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FALL 2013

CHAIR’S Table of Contents

• Join and then follow various technical
Groups within ASME.
Chair’s Message

Registering as an participant Past Chair’s Message
John Hedrick is free and open to everyone; you don’t have
Incoming Executive
would like to to be an ASME member to become a partici- Committee Member
pant on the website. It is hoped that this
take this oppor- 2013 Fall Technical Conference
to update new ASME website will assist you with your in Dearborn, Michigan
professional development. There is a video
you on some Fall 2012 Technical Conference
that helps explain the new ASME website at
changes to the A Success in Vancouver
ASME organiza-
ICE Division Award Recipients
tion, strides that the Internal Combustion media/training/video-asmeorgs-new-
ICE Call For Papers 2014
Engine Division is making to offer the high- community-features.
A lot of work has been done inside the Incoming ICE Division Associates
est value to our technical conference atten-
ICE Division to offer the highest value to ICE Division Sponsorship
dees, and the Division’s efforts to increase
our technical conference attendees. This Opportunities for 2014
student participation.
process started 2008 when the ICED Execu- Executive Committee Members
ASME has recently moved its headquar-
tive Committee made a number of changes 2012 Fall Technical Conference
ters from 3 Park Avenue to 2 Park Avenue in
to the Division’s conference model to Report
New York City. While this does not sound
like much of a change, it represents a large increase the technical value of the confer- Students of Mechanical Engineering are
change for ASME. The new ASME facility ences. These original changes focused on: the future of the IC industry and our ASME
has 100,000 square feet of office and meet- 1. Increasing international conference par- Division. Recognizing that student atten-
ing space (30,000 square foot more space ticipation by holding an overseas confer- dance has been historically low, efforts have
than their old facility) that can accommodate ence once every three years (in the spring). been made to increase student participation.
up to 300 staff. This new facility offers 2. Increasing the technical relevance of the These efforts have focused on reducing the
ASME the opportunity to increase the staff conferences by holding one fall technical conference registration rate for Student
from the current level of 250 and gives conference every year in North America. ASME Members and offering an Undergrad-
ASME the space to meet ever expanding Other changes that have been put in uate Mechanical Engineering Students Pres-
demands and opportunities. If you are inter- place by the ICED Executive Commit- entation competition.
ested in more information about the new tee, in the past 5 years, are: Prof. Will Northrop of University of
ASME headquarters, you can read an article • The process to fast track outstanding Minnesota is the Chair of Student Presenta-
about the new facility at http://www.rew- technical papers to the Journals associ- tions. Prof. Northrop, and a small team of engineers-move-to- ated with the Division. reviewers, review and accept 1000-word
100000-sf-headquarters/ abstracts and draft presentations submitted
• Offer more technical panel discus-
There also has been a major revamping by undergraduate students. The top two pre-
sions at the conference.
of the website. The new website sentations are selected and the authors are
has an enhanced home page, better site navi- • Offering excellent lunch time indus- invited to the Fall Technical Conference
gation, and a number of new community try presentations. where they give the Undergraduate Student
features that allows users to: • Increasing student participation. presentations at the Tuesday lunch at our
• Register with the website. The outcome of these changes has been technical conference. As a participant of the
impressive. The attendance of the conference conference, they get to attend other presen-
• Create professional profiles. has been increasing and the increase in quan- tations and network with other attendees that
• Connect with other ASME group mem- tity and (more importantly) the quality of work in the field of IC engines. The student’s
bers that share similar technical interests. the technical papers has been impressive. continued on page three

page one
Past Chair’s Message ASME ICED. I began by reviewing papers outside North America has continued to be a

