Kirsty Shipley

B.A HONS: Acting

BAAPPD5

Personal Professional Development five (PPD5) concerns an in-depth research study into a chosen field, concentrating on feminist performance art because it grasps personal intentions for further academic study. Theatrical performance revolves around a patriarchal hierarchy in which specific job roles tend to be dominated by masculinity, they are more logical and linear which relates well to masculinity in society, whereas performance art subverts this hierarchy providing room for irrationality and non-linearity. This irrationality is more evident within females as it used to label them in society. Performance art stems from the Dada movement and visual arts. Performance art, used as a term to describe live performances which are neither theatre nor art but somewhere in-between, work which is both created and performed by the artist. Performance art, a phenomenological movement which became popular in the late 1960’s as a political rebellion against ‘commercialism, assimilation and triviality’ (Forte:1988:1) takes reality as a subject for performance. Performance Art challenges traditional performance conventions as there is generally no acting involved, the performer seeks to become a specific self, such as Orlan in ‘Reincarnation of Saint Orlan’ (beginning in 1990), who uses plastic surgery to become an idealized “beautiful” self. Performances are realized in what Roselee Goldberg (2001) states as ‘alternative space’, a challenging of traditional spatial conventions in which the body often forms the mise-en-scene. Again using Orlan as an example, her performances are situated in operating theatres. Performance art provides a suitable platform in which women can express themselves as Carlson (1996) highlights, performance artists use ‘their own bodies, their own autographs, their own specific experiences in a culture or in the world made performative by their consciousness of them and the process of displaying them for audiences.’ (Carlson: Quoted in Huxley & Witts:1996:150) By adhering to this form and content feminist artist’s such as Schneeman seek to ‘cut through the idealized (mostly male) mythology of the “abstracted self.”’ (Schneeman:1991: quoted in Warr & Jones:2000:89) Carlson (1996) highlights, performance art positions women as a speaking subject, providing opportunity to form and express female distinction, in opposition to the objectified, Module Leader: Alison Llwellyn Jones
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Kirsty Shipley

B.A HONS: Acting

BAAPPD5

representational identity forced by a patriarchal society. In this position women highlight personalized circumstances within intimate situations, directly addressing the audience to form spectator/performer relationships. The motivating thing about this field of research is the means that women use to destabilise male representations – the explicit body – a symbol of desire from a masculine perspective. Using a postmodern and post-structuralist approach with application of feminist theories such as Helene Cixous’s ‘writing the body’(1975), a feminist expression which links to performance art in which both encourage to express the ‘real’ inner woman’s perspective within a phallogocentric society by implicating the female explicit body, as a medium. In addition Judith Butler’s theories on gender difference which also seek to destabilize the binary opposites within society to establish equality. This essay proposes arguments concerning the expression of the female subject in performance art that uses the explicit body as a form of language. Feminist performers such as Karen Finley, Orlan and Annie Sprinkle, by using these as a medium could be further objectifying themselves to the male gaze. In accordance with Franclibine, feminist performance art which uses the explicit body induces ‘reactivation of primitive autoerotic pleasures, for what most women expose in the field of art...is just the opposite of a denial of woman as object in as much as the object of desire is precisely the woman’s own body’ (Franclibine: quoted in Warr & Jones:2000:253) She states that because the female explicit body is the object of desire from a masculine perspective, by using it in performance to oppose patriarchal views they are in fact only further objectifying themselves. Descartes observes the explicit body as ‘a necessary stripping away of presumptions and pre-suppositions as one attempts to establish the foundations of being’ (Howell: 1999: 19) The naked body implies a returning to nature which may also leave the performers female body in a vulnerable position, as an object of the male gaze. The female naked body is stripped of any presumptions that society uses to label it. Females are defined by many philosophical discourses as passive, looking back through literary history the males have always been at the centre with the females endearing their dominance. In accordance with 2 Module Leader: Alison Llwellyn Jones

