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ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res.

7(1), 1012-1018

Journal Homepage: -

Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/8416



Divyesh Shekhada1 and Jyoti H. Shekhada2.

1. Master’s degree candidate, School of natural and built environments, University of South Australia, Mawson
lakes, Australia.
2. Deputy director of agriculture (soil survey), Krushibhavan, Ch road, Sector-10 a, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
Manuscript Info Abstract
……………………. ………………………………………………………………
Manuscript History The Australian local koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is over populated
Received: 14 November 2018 on Kangaroo Island and is driving social, natural and monetary issues.
Final Accepted: 16 December 2018 The assessed koala populace on Kangaroo Island and Australia
Published: January 2019 landmass is roughly 25,146 and the mean thickness is 0.64 koalas per
ha (Natural Resources Kangaroos Island, 2017). Current administration
Key words:-
Conservation, Economy, Habitat, Koala, rehearses are endeavouring to reduce and control the impacts of koala
Natural Resources Management. overpopulation is having on the encompassing environment and
eucalypt species. The executives have cost over $8.6 million over the
most recent 21 years, in spite of the fact that Kangaroo Island's travel
industry has created $123 million every year (Natural Resources
Kangaroos Island, 2017; Australian Tourism Commission, 2017).
Along these lines, as present administration through translocation,
cleansing and living space the executives is demonstrating viable
(Natural Resources Kangaroos Island, 2017). In spite of the fact that,
meeting yearly cleansing targets and concentrating on environment the
executives will keep on comprehending the emergency.

Copy Right, IJAR, 2018,. All rights reserved.

Biodiversity is essential to people as it is considered by numerous individuals to have natural esteem. High species
assorted variety is critical as it guarantees the maintainability of biological systems. The board of koalas helps in
continuing biodiversity, as it ensures other local vegetation on Kangaroo Island (KI). Koala the board on KI intends
to authority over copious populaces that are wrecking living space causing social, monetary and natural issues. This
report traces the aggregate proposed answers for koala the executives.

Koalas once in the past happened all through the expansive band of eucalypt timberland and forest networks
reaching out from north eastern Queensland toward the south eastern corner of South Australia. After European
settlement, clearing of natural surroundings for horticulture in blend with chasing, illness, fire and dry season
brought about a serious populace decrease. By the late 1930's they were viewed as wiped out in South Australia and
serious decreases had happened in NSW, Victoria and Queensland. Be that as it may, in the late 1930's the hide
exchange stopped, and State governments were presenting defensive measures. Reintroduction programs, which
moved koalas from settlements built up on French Island and Phillip Island in Victoria, were utilized to restore
koalas in their previous range in Victoria and to a lesser degree in South Australia and the ACT. In South Australia
koala populaces were set up outside the characteristic range at four locales, including Kangaroo Island.
Corresponding Author:-Divyesh Shekhada.
Address:-Master’s degree candidate, School of natural and built environments, University Of South 1012
Australia, Mawson lakes, Australia.
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Today the territorial preservation status of the koala fluctuates from secure in a few zones to powerless or wiped out
in others. In Queensland, they happen all through the majority of their range and there are areas where the populace
is steady, in spite of the fact that the general koala populace is presumably declining because of kept clearing and
discontinuity of forest and backwoods. In NSW koalas have vanished from 50-75% of their range and they presently
happen for the most part on the north drift and are unprecedented, uncommon or terminated in different parts of the
State. There are moderately low populace densities in the ACT. Koalas in Victoria are broad over a significant part
of the southern and eastern marshes and populace densities are high in numerous regions. Densities are bringing
down in the dry timberlands and forests in northern parts of Victoria where the living space is of lower quality.
Anyway, a great part of the living space staying in the State is divided and numerous populaces are segregated. In
South Australia, as a result of presentations inside the normal range and to zones where they didn't happen normally,
the koala is currently found over a more prominent range than at the season of European settlement. Strategy has
been set up to manage the vital issues confronting koalas.

