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PURE MATHEMATICS Unit 2

FOR CAPE® EXAMINATIONS

DIPCHAND BAHALL

CAPE® is a registered trade mark of the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC). Pure
Mathematics for CAPE® Examinations Unit 2 is an independent publication and has
not been authorised, sponsored, or otherwise approved by CXC.
Macmillan Education
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ISBN: 978-0-230-46574-9 AER

Text © Dipchand Bahall 2013


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First published in 2013

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Contents

INTRODUCTION ix
MODULE 1 COMPLEX NUMBERS AND CALCULUS II
CHAPTER 1 COMPLEX NUMBERS 2
Complex numbers as an extension to the real numbers 3
Powers of i 4
Algebra of complex numbers 5
Addition of complex numbers 5
Subtraction of complex numbers 5
Multiplication of a complex number by a real number 5
Multiplication of complex numbers 5
Equality of complex numbers 6
Conjugate of a complex number 7
Division of complex numbers 8
Square root of a complex number 9
Roots of a polynomial 11
Quadratic equations 11
Other polynomials 13
The Argand diagram 15
Addition and subtraction on the Argand diagram 15
Multiplication by i 16
Modulus (length) of a complex number 16
Argument of a complex number 17
Trigonometric or polar form of a complex number 19
Exponential form of a complex number 21
De Moivre’s theorem 22
Locus of a complex number 27
Circles 27
Perpendicular bisector of a line segment 28
Half-line 29
Straight line 30
Inequalities 31
Intersecting loci 33
Cartesian form of loci 35
CHAPTER 2 DIFFERENTIATION 41
Standard differentials 42
Differentiation of ln x 42
x 43
Differentiation of e
iii
Chain rule (function of a function rule) 43
Differentiating exponential functions of the form y = ax 46
Differentiating logarithms of the form y = loga x 47
Differentiation of combinations of functions 50
Differentiation of combinations involving
trigonometric functions 51
Tangents and normals 54
Gradients of tangents and normals 54
Equations of tangents and normals 56
Implicit differentiation 58
Differentiation of inverse trigonometric functions 62
Differentiation of y = sin−1x 62
Differentiation of y = tan−1x 63
Second derivatives 65
Parametric differentiation 67
First derivative of parametric equations 67
Second derivative of parametric equations 70
Partial derivatives 72
First order partial derivatives 72
Second order partial derivatives 73
Applications of partial derivatives 74
CHAPTER 3 PARTIAL FRACTIONS 84
Rational fractions 85
Proper fractions: Unrepeated linear factors 85
Proper fractions: Repeated linear factors 88
Proper fractions: Unrepeated quadratic factors 91
Proper fractions: Repeated quadratic factors 93
Improper fractions 94
CHAPTER 4 INTEGRATION 99
Integration by recognition 100
When the numerator is the differential of the denominator 104


The form f ′(x)[ f(x)]n dx, n ≠ −1 105

The form ∫f ′(x)ef(x)dx 106


Integration by substitution 108
Integration by parts 112
Integration using partial fractions 116
Integration of trigonometric functions 121
Integrating sin2 x and cos2 x 123
Integrating sin3 x and cos3 x 123
Integrating powers of tan x 125
iv
Integrating products of sines and cosines 125
Finding integrals using the standard forms

∫________
1
_______
√a − x
2 2
x
dx = sin−1 ( __
a) + c

∫ 1
1 dx = __
and ______
a2 + x2
x
−1 __
a tan ( a ) + c 126

CHAPTER 5 REDUCTION FORMULAE 136



Reduction formula for sinn x dx 137

Reduction formula for ∫cosn x dx 138

Reduction formula for ∫tann x dx 139

Other reduction formulae 139


CHAPTER 6 TRAPEZOIDAL RULE (TRAPEZIUM RULE) 145
The area under a curve 146
MODULE 1 TESTS 153

MODULE 2 SEQUENCES, SERIES AND APPROXIMATIONS


CHAPTER 7 SEQUENCES 156
Types of sequence 157
Convergent sequences 157
Divergent sequences 157
Oscillating sequences 157
Periodic sequences 158
Alternating sequences 158
The terms of a sequence 158
Finding the general term of a sequence by identifying
a pattern 160
A sequence defined as a recurrence relation 161
Convergence of a sequence 162
CHAPTER 8 SERIES 167
Writing a series in sigma notation (Σ) 168
Sum of a series 169
Sum of a series in terms of n 172
Method of differences 176
Convergence of a series 180
Tests for convergence of a series 181
CHAPTER 9 PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION (PMI):
SEQUENCES AND SERIES 185
PMI and sequences 186
PMI and series 190
v
CHAPTER 10 BINOMIAL THEOREM 196
Pascal’s triangle 197
Factorial notation 197
Combinations 199
General formula for nCr 199
Binomial theorem for any positive integer n 200
The term independent of x in an expansion 203
Extension of the binomial expansion 205
Approximations and the binomial expansion 208
Partial fractions and the binomial expansion 209
CHAPTER 11 ARITHMETIC AND GEOMETRIC PROGRESSIONS 215
Arithmetic progressions 216
Sum of the first n terms of an AP 218
Proving that a sequence is an AP 220
Geometric progressions 224
Sum of the first n terms of a GP (Sn) 227
Sum to infinity 229
Proving that a sequence is a GP 230
Convergence of a geometric series 231
CHAPTER 12 NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES 240
The intermediate value theorem (IMVT) 241
Finding the roots of an equation 241
Graphical solution of equations 242
Interval bisection 242
Linear interpolation 243
Newton–Raphson method for finding the roots of an
equation 247
CHAPTER 13 POWER SERIES 255
Power series and functions 256
Taylor expansion 256
The Maclaurin expansion 259
Maclaurin expansions of some common functions 265
MODULE 2 TESTS 267