Kirsty Shipley

B.A HONS: Acting

BAAPPD5

Lacanian theory, males are placed in the dominant position, at the centre of the symbolic order, the signifier of this power is the ‘phallus’ (penis or the representation of a penis), females ‘lack’ of ‘phallus’ places them as a object for the male to dominate. Phallus domination is evident within Vicki Halls ‘Ominous Operation’ (1971) in which the attachment of a representational phallus influences the performers behavior, making them more superior. Feminist performance artists, display phallus representations as not to be objectified by the audience but to be seen as equal. In ‘Vagina Painting (1965)’ Shigeko Kubota paints a picture with a brush that is attached to her vaginal area, thus the vagina becomes a source of language, the female is no longer ‘lacking’ as the paintbrush becomes a symbolic representation of ‘phallus’. By displaying the phallus the female is no longer the fetishized phallus, she becomes a threat to patriarchy, foregrounding herself as both the subject and the object. In Freud’s psychoanalysis he states that females are a defect, the distinction between the male and female is defined within the phallus phase (aged between four and six) when the boy begins to have sexual feelings towards the mother and the female focuses her sexual attention towards her father (Oedipus complex). Freud’s analysis rejects feminine sexuality as the female is classed as male with a lack of phallus. His analysis is outdated, however still important, formed in the Victorian era when females were expected to obey their husbands nurturing the children and home, a time when female expression was minimal. However modern society is still dominated by the male ‘Nothing exists that has not been made by man- not thought, not language, not words.’ (Leclerc: Quoted in Kourany, Sterba & Tong: 1992: 392). So where is the room for female expression? In feminist performance art, women seek to express the language of the female body in opposition to the phallogocentric language common in society. Phallogocentric, a term derived by Helene Cixous (1975), from the combination of Lacanian theory of ‘phallus’ and Derridian theory of logocentrism, is used to describe the dominance of the phallus in language. Phallogocentrism is centered around binary opposites in society, (male/female) the first term foregrounds the second as the spoken word foregrounds the written in logocentric theory, therefore the foregrounding word is the masculine and the devalued term is the 3 Module Leader: Alison Llwellyn Jones

Kirsty Shipley

B.A HONS: Acting

BAAPPD5

feminine. Cixous goes on to argue that within the phallogocentric society there is no opening for female self expression of sexuality because everything is dominated by the ‘Phallus’. ‘Women do not have the cultural mechanisms of meaning to construct themselves as the subject rather than the object of performance.’ (Case: Quoted in Goodman & DeGay:2000:61) This states that women are unable to portray themselves as a subject because society affords only room for them as an object, to be dominated by all means. It is this phallogocentric society that Cixous seeks to deconstruct by encouraging females to ‘write the body’, to express the inner qualities of a female and destabilize the false representation forced by patriarchal society. Does performance art provide a perfect platform for women to ‘write the body’ to highlight their own opinions? In performance art feminist write from the unconscious to highlight the truth about women. Cixous identifies women’s own writing as ‘marking, scratching, scribbling, jotting down’ (Kourany, Sterba & Tong:1992:26) which are all nonlinear modes of expression. This form of performance art could be said to defy the phallogocentric society, as women are speaking autobiographically from experience, expressing the inner woman, but the spoken language is still always going to be phallogocentric because there is nothing else. In agreement with Rachel Bowby who criticizes Cixous methods ’If language, the symbolic order, is as they claim, phallogocentric, then female drives are by definition incapable of representation within it” (Bowby: Quoted in Forte:1988:226) The linguistics that feminists verbalize within performance art are going to be phallogocentric because feminists have not discovered a suitable means of expression. "All are struggling to find a terminology that can rescue the feminine from its stereotypical associations with inferiority" (Showalter 2000: http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=14023) Gerard Genette (1994) notes ‘the work of performance ‘proper’ […] is the performance event minus the text’ he also compares his theories to Roland Barthes ‘theatricality is theatre minus the text’ (quoted in Ince:2000:114) If women in performance art were to perform physically, without the use of verbal language this would raise issues in regards to silencing the woman. Judith Butler (1990) also seeks to destabilize the binary opposites within Module Leader: Alison Llwellyn Jones
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Kirsty Shipley