The koala is a national image of impressive social significance to all Australians and the network has a huge task to
carry out in the protection of koalas and their living space. There are some critical targets yet the activities
identifying with preservation of koalas in the wild are the most earnest. Every locale ought to survey the viability of
the activities recorded under every goal as indicated by their specific needs and circumstance. When creating the
executives gets ready for the koala, each range State ought to liaise intimately with the others to amplify
participation and maintain a strategic distance from duplication. To keep up and ration a scene that contains an
adequate measure of natural surroundings to continue a viable koala populace. There are noteworthy quantities of
koalas in bondage in Australia. To keep up and re-establish koala natural surroundings fixes, or groups of
profoundly associated patches, that are sufficiently substantial to support suitable koala populaces. Koalas are
vulnerable to disorder and damage brought about by mutts, streets and fires and thus many come into imprisonment
to be restored. To keep up and re-establish a scene that contains patches of koala living space with shapes that limit
edge impacts. To keep up the respectability and nature of koala environment patches and linkages. To limit the
effects of streets on koala populaces. The preservation of koalas is a perplexing undertaking requiring a coordinated
administration approach including contribution from the network and from all dimensions of government. Network
investment is especially vital in light of the fact that much koala living space happens on private land.

Biological facts of koala

The koala's epithet is a 'local bear' and the youthful koalas called a 'fledgling' and they are brought into the world
alive. They have warm-blooded body type. Koalas are a marsupial well evolved creature they drink drain from the
mother. The koala may look cuddly, however the koala has extremely sharp teeth and sharp paws. They are
extremely little in size when it's simply conceived. The grown-up koala for the most part develops somewhere in the
range of 25 and 30 inches in length. Following multi month, the whelp grows 1 cm long and its says something
between 15 to 30 pounds. They have white on the underside and dark on whatever remains of its body just as has
huge ears and a major nose and exceptionally thick hide. Koalas breed in the mid-year, while their mom has a
pocket to shield their youngster from catastrophes. The koala fledgling remains in the mother's pocket for 5 months.
The koala fledgling is visually impaired when it's conceived. The koala breaths oxygen from air and its live for at
least 20 years. Koalas rest for as long as 19 hours. They live and rest in the eucalyptus trees. It's hot, light and dry
here. Koalas live on the East shore of Australia (Mitchell et al., 2009).

A compelling system to preserve koala living space is fundamental to accommodate the long-haul survival of the
Koala populace. Such a system should include the incorporation of a scope of preservation measures including
administrative (authoritative) and motivating force-based methodologies, related to powerful network education.
The Habitat Conservation Chapter of the CKPoM (Comprehensive Koala Plan of Management) Resource Document
subtleties the scope of protection measures proposed for application in the landmass of Australia.

Development Assessment
As per McAlpine et al. (2006) found that, the improvement appraisal process alludes to the methodology by which
advancement and land use is surveyed and controlled. This strategy speaks to an imperative method by which
council can control improvement to guarantee the insurance and successful administration of Koala territory.
Appraisal rules have been built up to institutionalize the treatment of issues identifying with the administration of

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Koalas and Koala environment inside the advancement evaluation process. Keep up something like 40-half of the
scene as essential and optional koala environment over scene degrees 1-kilometer range around where koalas
happen. The security of essential and optional (class A) natural surroundings ought to be the best need. Essential and
optional koala natural surroundings patches ought to be bigger than 50-100 ha in size, except if they are a piece of a
group of very associated patches.
1. Distinguish and guide regions of essential and auxiliary living space of each class utilizing a straightforward
and repeatable methodology, ideally inside a GIS and at a fitting scale.
2. Map territories of koala living space utilizing a straightforward and repeatable methodology, ideally inside a
GIS and at a fitting scale.
3. Conserve and keep up the environmental trustworthiness of regions of essential and auxiliary natural
surroundings. Offer need to essential and auxiliary (class A) territory and living space of all classes that exists
in touching squares. Need ought to likewise be stood to zones that are known to contain existing koala
populaces. In any case, the clear nonattendance of koalas ought not block the insurance of such zones wherever
conceivable as koala populaces might be available irregularly after some time as they move centre through the
scene. These zones may likewise be a basic asset for the recuperation of nearby populaces.
4. Implement revegetation programs, particularly where the measure of essential and optional environment in the
scene is near, or beneath half, or is profoundly divided. Need ought to be given to revegetating regions
neighbouring bordering squares of existing territory. Revegetation ought to include planting of neighbourhood
eucalypt species and other nearby local species predictable with the previous woods types and the koala's
favoured tree species for the region.
5. Bunches of koala territory fixes that are exceptionally associated (i.e., isolated by under 100-200 m) ought to be
bigger than 100 ha in all out zone.