and chairing conference sessions. After the goal of the Executive Committee to serve a
Steve Ciatti
t has been an
conference in Erie, PA in 2003, I joined the broader membership. The next international
Board of Associates and took a more active conference is tentatively planned to be in
honor to serve role in the division’s activities. Eventually, I Beijing, China in the spring of 2015, hosted
as the IC Engine was asked to join the Executive Committee. by Tsinghua University. As I move forward
Division Chair This year, the accomplishments of the ICED in my own career, I have found that building
for the past year Executive Committee and the Board of As- these international relationships will be criti-
and I look forward sociates have included some significant cal to the engineering profession and to the
to the upcoming events. The 2012 Fall Technical Conference, future of the IC engine research/operation.
year to serve in hosted by Westport Innovations, Inc. in As outgoing Chair, there is no greater honor
the role of Past Vancouver, BC, was a highly successful con- than to work with a fine group of engine
Chair. The year ference! The conference had an excellent professionals. I would like to thank my
has come and speaker in Dr. Patric Ouellette, from West- employer Argonne National Laboratory for
gone rather quickly! The six years that I have port Innovations, who discussed a very their support of ICED conference atten-
served on the ICED Executive Committee timely topic, “Technology Choices for Up- dance and allowance to serve you as an
have also passed swiftly. It seems only a short and-Coming New Applications of Natural ICED Executive Committee member. A year
time ago that I attended my first ICE confer- Gas as an Engine Fuel” and a strong techni- ago, in my message as incoming Chair, I
ence in 2001 hosted by Argonne National cal program consisting of roughly 100 tech- urged you to increase your participation in
Laboratory (coincidentally my new employer) nical papers and presentations. The the ICE Division by attending our confer-
and the conference took place directly after conference was also very well attended with ences, volunteering for numerous divisional
9/11 - which created significant challenges 199 registrants. In addition, one of the last- activities and/or hosting a conference. There
regarding attendance and security for our ing items of which I am very proud is the ef- are numerous changes, both regulatory and
attendees. I gave a presentation based upon fort of ICED to invest in the future of market-based, happening all over the world
my doctoral dissertation work from the Uni- engineering by providing university students that are heavily dependent upon energy and
versity of Wisconsin-Madison and I left the with discounted registration at our confer- transportation. The IC Engine community
conference with a very good impression ences. As these students interact with engine will become even more vital to these changes
about this new group of engine people. professionals from around the globe, their – and the ICED community will be there to
Several Argonne researchers were al- business and career opportunities will be help you navigate these technological
ready ASME members (my supervisor, Raj greatly enhanced by their participation – changes with access to the latest research,
Sekar, is an ASME Fellow), so I was highly supported by ICED. product development and personal network-
encouraged to continue to participate in Holding a conference every three years ing with the engine community. ៉

Incoming Executive Committee Member Robert M. Wagner

D r. Robert puting, neutron sciences, and material sci- International Journal of Engines and on
Wagner is ences to further the development of the editorial board of the International
the Director of advanced transportation technologies. Journal of Engine Research. He has
the Fuels, Robert is a member of several govern- authored over 100 technical publications,
Engines, and ment-industry technical teams and work- a book chapter, and two patents. He is
Emissions ing groups that provide guidance to DOE also a frequent invited speaker on the top-
Research Cen- in developing technical roadmaps and ics of high efficiency combustion, engine
ter at Oak establishing and meeting long-term effi- instabilities, adaptive controls, and the
Ridge National ciency goals. He is a Fellow of the Society long-term outlook of high efficiency trans-
Laboratory and of Automotive Engineers (SAE); past portation technologies.
on the faculty Chairman of the SAE Combustion & Robert is looking forward to the chal-
of the Bredesen Center for Interdiscipli- Fuels Committee; and an organizer for lenges and opportunities of this new posi-
nary Research and Graduate Education at multiple SAE international symposiums tion with the division. He hopes his
the University of Tennessee. His interests on high efficiency transportation technolo- background and experience with other
and expertise include low temperature gies. He is also a member of the Executive technical organizations will help him con-
combustion, combustion instability phe- Committees of the SAE Powertrain, Fuels, tribute to the ASME tradition of excellence
nomena, thermodynamics, and adaptive and Lubricants activity and the DOE in fostering dialog among international
controls. He has also led several efforts for sponsored U.S.-China Clean Energy experts to accelerate the development of
to improve the integration of diverse disci- Research Center on Clean Vehicles. the next generation of high efficiency
plines including high performance com- Robert is an Associate Editor of the SAE engines. ៉

page two
Incoming Chair’s Message date of submission. Secretary), Stuart Neil (Former Chair), the
continued from page one In closing, I would like to thank all of rest of the Executive Committee. Last, but
the people that make my Chairmanship not least, I would like to also thank the
travel and lodging expenses are covered up to possible. These include, but are not limited ICED Associates and all of the other volun-
$1500. The only requirements are: to, Erin Dolan and Robert Powers of teers that review papers, chair and co-chair
• The competitor must be an ASME ASME, Dr Frank Aboujaoude (Former technical sessions, and work hard to make
student member. Chair and current Division Treasurer), Neil our conferences excellent. ៉
• Be an undergraduate student on the Blythe (Former Chair and current Division