B.A HONS: Acting

BAAPPD5

Lacanian theory ‘The phallogocentric mode of signifying the female sex perpetually reproduces phantasms of its own self amplifying desire’ (Butler:1990: quoted in Schneider:1997:179) Therefore representing females in accordance with binary opposites further places them as an object of desire adhering to the dominance of the male. It is social circumstance and society that label gender identity, from birth children are constantly segregated into binary opposites. Butler believes the binary opposite of male/female is no longer needed within society as there is now so much in-between that society needs to afford room for. She states that categorized gender belongs to discourse, which exists particularly within psychoanalytical theories (Freud and Lacan) outside of this discourse there is no gender, it is but a performative action which is neither ‘true nor false, neither real nor apparent’. She criticizes the way feminists fight for distinction because they seek to express the differences, not just biologically, which in turn only further separates the male from the female. Gender is constructed by society and females need to speak of their ontology, their experiences as oppose to their ‘femaleness’ in order to deconstruct this feminine representation. Gender in society should be left to the individual, providing opportunity to form personalized gender despite biological difference and society representations, gender can be reinvented not fixed therefore it does not determine identity. It is possible to form personalized identity in modern society, as society opens up more to gender differences such as transsexual (pre-op and post-op). Feminist theorists who encourage a mode of female expression all fail to define a suitable mode, perhaps because there is no means of which women can ‘write the body’, there is no female language, therefore women in performance art can only seek to highlight the flaws that exist within society in hope for change. It is the body that can and is often used as a tool for female communication, therefore feminist performance art seeks to expose, a non-linear language of the female body. The naked body within performance art can be seen as a costume, a stripping of social representation to present nature, it can also be seen as the object for the male desire. Lacan’s notion of desire notes that it is ‘the moment of revelation’ that prompts the male desire. Female bodies are often displayed as objects for the male gaze. Males possess the power to look upon the represented female as an object of desire, 5 Module Leader: Alison Llwellyn Jones

Kirsty Shipley

B.A HONS: Acting

BAAPPD5

examples of female objectification are prominent in magazines, advertisements, film and sexual industries. Iragaray (Prammagiore:1992) poses that women are a sign, a collation of signifiers of which male representation is based upon, particularly in the western culture. These signifiers are based on males views of women and go together to form the represented female in society. Without this semiotic reference towards women representation would not be evident because it is the semiotics of the woman that form the representation. In ‘Sitting still’ (1970) Bonnie Sherk poses in elegant imagery within dress which is juxtaposed by the surrounding garbage. Motionless and silent for hours she portrays an ideal representation of femininity, and of what is expected from females in society. Females are represented as ‘others’ without the freedom to express their own opinions and desires. In a similar performance Faith Wilding ‘Waiting’ (1971) focuses on how feminine life is about waiting for events or happenings to occur, she highlights the female body as passive. Using a poem written by herself to illustrate a rhythm which is repetitive therefore reflecting the female life she is illustrating. Teresa de Lauretis (1987) stated ‘Women is un-representable except as representation.’ (Quoted in Schneider: 1997: 22) Therefore the only way to portray a woman is to stick to society’s representation. It is difficult to define what makes a real woman, however it is something that is interior as oppose to exterior, a real woman is not defined by make-up, hair or clothing, but by how they are on the interior as oppose to the male. This interior is difficult to express outside the realms of the woman as a virgin or whore which is how the patriarchal society paints the female, both Wilding and Sherk’s performances express the patriarchal representation. So what modes of expression are available for women outside of this representation? Female striptease can be linked to performance art due to the unique, phenomenological, spectator/audience relationship. Striptease also poses the male in the dominant position reproducing these ‘stereotypical aspects of our cultures sex roles through their intertwined rituals of performer nudity, spectator gazing and patron tipping’ (Liepe-Levinson:1998:10) This type of performance art poses the female as both subject of the performance and object to the male gaze, further highlighting the vulnerable female body, they are semi-naked as oppose to the male who is dressed. This fantasy, in which males can 6 Module Leader: Alison Llwellyn Jones

