Pathways to a Smart Grid

Dr. Udo Niehage Group President

Power Transmission and Distribution

Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.

Electrical energy is the backbone of our society

Slide 2

8.11.2007

Dr. Udo Niehage

Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.

Power Transmission and Distribution

Power Transmission and Distribution . All rights reserved. Udo Niehage Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.11.Future grids require more flexibility Increased energy trading Integration of distributed energy resources Increasing distance between generation and load Increasing shortcircuit currents High supply quality along with greater network complexity and vulnerability Fluctuating infeed Cost pressure Aging infrastructure and lack of experts Legal & regulatory framework Drivers for flexible and (cost)-efficient grids Slide 3 8.2007 Dr.

11. All rights reserved.2007 Dr.The Siemens Smart Grid Vision is driven by customer benefits Technical Implementation (Examples) Transmission Grid Improved Distribution Grid Smart Grid means … Observability § Wide Area Monitoring § Smart Meters § Condition Monitoring § Distribution Automation § Increased use of power electronics § Demand Side Management § Distribution Automation Slide 4 Drivers Improved Controllability Improved Process efficiency 8. Udo Niehage Utility IT solutions Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. Power Transmission and Distribution .

Power Transmission and Distribution .11. Power flow control and transmission capacity increase by using power electronics Integration of distributed generation and storage by virtual power plants Smart metering and load management Distribution Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. Transmission From Manual reaction to critical network situations Primary equipment condition not well known Limited control of power flow Central generation. not transparent consumption Slide 5 8. All rights reserved.Pathways to a Smart Grid Movement from static infrastructure to a flexible power grid with enhanced observability. decentralized consumption Unmanaged. controllability and process efficiency. Udo Niehage To • ‚ ƒ „ … Blackout prevention by increasing the situational awareness and automated counter measures Condition monitoring for controlled overload of bottlenecks and reliability centered asset managem.2007 Dr.

Pathways to a Smart Grid Movement from static infrastructure to a flexible power grid with enhanced observability. decentralized consumption Unmanaged. All rights reserved.2007 Dr. Udo Niehage To • ‚ ƒ „ … Blackout prevention by increasing the situational awareness and automated counter measures Condition monitoring for controlled overload of bottlenecks and reliability centered asset managem. Transmission From Manual reaction to critical network situations Primary equipment condition not well known Limited control of power flow Central generation. controllability and process efficiency.11. Power Transmission and Distribution . Power flow control and transmission capacity increase by using power electronics Integration of distributed generation and storage by virtual power plants Smart metering and load management Distribution Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. not transparent consumption Slide 6 8.

Slide 7 8.Future Energy Management Systems systems will have to handle complex situations much better than today By clear decisions Supplement the message reports 2000 MW Pump Load OFF The grid dispatcher has to decide within seconds. Wrong decisions or inactivity may lead to Blackouts. Power Transmission and Distribution .11.2007 Dr. All rights reserved. Udo Niehage Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.

Udo Niehage To • ‚ ƒ „ … Blackout prevention by increasing the situational awareness and automated counter measures Condition monitoring for controlled overload of bottlenecks and reliability centered asset managem. Power flow control and transmission capacity increase by using power electronics Integration of distributed generation and storage by virtual power plants Smart metering and load management Distribution Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. Power Transmission and Distribution .Pathways to a Smart Grid Movement from static infrastructure to a flexible power grid with enhanced observability. Transmission From Manual reaction to critical network situations Primary equipment condition not well known Limited control of power flow Central generation. All rights reserved.2007 Dr. decentralized consumption Unmanaged.11. not transparent consumption Slide 8 8. controllability and process efficiency.

Kaiser / PTD TI. 12/2006 .2007 Dr. 11 kV nodes Importance condition Condition importance § Boundary conditions Boundary conditions Rules Rules Slide 9 8. Business strategy Business strategy Power Transmission and Distribution Source: Siemens PTD SE. Udo Niehage Prioritization and Prioritization and strategy development strategy development Reliability Centered Asset Management Strategy Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.11.Reliability Centered Asset Management for T&D equipment EENS share per component 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% transformers cables 50% 66 kV bus bars 66 kV nodes 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Network Components overhead lines Contribution of each component to system reliability („Expected Energy not supplied“) •Inspections •Operational data •Monitoring data •etc. Menke.

Udo Niehage Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.2007 Dr.11. Power Transmission and Distribution . All rights reserved.Transformer Monitoring for Hydro Quebec Substation 1 Substation 2 Substation 3 Wireless Wireless Wireless Utility Siemens Minneapolis Data Center Application Server Communication Server FireWall WEB Server Peak load transmission at low ambient temperatures Utility Remote Desktop session over the Web Slide 10 8.

Pathways to a Smart Grid Movement from static infrastructure to a flexible power grid with enhanced observability. decentralized consumption Unmanaged. Udo Niehage To • ‚ ƒ „ … Blackout prevention by increasing the situational awareness and automated counter measures Condition monitoring for controlled overload of bottlenecks and reliability centered asset managem. Transmission From Manual reaction to critical network situations Primary equipment condition not well known Limited control of power flow Central generation. All rights reserved. Power Transmission and Distribution .2007 Dr. controllability and process efficiency. not transparent consumption Slide 11 8. Power flow control and transmission capacity increase by using power electronics Integration of distributed generation and storage by virtual power plants Smart metering and load management Distribution Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.11.

