = 𝜎𝑒𝑐 approximately. It may be noted that

order of 𝜎1 , 𝜎2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜎3 is immaterial)

different from 𝜎𝑒𝑐 .

results even for ductile materials, even though the results are

close to the experiments.

26

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

3. Strain energy theory

Problem 1

A shaft is subjected to a maximum torque of 10 kNm and a

maximum bending moment of 7.5 kNm at a particular section. If the

allowable equivalent stress in simple tension is 160 MN/m2 , find

the diameter of the shaft according to the strain energy theory. Take

1

poisson’s ratio, = 0.24.

𝑚

27

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

3. Strain energy theory

Solution

16 2 2

• 𝜎1 = 𝑀+ 𝑀 + 𝑇 ; 𝜎2 = 0

𝜋𝑑 3

16 2 2

• 𝜎3 = 3 𝑀 − 𝑀 + 𝑇

𝜋𝑑

Now according to strain energy theory,

2 2 2 2 2

• 𝜎𝑡 = 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1

𝑚

2

= 𝜎1 2 + 𝜎3 2 − 𝜎1 𝜎3 (since 𝜎2 = 0)

𝑚

16 2 2

= 2 𝑀2 + 𝑀2 + 𝑇 2 − (𝑀2 − 𝑀2 − 𝑇 2 )

𝜋𝑑 3 𝑚

16 2 1

= 4𝑀2 + 2𝑇 2 (1 + )

𝜋𝑑 3 𝑚

28

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

3. Strain energy theory

16 1

• 𝜎𝑡 = 4𝑀2 + 2 1 + 𝑇2

𝜋𝑑 3 𝑚

1

32 1+

= 3 𝑀2 + 𝑚

𝑇2

𝜋𝑑 2

32

= 3 𝑀2 + 0.62𝑇 2

𝜋𝑑

32

d3 = 𝑀2 + 0.62𝑇 2

𝜋𝜎𝑡

32×103

= 6 7.52 + 0.62 × 102

𝜋×160×10

d = 0.0885 m = 88.5 mm

d = 88.5 mm.

Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

29

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

3. Strain energy theory

• A bolt is under an axial thrust of 9.6 kN together with a

transverse force of 4.8 kN. Calculate its diameter according to:

(i) Maximum principal stress theory

(ii) Maximum shear stress theory, and

(iii) Strain energy theory.

Given: Factor of safety =3, yield strength of material of bolt = 270

N/mm2 and Poisson’s ratio = 0.3.

30

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

3. Strain energy theory

• A solid circular shaft is subjected to a bending moment of 60

kNm and a torque of 6 kNm. Design the diameter of the shaft

according to

(i) Maximum principal stress theory

(ii) Maximum shear stress theory

(iii) Maximum strain energy theory

Take 𝜇 = 0.25, stress at elastic limit 250 N/mm2 and factor of

safety =2.5.

31

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory

• Maximum shear strain energy theory (or) Maximum distortion

energy theory:

• This theory also known as von-misses Henkey criteria of elastic

failure of elastic bodies.

• According to this theory, part of strain energy causes only

changes in volume of the material and rest it causes distortion.

• At failure, the energy causing distortion per unit volume is

equal to the distortion energy per unit volume in uniaxial state

of stress at elastic limit.

• To derive the condition, let us split the state of stress at a point

in case (i) into the two cases (Case (ii) and case (iii))

32

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory

𝜎3 𝜎2

𝜎1 𝜎1

Case (i)

𝜎2

𝜎3

𝜎3 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜎2 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝜎1 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝜎1 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜎2 -𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝜎𝑎𝑣 Case (ii) 𝜎3 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 Case (iii)

Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

33

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory

𝜎1 +𝜎2 +𝜎3

• 𝜎𝑎𝑣 is average stress and is given by, 𝜎𝑎𝑣 = .

3

• Since, in case (ii) stress in three mutually perpendicular direction is

identical, there will be uniform change in all directions.

𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝜎𝑎𝑣 Case (ii)

34

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory

𝜎3 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜎2 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣

• In case (iii),

𝜎1 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝛿𝑉 𝜎1 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣

= 𝑒1 + 𝑒2 + 𝑒3

𝑣 𝜎2 -𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝜎1 −𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜇 𝜎3 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣

= − 𝜎2 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 +

𝐸 𝐸

𝜎2 −𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜇 Case (iii)

− 𝜎3 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 + 𝜎1 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 +

𝐸 𝐸

𝜎3 −𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜇

− 𝜎1 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣 + 𝜎2 − 𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝐸 𝐸

𝜎1 +𝜎2 +𝜎3 −3𝜎𝑎𝑣 𝜇

= − × 2 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 3𝜎𝑎𝑣

𝐸 𝐸

𝜎 +𝜎 +𝜎 −3𝜎

= 1 2 3 𝑎𝑣 1 − 2μ

𝐸

𝜎 +𝜎 +𝜎

=0 ( since 1 2 3 = 𝜎𝑎𝑣 ).