Kirsty Shipley

B.A HONS: Acting

BAAPPD5

buy their gaze but never take it further, rises political issues in terms of feminism, as the woman is seen as a commodity, objectified by the paying male customers. In this form women are not expressing

themselves but expressing what the patriarchal society paints them to be, they are seen as whores, objects of the male desire. However within this form both the spectator and the performer are consenting adults who adhere to strict boundaries, the performance is strictly fantasy based and the male spectator is always aware of this prohibition. In connection to this Yoko Ono’s ‘Cut piece’ (1964) highlights the consequences of viewing without responsibility, the audience are invited to cut clothing from Ono’s body, thus destroying the object. Yoko Ono’s piece provides a direct insight into how females are stripped bare as objects in society and how vulnerable the female passive body is. She expresses the power spectators have over performers. In an interview with Jessica Dawson (2007) Ono emphasizes the reason of the public backlash as being because ‘society was not ready to take a woman as a real woman.’ In disagreement with this statement, Ono is not representing a real woman she is representing a passive female and highlighting how males can strip the passive object within society, this is not a form of female expression but more a form of highlighting female oppression. Kiera O’Reilly’s performances beginning in 1998 are also similar however they go a step further than Ono’s inviting singular spectators into a space with an encouraging calm atmosphere she invites them to cut her skin highlighting similar issues. Explicit bodies in feminist performance art sit on the threshold between art and pornography. Annie Sprinkle, prostitute, stripper and porn star who has gained a Ph. D in human sexuality uses performance art to express female sexuality and pleasure. Sprinkles performances use pornographic imagery to display her personal sexual persona. However are Sprinkles performances truly feminist or are they just further enhancing pleasure for males? Elinor Fuchs (1989) states that when Sprinkle, performing at Franklin Furnace’s ‘Deep inside porn stars’(1984), invites spectators onto the stage to inspect her genitals ‘only males volunteer’. Sprinkles show, governed by a male (Richard Schechner) and observed by a mostly male audience, for the pleasure of males places Sprinkle as an object for desire, a fetishized female however Sprinkle does use the opportunity to highlight sexual education on the feminist part. Unlike 7 Module Leader: Alison Llwellyn Jones

Kirsty Shipley

B.A HONS: Acting

BAAPPD5

other performance art discussed in this essay Sprinkle uses a Brechtian alienation technique which provides opportunity for the spectator to reflect his/her position. Schechner highlights that this technique ‘distances the action from its own sexual possibilities – making it antiporn or a send-up of porn.’ (Quoted in Dworkin: 1992) Sprinkle’s performance can not be classed as pornographic, highlighting the female position in sex, prompts women to consider their sexuality. In her performance ‘Public Cervix Announcement’ (1990) Sprinkle again invites the spectator to view her cervix, she makes reference to the way the patriarchal society represents the female genitilia and seeks to demonstrate the true female genitillia, her intentions are to make spectators aware as oppose to becoming an object of fetishization. This performance can be linked to Orlan’s ‘Head of Medusa’ (1978), in which she displays her sexual organs through a magnifying glass whilst menstruating, using a Freudian text which highlights the female as a Medusa ‘At the sight of the vulva even the devil runs away’. She is going against this analysis proving that the display is not as frightening as anticipated. Medusa being the woman with the many snakes (penis’s) in her hair who turns males to stone. This piece aims to destabilise phallogocentric attitudes, by giving the male an insight into the female body, in order to prove that the ‘medusa’ in Freudian terms should not mean a fear of castration. Males are only aware of the exterior of the female form (the naked body), what is actually inside the female vagina is a taboo subject. In an interview (1990) Sprinkle expresses ‘Sex magazines don’t give the whole picture, the whole woman. They don’t tell about the person.’ She also states ‘I'm not really interested in being erotic. I'm not trying to turn these people on at all. I worked for years turning people on. Now, I'm not interested in that, artistically. That's the goal of porno movies, the goal of stripping, the goal of writing stories for sex magazines. Now, I'm more interested in looking at sex in all the other ways it can be looked at.’ Following this performance Sprinkle presented a ritualized masturbation in which she was in full control of her sexual pleasure, whilst the audience observed. Again it was the alienation technique that denied intimacy with Sprinkle. The phenomenological setting also makes it difficult for males to express their true sexual feelings towards the performance. This is a mode of female expression but it is males who Module Leader: Alison Llwellyn Jones
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Kirsty Shipley

