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TABLE OF CONTENTS

S. no. CONTENTS Pg. no.

` INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

RESEAARCH METHODOLOGY

REASON FOR SELECTING THE TOPIC

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

IMPORTANT RULER OF KHILJI DYNASTY


(1) JALAL UD-DIN KHILJI
(2) ALA UD-DIN KHILJI
(3) QUTUB UD-DIN MUBARAK SHAH
DOMESTIC POLICY

FOREIGN POLICY

CONDITION OF SOCIETY UNDER KHILJI DYNASTY

CONCLUSION
BIBILOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION:
Khilji dynasty is the second dynasty who ruled over India. Khilji dynasty ruled over Delhi and
North part of India more than 25 years. Khilji dynasty ruled over large part of South Asia 1290 to
1320. First dynasty was Slave dynasty who ruled over India. After the slave dynasty Khilji dynasty
came in the power. The dynasty is known for their faithlessness and ferocity. Delhi was the capital
in the Khilji dynasty. The Ghazani's and Ghori's invasions, and Mongol pressure from Central Asia
had pushed them into India.

Jalal-ud-din Khilji overthrew Balban’s successors and founded the Khilji Dynasty.Khiliji dynasty
was founded by Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji. He was ruler of Delhi sultanate from 1290 to 1296.Other
important ruler of Khilji dynasty were Alauddin Khilji and Qutub ad-Din Mubarak Khilji.
Alauddin Khilji was the second ruler of Khilji dynasty. He was the main ruler of this dynasty.
Alauddin 0Khilji ruled from 1296 to 1316. The last ruler of Khilji dynasty was Qutub ad-Din
Mubarak Khilji who ruled from 1316 to 1320. The Ruler of Khilji dynasty was the only medieval
ruler to captured South India. The Khilji rulers was got the credit of expelling of Mongol from
India. Khilji dynasty. During the Khilji dynasty, Mongol invade from central India to Delhi many
times. During the Khilji dynasty, some of Mongol people settled near Delhi and accepted Islam.
This people known as ‘New Muslim’ in India. During the Khilji dynasty, Khilji ruler’s introduced
an effective market regulation in India.

Rulers of this dynasty was fond in architecture. He made many monuments in India. During this
time in sultanate capital Delhi half of the population were slave and working as servants. Khilji
dynasty ruler’s introduced a healthy and systematic administrative policy in the Delhi Sultanate
rule. The court languages of the Khilji’s were Persian, followed by Arabic. The condition of
women was not good in that time. The position of women in the Indian society had been gradually
deteriorating during the Khilji times. Religion like Jainism and Buddhism continue decline during
the Khilji dynasty and other dynasty1.

OBJECTIVE OF STUDY:

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In this topic researcher would understand the dynasty who ruled over India and arts and
architecture of any particular dynasty.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

This research is based on doctrinal research. Researcher would be doing research from data
collected from secondary sources which will include materials available on the internet and books,
available in the library. The research will be deductive in nature and the footnoting style will be as
per the established standard of the University.

REASON FOR SELECTING THI TOPIC:

The reason behind selecting this topic is that to know about a particular dynasty and its
achievements. This topic is clearly based on History.

SCOPE OF THE TOPIC:

This topic tends to study of various achievement of Ruler of Khilji dynasty and his policy.

LITERATURE REVIEW:

A.L. Srivastava, “The Sultanate of Delhi” in this book the author stated that the condition of the
Khilji dynasty and how the ruler of Khilji dynasty implemented his policy. Jalal ud din Firoz khilji
was the founder of Khiliji dynasty. They introduced an effective market regulation in India. Ala
ud din khilji comes with economic and military reform in his ruling period. There was a
discrimination against society.
ORIGIN OF KHILJI DYNASTY:

Khilji was not an “Afghan” were actually a “truks”. His ancestors, after having migrated from
Turkistan, had lived for over 200 years in the Helmand valley and Lamghan, parts of Afghanistan
called Garmasir or the hot region, they lived for a longer period in Afghanistan. They adopted
Afghani culture and customs. There for their coming to the thrown of Delhi is called "Khilji"
revulsions. Khilji lived in Afghanistan for a long time and they created a confusion between people
about his origin.

The term ‘Khilji’ meaning in Turkish language is ‘Swordsman’. The name ‘Khilji refers to an
afghan village or town known as Qalat-e-Khilji. This town or village was also known as ‘Fort of
Khilji. Sometimes they treated by other as ethnic of afghan due to adopted afghan custom and
manner. Firoz’s family had migrated to India and taken up the service under the ‘Turkish sultan of
India’.