Plan to Attend the 2013 Fall Technical Conference in Dearborn, Michigan

Brad Zigler
he ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division is pleased to
The technical presentations, exhibits, and collegial atmosphere fos-
ter networking, discussion, and collaboration that advance engi-
announce details of its upcoming 2013 Fall Technical Confer-
neering and science for internal combustion engines. Reduced
ence to be held October 13th-16th, 2013 in Dearborn, Michigan
registration fees encourage student participation, offering employers
and hosted by Wayne State University. The venue for this year’s
a unique opportunity to recruit next-generation experts to their
conference will be The Dearborn Inn. Initial interest has been out-
organizations. The Honors and Awards Banquet on Monday, Octo-
standing, with the possibility of presenting a record number of
ber 14th is a special annual event to recognize the outstanding
1. Technical papers presented by leading researchers from around
papers. The technical program is planned to include the following:
achievements and dedicated efforts of Internal Combustion Engine
Division colleagues.
the world,
Registration will soon be open, with early-bird registration
Keynote address by Tom McCarthy, Chief Engineer for Power- rates initially available through the 2013 Fall Technical Conference
train Research & Advanced Engineering at Ford Motor Company,
Two panel discussion sessions focusing on fuels and controls For more information, please contact:
topic areas, Administrative Questions
4. Presentations from undergraduate students who will compete (including sponsorship or exhibitor opportunities):
through an international competition for awards to attend and Steve McConnell
participate in the conference, Argonne National Laboratory
5. Lunch presentation by Dr. Robert Wagner, Director of the
Fuels Engines and Emissions Research Center at Oak Ridge Technical Program Questions:
National Laboratory,
Bradley Zigler
Technical tours of Wayne State University, including the National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Center for Automotive Research.

Fall 2012 Technical Conference a Success in Vancouver

Timothy Jacobs and John Hedrick
he IC Engine community descended and the future direction and challenges fac- dinated by Professor Will Northrop (Univer-
upon the recent host of the 2010 Winter ing this growing and important industry. sity of Minnesota) which has thus far pro-
Olympics, Vancouver, British Columbia, as Following Dr. Ouellette’s opening pres- vided paid expenses for three undergraduate
it attended ASME Internal Combustion entation, the technical program continued students to attend the ASME IC Engine
Engine Division’s 2012 Fall Technical Con- with five parallel technical tracks that Division’s Fall Technical Conferences. The
ference. The conference, held at the Sheraton between Monday and Tuesday featured 93 expert panel, organized by Dr. Apoorv Agar-
Wall Centre in downtown Vancouver, was paper presentations. Integrated within the wal (Ford Motor Company), on natural gas
hosted by local natural gas engine manufac- two day technical program were the awardee for IC engines featured Professor Jim Wallace
turer Westport Innovations, Inc and featured presenters of the Undergraduate Student (University of Toronto) as moderator and
over 100 technical presentations attended by Presentation Competition, an expert panel Mr. Mark Dunn (Westport Innovations),
nearly 200 attendees. After the warm wel- on natural gas for IC engines, and the Tues- Mr. Michael Iden (Union Pacific Railroad),
coming reception on Sunday (September 23, day Luncheon Industry Speaker. The win- and Dr. Riccardo Scarcelli (Argonne
2012), the technical program officially began ners of the Undergraduate Student National Laboratory) as expert panelists.
on Monday with keynote presentation deliv- Presentation Competition, Mr. F. Zak Finally, the technical program integrated the
ered by Dr. Patric Ouellette, Vice President Tilocco from Kettering University and Mr. now-annual Tuesday Luncheon Industry
and Chief Technology Officer for Westport David Vuilleumier from University of Cali- Speaker by hosting Mr. Dick C. Kauling,
Innovations. Dr. Ouellette’s presentation fornia – Berkeley, presented their work dur- Engineering Manager of the Gaseous Fuel
focused on the progress made in natural gas ing the Monday Luncheon. This is the Technical Resource Centre at GM Powertrain;
technology for transportation applications second year of this successful program, coor- continued on page four