B.A HONS: Acting

BAAPPD5

take the most interest in the sexual nature of the performance. Another performance that uses similar alienation and masturbation techniques is Elke Krystufek’s ‘Satisfaction’ (1996) in which she lies naked in a bath, and pleasures herself in front of an audience, the audience is placed at a distance from the performer, there is again no room for the spectators to fetishize the naked female body. The performances provide an insight into the ‘real’ female. This exploration of the female body is what Cixous highlights as the most disruptive ‘Women are not permitted or even conceived of as having or owning their own desire’ (Forte:1988:225) so by displaying this sexual desire Sprinkle and Krystufek are using a form of ‘writing the body’ which poses a threat to patriarchy as the male is no longer needed for sexual pleasure. By constructing her own sexuality she is reclaiming her body and asserting her own desire. Analysing an article concerning Karen Finley’s ’The constant state of desire’ (Pramaggiore:1992) which highlights the control men have over female representation within society. Finley works with performance art in order to underline violence towards women linking this to Iriagaray’s strategy which states that women should project themselves as ‘magnified proportions’ of the image that males represent them as. ‘Through her acceptance of what is in any case as ineluctable mimicry, Irigaray doubles it back on itself, thus raising the parasitism to the second power…miming the miming imposed on women, Irigaray’s subtle specular move (her mimicry mirrors that of all women) intends to undo the eddects of heliocentric discourse simply by overdoing them (Moi: Quoted in Kourany, Serba & Tong:1992:27) Therefore by mimicking the male representations females seek to destabilise the phallogocentric domination by foregrounding it. Hannah Wilkes in her piece ‘Through the large glass’ (1976), performed a strip tease out of a male suit, in a robotic, emotionless fashion through a glass behind Marcel Duchamp’s ‘The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors’(1934). Throughout this performance Wilkes sought to highlight the portrayal, objectification and representation of women in society. Bodies are displayed by means of self expression to oppose the oppressive male society. Finley, by using her body is highlighting the physical differences between men and women but furthermore expressing that the patriarchal ideal does not exist. The ideal subject (in order for it to be objectified for the male gaze) would Module Leader: Alison Llwellyn Jones
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Kirsty Shipley

B.A HONS: Acting

BAAPPD5

be a representation of the female which is emphasized in the media. Finley represents what females really are, instead of what the patriarchal society paints them to be. Like many of the other performances within this essay her style is appealing for political debate because the objectified female becomes the object which is absent within feminist discourses, such as Butler and Cixous Theories, a physical being which can express what discourse has been highlighting, therefore providing feminist theorists with an object for discussion. She, like Cixous and Butler, seeks to oppose Freudian analysis, believing that representation exists because of this branch of psychoanalysis and it is this discourse which oppresses women. Finley identifies her performance is intended to shock males by showing them how they use their power to dominate society and objectify females. By constantly reinstating the spectators position whilst also instigating the spectators to show sexual gratification, she makes it difficult for her to be seen as an object for the male desire. ‘I think this destroys pornography for many men. Usually you look at porn and jerk off. Here there’s a disgust and many straight men don’t want to associate their sexual fantasies with something disgusting. (Finley: 1986: Quoted in Pramaggiore: 1992) Males desire a “media” woman and Finley poses everything against that image. ‘Rather than offering her body as a sadistically unaccessable commodity and idea for… spectators to consume in a masochistic exchange, Finley offers herself as already consumed. (Dolan: quoted in Schneider:1997:104) Finley’s female body has already been subjected, therefore abolishing room for desire. However audience members can perceive this performance differently depending on their sexual preferences, some males could be aroused by this form of grotesque imagery. Finley has been criticized for some of these performances, had public backlash including verbal abuse, as people believe the performance degrades females. However Finley states that women are degraded in this society anyway, they constantly live in fear of male dominance, she wants the audience to empathize with this to stress female feelings within the patriarchal society and to do so uses her body as a medium. Schechner states in an interview with Finley