RULERS OF KHILJI DYNASTY:


There were three important ruler of this dynasty who ruled over Delhi. They were-

(1) Jalal ud-din Firoz Khilji

(2) Alauddin Khilji

(3) Qutub ad-Din Mubarak Khilji

1. JALAL UD-DIN FIROZ KHILJI:

Jalal ud-din Khilji was the first Turkish ruler of Delhi Sultanate. The real name of Jalal ud-din
Khilji was Firoz khan. He was an able governor and soldier. Jalal ud-din was a man of principle
because he refused to sit on the throne of Balban, the ruler of Slave dynasty because before he was
stood in front of throne as a servant and he made a new throne for him. He had no desire to expand
his kingdom so he did not took more expedition toward Hindu rulers. He allowed important
Turkish officer who were in the court of Balban’s dynasty in his position, he did not replace this
officer. Jalal ud-din was a heartily person

Early Career:
Jalal ud-din Firoz Khilji was the founder of Khilji Dynasty. He was known as Firoz Khilji. He
taken up the service under ‘Turkish sultan of Delhi’. He hold a good position in service. His
position under Delhi sultanate was ‘sar-i-jandar’ that is head of royal bodyguard and was
subsequently, appointed as ‘Governor of Samana’. He was a very able soldier and as a governor
of frontier province of Samana, had fought a number of engagements against the Mongol invaders
and repelled them. He got the title of ‘Shaista khan’ for his ability. He had acquired reputation as
a successful soldier and administration. After the death of Malik Tuzaki, he was promoted to the
high office of army minister by Kaiqubad. Being a minister at the court of Delhi, Firoz was also
the head of the large Khilji clan whose members were scattered all over Hindustan2. At the time
of his promotion to ministerships, he was probably the most experienced and powerful Turkish
nobleman in Delhi3.

His Accession:

He was little sympathy between the new army minister Malik Firoz and orthodox party at the court
headed by Malik Aitemar (Kachhan) and Malik Surkha, who held the important posts of Amir-i-
hajib and barbak and wielded supreme power at Delhi.

Kachhan was put to death, his partisans were terrorised and Malik Firoz set himself up as a regent
of the infant king, Kumars. The next step was to put both Kaiqubad and Kumars to death and seize
power. Firoz ascended the Throne at kilo Khari, the palace build by Kaiqubad, in March 1920 and
assumed the title of ‘Sultan Jalal-ud-din Firoz’.

His Unpopularity:

When he was made king his age was 70 years. Jalal ud-din Khilji was unpopular among the nobles
and the people of Delhi. The main cause of his unpopularity with the proud Turks was the
erroneous belief that the Khilji’s were non-Turks and hence not entitled to share power with the
Turks. The other reason of his unpopularity that Jalal-ud-din Firoz was an old man and had,
therefore, some peculiarities due to age. He was known to be very mild and generous and did not
possess that dignity and grace which were supposed to be indispensable in a monarch. The other

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reason of his unpopularity was that not Firoz himself, at least his followers, particularly the young
Khilji’s, were known to be highly ambitious. They were looked at with suspicion. The old Sultan
followed the policy of minimum interference with the administrative arrangements and allowed
older officers to remain in possession of their posts and emoluments. Young Khilji warriors who
were looking forward to be appointed to top-ranking positions carrying power, prestige and
remuneration, felt disgusted. His own nephew and son-in-law, Alauddin, became the leader of this
disgruntled party.

Domestic Policy:

Jalal ud-din Khilji was not brought any change in administrative personnel of his government. He
conformed the Turkish nobles in the office that they held during the last region. He gives the
governorship of Kara Manikpur to Malik chhajju who was the nephew of Balban and sole survivor
of latter’s family. Malik Fakir-ud-din was confirmed as the kotwal of Delhi.

He gave high position in the office to his sons. The eldest, Mahmud, was given the title of ‘Khan-
i-Khan’. The second became ‘Arkali Khan’ and the third was entitled ‘Qadr Khan’. Yaghrus Khan
who was the younger brother of sultan Jalal ud-din Khilji was appointed as army minister that is,
‘Ariz-i-mamalik’. He appointed his near relative ‘Malik Ahmad Chap’ as an ‘Amir-i-hajib’ that is,
master of ceremonies. He also similarly rewarded his both nephew Ala-ud-din and Almas Beg.

Jalal ud-din Khilji internal policy was one of conciliation. He tried merciful, peacefully and
wanted to rule without any bloodshed.

Malik Chhajju who was nephew of Balban started a revolt at the Kara Manikpur in the second year
of Firoz’s reign and assumed the title of sultan. Hatim khan, governor of Awadh, joined the Malik
Chhajju in his revolt. Both Hatim khan and Malik Chhajju armies proceed toward Delhi to capture
it. Arkali khan, the son of Jalal ud-din Khilji, with advanced guard of his army encountered near
Badaun and defeated them and make his prisoner. Jalal ud-din Khilji ordered Malik Chhajju and
his followers to release. He openly praised Chhajju followers for their loyalty to the only heir of
their deceased master, Balban. Arkali was appointed as governor of Multan. Ala-ud-din, a sultan
nephew, was appointed as governor of Kara Manikpur.
Foreign Policy:

Jalal ud-din Khilji does not indulge in aggressive warfare. He conducted only two expedition. The
first expedition was against Ranthambor led by sultan in 1290. The second expedition was against
Mandawar which had once belonged to Delhi, but had been recovered by the Rajput’s. It was
recaptured in 1292.