Habitat Restoration
Without watchful administration, the rest of the Koala territory territories can possibly turn out to be additionally
debased and divided to the impediment of Koalas and other local species. Existing area the board procedures and
practices once in a while relate explicitly to the rebuilding of Koala environment. Therefore, an administration
methodology is viewed as important to recognize key effects related with land corruption and to diagram chances to
streamline Koala territory quality. Besides, as the assets for rebuilding works are limited, it is basic that zones be
organized to guarantee the most extreme conceivable advantage of living space reclamation endeavours to Koala
protection (National Resource Management Ministerial Council Australia, 2009).
1. Conserve and maintain the ecological integrity of clusters of highly connected habitat patches. Prioritise the
protection of clusters that are larger than 100 ha and give lower priority to very small clusters, unless they
currently contain koalas.

2. Implement revegetation programs to enlarge the size and improve the connectivity of clusters of koala habitat
patches. Give priority to clusters that are smaller than 100 ha in total size, but lower priority to very small
clusters. Within these clusters, give priority to the revegetation of areas adjacent to and between large and
medium sized patches. Revegetation should involve planting eucalypt species and other native species
consistent with the pre-existing forest types for the area and the locally preferred tree species of koalas. As an
illustration in Table 1, the striped areas indicate possible priority areas (adjacent to the large patches) for
revegetation, as opposed to areas adjacent to small patches.

Habitat Area Description

class (ha)
High 750 River red gum (E. camaldulensis var.), South Australia blue gum (E. leucoxylon ssp.
Quality (21%) leucoxylon), rough-barked manna gum (E. viminalas ssp. cygnetensis) and swamp gum (E.
Class A ovata) are the dominant species.
Medium 12,909 Rough-baked manna gum, swamp gum, river red gum or South Australia blue gum present
Quality (23%) as secondary species.
Class B
Low 40,706 Brown stingybark (E. baxten) or messmate stingybark (E. obliqua) present.
Quality (75%)
Class C
Table 1:-Koala habitat classes (Molsher, 2017)

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Identification and Prioritization of Habitat to be Restored

An organized rundown of Koala living space territories for rebuilding, in contact with the UWSM (University of
Western Sydney Macarthur) and AKF (Australian Koala Foundation), utilizing criteria point by point in the Habitat
Restoration Chapter of the CKPoM Resource Document. The PC displayed guide of Habitat Linking Areas ought to
be utilized as a manual for recognizing need regions of for the most part cleared or debased terrains for potential
rebuilding. Koala territory patches ought to be more round than direct fit as a fiddle in order to limit edge impacts.
1. Development ought to maintain a strategic distance from formation of restricted straight strips, particularly for
little living space patches. This might be especially vital in choosing where living space ought to be held on an
improvement site. In any case, some territory patches, for example, riparian living space along water courses,
might be straight by definition and this must likewise be considered. Direct riparian environments frequently
give essential rummage trees to koalas just as channels for development.
2. Revegetation projects should plan to consider the state of the region being revegetated and abstain from building
tight direct fixes.

Nursery Stock
Nursery stock for rebuilding projects ought to be engendered from nearby provenance seed gathered from individual
trees that have been used by Koalas. Spread material to be gathered from a scope of very much divided parent trees
to abstain from inbreeding and guarantee potential for proliferation (Greening Australia 1999). Seedlings created in
nurseries ought to be marked with species name and gathering areas. Inside koala natural surroundings patches, or
hallways, keep up adequate extents of develop favoured koala sustenance tree species (i.e., more noteworthy than
30%) (National Resource Management Ministerial Council Australia, 2009).
1. Keep up koala living space patches, and linkages, in as characteristic a state as could be expected under the
2. Maintain a strategic distance from the expulsion of favoured koala sustenance tree species and different trees
known to be utilized by koalas. This is especially imperative for patches with low extents of koala nourishment
3. Consider planting extra favoured sustenance trees where they are in low extents inside natural surroundings
patches or linkages.