page three
2012 Fall Conference broader impact of technological advance- nology KIT) and Ulrich Spicher (Institut-
continued from page three ments to the IC engine community. fürKolbenmaschinen KIT) received the ICE
The conference also played host to the Division Most Valuable Technical Contribu-
his presentation centered on the advance- newly established US CIMAC NMA, a col- tion award. This year’s recipient of the Inter-
ments made to integrate natural gas vehicles lection of North American based organiza- nal Combustion Engine Award, Professor
into the marketplace. tions who contribute to be participating Nicholas P. Cernansky (Drexel University),
The technical program concluded on members in CIMAC. The ASME IC Engine was in attendance to be acknowledged for his
Wednesday with the technical tours of Division is a paying member of the US scholarly and educational promotion of the
Westport Innovations, Inc. The technical CIMAC NMA, and thus its primary mem- science and art of the internal combustion
tours continue to be popular, with over 100 bers (associates) are eligible to receive the engine. Further, Mr. Greg Gutoski (Fairbanks-
attendees participating in the tours! corresponding benefits. Details of such bene- Morse Engine) was honored with the
One key benefit of presenting research fits are generally disseminated through the Richard S Woodbury Award.
and engineering development with the Associates Meeting minutes as well as Also receiving recognition for their
ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division through the Listserv (email distribution). unique contributions to the conference were
is the Division’s relationships with two Finally, as is tradition with the Fall Dr. Ouellette (our keynote speaker), Mr. F.
ASME journals: Journal of Engineering for Technical Conference, the IC Engine’s Hon- Zak Tilocco and Mr. David Vuilleumier
Gas Turbines and Power and Journal of Energy ors and Awards Banquet, organized by Dr. (winners of our Undergraduate Student Pres-
Resources Technology. Conference papers may Abnash Narula (Wm. Nugent Company), entation Competition), Mr. Dick Kauling
be recommended for journal consideration if was held Monday night and acknowledged (our Tuesday Luncheon Industry Speaker),
they embody clear demonstration of long- many of the leading contributors to the and Ms. Kim Rasberry (of Westport Innova-
term impact / archival quality, and include Division and the IC engine community in tions, for her excellent contributions as Local
discussion and indications of data uncer- general. The banquet began with Toastmas- Host). Finally, receiving certificates of appre-
tainty. Some papers of exceptional quality ter Mr. John Hedrick (Southwest Research ciation were the many technical track chairs
and impact are recommended for “fast-track” Institute) acknowledging the contributions and session organizers whose tireless efforts
publication, which uses the high-quality con- of the Division chair, Dr. Stephen Ciatti create the excellence of our technical pro-
ference reviews as substitutes for the journal (Argonne National Laboratory). Similarly, gram.The evening closed with a special and
reviews. For this conference, around 20 con- outgoing Division chair, Mr. W. Stuart Neill intriguing performance by Stanton Jack, a
ference papers were recommended up to the (National Research Council Canada) was Vancouver-local classical guitarist.
journal for fast-track publication. Also con- recognized with the ASME Retiring Chair- Be sure to plan on attending the 2013
tinuing for this conference is the popular man Certificate. In recognition of excellent Fall Technical Conference in Dearborn,
“paper type” designations of either scholarly presentation, Mr. Benjamin Lawler (Univer- Michigan for a collegial, warm, and technically
research articles or engineering applications sity of Michigan) received the ICE Division stimulating conference on the advanced science
articles. These paper type designations Speaker Award. Likewise, in recognition of and art of the internal combustion engine.
increase the opportunities for authors to dis- excellent technical paper contribution, Drs. We look forward to seeing you there! ៉
seminate their work and offer improved Uwe Wagner (Karlsruhe Institute of Tech-

ICE Division Award Recipients

The following awards were presented at the ICED 2012 Fall Technical Conference in Vancouver, BC. by Abnash Narula.
Keynote Speaker Award Luncheon Speaker Award
Dr. Patric Ouellette, Chief Scientist, Dick C. Kauling, Engineering Manager,
Westpoint Innovations. General Motors Powertrain Division.
ICE Division Speaker Award Local Arrangements Award
Benjamin Lawler, University of Michigan. Westpoint Innovations Inc.
Richard S. Woodbury Award ASME Retiring Certificate
Greg Gutoski, Fairbanks Morse Engine. W. Stuart Neill, National Research
Council, Canada.
Most Valuable Technical Contribution
Dr. Uwe Wagner, Karlsruhe Institute of Recognition of Undergraduate
Technology, Germany. Student Presenters at Conference
F. Zak Tilocco, Kettering University
Dr. Ulrich Spicher, Institut Fur
Kolbenmaschinen Karlsruhe Institute of David Vuilleumier, University of
In addition, our Special Congratulations
Technology, Germany California, Berkeley
go to Mr. Scott Curran, Second Prize win-
Internal Combustion Engine Award ner of the ASME 2013 Old Guard Early
Dr. Nicholas Cernansky, Drexel University. Career Award. ៉

page four
Internal Combustion Engine Division ASME International
Invites Papers for the 2014 Fall Technical Conference
October 19 - 22, 2014
Columbus, Indiana, USA
Hosted by Cummins Inc.
Papers of high technical quality related to the development, advancement, and improved understanding of the internal combustion engine are
sought for the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division’s 2014 Fall Technical Conference to be held October 19 - 22, 2014 in Columbus,
This includes keynote speakers, student presentations,
a banquet,
student presentations, industrial tours, a banquet, and
a Indiana and hosted by Cummins Inc. In addition a to two days of technical presentation of accepted papers, the conference highlights networking
activities among members of industry, government, and academia. This includes keynote speakers, student presentations, industrial tours, a ban-
quet, and an overall collegial atmosphere to advance the state of the art of the internal combustion engine.
All offers relating to the internal combustion engine, or interfaces with internal combustion engines, are accepted for rigorous review by experts
in the field. Specifically, accepted papers are generally grouped into one of the following technical tracks (with corresponding track chairs listed
for contact):
Track 1: Large Bore Engines (Dr. Thomas Lavertu,
Track 2: Fuels (Professor Scott Miers,
Track 3: Advanced Combustion (Professor Kalyan Srinivasan,
Track 4: Emissions Control Systems (Dr. Stani Bohac,
Track 5: Instrumentation, Controls, and Hybrids (Mr. David Gardiner,
Track 6: Numerical Simulation (Professor Caroline Genzale,
Track 7: Engine Design, Lubrication, and Applications (Dr. Dan Richardson,