Two more expedition was taken in his reign but this expedition was not done by sultan himself,
but this expedition taken by his nephew Ala ud-din Khilji. Ala ud-din Khilji under the leadership
of sultan his first expedition, he invaded Malwa and captured the town of Bhilsa. After returning,
Ala ud-din Khilji was promoted as the governorship of Awadh in addition with to the 4Kara. His
second expedition was taken in 1294 against Devagiri, Rama Chandra Deva, whom he defeated.

He brought from Devagiri a huge amount pounds of gold, pearls, gems and silver and one thousand
pieces of silk cloth.

The ‘New Muslim’:

The Delhi was very disturbed in the reign of Jalal ud-din Khilji by a Mongol invasion. Under the
command of a grandson of Hulagu, with a very big army of one lakhs fifty thousands, invaded the
Punjab in 1292 but Jalal ud-din Khilji encounter the invader. After it the Mongol made peace. One
of his descendants, Changiz Khan, named Ulugh, entered Firoz's service, embraced Islam and
settled down in Delhi. Firoz gave a daughter in marriage to him. Many Mongols accepted Islam
and settled near the Delhi, this Mongols people became known as the 'New Muslims. Under this
policy of Jalal ud-din Khilji, there were one lakh fifty thousand to two lakh fifty thousand people
of Hindus and Mongols were converted into Muslim.

The Death of Jalal ud-din Khilji:

During the absence of Ala ud-din in Kara. Some of the officer of Sultan tried to convince that Ala
ud-din was a very ambitious youth and his eye on throne. Ala ud-din brother told Sultan that there
was no reason why Ala ud-din should be inordinately ambitious when he loved him as a son and
was prepared to do everything for him. Ulugh Khan persuaded the sultan to believe that Ala ud-
din was anxious to present the immense wealth that he brought from Devagiri, but he was afraid

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of coming to Delhi and waiting on the Sultan as the Devagiri expedition had been undertaken
without the royal permission. After it Sultan decided to go Kara. He set out from Delhi by boat
and while his army proceed by land under the leadership of Ahmed Chap. Ulugh Khan waited on
the Sultan and requested him not to permit his army to cross the eastern bank.

Jalal-ud-din was satisfied by the explanation and proceeded to meet his nephew, followed by a few
unarmed attendants. Ala-ud-Din now advanced and bowed low before the Sultan. After the signal
given by Ala ud-din, his one of the follower attacked on Sultan and coming from behind the sultan
and cut his head from his body. The followers of the Sultan were put to death, Ala-ud-din raised
the royal umbrella over his head and pro^ claimed himself king on 19th July, 1296. Jalal-ud-din
head was placed on a spear and paraded through the two provinces, Kara Manikpur and Awadh,
then in the charge of Ala-ud-din.

2. ALA UD-DIN KHILJI:

Ala ud-din was second ruler of Khilji dynasty who ruled over Delhi sultanate. The real name of
Ala ud-din Khilji was Ali Gurshap. He kill his uncle in 1290 and sat on the throne of Delhi
Sultanate. Ala ud-din was illiterate but he was an able soldier. He had an excellent knowledge
about the control and command of his army. He expanded his kingdom toward Vindhyas
Mountains in south and toward Bengal in east. He was the most powerful ruler of Khilji kingdom.
He declared himself a second Alexander on the earth. Ala ud-din was not only a great conquer but
he was also an excellent administrator.

Early Career:

Ala ud-din was the nephew and son-in-law of Sultan Jalal ud-din Khilji. He was a very spirit and
active soldier. He was known to be ambitious and must have given early promise of future
greatness. In 1290, after the accession of Jalal ud-din Khilji, he was promoted to the office of
‘Amir-i-Tuzak’ and after a sometime he was appointed as a governor of Kara Manikpur near
Allahabad.

Ala ud-din never satisfied with the policy of aged king, Jalal ud-din. Ala-ud-din was shrewd
enough not to precipitate action. He waited to strike only at a favourable opportunity. His first and
urgent work was to increase his follower. He kept his uncle and sovereign in good humour through
his brother Ulugh khan, who served as his representative at the court and looked after his interests
there. After the permission of sultan Jalal ud-din, he led to an expedition toward Malwa in 1292.
He penetrated the heart of Malwa and captured the town of Bhilsa and collect a huge amount of
money and valuable article as plunder from Malwa. He cannot send full money to the Delhi but he
send only a part of it. For his victory, sultan rewarded the governorship of Awadh in addition to
Kara. So, Ala ud-din ruled over two province of his uncle kingdom.