Traffic Management
Traffic speed is viewed as liable to impact the opportunity of Koalas being hit while endeavouring to cross a street.
Such factors include: highlights of the roadside condition; the width of the cleared zone between the street edge and
nearby trees; the width of rock bears; the nearness of roadside depletes; the tallness of roadside vegetation; the level
of living space unsettling influence in neighbouring zones; and the idea of any roadside lighting. These components
may influence driver capacity to see a Koala before it endeavours to cross onto the roadway, and to therefore
maintain a strategic distance from a crash. The criticalness of the effect of street fatalities is probably going to be
more prominent than recommended by the information because of the low thickness and evaluated little size of the
staying neighbourhood Koala populace.
1. Try not to build new streets or extend existing streets inside and between koala living space patches.
2. Try not to develop new streets, or increment the traffic volume on existing streets, inside koala territory patches,
particularly if these natural surroundings contain high extents of essential and optional living space.
3. Try not to build new streets, or increment the traffic volume on existing streets, in territories that abut koala
living space patches, particularly if these patches contain high extents of essential also, auxiliary natural
4. Stay away from the development of new streets or increments in rush hour gridlock volume on existing streets,
between substantial (> 50 ha) squares of living space that are inside 3-4 km of one another. Whenever required,
suit expanded traffic volumes by updating existing streets, or rerouting traffic on existing streets from koala
living space, instead of by building new streets inside or close to patches of koala natural surroundings.

Field Surveys
In the first place, field review destinations ought to be arbitrarily stratified to test the scope of soil and vegetation
floristic factors inside each LGA minus all potential limitations degree conceivable as per vegetation networks and
soil scenes or geography. Directed or versatile methodologies might be required so as to produce measurably
substantial datasets for specific tree species as the testing advances.

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Moreover, Pellet ventures ought to be embraced inside pre-chosen plot review destinations via hunting down pellets
inside 1 meter of base of each tree, with 30 trees studied per site. Destinations influenced by ongoing bushfire ought
not be reviewed. Plot locales are 20 m in sweep and are situated in the field utilizing handheld GPS units and
topographic maps. Every single live tree (except for tree plants, palms and cycads) with a DBH (Diameter at Breast
Height) of no less than 100 mm inside each plot site are hailed and deliberately looked for proof of koala faecal
pellets. The pursuit region incorporates a 1-meter catchment around the base of each tree, looked for two-man
minutes, or until a koala pellet is found. A "nearness" is recorded for each tree where at least one koala pellets are
found. Notwithstanding tree species, DBH and nearness/nonattendance of pellets, finished information sheets for
each plot site additionally incorporate vegetation portrayals and any proof of unsettling influence, and any koalas
saw in the site.

Identifying Preferred Koala Food Tree Species

Second, tree species are gathered into essential, optional and beneficial inclination classes as indicated by the
dimension of usage. An essential koala nourishment tree is a Eucalyptus animal types with an altogether higher
extent of trees having at least one koala faecal pellets (a marker of utilization), contrasted with other tree species.
Likewise, an optional sustenance tree is a Eucalyptus animal groups that enlists an altogether higher extent of trees
with pellets contrasted with that watched for outstanding species (barring the essential class). A third classification,
advantageous nourishment tree species, records an altogether lower extent of trees with pellets than for optional
species, however more prominent than for other tree species, which for the most part need proof of utilization by
koalas. It is recognized that non-Eucalyptus species frequently give beneficial sustenance assets, just as sanctuary
for koalas. Essential tree species normally show thickness freedom (for example the strike rate of pellets does not
fluctuate altogether because of various densities of that species recorded inside plot locales). On the other hand, the
strike rate for optional tree species will in general decay with expanding thickness of that species, recommending a
thickness subordinate relationship.

Vegetation Mapping
The third step includes "scaling up" the koala nourishment tree inclinations from the site scale to LGA or study zone
scale. This progression requires an exact vegetation guide of the LGA demonstrating vegetation networks/provincial
biological systems and the predominant species in each guide polygon. Vegetation mapping at 1:25,000 scale is
viewed as the base standard valuable for induction of the Koala Habitat Atlas, in spite of the fact that in regions with
more prominent vegetation homogeneity 1:50,000 scale might be satisfactory. Floristic depictions of vegetation
networks ought to incorporate, at least, predominant and sub-prevailing species, and different species found in the
network. On the off chance that vegetation mapping is appointed explicitly for a Koala Habitat Atlas, the real rates
of every specie in every vegetation network will extraordinarily help the grouping of every network into a koala
natural surroundings classification. A case of reasonable vegetation mapping is Victoria's State Forest Resource
Inventory mapping program which empowers inexact species rates to be gotten from the polygon code. Territorial
biological community mapping by the Queensland Herbarium gives comparable data.