Module Leader: Alison Llwellyn Jones

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Kirsty Shipley

B.A HONS: Acting

BAAPPD5

‘What you are presenting is a woman who is a subject expressing sexual violence and humor that women are still supposed to be objects of, or ignorant of, or excluded from. You don’t just show it, you talk about it - the shock is in the words you use more than the gestures.’ (Schechner: 1988: Quoted in Pramaggiore: 1992) What Schechner highlights is that the linguistics in Finley’s performance are more shocking than using her body. She uses language that signifies authority, therefore linguistically, phallogocentric language. Finley also worked as a stripper before she became a feminist performance artist, a position in which males can buy their gaze however as a performance artist this is what she is going against, she doesn’t afford opportunity for males to “gaze at her”. I would agree that Finley’s performances are an attempt to ‘write the body’ because she tries to present the language from the body ‘uses body with text and body as text’ (prammagiore:1992:283) and according to the article succeeds in speaking as a female body which is not objectified by the male gaze due to the unique language. In conclusion feminist performance art which uses the female explicit body is a projection of female perspective which seeks to destabalize the semiotic sign system in which women are represented in collation with signifiers. It is the physical presence, the phenomenological setting and the reality of the performance that often seek to threaten the male hierarchy. Often these displays are in line with male representation in order to highlight women’s passive status. The female mode of expression poses the female body as a woman’s own without the extra baggage of representation that society adds; it goes against the male way and poses a female way which is based on the real woman. Due to the phenomenological setting, performance art affords little room for males to fetishize. The primary aim within these types of performance is for action to be taken, in this case the content is not as important as long as they get the point across. Nude separate from the desire, naked body is natural, therefore stripped of representation. The true feminine identity exists within the body, internally, and the performance artists discussed, use this explicit body to foreground the true interior of a woman a form which I conclude is very similar to Cixous’ notion of ‘writing the body‘, against the usual exterior representation forced by a male society. ‘Our embodiment is a necessary requirement of our social identification’ (Turner: Quoted in Module Leader: Alison Llwellyn Jones
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Kirsty Shipley

B.A HONS: Acting

BAAPPD5

Warr & Jones: 2000) There is a suitable mode of expression out there for females it is just finding it that is proving difficult. Performance art provides a stepping stone to find this ideal mode, in which females will be able to express themselves without controversy. The realm of this research study is enormous, with so many further things to observe. Proposing to continue with my analysis of feminist performance art which uses the explicit body, defining my research to focus on Orlan, particularly ’The Reincarnation of Saint Orlan‘ (1990), because she has arguably pushed the boundaries further than any other feminist performance artist to date, in her search to become an idealized beautiful woman which has transformed her into both goddess and cyborg. She displays more than her naked body casting doubt as to whether the explicit body is really a ‘true’ image. In ‘The Reincarnation of Saint Orlan’ she embraces cosmetic surgery, through canal art she seeks to become the feminist ideal not for vanity but because of the interesting concept of surgical procedures being performed. She is highlighting the lengths women will push towards in order to achieve the perfect image of beauty, this ideal beauty is impossible to achieve. The features she chooses, such as the forehead of the Mona Lisa, are chosen because of the masculine traits they suggest. She presents her own body as both subject and object of art. Her performances have caused shock and debates from many angles, she inflicts pain on her own body through plastic surgery alike other performance artists such as Franko B and Stelarc. Orlan’s works also blend binary opposites such as subject/object, dominant/passive art/medicine and interior/exterior. Like many other feminist performance artists discussed within PPD5 Orlan’s performances seek to establish her body as her own expressing how difficult it is to succumb to patriarchal ideals, becoming the representation and also how lengthy the plastic surgery procedure can be. She is challenging her exterior in addition to her interior, using plastic surgery as a way of ’writing her body’ opposing Lacanian theory. Whilst under the surgeons knife she is a passive female object. Aiming to focus on theories by Donna Harraway and Peggy Phelan to highlight Orlan’s uses of technology and phenomenology, highlighting her as an artist and the debates surrounding this status. By using plastic surgery and her explicit body as a medium is Orlan portraying a more ideal form of ‘writing the body’? 12 Module Leader: Alison Llwellyn Jones