When he conquest with Malwa, he heard the story about the wealth of Devagiri. He started make
plan to conquest the southern part of India. After the expedition of Malwa then he get permission
from his uncle Sultan Jalal ud-din Khilji to increase the troops but he cannot tell about his project
of Dakshin campaign. At this time, there are two well wealth kingdoms in Dakshin Campaign.
First was Kingdom of Devagiri in the east of Vindhya mountain and second was Kingdom of
Telangana this Kingdom was west in the Vindhya mountain. In 1294, he gave the charge or
responsibilities of Kara to his deputy Malik Ala-ul-mulk, and he proceed with his army consisting
of eight thousand horse. He show that he was a noble refugee from Delhi going for seek shelter
and service at Rajahmundry in southern Telangana. No one suspect on him. He suddenly appeared
in the northern frontier of Devagiri. The Kingdom of Devagiri was ruled by a Yadavs ruler, Rama
Chandra Deva and Rama Deva was very surprising of appreance of Ala ud-din. And a great part
of his army was taken by his son Shankar Deva who gone for pilgrimage. Immediately Rama Deva
collect 2000-3000 soldiers and met the invader at Lasura, twelve miles from Devagiri. He told to
Rama Deva that 20,000 soldiers was on the way who come from Delhi. After it Rama Deva made
peace with Ala ud-din for given the 1,100 pound of gold and a large quantity of precious jewels.
When Rama Deva son Shankar Deva was returned from pilgrimage then Ala ud-din divide his
army in two part. The work of first part was that Rama Deva could not take assistance from his
son and second part of his army were ready to fight with the Shankar Deva. After defeated him
Ala ud-din was very angry and impose much harsher terms than before. He demanded 17,250
pound of gold’s, 200 pounds of pearl, 58 pounds of other gem, 28,250 pounds of silver and 1000
pieces of silk cloth for make peace.

This was the first Turkish expedition to southern India. Ala ud-din's success was well-deserved.
He was very confident because he was away of hundred miles from his base and this region and
people of this region was unknown to him .after the success of Devagiri, his eyes on the thrown of
Delhi. After time he murdered his uncle or Sultan of Delhi near Kara Manikpur on 1296 and
declared himself as the Sultan of Delhi.5

Problem with the possession of Throne:

Ala ud-din sat on the throne through bloodshed of his Uncle. This Throne was a set for him as a
bed rose with many thorns. The supporter of Jalal ud-din and all right thinking people hatred Ala
ud-din because he was a usurper and guilty of his murder of his uncle. All the nobles’ person and
follower of late Sultan did not ready for forgive the Ala ud-din sin. The person who stand against
Ala ud-din very bravely was Ahmed chap who was a person of fearless and dominant person of
Turkish dominion. After the murder of Sultan, the widow of Sultan Malika-i-jahan saw a
dangerous threat of Delhi sultanate Throne if throne is vacant so she decided that his second son
Qadr khan sat on the throne and proclaiming him as Sultan under the title of Rukh-ud-din Ibrahim.
This was opposed by Arkali khan who is eldest living son of Sultan. After hearing the news that
Qadr khan was made a new Sultan than Ala ud-din with his army proceed toward Delhi. In the
way he distributed Gold and money which was taken from Devagiri. But Ibrahim came between
the throne of Delhi and Ala ud-din with his army. Ala ud-din with his army of sixty thousand horse
and sixty thousand foot so many follower of Ibrahim go with the Ala ud-din. Ibrahim, Qadr khan
and Widow of Sultan fled toward Multan. Then Ala ud-din entered in the red palace of Balban and
formally crowned himself as Sultan of Delhi Sultanate in 1296.

After the Succession of Thorne:

After the succession of the Thorne, Ala ud-din Khilji with his army went to Multan and arrested
the prominent nobles and officer of the Jalal ud-din who deserted Ala ud-din and important person
of these nobles and officers was Rukh ud-din Ibrahim was also arrested and some of them sent
behind the prison and some of them were blinded and rest of them killed by Ala ud-din. The widow
of late Sultan and sons of late Sultan were also arrested by Ala ud-din Khilji and all his property

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and money and leave it for begging. Ala ud-din said that he was doing thing under the rule of
treachery.

Ala ud-din after take the throne, he decided to revise the Balban’s policy on Kingship. According
to Balban’s policy of Kingship, King was the representatives of God on the Earth and King had
the majesty of the monarch. Ala ud-din believed that King has a supreme in all. Ala ud-din believed
that ‘Kingship know no Kingship’ and all the inhabitant in the country were his servants or his
subjects. So, Ala ud-din revised the Balban’s policy of Kingship6.7

At that time there were only two powerful groups exiting in the sultanate of Delhi. One was the
Nobles and other was Ulema. Nobles was a group which present in the court and give advice in
every matter or policy which was made by King. Ulema was a group of religious people and the
work of this was to check that any policy was not the religious harmony and these policy was for
the welfare of the state.

For the group of nobles, Ala ud-din inspired that no courtiers had the courage to give him advice
or to ask for any favour and he wanted to reduce the power of people who in the court and serve
as a servant and his appointment done by the will of sultan. He only appointed a person who give
advised in any matter was Ala ul-mulk who was the kotwal of Delhi. Ala ul-mulk also the old
friend of the Sultan Ala ud-din. For the other group Ala ud-din said He does not allow any group
who dictate Sultan for the welfare of State. Ala ud-din said that he knew more about any religious
than any religious person or welfare of the state than any one.

Ala ud-din knows as a real faith. He never go against his religion Muslim. He was very fond in his
religion Muslim than any other Sultan of Delhi.

Domestic Policy:

Ala ud-din introduced some policy which the position of state has changed. His image was good
after implication of his revenue, price and other policies.