3

There is no change in volume in case (iii). It causes only distorsion.

Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

35

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory

Strain energy in Case (i) = Strain energy in case (ii)+ strain energy

in case (iii)

=Strain energy in Case (ii) + distortion energy

in case (iii)

∴Distortion energy = Strain energy in case (i) – Strain energy in case (ii)

We know that

Strain energy per unit volume =

1 2 2 2 2

𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1

2𝐸 𝑚

Apply the above equation to case (i) and case (ii), we get

1 2

Distortion energy = 𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 + 𝜎3 2 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1 −

2𝐸 𝑚

3𝜎𝑎𝑣 2 (1−2𝜇)

2𝐸

Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

36

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory

Distortion energy

1 2 2 2 2

2 1

= 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 3𝜎𝑎𝑣 − × 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1 − 3𝜎𝑎𝑣 2

2𝐸 𝑚 2𝐸

1 1

= 1+ 𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 + 𝜎3 2 − 3𝜎𝑎𝑣 2

2𝐸 𝑚

2

1 1 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3

= (1 + ) 𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 + 𝜎3 2 − 3

2𝐸 𝑚 3

1 1 3𝜎1 2 + 3𝜎2 2 + 3𝜎3 2 − 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 2

= (1 + )

2𝐸 𝑚 3

1 1

= (1 + ) 3𝜎1 2 + 3𝜎2 2 + 3𝜎3 2 − 𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 2

6𝐸 𝑚

1 1

= (1 + ) 2𝜎1 2 + 2𝜎2 2 + 2𝜎3 2 − 2𝜎1 𝜎2 − 2𝜎2 𝜎3 − 2𝜎3 𝜎1

6𝐸 𝑚

1 1 2 2 2

= (1 + ) 𝜎1 − 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 − 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 ---(i)

6𝐸 𝑚

Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

37

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory

In uniaxial direction, the state of stress at elastic limit is 𝜎1 = 𝜎𝑒 ,

𝜎2 = 𝜎3 = 0.

1 1

Distortion energy at the elastic limit = (1 + ) 𝜎𝑒 2 + 0 + 𝜎𝑒 2

6𝐸 𝑚

1 1

= (1 + ) 2𝜎𝑒 2 ------(ii)

6𝐸 𝑚

1 1 1 1

(1 + ) 𝜎1 − 𝜎2 2 + 𝜎2 − 𝜎3 2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 2 = (1 + ) 2𝜎𝑒 2

6𝐸 𝑚 6𝐸 𝑚

∴ 𝝈𝟏 − 𝝈𝟐 𝟐 + 𝝈𝟐 − 𝝈𝟑 𝟐 + 𝝈𝟑 − 𝝈𝟏 𝟐 = 𝟐𝝈𝒆 𝟐

38

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory - Problem

Problem:

In a steel member, at a point, the major principal stress is 200 MN/m2

and the minor principal stress is compression. If the tensile yield point

of the steel is 235 MN/m2; find the value of minor principal stress at

which yielding will commence, according to each of the following

criteria of failure.

(i) Maximum shear stress

(ii) Maximum total strain energy

(iii) Maximum shear strain energy . Take 𝜇 = 0.26

39

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory - Problem

Solution:

𝜎1 = 200 MN/m2

𝜎2 =?

𝜎𝑡 = 235 MN/m2

𝜇 = 0.26

(i) Maximum shear stress criteria:

𝜎1 − 𝜎2 = 𝜎𝑒

200 − 𝜎2 = 235

∴ 𝜎2 = −35MN/m2

(ii) Maximum total strain energy criteria:

2 2 22

𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1 = 𝜎𝑒 2

𝑚

Here 𝜎3 = 0

2

𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 = 𝜎𝑒 2

𝑚

Dr.P.Venkateswara Rao, Associate Professor,

40

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory - Problem

2

𝜎1 + 𝜎2 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 = 𝜎𝑒 2

2 2

𝑚

2002 + 𝜎2 2 − 104𝜎2 − 55225 = 0

𝜎2 2 − 104𝜎2 − 15225 = 0

104 ± 1042 + 4 × 15225

𝜎2 =

2

104 − 267

=

2

= 81.89MN/m2(comp.)