The Minimum Mapping Unit (MMU), or polygon measure, is an essential thought in vegetation mapping. Essential
koala nourishment trees frequently happen in very little fixes or thin strips, for instance higher-richness soils
connecting wetlands and waterways. It is attractive to isolate these little fixes from encompassing vegetation
networks. Australian Koala Foundation vegetation mapping utilizes a MMU of 0.2 ha for patches containing
essential nourishment trees. Remainder essential and auxiliary nourishment trees in farmland are mapped when the
complete groundcover surpasses 10%. Ongoing knowledge demonstrates that a "fast appraisal" way to deal with
accumulation of field locales for vegetation mapping yields the best mapping outcome. A 20-meter span site is
chosen, and stem checks of trees with DBH more than 100 mm are recorded. The stem-tally strategy accordingly
coordinates the information gathered for spot faecal pellet appraisals and is considerably faster than evaluating
foliage projective cover. A more noteworthy number of field destinations would then be able to be gathered inside
budgetary or time limitations.

Preparation of a Koala Habitat Atlas Map

A Koala Habitat Atlas is inferred by right off the bat allotting living space classes to every vegetation network or
biological system as per the relative plenitude of the recognized favoured koala sustenance tree species. The allotted
territory class for a given vegetation network might be along these lines overhauled or downsized by GIS displaying
results for distinguished key factors, for example, soil types or nearness to conduits. The last natural surroundings
classification or class is then added to the vegetation delineate table permitting helpful introduction of the vegetation

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outline a Koala Habitat Atlas and giving a way to compute absolute territories for every territory class and infer
scene measurements, for example, living space region availability and discontinuity utilizing the proper

Living space Buffers and Linking Areas

Living space supports can add to the long-haul survival of koalas in fantastic essential and auxiliary (class A) koala
environment by guaranteeing that contradictory uses, improvements or exercises don't happen on promptly
contiguous terrains. Territory cradles incorporate grounds that might be a wellspring of dangers that should be
overseen through compelling arranging and structure systems, to limit or dispose of effects on koalas (Kozlowski
and Peterson 2005). By empowering land uses and exercises that are perfect with koala preservation, arrive in the
support shouldn't be fenced off and completely secured, but instead cradle zones may incorporate a scope of land
utilizes as long as they don't compromise koalas. Cushions can likewise help shield remainders from supplement
impacts, wind harm and weed intrusion. Living space cushions additionally accommodate the feasible expansion of
huge koala movement past regions of favoured koala living space and can incorporate local vegetation (timberlands,
forests, wetlands and heathlands) and cleared land. Living space cushions that stretch out over essentially cleared
land containing just dissipated trees can encourage koala action inside favoured koala territory regions and safe
koala development between bordering living spaces. Such regions ought to be viewed as a need for territory
rebuilding ventures where attainable. Natural surroundings support warrant insurance and the board through
execution principles proportional to those prescribed for auxiliary (class B) and optional (class C) koala living space.

Territory connecting zones may give chances to the effective development of koalas (e.g., dispersal and enrolment
of sub-grown-ups) between rearing populaces or into territories of empty favoured koala living space. Natural
surroundings connecting regions may likewise be utilized as a major aspect of set up koala home reaches, contingent
on elements, for example, the vegetation affiliations as well as types of dispersed trees they contain and their area in
respect to other environment territories. Advancement inside territory connecting zones should plan to hold any
favoured koala sustenance trees (essential and auxiliary nourishment trees) that might be available and not trade off
the protected utilization of such territories by koalas. Such regions ought to likewise be viewed as a need for living
space reclamation ventures. Living space connecting territories over existing local vegetation additionally warrant
assurance and the executives through execution models identical to those suggested for optional (class B) and
auxiliary (class C) koala environment.