Economic reform of Ala ud-din:

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Ala ud-din was made an economic policy which regulate equality among people of his dominion.
His policy on economic also an important views that corruption was prevented in his kingdom.
Ala ud-din was the first person to give the concept of ‘Planned Economy’ in the medieval period.

 Price control policy:

Price control policy was the remarkable policy of Ala ud-din. There were some point in this policy.
They were-

Fixation of price of commodities:

The other rulers of Delhi only introduced fixation of price of most important commodity, these
rulers were not imposed this on all commodities which were in the market. Ala ud-din was illiterate
but Ala ud-din fixed the prices of all commodities which was present in the market. He fixed the
price of all commodities between 1.5 to 7.5 Jitals (Jital was a type of coin which made by copper
and this type of coins was introduced by IItutmish and the value of one Jital was equal to 1/48
value of silver coin). He fixed the price of wheat, barley and sugar etc. Ala ud-din also fixed the
price of fruits, vegetables and leather etc.

 Royal Granaries:

Ala ud-din made very large Royal godowns in which grain was stored. The distribution of Grains
from the godowns to dealers of the markets. Officers checked that all the available in the markets
for the common man. There was no black marketing of the grains. No merchant, farmer or dealer
was allowed to hoard grain or to sell it at a higher rate. All traders and merchants had to register
their sales in a state register and they would bring all the good for sale to the market called Sara-i-
Adi situation inside the Badaun gate.

 Establishment of "Diwan-e-Riyasat:-

Ala ud-din had established a price control department named "Diwan-i- Riyasat, whose head was
Malik Ulugh Khan and the head of markets was Yaqoob Khan. A new government market was
established under the Badaun gate and was named "Sarae Adi', which was under control of Diwan-
i-Riyasat. For different trades, separate markets were set up and each market was placed under a
separate shahna. At Delhi, Alauddin set up three different markets. One market was meant
exclusively for food-grains, a separate market for horses, cattle and slaves and a third one for
costlier articles such a foreign clothes, silks, perfumes, jewellery etc. The purpose of the market
was to ensure that the goods market by the traders were sold on the prices fixed by the Diwan-i-
Riyasat.

 Regulation and measures of this policy: -

Ala ud-din classified merchants in two different types. One was the importers, who supplied the
demands of local markets and other was whole-sellers and retailers, who had their shops in the
market and dealt with the customers. The trading licence was necessary for both types of
merchants. Alauddin made several punishment on those who violated the rules. Sultan were
ordered to sell their surplus grains to registered merchants at the rate fixed by the government.
Costly and rare articles such as fine silks, woollens, brocades, cosmetics etc. could be purchased
only by special permits.

Copies of schedules of prices were supplied to Shahna, barids, traders and merchants and Diwan-
i-Riyasat. The market regulations enforced in the capital city and its neighbourhood. The price of
commodities was never regulated in 14 years after impletation of this policy. This scheme was
ended with him.

 Other reason for success of his policy: -

Ala ud-din had a very strong espionage system, which kept him aware of the all the conditions of
the market. He took special interest in this espionage system. The other reason for success of his
policy that He had eliminated dalali system to ensure the smooth flow of commodities in the
market. He taken strict and quick action against the complaint of common people. Sultan deal with
hoarders with iron hand and were punished severely. Sultan not only controlled the price and
hoarding but also supply/transport of various articles. Traders, who carried goods from one place
to other, were registered and every type of facility was provided to them in transportation of goods.
He also instituted rationing system. He did not allowed lower quality grain in the markets.

 Difficulties in apply the price control policy: -

There were certain problems, which were occur due to such control of price policy applied. Sultan
had reduced the prices of all commodities and fixed it. Merchants might refuse to sell their goods
at those prices or they might create artificial scarcity and blame it on the price control. Brokers
lost their employment because prices had been permanently fixed. Problems arises due to natural
calamities such as droughts and famines.8

(2) Revenue Policy:

Ala-ud-din did not rest satisfied with the control of the market and cheapening the cost of living.
His predecessors had not paid much attention to formulating a scientific revenue policy. He wanted
changes in revenue department. He introduced a new types of revenue policy to the reform of his
revenue department.

Ala ud-din removed the all types of tax and retained only three types of tax – land tax, house tax
and cattle tax. These were to be collected from the farmers. The important tax on these tax was
land tax. Sultan had measured and assessment made of the total output of crops in every village
with the help of patwaris (village accountant). He made a rule that every village give half of his
crop to Sultan as a revenue. Every farmer what grew give half of these to the Sultan as a revenue.

Ala ud-din make two measures on revenue policy which transformed the revenue rules, and
regulations of the Delhi Sultanate.

First measure was to confiscate land held mostly by Muslim grantees and religious men. Thus, all
land of the empire was converted into the khalisa land, i.e., under the direct control of the state.
Land held as inam (gift), milk (proprietary rights given by the state), idrarat (pensions) and waqf
(endowments) was resumed. The only concession allowed to some was that they were allowed to
enjoy the fruits of their original holding.