(iii) Maximum shear strain energy criteria:

𝝈𝟏 − 𝝈𝟐 𝟐 + 𝝈𝟐 − 𝝈𝟑 𝟐 + 𝝈𝟑 − 𝝈𝟏 𝟐 = 𝟐𝝈𝒆 𝟐

𝜎3 = 0

𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 − 2𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 2 + 𝜎1 2 = 2σe 2

2𝜎1 2 + 2𝜎2 2 − 2𝜎1 𝜎2 = 2σe 2

2+𝜎 2−𝜎 𝜎 =σ 2

𝜎1Dr.P.Venkateswara

2 Rao, Associate

1 2 Professor,e

41

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

4. Shear Strain (Distortion) energy theory - Problem

𝜎1 2 + 𝜎2 2 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 = σe 2

2002 + 𝜎2 2 − 200𝜎2 = 2352

𝜎2 2 − 200𝜎2 − 15225 = 0

200 ± 2002 + 4 × 15225

𝜎2 =

2

= 58.82MN/m2(comp.)

42

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

Glimpse of theories of failure

(i) Maximum principal stress theory,

𝝈𝒆𝒕

𝝈𝟏 =

𝑭. 𝑺.

𝜎𝑒𝑐

𝜎3 =

𝐹.𝑆.

(ii) Maimum shear stress ( stress difference) theory,

𝝈𝒆𝒕

𝜎1 -𝜎3 =

𝑭.𝑺.

(iii) Maximum strain energy theory,

2 2 2

2 𝜎𝑒𝑡 2

𝜎1 + 𝜎2 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 𝜎1 =

𝑚 𝐹.𝑆.

(iv) Maximum shear strain energy (Distortion energy) theory,

2 2 2 𝜎𝑒𝑡 2

𝜎1 − 𝜎2 + 𝜎2 − 𝜎3 + 𝜎3 − 𝜎1 =2

𝐹.𝑆.

43

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

Problems

• A thick steel cylinder with an internal diameter 200 mm has to

withstand an internal fluid pressure of 30 N/mm2, calculate the

thickness of the metal by using,

(i) Maximum principal stress theory

(ii) Maximum shear stress theory

The tensile stress at yield point is 250 N/mm2 use factor of safety

of 2.5.

44

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

Problems

Answers:

(i) Maximum principal stress theory:

b=650000, a=35

𝑟0 = 136.27 mm

t=36.27 mm

(ii) Maximum shear stress theory:

b=50× 104 , a=20

𝑟0 = 158.11 mm

t=58.11 mm

Hence minimum thickness of metal required is 58.11 mm.

∴Provide 60 mm thickness.

45

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

Problems

• A cylindrical shell 1.2 m diameter is to be made of mild steel

plates. It is subjected to an internal pressure of 1.5 MN/m2. If

the material yields at 200 MN/m2, calculate the thickness of the

plate on the basis of following theories of failure assuming a

factor of safety of 3 in each case.

(i) Maximum principal stress theory

(ii) Maximum shear stress theory

(iii) Maximum shear strain energy theory.

46

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

Problems

• At a point , the major principal stress is 120 N/mm2 (tensile)

and the minor principal stress is compressive. If the yield stress

of steel is 250 N/mm2. Find the value of minor principal stress

at which yielding takes place according to each of following

theories of failure.

(i) Maximum shear stress theory

(iii) Maximum principal stress theory

47

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

Problems

• A solid circular shaft is subjected to a bending moment of 60

kNm and a torque of 6 kNm. Design the diameter of the shaft

according to

(i) Maximum principal stress theory

(ii) Maximum shear stress theory

(iii) Maximum strain energy theory

Take 𝜇 = 0.25, stress at elastic limit 250 N/mm2 and factor of

safety =2.5.

48

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

A.U. Question Paper Problems

• A mild steel shaft is subjected to an end thrust producing a stress

of 120 MPa and the maximum shearing stress on the surface

arising from torsion is 90 MPa. The yield point of the material in

simple tension was found to be 450 MPa. Calculate the factor of

safety of the shaft according to

(i) Maximum shear stress theory and

(ii) Maximum distortion energy theory. (Nov/ Dec 2014)

49

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

A.U. Question Paper Problems

• The inside and outside diameters of a cast iron cylinder are 240

mm and 150 mm respectively. If the ultimate strength of a cast

iron is 180 MN/m2 find, according to each of the following

theoriesthe internal pressure which would cause rupture:

(i) Maximum principal stress theory,

(ii) Maximum strain theory and

(iii) Maximum strain energy theory.

Poisson’s ratio =0.25. Assume no longitudinal stress in the cylinder.

(May/ June 2013)

50

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

A.U. Question Paper Problems

• State the Haigh’s theory. Also explain the maximum strain energy

theory. (Nov/ Dec 2014)

51

Dept. of Civil Engg., SVCE

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