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Primary data
The first step in any enquiry (investigation) is collection of data. The data may be collected for
the whole population or for a sample only. It is mostly collected on sample basis. Collection of data is
very difficult job. The enumerator or investigator is the well trained person who collects the statistical
data. The respondents (information) are the persons whom the information is collected.
There are two types (sources) for the collection of data. (1) Primary Data (2) Secondary Data
The primary data are the first hand information collected, compiled and published by organization
for some purpose. They are most original data in character and have not undergone any sort of statistical
Primary data can be defined as data which are collected a fresh and for the first true. It is original
in character.
Methods of collections
1.Observation method
2.Interview method
3.Through Questionnaire
4.Through Schedule
5.Other methods
a.Warranty Cards
b.Distribute audits
c.Pantry audits
d.Consumer panels
e.Using mechanical devices
f.Through projective techniques
g.Depth Interviews
h.Content Analysis

Differences Between Qualitative and

Qualitative Methods
Methods include focus groups, in-depth interviews, and reviews of documents for types of themes
Primarily inductive process used to formulate theory or hypotheses
More subjective: describes a problem or condition from the point of view of those experiencing it
More in-depth information on a few cases
Unstructured or semi-structured response options
No statistical tests
Can be valid and reliable: largely depends on skill and rigor of the researcher
Time expenditure lighter on the planning end and heavier during the analysis phase
Less generalizable
Quantitative Methods
Surveys, structured interviews & observations, and reviews of records or documents for numeric
Primarily deductive process used to test pre-specified concepts, constructs, and hypotheses that
make up a theory
More objective: provides observed effects (interpreted by researchers) of a program on a problem
or condition
Less in-depth but more breadth of information across a large number of cases
Fixed response options
Statistical tests are used for analysis
Can be valid and reliable: largely depends on the measurement device or instrument used
Time expenditure heavier on the planning phase and lighter on the analysis phase
More generalizable
Primary Sources
A primary source provides direct or firsthand evidence about an event, object, person, or work of
art. Primary sources include historical and legal documents, eyewitness accounts, results of experiments,
statistical data, pieces of creative writing, audio and video recordings, speeches, and art objects.
Interviews, surveys, fieldwork, and Internet communications via email, blogs, listservs, and newsgroups
are also primary sources. In the natural and social sciences, primary sources are often empirical studies-
research where an experiment was performed or a direct observation was made. The results of empirical
studies are typically found in scholarly articles or papers delivered at conferences.
Characteristics of Primary Sources
Primary sources can either be first-hand observation/analysis, or accounts contemporary with the
events described.
Primary sources document events, people, viewpoints of the time.
When research is more era, rather than event driven, scope of possible primary sources broadens
Primary sources represent one person's perspective; frequently will be used with
secondary/tertiary sources to broaden the lens through which a researcher is looking at an event, era, or
It is important when using anything as a primary source that the researcher be cognizant of and
sensitive to the bias of the observer/analyzer that created the primary source, and also to the broader
cultural biases of the era in which the primary source was created.
The researcher's perspective, or the arguments or points for which a researcher plans to use a
primary source as evidence, is significant in determining what sources will be primary.
Reproductions of primary sources remain primary for many research purposes.
Some attributes are based more on the perspective represented in the source and context in which
the source is being used by researcher.