Second measure was to withdraw all the privileges, which the Hindu muqaddams, khuts and
Chaudhary’s had enjoyed for generations. Like all others they were also required to pay the land
revenue and house and grazing taxes.

 Amils:

Ala ud-din merged small taxes and made a big tax as a land tax. For collecting this tax, he appointed
special officer called Amils. Sultan stopped the collected tax through rais and ranas. The Amils
started collecting tax through farmer directly.

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 Changes in headman’s functions:

The other rulers of Delhi before Ala ud-din, there were the villages’ headman who collected the
money from villagers and take some money from themselves and never paid the tax and the
collected tax by village headman given to ranas.

These were not accepted by Ala ud-din. Ala ud-din make a new law on tax system. In this law, all
people paid taxes includes villagers and headman also paid tax. Since tax was collected by his
special officers ‘Amils’.

 Other changes in his revenue policy:

Before Ala ud-din, rulers were received the payment of land revenue in cash and in kinds.
Alauddin preferred the payment of land revenue in kind. The peasants also had to pay the house
and grazing taxes. In addition, the Hindus had to pay jizya. The grazing tax was levied on all cattle
heads going to the village commons.

According to his policy, any person having two pairs of oxen, two buffaloes, two cows and ten
goats was excluded from the grazing tax. Any person have more cattle’s than minimum numbers,
the grazing tax was given by these people.

(3) Military Reforms:

Ala ud-din Khilji realised the importance of a strong military administrative system in order to
establish a highly centralised and despotic government and an extensive empire in India. He
fulfilled the necessity by keeping a permanent standing army at the capital.

Ala -ud -din Khilji's army was based on the Turkish model and divisions of unit units rested on the
decimal system. Ala -ud -din also took measures to stop the corrupt practices by the soldiers. The
Diwan - i -Arz kept the record of all of them. Before the Ala ud-din, rulers for armies depends on
governors and Jagirdars of the kingdom. Alauddin removed this policy. Ala ud-din after the
removing previous ruler’s policy on military and he made a policy, in this policy all the army
maintained by centre. After this policy, he easily destroyed the rebellion of Mongols.
Alauddin was first sultans of Delhi for the foundation of a permanent standing army. The minister
in charge of the army (Ariz-i-Mumakil) was assigned the responsibility of directly recruiting the
soldiers of the sultan’s army. They were supplied with horses, arms and other equipment’s at the
expense of the state. They were paid salary in cash from the state treasury. The soldier with one
horse was paid 234 tankas for a year, while a soldier with two horses was paid 78 tankas more.

In the army of Ala ud-din 4 lakh seventy five thousand cavalrymen. In his cavalrymen were more
in numbers than infantry soldiers. In the compare of other Indian rulers, Ala ud-din’s army also
had a large number of war elephants. Swords, bows and arrows, mace, battle-axe, daggers, spears
were the important weapons used by the soldiers. In India, horses of good quality was less in
number.so, Ala ud-din imported horses Persia, Arabia and Central Asia.

There was two problem in his army. One was that soldiers changed his position in the times of war
with the unskilled soldiers. Second problem was that for his army horses were imported from
foreign countries, horses were changed with low quality horse. To save state from this loss, Ala
ud-din introduced officers under Diwan-i-Arz. These types of practices were common in many
countries outside India.

Alauddin ordered that maintenance of a descriptive roll (chehera or huliya) giving detailed
particulars of individual soldiers. He also introduced the practice of branding horses (dag) so
changing of superior quality horse with low quality of horse will not possible after implementation
of this rule. The work of Diwan-i-Arz was that maintained the records of all soldiers recruited by
the government. The most important benefit point of keeping large army was to secure the fort and
his kingdom from any internal and external rebellion. Ala ud-din easily destroyed the rebellion of
Mongols in his Kingdom. This is the reason behind to keeping the large army.

Foreign Policy: -

Ala ud-din was engage in aggressive foreign policy. He was an ambitious rulers. He was assumed
a title ‘Sikander Sani’. His Ambition was to capture whole India. He declared himself as a ‘Second
Alexander’. In his treasury was over-flowing, boxes and caskets of jewels and pearls were filled,
he had numerous elephants in his stables and 70,000 horses in the city and environs. He thinks
that Prophet Muhammad had four assistants, Abu Bakr, Usman, Umar and Ali, he also four person
who do anything for him his names was Ulugh Khan. Zafar Khan, Nusrat Khan and Alp Khan. He
wanted to establish a religion with the help of his four person and his followers.9

The aim of his foreign policy was that not leave any Hindu kingdom free. His conquest were
divided into two part. First was north conquest and second was south conquest.

Gujarat: - Gujarat was the first expedition of Ala ud-din Khilji after succession of Throne. In
1299, his army under the Ulugh khan and Nasrat khan proceed toward the Gujarat. At that time,
the Baghela ruler, king Rai Karan Dev was the king of Gujarat. Anhilwara was the capital of
Gujarat. At present, Anhilwara is a Patan. King Rai Karan Dev was fought sometimes but he
defeated by Ala ud-din armies. His beautiful wife Kamala Devi was captured by Ala ud-din army
and send to Delhi where Ala ud-din was Marry with her. King Karan Dev escaped with his
daughter Deval Devi. He take shelter in Devagiri. Ala ud-din’s army captured Gujarat and took
away a large amount of booty. Gujarat was first time captured by a Turkish Sultan.