Accepted papers that are presented at the conference will be archived on the conference proceedings CD. Presentation of papers at the conference
requires payment of the registration fee (papers not presented at the conference are excluded from the conference proceedings CD, considered
not published, and not archived). Accepted papers must transfer copyright to ASME, with certain exceptions noted. The ASME ICE Division’s
Presentation Policy and the ASME Copyright Policy are respectively available at:
January 24, 2014 January 24, 2014
M Draft manuscript due for review
M Draft manuscript due for review
Offerors may submit papersJ of two types: 1) Final manuscript,
scholarly copyright,
research articles andand
J 2)author paid registration
engineering Final
application manuscript, copyright,
articles (with andpolicy
strict authorof
commer- due
cialization). Scholarly research article is meant to provide high-level details of original research centered on hypothesis-based reasoning and
methodical approach to discovering new scientific and/or technical knowledge. Engineering application article is meant to be a public reporting
of preliminary and / or novel engineering development. All papers will be reviewed appropriately per their type. Accepted articles of highest qual-
ity and with potential for long-lasting technical contribution may be considered for journal publication in ASME’s Journal of Engineering for
Gas Turbines and Power or Journal of Energy Resources Technology.
Please submit your 400-word or less paper offer / abstract by
Friday, January 24, 2014 at the conference website:
For additional information or questions, please contact the technical program chair:
Dr. Robert Wagner, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, wagnerrm@ornl
January 24, 2014 400-word paper offer / abstract due
March 28, 2014 Draft manuscript due for review
June 15, 2014 Final manuscript, copyright, and author paid registration due

page five
Incoming ICE Division ASME ICE Division Sponsorship
Associates Opportunities for 2014
I f you are benefitting from participation in the ASME Internal Combustion Engine
We are pleased to welcome the following
individuals as Associates to the ICE Division. Division, please consider the Division in your company’s sponsorship plan for 2014.
1. Mr. Munidhar Biruduganti – The Division offers numerous sponsorship opportunities for our upcoming 2014 fall conference in Columbus, Indiana, including:
2. Dr. Sibendu Som – • Welcome reception • Awards banquet
• Undergraduate student presentations • General Division sponsorship
3. Dr. Tiegang Fang –
• Meal or networking break
4. Dr. Marcis Jansons –
In addition, there are a limited number of spaces for companies to exhibit their
5. Dr. Usman Asad – products at our 2014 fall conference. Please contact Mr. Stuart Neill
6. Dr. Samveg Saxena – ( for further details. ៉

ICED Executive Committee Members (2013-2014)

7. Mr. Scott Curran –
8. Dr. Shahrokh Etemad –
Mr. John Hedrick Mr. Steve McConnell Dr. Robert Wagner
10. Dr. Yuanhong Li – Southwest Research Institute Argonne National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory
12. Dr. Patrick Kirchen – Dr. Steve Ciatti CHAIR (TECHNICAL) Mr. Neil Blythe
Argonne National Laboratory Dr. Bradley Zigler GE Transportation
13. Ms. Lara Sherefkin – National Renewable Energy
VICE CHAIR TREASURER (TECHNICAL) Laboratory Dr. Frank Aboujaoude
14. Dr. Robert Prucka – Dr. Timothy Jacobs ASSISTANT VICE Fairbanks Morse Engine
Texas A&M University CHAIR (ADMIN)
15. Dr. Mark Patterson –
Dr. Diana Grauer Cameron
16. Dr. Robert Wagner –

Excerpt of 2012 Fall Technical Conference Report

Courtesy of DieselNet
ieselNet attended many of the technical haul Progress Rail locomotives equipped with The system included a 1,000 liter urea tank.
presentations at the 2012 Fall Technical the aftertreatment system have been operated High NOx conversions were achieved (87-
Conference of the ASME Internal Combus- in revenue service by Union Pacific. The 90% above 340 C, 81-83% over the line
tion Engine Division. Following is a sum- aftertreatment module included 4 DOC cat- haul cycle) with very low ammonia slip, even
mary of their findings: alysts (2x2), followed by urea injection and though the system did not include an