Implementation, Monitoring and Review

Usage of this methodology will have monetary expenses and advantages for governments, industry, business and the
1. Increased costs coming about because of improved measures to meet the goals of this procedure.
2. Lower costs after some time on the grounds that the future expenses of koala protection will be considerably
diminished by auspicious interest in preservation measures.
3. Benefits from the protection of our normal and social legacy, supportable land utilize rehearses and upgraded
open doors for ecotourism. While there are as of now assets coordinated to koala issues extra assets might be
required to execute this procedure.

In actualizing the technique, there will be a need to guarantee that consideration is given to the best utilization of
assets. A progressing job of the Network amid the life of the Strategy will be to screen its usage with specific
reference to trade of data on activities over all locales. It is essential that this Strategy is checked on in light of
involvement with its usage and creating information. A survey including open discussion will be fitting after the
Strategy has been executed for a time of five years.

Economical Impact
Kangaroo Island is an ideal goal by intrastate, interstate and worldwide sightseers, who contribute over $123 million
toward the South Australian economy. Table 2 (South Australian Tourism Commission 2017). In any case, koalas
contribute over $3.2 billion to the Australian economy simply through the travel industry (Australian Koala
Foundation 2018). The board of koalas must be deliberately wanted to limit harm and advance the monetary
commitment to the travel industry (Stratford et al. 2000). The koalas' monetary significance is additionally helped by
all-inclusive koala toys, garments and frill which are altogether purchased and perceived by visitors (Stratford et al.

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Intrastate Interstate Total domestic International Total visits

Overnight visits 70,000 36,000 106,000 43,000 148,000
Percentage (%) 66% 34% 72% 28% 100%
Domestic day trips 38,000
International day trips 40,000
Table 2:-Annual visitor summary from December 2015 to December 2017 (South Australian Tourism Commission

Despite the fact that, koalas produce extraordinary financial income they have likewise cost $8.6 million throughout
the previous 21 years to oversee just on KI (Natural Resources Kangaroos Island 2017). It is urgent the
administration gets enough subsidizing to see sufficient outcomes. KIPT is resolved to reap in 2 years and is relied
upon to create $60 million every year (Kangaroos Island Plantation Timbers 2018). This will be an immediate
contribution to the South Australian Economy, despite the fact that gathering can't happen as of koala populaces
living all through the estate. Overseeing Director of KIPT John Sergeant expects to work and gather in a way that
limits the effect on koalas, however in the event that a satisfactory administration plan isn't upheld when collect
comes the expense of $8.6 million towards the executives won't way out the age of $60 million.

Clearly, the administration of koala populaces on the island is a proceeding with issue that requires sufficient
administration. The translocation, cleansing and environment the executives of koalas on KI and Australia mainland
endeavours to deal with the overabundant populaces and ensure helpless zones. The proposals will upgrade the
present administration by adjusting to continuous harm from species overpopulation. Proceeding with investigation
into koala populaces and conveyance will additionally build the adequacy of the executives.

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City Council Draft Comprehensive Koala Plan of Management. Campbelltown City Council.
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coastal archaeology’, The Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, vol. 10, issue. 1, pp.3–27.
4. Kangaroos Island Plantation Timbers, 2018, ‘About KIPT Ltd’,
5. McAlpine, C., Rhodes, J., Peterson, A., Possingham, H., Callaghan, J., Curran, T., Mitchell, D. and Lunney, D.,
2006. Planning guidelines for koala conservation and recovery: A guide to best planning practice.
6. Mitchell, C M, Mathews, S A, Theodoropoulos, C & Timms, P, 2009, In vitro characterisation of koala
Chlamydia pneumoniae: morphology, inclusion development and doubling time, Veterinary microbiology, vol.
136 issue1-2, pp.91-99.
7. Molsher, R, 2017, ‘Kangaroo Island Koala Management Project Annual Report 2016-17’. Natural Resources
Kangaroo Island, SA.
8. Natural Resources Kangaroos Island, 2017, ‘Kangaroo Island Koala Management Project Frequently asked
questions’, Natural Resources Kangaroo Island, Government of South Australia.
9. National Resource Management Ministerial Council (Australia), 2009. National Koala Conservation and
Management Strategy 2009-2014. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts.
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11. Stratford, E, Mazur, N, Lunney, D & Bennett, D, 2000, 'Managing the Koala Problem: Interdisciplinary
Perspectives', Conservation Biology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 610–618.
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