MODULE 3 COUNTING, MATRICES AND


DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
CHAPTER 14 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 270
The counting principles 271
Multiplication rule 271
Addition rule 271
vi
Permutations 272
Permutations of n distinct objects 272
Permutation of r out of n distinct objects 274
Permutations with repeated objects 275
Permutations with restrictions 277
Permutations with restrictions and repetition 281
Combinations 285
Combinations with repetition 287
CHAPTER 15 PROBABILITY 294
Sample space and sample points 295
Events: mutually exclusive; equally likely 296
Probability 296
Rules of probability 298
Conditional probability 299
Tree diagrams 302
Probability and permutations 307
Probability and combinations 311
CHAPTER 16 MATRICES 321
Matrices: elements and order 322
Square matrices 322
Equal matrices 323
Zero matrix 323
Addition and subtraction of matrices 323
Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar 324
Properties of matrix addition 324
Matrix multiplication 325
Properties of matrix multiplication 328
Identity matrix 328
Multiplication of square matrices 329
Transpose of a matrix 330
Properties of the transpose of a matrix 330
Determinant of a square matrix 331
Determinant of a 2 × 2 matrix 331
Determinant of a 3 × 3 matrix 331
Properties of determinants 332
Singular and non-singular matrices 334
Solving equations using determinants (Cramer’s rule) 335
Using Cramer’s rule to solve three equations in three
unknowns 337
Inverse of a matrix 339
Inverse of a 2 × 2 matrix 339
vii
Cofactors of a 3 × 3 matrix 339
Inverse of a 3 × 3 matrix 341
Properties of inverses 343
Systems of linear equations 343
Row reduction to echelon form 346
Finding the inverse of a matrix by row reduction 348
Solving simultaneous equations using row reduction 352
Systems of linear equations with two unknowns 355
Intersecting lines 355
Parallel lines 356
Lines that coincide 357
Systems of linear equations with three unknowns 358
Unique solution 358
No solutions 361
Infinite set of solutions 362
Solution of linear equations in three unknowns: geometrical
interpretation 365
Applications of matrices 367
CHAPTER 17 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 380
First order linear differential equations 381
Practical applications 385
Second order differential equations 388
When the roots of the AQE are real and equal 388
When the roots of the AQE are real and distinct 389
When the roots of the AQE are complex 390
Non-homogeneous second order differential equations 392
When f(x) is a polynomial of degree n 393
When f(x) is a trigonometric function 398
When f(x) is an exponential function 403
Equations reducible to a recognisable form 405
Mathematical modelling 417
MODULE 3 TESTS 421
UNIT 2—MULTIPLE CHOICE TESTS 424
INDEX 441

Answers are available online at


www.macmillan-caribbean.com/resources

viii
Introduction

These two volumes provide students with an understanding of pure mathematics


at the CAPE level taken from both a theoretical and an application aspect and
encourage the learning of mathematics. They provide the medium through
which a student can find problems applied to different disciplines. The concepts
are developed step by step; they start from the basics (for those who did not do
additional mathematics) and move to the more advanced content areas, thereby
satisfying the needs of the syllabus. Examination questions all seem to have answers
that are considered ‘nice’ whole numbers or small fractions that are easy to work
with; not all real-world problems have such answers and these books have avoided
that to some extent. Expect any kind of numbers for your answers; there are no
strange or weird numbers.
The objectives are outlined at the beginning of each chapter, followed by the
keywords and terms that a student should be familiar with for a better understanding
of the subject. Every student should have a section of their work book for the
language of the subject. I have met many students who do not understand terms such
as ‘root’ and ‘factor’. A dictionary developed in class from topic to topic may assist the
students in understanding the terms involved. Each objective is fulfilled throughout
the chapters with examples clearly explained. Mathematical modelling is a concept
that is developed throughout, with each chapter containing the relevant modelling
questions.
The exercises at the end of each section are graded in difficulty and have adequate
problems so that a student can move on once they feel comfortable with the concepts.
Additionally, review exercises give the student a feel for solving problems that are
varied in content. There are three multiple choice papers at the end of each Unit,
and at the end of each module there are tests based on that module. For additional
practice the student can go to the relevant past papers and solve the problems given.
After going through the questions in each chapter, a student should be able to do past
paper questions from different examining boards for further practice.
A checklist at the end of each chapter enables the student to note easily what is
understood and to what extent. A student can identify areas that need work with
proper use of this checklist. Furthermore, each chapter is summarised as far as
possible as a diagram. Students can use this to revise the content that was covered in
the chapter.
The text provides all the material that is needed for the CAPE syllabus so that
teachers will not have to search for additional material. Both new and experienced
teachers will benefit from the text since it goes through the syllabus chapter by
chapter and objective to objective. All objectives in the syllabus are dealt with
in detail and both students and teachers can work through the text comfortably
knowing that the content of the syllabus will be covered.

ix