Locomotive engines
mixing and 16 SCR catalysts (4x4). All cata- ammonia slip catalyst. The control system
lysts used metallic Emitec substrates, either utilized NOx sensors upstream and down-
While the conference has evolved to cover all round (606 mm diameter x 90 mm) or square stream of the catalyst module. The system
sizes and applications of internal combustion (606x606x90 mm) with rounded corners, controlled NOx, HC and CO emissions to
engines, large bore engines have traditionally with 100 cpsi cell density. Resonance fre- below Tier 4 levels. PM emission reductions
received a lot of attention. This year, several quency analysis was used during the design were 38-58%. Hence, with minor develop-
large bore engine papers focused on emission process to ensure mechanical durability. Cat- ment, the system has potential for meeting
control, a trend driven in part by the alyst coating was supplied by BASF. The Tier 4 standards in new locomotives.
approaching US EPA Tier 4 (2015) locomo- technical challenges included high percentage One of the Progress Rail locomotives
tive emission standards, locomotive upgrade of idle in real operation and high SOF fraction with the DOC+SCR system was evaluated at
requirements under the voluntary agree- of the PM emissions, especially at lower the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI)
ments between railways and the California notches (98% SOF at idle, 72% at notch 1). [92014]. The evaluation involved a field trial
ARB and other local programs. Dual DOC technology was used: a front with data logging equipment installed and
Paul Park of Caterpillar [Paper No. DOC with high Pt on alumina, to provide laboratory emission testing at 0, 1,500 and
ICEF2012-92198] discussed SCR-based protection from HC and the NO2 function, 3,000 hours. Cycle composite HC, CO, and
aftertreatment system designed for repowered followed by a DOC with low Pt with Ce on NOx remained below Tier 4 limits, and PM
locomotives to meet California low NOx tar- alumina for SOF control. Vanadia-based remained at approximately half of Tier 3
gets. Five 2,240 kW (3,005 hp) PR30C line- technology was used for the SCR catalysts. continued on page seven

page six
2012 FALL TECHNICAL REPORT rail industry. Unless SCR is universally Locomotive upgrades are considered in
continued from page six adopted by all railways, the logistics of shar- many parts of the world. The Engine Devel-
ing locomotives would become much more opment Directorate of the Indian Ministry
limits. Emissions remained stable, with the complicated. For these reasons, EGR-based of Railways [92208] has been developing an
results from the 1,500-hour and 3,000-hour Tier 4 solutions are being developed in paral- electronic fuel injection system for upgrading
conditions similar to the 0-hour condition. lel to the SCR approach. EGR-based loco- 4-stroke, 16-cylinder ALCO locomotive
NOx reductions during the field operation motive engines would most likely require engines, originally equipped with a P-L-N
depended on the route and the percentage of particulate filters for PM control. injection system. Through the use of the
idle, light- and heavy load operation. On Union Pacific and Electro-Motive Diesel electronic fuel system, BSFC could be
average, NOx was reduced by 54% during (EMD) [92167] shared their experience reduced by 4% and smoke and PM at inter-
the field trial. In total, the five PR30C-LE from the development of experimental EGR mediate notches by as much as 70%.

