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Regional Mathematical Olympiad – 2017


Time : 3 hours October : 08, 2017
Instructions :
Calculators (in any form) and protractors are not allowed.
Rulers and compasses are allowed.
Answer all the question.
All questions carry equal marks. Maximum marks : 102.
Answer to each question should start on a new page. Clearly indicate the question number.

1. Let AOB be a given angle less than 180° and let P be an interior point of the angular region
determined by AOB. Show, with proof, how to construct, using only ruler and compasses, a line
segment CD passing through P such that C lies on the ray OA and D lies on the ray OB, and CP :
PD = 1 : 2.
A
C L1

L2
P

Ans. O D
B
Draw a line L2 passing through P and parallel to OB
Draw another line L1 parallel to L2 (on another side) such that the ratio of distances between the
lines L1L2 and L2, OB is 1 : 2.
The point of intersection of L1 and OA is C
The point of intersection of CP with OB is D

2. Show that the equation


a3 + (a + 1)3 + (a + 2)3 + (a + 3)3 + (a + 4)3 + (a + 5)3 + (a + 6)3 = b4 + (b + 1)4
has no solutions in integers a, b.
Ans. a3 + (a + 1)3 + (a + 2)3 + (a + 3)3 + (a + 4)3 + (a + 5)3 + (a + 6)3 = b4 + (b + 1)4
a! 6 a–1

! n3 – ! n3 = = b4 + (b + 1)4
n! 1 n! 1

2 2
! (a ! 6)(a ! 7) ! ! (a – 1)(a) ! 4 4
!!
2
!! – !
2 ! = b + (b + 1)
! !
7(a + 3) (a2 + 6a + 21) = b4 + (b + 1)4

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If
b b+1 b2 (b + 1)2 b4 (b + 1)4

7k 7k +1 7k1 7k8 + 1 7k15 7k22 +1


Of 7k + 1 7k + 2 7k2 + 2 7k9 + 4 7k16 + 1 7k23 + 2
the 7k + 2 7k + 3 7k3 + 4 7k10 + 2 7k17 + 2 7k24 + 4
form 7k + 3 7k + 4 7k4 + 2 7k11 + 2 7k18 + 4 7k25 + 4
7k + 4 7k + 5 7k5 + 2 7k12 + 4 7k19 + 4 7k26 + 2
7k + 5 7k + 6 7k6 + 4 7k13 + 1 7k20 + 2 7k27 + 1
7k + 6 7(k + 1) 7k7 + 1 7k14 7k21 + 1 7k28
So the sum of b4 and (b + 1)4 can not be multiple of 7 therefore no solutions in a, b

3. Let P(x) = x2 + 1 x + b and Q(x) = x2 + cx +d be two polynomials with real coefficients such that
2
P(x) Q (x) = Q(P(x)) for all real x. Find all the real roots of P(Q(x)) = 0.
1
Ans. P(x) = x2 + x +b and Q(x) = x2 + cx + d
2
1
Now P(x).Q(x) = (x2 + x + b)(x2 + cx + d)
2
1 c d
P(x).Q(x) = x4 + x3 (c + ) + x2 (d + + b) + x( +bc) + bd …..(1)
2 2 2
x x
Now Q(P(x)) = (x2 + + b)2 + c(x2 + + b) +d
2 2
1 c
Q(P(x)) = x4 + x3 + x2 ( + 2b + c) +x( +b) + b2 + cb + d …..(2)
4 2
Given that P(x).Q(x) = Q(P(x))
After comparing the coefficient of x4 , x3 ,x2, x and constant terms we get
1 1
c+ =1  c= …… (3)
2 2
c 1 1
d+ + b = +2b + c  d=b+ ….…(4)
2 4 2
bd = b2 + cb + d .……(5)
1 1
From (4) + (5) b = – , d = 0, c =
2 2
Now P(Q(x)) = 0
x
Q(x) = x2 +
2
x 1
P(x) = x2 + –
2 2
1
If P(Q(x)) = 0 then Q(x) = –1,
2
Now,
x x 1
Case I : x2 + = –1 Case II : x2 + !
2 2 2
2x2 + x + 1 = 0 2x2 + x – 1 = 0
1
No real roots Then x = –1,
2

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4. Consider n2 unit squares in the xy – plane centred at point (i, j) with integer coordinates, 1 < i < n,
1 < j < n. it is required to colour each unit square in such a way that when ever 1 < i < j < n and 1
< k <  < n, the three squares with centres at (i, k), (j, k), (j, ) have distinct colour. What is the
least possible number of colours needed ?

Ans.

Consider a n × n grid of unit square with integer


Coordinates : 1 < i < n 1<i<j<n
1<j<n 1<k<<n

We need to take 3 squares with coordinates (i, k), (j , k), (j, )

As 2 x – coordinates and 2 y- coordinates are same it will form a right triangle such that k <  , i < j

If we colour the diagonals with different colors as marked in the diagram, so in every case all the
three vertices of the right  will lie in different diagonal and hence of different colour. So minimum
colour required is equals to number of diagonals that is (2n –1)
n different colours

a b c d e f
g

h
n –1 different colours i
j

As shown in the diagram a to k all should be different colors, because if two are same then
triangle with those two squares as vertices will have colour so all should be different so for n × n
grid a row should have n different colour and a coloum have rest
( n – 1) different colours So 2n –1 different colour are needed.

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5. Let  be a circle with a chord AB which is not a diameter. Let 1 be a circle on one side of AB
such that it is tangent to AB at C and internally tangent to  at D. Likewise, let 2 be a circle on
the other side of AB such that it is tangent to AB at E and internally tangent to  at F. Suppose
the line DC intersects  at X  D and the line FE intersects  at Y  F. Prove that XY is a
diameter of .
Ans. We have to prove that ! XDY ! 90!
Let CDM=  and NEF=  and ODY= 
In quadrilateral OGEN
GON= 180° + 2 – 2.
DF chord subtends 180° + 2 + 2 at centre O
 DF chord subtends 90 +  – at corresponding arc
  DYF = 180 – (90 +  – ) = 90 +  – 
In quadrilateral DOFY
 = 360 – (180 + 2–2+  + 90 +  – ) = 90 – 

D
M

E
A B
C G

180 + 2! –2! F
N
O

X Hence proved.

6. Let x, y, z be real numbers, each grater than 1. Prove that


x! 1 y! 1 z! 1 x –1 y –1 z –1
! ! ! ! !
y! 1 z! 1 x! 1 y –1 z –1 x –1

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