Kirsty Shipley

B.A HONS: Acting

BAAPPD5

BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Goldberg, R (1979) Performance Art: From Futurism to Present (C.S Graphics: Singapore) Goodman, L., & Gay, J. (2000) The Routledge Reader in Politics and Performance (Routledge:London) Goodman, L., & Gay, J. (1998) The Routledge Reader in Gender and Performance (Routledge: London) Howell, A. (1999) The Analysis of Performance Art (OPA (Overseas Publishers Association):Amsterdam) Huxley, M., & Witts, N (ed)., (1996) The Twentieth-Century Performance Reader (2nd Edition). (Routledge: Oxon) Ince, K. (2000) Orlan: Millenial Female (Oxford International Publishers Ltd: New York) Jones, A (1998) Body Art: Performing the Subject. (University of Minnesota Press: USA) Kourany, J., Sterba, J. & Tong, R (1992) Feminist Philosophies (Prentice Hall inc: New Jersey) Phelan, P (1993) Unmarked: The Politcs of Performance Art (Routledge: USA & Canada) Schneider, R. (1997) The Explicit Body in Performance (Routledge: London) Warr, T. & Jones, A (ed) (2000) The Artists Body (Phaidon Press Limited: New York)

JOURNALS Dolan, J (1991) The feminist spectator as critic (university of Michigan press) Faber, A (2002) Saint Orlan Ritual as Violent Spectacle and Cultural Criticism (The MIT Press) Forte, J (1988) Women’s Performance Art: Feminism and Postmodernism (John Hopkins University Press: Theatre Journal, Vol 40, No 2) Liepe-Levinson, K (1998) Striptease: Desire, Mimetic Jeopardy, and Performing Spectators (The MIT Module Leader: Alison Llwellyn Jones
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Kirsty Shipley Press: TDR, Vol 42, No 2, pp9-37)

B.A HONS: Acting

BAAPPD5

O’Bryan, J (1997) Saint Orlan Faces Reincarnation (College art association) Pramaggiore, M (1992) Resisting/Performing/Femininity: Words, Flesh, and Feminism in Karen Finley’s ‘The Constant State of Desire’ (John Hopkins University Press: Theatre Journal, vol 44, No.3) Williams, L (1993) A provoking agent: The pornography and performance art of Annie Sprinkle (Duke university press) WEBSITES http://www.nytimes.com/1996/09/27/arts/art-in-review-532533.html?fta=y [accessed 22nd November 2009] http://www.colorado.edu/English/courses/ENGL2012Klages/cixous.html (Klages:1997) [accessed 15th November 2009] http://www.jmu.edu/writeon/documents/2006/Wilson.pdf (Wilson) accessed 16th November 2009 Cixous's The Laugh of the Medusa Against Showalter's Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness." 123HelpMe.com. <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=14023>. [accessed 25th November 2009] http://www.ontheissuesmagazine.com/1992fall/fall1992_Dworkin.php Dworkin 1992 [accessed 22nd November 2009] http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/20/AR2007042000410.html [accessed 22nd November 2009]

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