locomotives equipped with the aftertreat- system on EMD SD59MX 2.238 MW
ment system completed a cumulative 30,800 freight locomotives. The project was started
hours of revenue service through June 2012 in 2008, with nine EGR locomotives and a Traditionally, the conference program
without report of a major issue. tenth locomotive equipped with EGR and a included a number of fine papers on com-
Development of a low emissions whole-engine DPF delivered from late 2011 bustion topics. ETH Zurich presented a fun-
upgrade kit for EMD GP20D and GP15D to mid 2012 and placed into service by damental study of the effect of post
switcher locomotives was discussed by Steve Union Pacific in California. To make space injections on diesel soot emissions using
Fritz of SwRI [92128]. The 1,491 kW EMD for the EGR package, the locomotives, origi- multi-color pyrometry [92075]. Among
GP20D locomotives are powered by Cat nally powered by 16-cylinder, Tier 0 engines, other things, they found that the time phas-
3516B engines and the 1,119 kW EMD were repowered with shorter, 12-cylinder ing of soot evolution has a significant impact
GP15D locomotives are powered by Cat Tier 2 engines. The EGR package, which on the optimal post injection dwell time.
3512B engines, both units certified to Tier 1 weighs over 1,800 kg, is supported by a steel Soot reduction potential with post injection
emission standards. The upgrade kit was structure bolted to the locomotive under- decreases rapidly when it is timed late in the
based on injection timing control, which was frame next to the diesel engine. The EGR soot oxidation phase. Soot oxidation can
effective for NOx, but increased PM emis- package includes a DOC+DPF system to only be improved by induced turbulence
sions. To control PM, a closed crankcase ensure the gas re-introduced to the engine from the post injection when it occurs near
ventilation (CCV) system and a DOC were cylinders is clean. The cooled EGR is intro- the in-cylinder soot peak.
added to the kit. To further reduce PM, the duced back to the intake by a dedicated root Clemson University and the University
DOC was replaced with a passive, catalyzed blower. The whole-engine aftertreatment of Michigan carried out cycle-to-cycle air
DPF in the final version of the upgrade kit package on the tenth locomotive, including a fuel ratio calculations during transient engine
that was certified to the EPA Tier 0+ emis- DOC and a DPF, is located in a rooftop tray operation using fast response CO and CO2
sion standards. above the engine. The DPF system has been analyzers [92094]. For the engine tested (SI
In another talk, SwRI presented some designed to include both a burner and an engine with low dilution), they found a max-
initial results on a DPF retrofit kit for a HC injection system for active regeneration. imum difference of approximately 10%
1500 kW multi-engine genset locomotive At a 10% EGR rate that was tested, the compared to more conventional methods.
[92130]. The locomotive used for the project technology achieved a 42% NOx reduction The difference was expected to be higher
was BNSF1284, a 1,566 kW National Rail- with minor fuel consumption penalty and a with more charge dilution.
way Equipment Company (NREC) model 25% PM emission reduction on the Tier 2 Advanced or low-temperature combus-
3GS21B, powered by three Cummins engines. tion papers could be broadly categorized as
QSK19 522 kW diesel-engine driven genera- Other Tier 4 oriented ideas presented by single and dual fuel approaches. In the single
tor sets. The DPF was a catalyzed wall-flow EMD included modified intake ports to fuel approaches that were discussed, Lund
filter supplied by GT Exhaust. It replaced improve scavenging [92046] and skewed University considered the possibility of using
the original muffler on each genset, with injection for high swirl [92120]. The CFD various multiple injection strategies to reduce
external modifications to the locomotive car investigation of the modified intake ports the dependence on negative valve overlap
body. With the DPF, PM emissions were at examined the possibility of achieving cooler, (NVO) for expanding the load range of their
0.016 g/kW-hr, or 60% below the Tier 4 Miller like combustion in a 2-stroke engine. partially premixed combustion (PPC). NVO
limit. The locomotive accumulated 800 With raised intake ports and delayed exhaust has a negative impact on gas exchange effi-
hours. The DPF performance will be tracked valve closing, the temperature could be ciency and limits the in-cylinder temperature
for 3,000 hours as required for California reduced by as much as 40°C. Future work increase at low load. While there were some
ARB verification. will additionally consider EGR. The skewed benefits of different injection strategies, hot
While urea-SCR technology would injection study included some preliminary residual gas from NVO significantly improved
likely provide the most fuel efficient locomo- results with injecting fuel at different angles, combustion efficiency and could not be sub-
tive solution, the introduction of SCR on along and against the swirl direction. While stituted by a multiple injection strategy.
locomotive engines would require an initial injecting against the swirl showed little bene- General Motors and Clemson University
investment by the railways to develop urea fit, injecting fuel with the swirl had potential presented a paper on the effect of combustion
infrastructure. Another problem is the shar- for BSFC and soot reduction, but careful chamber deposits (CCD) on low temperature
ing of locomotives between railways, which attention is needed to avoid wall impinge- combustion. Heat release timing and rate
is a common practice in the North American ment and spray interaction. continued on page eight

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2012 FALL TECHNICAL REPORT the US FTP by LTC and reduce the amount road engines were the focus of the study, but
continued from page seven of mode switching that would be required. a modified Euro V engine was used in the