Ranthambor: -

After the first successful expedition of Gujarat, his dreams to conquer remaining part of India was
strong after the captured of Gujarat. His next expedition was Rajasthan. In the Rajasthan, Hamir
Deva was the ruler. Hamir Deva, a descendant of the famous Chauhan king, Prithviraj II who
defeated Muhammad Ghori in 1191. There was two reason for expedition of Rajasthan. First was
the Fortress of Rajasthan which Ala ud-din thinks that this fortress was the wealth of Turkish
Sultan of India. Second was Rajasthan give shelter to new Muslim and Mongols which was
regarded by Ala ud-din as a treachery. For expedition of Rajasthan, Ala ud-din sent his army under
the leadership of Ulugh khan and Nasrat khan. His army captured and besieged Ranthambor but
He was beaten. Then Nasrat khan was killed and Jhain was recovered by Rajput’s. Then Ala ud-
din Seduced Hamir Deva Prime minister Ran mal after seducing Ran mal then His army escaladed
the walls of Fortress and take possession of the fort in 1301. Hamir mal and his family and remnant
of his garrison were killed.

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&source=bl&ots=UILW1XGfkH&sig=lcRhFTaizdV7bF5aKxOYm8QDmmg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CDgQ6AEwBGoVChMI
8sy9qu6_yAIVxh2OCh2uOAnD#v=onepage&q=foreign%20policy%20of%20alauddin%20Khilji&f=false access on 13
October 2015
Chittoor: -

Chittoor was ruled by Rana Bhim Singh. After the successful expedition of Ranthambor, Ala ud-
din sent his to captured the Mewar in 1303 under the leadership of Ain-ul-Mulk Multani. Chittoor
was the capital of Mewar. The reason for captured Mewar by Ala ud-din was wife of ruler of
Mewar war very beautiful. After defeating the Ruler of Mewar, Rana Singh Ala ud-din said he
wants only one time see the Rani Padma vati in the mirror. After seeing image of Rani Padma vati
in the mirror, he wants to get her. Ala ud-din made an offer to Rani Padma vati that he released
her husband if she came in his ‘Haram’ (Haram is the place where all the wives of Sultan lives
with Sultan). Rani Padma vati sent the reply that she was coming with her attendants. 700 litters
said to be carrying her attendants, but actually carrying brave Rajput warriors, entered the camp
of Ala-ud-Din and rescued Rana Singh. After it Rana Singh keep his soldier on the outer gate of
Fort but Ala ud-din again Captured Mewar then Rani Padma vati burnt himself and refused to fall
into the hands of the Muslims.

After it Ala ud-din was very angry for the step taken by Rani Padma vati. He massacred Thousands
of children and old men who was found in the fort.10

Malwa: -

In 1305, Ala ud-din send his army to capture the Malwa under the leadership of Ain ud-din Mulk
Multani. At that time, the ruler of Malwa was The Rajput King Rai Mahlak Dev who opposed this
invaders. But he was killed in the battlefield. Ala ud-din captured the Malwa. This victory helped
the Delhi Army to occupy Ujjain, Mandu, Dhar and Chanderi. Alauddin Khilji's expedition to
Bengal was not successful and it remained independent.

By the end of 1306 A.D. practically the whole of Northern India came into the hands of Ala-ud-
Din.

Jalor: -

Raja Kanera Deva was the ruler of Jalor. He had sworn allegiance to the Sultan in 1305, but after
he was prepared to meet Ala ud-din at any time to in the field. Ala ud-din in order to in order to

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13
humiliate the Raja Kanera Deva. Ala ud-din sent his army to captured Jalor under the command
of a female servant of his palace, named Gul-i-Bihisht. She besieged Jalor. Kanera Deva was so
hard-pressed that he was about to surrender when she died. Her son was defeated and killed by the
Rajput’s. But when some additional troops under Kamal-ud-din Gurg reached Jalor the Delhi army
defeated the Raja and put him and his relations to death. Jalor was then annexed. By the end of
1306 AD. The conquest of northern India was now almost complete came into the hands of Ala-
ud-Din and Ala-ud-din's empire extended over the whole of that region except Kashmir, Nepal,
Assam and a part of the north-western Punjab.

Devagiri: -

He was the first Muslim king, who tried to invade the South. The ruler of Devagiri, Ram Chandra
Deva who give shelter to KingRai Karan Dev second was the fugitive ruler of Gujarat. Raja Rai
Dev married his daughter Deval Devi to eldest son of Ram Chandra Deva, Shankar Deva who was
the King of Devagiri. In 1307, Ala-ud-Din sent an expedition against Devagiri under Malik Kafur,
a slave. Ala ud-din army defeated the King of Devagiri.