All rights reserved.2007 Dr. Udo Niehage Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. Power Transmission and Distribution .11.Power electronics for power flow management DE CZ Conventional grid: Power flow “according to Kirchhoff’s law” DE CZ “Smart Grid”: Power flow controlled by power electronics Slide 12 8.

All rights reserved.2007 Dr. Udo Niehage Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. Power Transmission and Distribution .11.Advanced Power Transmission Solutions with HVDC and FACTS (Flexible AC Transmissions Systems) North System North System 50 Hz 50 Hz Tariff Power Exchange – Asynchronous Networks voltage control Central System Central System 60 Hz 60 Hz Avoidance of Loop Flows ~ Submarine Cable Link Clean & Low Cost Energy Bulk Power & Long Distance Power Exchange Tariff Submarine Cable Link South System South System 60 Hz 60 Hz Symbols: DC Transmission & Interconnection Series compensation Parallel compensation ~ Slide 13 8.

Udo Niehage Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.900. Power Transmission and Distribution .2007 Dr.HVDC for remote hydro power in China § Sole solution to use hydro power from Yunnan in the Pearl River delta.000 t/a Slide 14 8. All rights reserved. HVDC with the world’s highest power capacity ever: 5000 MW across 1400km World’s first 800kV HVDC § § Enabled CO2 abatement: 32.11.

Pathways to a Smart Grid Movement from static infrastructure to a flexible power grid with enhanced observability. Transmission From Manual reaction to critical network situations Primary equipment condition not well known Limited control of power flow Central generation. All rights reserved. decentralized consumption Unmanaged. not transparent consumption Slide 15 8. Udo Niehage To • ‚ ƒ „ … Blackout prevention by increasing the situational awareness and automated counter measures Condition monitoring for controlled overload of bottlenecks and reliability centered asset managem. Power flow control and transmission capacity increase by using power electronics Integration of distributed generation and storage by virtual power plants Smart metering and load management Distribution Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.11. Power Transmission and Distribution . controllability and process efficiency.2007 Dr.

2007 Dr.Virtual power plants to manage distributed energy resources EEXLeipzig n Optimized combination and capacity utilization of distributed small power plants Allows SaarEnergie to participate in energy trading via the German-based European Energy Exchange (EEX) Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. Udo Niehage .11. Power Transmission and Distribution n Slide 16 8.

not transparent consumption Slide 17 8. Transmission From Manual reaction to critical network situations Primary equipment condition not well known Limited control of power flow Central generation.11. Power Transmission and Distribution . decentralized consumption Unmanaged. All rights reserved.2007 Dr.Pathways to a Smart Grid Movement from static infrastructure to a flexible power grid with enhanced observability. Udo Niehage To • ‚ ƒ „ … Blackout prevention by increasing the situational awareness and automated counter measures Condition monitoring for controlled overload of bottlenecks and reliability centered asset managem. controllability and process efficiency. Power flow control and transmission capacity increase by using power electronics Integration of distributed generation and storage by virtual power plants Smart metering and load management Distribution Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.

11. All rights reserved.Generation and load in a dynamic equilibrium Energy trading Power flow reversal Fluctuating infeed Replace oil by wind power €(t) Plug-in Hybrids Slide 18 8. Power Transmission and Distribution .2007 Dr. Udo Niehage Heat pumps Cooling units Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.

All rights reserved. Udo Niehage Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. diesel: approx.Example 1: Internal combustion engine vs.2007 Dr. electric motor Internal combustion engine ⇒ Total efficiency: gasoline: approx.11. 22% Electric motor • Efficiency of a combined cycle power plant: 58% • Additional transmission losses: 5% • Li-ion battery losses: 14% • Efficiency of engine and drive: 80% ⇒ Total efficiency: 38% Slide 19 8. Power Transmission and Distribution . 18%.

11. Udo Niehage Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. Power Transmission and Distribution .5 Total efficiency: 193% Slide 20 8.2007 Dr. All rights reserved.Example 2: Use of fossil fuels to generate heat • Efficiency of gas-fired condensing boiler 100% ⇒ Total efficiency: 100% • • • ⇒ Efficiency of a combined cycle power plant: 58% Additional transmission losses: 5% Seasonal performance factor of heat pumps: 3.

Power Transmission and Distribution .11. All rights reserved.The replacement potential is significant Energy consumption of private households in Germany 2002 domestic hot water lighting 1% 8% appliances 8% 53% heating car 30% Source: VDEW Slide 21 8.2007 Dr. Udo Niehage Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.

residential.9 38.3 Power sector 41 41 46 24.11.8 30 21. Udo Niehage H2: § Pre-requisite: Technological breakthroughs for hydrogen and fuel-cell technologies Power Transmission and Distribution Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.2007 Dr.Increasing electricity usage means reducing CO2 emissions Energy-related CO2 emissions in Gt CO2 (segments in %) 38.0 36.5 30 23.9 34 Other sectors 59 59 59 54 70 70 66 2005 Most likely 2030 Most likely H2 2030 Most likely Electric 2030 Blue Sky 2030 Blue Sky H2 2030 Blue Sky Electric 2030 Source: Siemens E&EC Team.1 41 26. PG GS4 Reference scenario “Most likely” Extreme climate protection scenario "Blue sky" § Substitution of energy carriers by hydrogen Electric: Slide 22 § Accelerated penetration of electric power in transportation. . industrial sector § Replacing direct use of fossil fuels 8. All rights reserved.

Udo Niehage Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.11. Power Transmission and Distribution . All rights reserved.2007 Dr.Electrical energy is the backbone of our society Slide 23 8.