Gaseous fuels
experiments. With the used test engine,
from HCCI type combustion approaches is NOx emissions could not be lowered below
very sensitive to combustion chamber surface There were a number of papers on natural 0.6 g/kWh over the NRTC test without a
temperature. As CCDs accumulate, heat gas and other gaseous fuels in the technical significant deterioration in load response.
release timing and burn rate changes can lead sessions. These included papers on ignition, Thus, EGR alone was not sufficient to meet
to non-optimum performance. In order to PM emissions and gas injection. Colorado the nonroad Stage IV limit of 0.4 g/kWh.
better quantify the effect of CCDs, a reason- State University reported some developments The high EGR rates required very high
able estimate of cycle resolved CCD surface on their multiplexed laser spark ignition sys- cooling power—approximately 43% of the
temperature and heat flux is required. While tem for gas engines [92007]. Poor focusing brake engine power, compared to about 22%
it is possible to measure temperature and heat of the laser spark through flexible fiber optics in typical Euro V applications.
flux at the CCD/metal interface, measure- that direct the laser beam from the laser Using their mobile chassis dynamometer
ments at the CCD outer surface are much source to the combustion chamber is a sig- facility, the West Virginia University evalu-
more difficult. This study presented a “lead- nificant challenge for this approach. CSU ated drayage truck test cycles [92106] that
corrector” approach that could estimate the reported a significant improvement in the were developed by TIAX and commissioned
CCD outer surface temperature based only ability to focus the laser by using optical by the Long Beach and Los Angeles port
on the measurements at the CCD/metal fibers with a thick cladding. The thick authorities. The tested vehicle was a 2011
interface and the thermal properties of the cladding seems to improve the quality of the Class 8 Mack truck with DOC, DPF and
CCDs. The approach was then used to contact between the core and cladding to SCR aftertreatment. Drayage cycles were run
demonstrate that CCDs can cause a four-fold minimize mode coupling and improve the using two approaches: (1) as a series of
increase in the amplitude of cyclic combus- ability to focus the beam in the combustion shorter tests (called drayage activities) and
tion chamber surface temperature swings chamber. Woodward reported further devel- (2) as a single continuous drayage operation
without a significant impact on cycle aver- opments on their passive pre-chamber plug cycle. Emissions calculated from integrated
aged wall temperature. These cyclic changes [92030]. The aim is to develop a passive drayage activities were significantly higher
had significant impacts on heat release timing prechamber plug that will be suitable for than those measured over single continuous
and burn rate. lambda above 1.8. The current iteration is an drayage operation, approximately 14% to
Papers on dual fuel LTC approaches improvement over that reported last year and 28% for distance-specific NOx emissions.
included two on Reactivity Controlled Com- about 1/2 of the penalty of going to these This was likely explained by differences in
pression Ignition (RCCI). In the first, the lean air-fuel ratios has been overcome. Patent the state of the SCR system (temperatures,
University of Wisconsin reported on direct application is ongoing and details of the plug adsorbed NH3). Relatively high NOx emis-
cylinder injection of the low reactivity fuel are still unavailable. sions were measured at some low- to
instead of port injection and the use of a Westport reported on the effect of a medium-load segments, probably due to urea
GDI injector for the diesel injection instead number of injection parameters on PM injection being shut off at the particular con-
of a diesel common rail injector [92107]. The emissions from an engine with their HPDI ditions due to insufficient temperatures.
ability to control the timing of the low reac- CANMET researchers tested retrofit
fuel system [92162]. Carbonaceous PM
tivity offered an additional option to control urea-SCR systems on underground mining
emissions are formed during the HPDI com-
the phasing of the combustion process while vehicles [92034]. The project was conducted
bustion that originate mainly from natural
the GDI injector for the diesel offered a at the Sifto salt mine in Goderich, Ontario.
gas (and not from the diesel pilot, as was
reduction in PM. Unburned HC and CO Salt mines often have problems with NO2
once suspected). Some reduction in PM
emission reduction should also be possible exposures due to the large volumes and slow
emissions, approximately 30%, was possible
but further optimization work is required. In ventilation rates in salt mining. In the case of
by reducing the separation between the
the second paper, Oak Ridge National Lab the Godrich mine, with production areas
diesel pilot and the natural gas injection
found improvements in maximum engine located underneath the bottom of Lake
events. This approach, referred to as Slightly
load as high as 20% with 20% ethanol added Huron, the problems are even more severe as
Premixed Combustion (SPC) was also suffi-
to the low reactivity fuel (gasoline) and 20% ventilation air must be pumped over long
ciently tolerant of dilution that EGR rates
biodiesel added to the high reactivity fuel distances under the lake. Two SCR systems
could be increased to offset the resulting
(diesel) [92192]. The increased octane of were installed: one on a Cat 990G loader
NOx penalty while maintaining the PM
ethanol along with increased charge cooling (SCR system by Tenneco) and one on a Cat
benefit. However, an increase in methane
could retard combustion phasing and allow 775D truck (Nett Technologies). Both sys-
emissions of about 15% was noted. Further
the cylinder pressure rise rate to be lowered tems provided similar NOx reduction effi-
PM reductions would be required before
without adversely affecting CO and HC ciencies: 60-65% over the vehicle duty cycle
emissions. Biodiesel blends advanced com- DPF removal could be considered technically
and a peak reduction of about 80%. The
bustion phasing without significantly increas- feasible.
Nett SCR package proved to be more robust
ing pressure rise rate to allow higher ratios of Other topics and had fewer technical issues—after the
ethanol blends to be run stably without trial, the mine ordered several Nett systems.
exceeding the pressure rise rate limit. The A team of researchers from AVL and partners
The SCR technology had good acceptance at
reported on an investigation of the limits for
resulting expanded load range could enable a the mine. ៉
wider coverage of emission test cycles such as NOx reduction using EGR [92199]. Non-

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