The King Ram Chandra Deva was defeated and after he was brought to Delhi. Ala-ud-Din treated
Ram Chandra Deva with all honours. . He even gave him a royal canopy and the style of King of
kings. Ram Chandra Deva continued to rule Devagiri As a vassal of Ala-ud-Din Khilji. Kamla
Devi was wife of Gujarat King Rai Dev which was taken to Delhi after defeating the ruler of
Gujarat and Ala ud-din married to her. The daughter of Kamla Devi, Deval Devi was also sent to
Delhi, after the defeat of Ram Chandra Deva, where she was married to Khizar Khan, son of Ala-
ud-Din11.

Telangana: - In 1307, Ala ud-din sent his army to Warangal under the leadership of Malik Kafur.
The King of Devagiri, Ram Chandra Deva gave full support to Malik Kafur against the Telangana.
Pratap Rudra Deva, the king of Telangana. Warangal was the capital of Telangana. After the
expedition of Ala ud-din armies, King Pratap Deva make peace with Ala ud-din. He was ready to

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October 2015
give Kafur 100 elephants, 7,000 horses and large quantities of jewels and coined money. He also
agreed to send tribute to Delhi every year12.

Dwarsamudra:-

After the successful expedition of Telangana. Malik Kafur with his armies went to Dwarsamudra
to capture it. The Hoysala ruler, Vir Vallabh was the ruler of Madura. Dwarsamudra was the capital
of Madura. Madura was the capital of Pandya Kingdom. Vir Vallabh were defeated in the war and
made prisoner. Malik Kafur plundered the city. The main temple was destroyed and a mosque
was built there. He got many elephants, 20,000 horses, 2,750 pounds of gold and lots of jewels.
No such treasure had been brought to Delhi ever before. Vir Vallabh was brought to Delhi. Later,
he could rule over Dwarsamudra only as a vassal of Delhi.13

Death of Ala ud-din Khilji: -

In 1316, Ala ud-din’s health was not good. In the last time of his life, he was under the influence
of Malik Kafur. Ala ud-din gave his inheritance to his minor son Shahabad-din Umar, as his
successor instead of his elder son Khizar Khan. After the death of Ala ud-din, Shahabad-din-Umar
sat on the throne and Malik Kafur was the defacto ruler. Khizar Khan and his younger brother,
Shadi Khan were blinded by Kafur. After it Kafur married with widow of Ala ud-din and take all
the money, jewellery, and property and send her into prison. He also arrested third son of Ala-ud-
din, Mubarak Khan whose age was seventeenth or eighteenth. Kafur send his agent to blind the
Mubarak Khan but Mubarak Khan gave bribed to this agent and send back to kill Kafur, this agent
do this work easily. After he also blinded his brother and take the throne.

QUTUB-UD-DIN MUBARAK SHAH:


After blinded his younger brother, Mubarak Khan get the throne and assumed the title of ‘Qutub
ud-din Mubarak Shah. Mubarak Shah in the beginning of reign, he repealed all the harsh rules
which applied by his Father Ala ud-din and he also released all the prisoner. Mubarak shah
followed the policy of forget and forgive. He returned the lands to his owners and reduced the
taxes. He do this work in the influence of a person named Hasan who was belong to the depressed

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13
http://www.indianetzone.com/15/ala_ud_din_Khilji.htm access on 14 October 2015
caste ‘bharwar’ but he adopt the muslim religion. Mubarak shah was given the title Khusrav Khan
to him and gave the position of Prime minister.

Rebellions of his Kingdoms:

There was a situation happened in many part of his kingdom that every kingdom stand against
him and wanted freedom. The Yadavs ruler of Devagiri started rebellion for Independence. There
were many Rajputana Rulers also started rebellion. So, he sent his armies to Gujarat to destroy the
rebellion under the leadership of Ain-ul-mulk Multani. Ain-ul-mulk succeeded in quelling the
rebellion there. After quelling the rebellion, Sultan Mubarak shah father-in-law, Zafar Khan, was
now appointed its governor. To quelling the rebellion in Dakshin, Sultan himself with his armies
proceed toward Devagiri. After quelling the rebellion, Devagiri were divided into districts and his
officer appointed to rule there. He appointed Malik Yaklaki to be the governor of Devagiri and
then he sent Khusrav to settle the rebellion of Madura and then returned to Delhi.

Conspiracy against Mubarak Shah:

When Mubarak Shah returning to Delhi after quilling the rebellion of Devagiri. There was a
conspiracy against the life of Mubarak. This conspiracy was done by his cousin, Asad-ud-din, son
of Yaghrush Khan, brother of Firoz Khilji. Asad ud-din wants to kill Mubarak Shah and on his
place wants to sit a Ten year old son of Khizar khan. When Mubarak Shah know his plan then he
killed all the male members of Yaghrush Khan. After it, he killed his brother Khizar Khan, Shadi
Khan and Shihab-ud-din. Then Mubarak Shah married Deval Devi, the widow of Khizar Khan.

Death of Mubarak Shah:

Khusrav Khan knows that without military support, he could not rule over Delhi Sultanate. He
taken permission from Sultan Mubarak shah to raise the troops and he raised forty thousand troops
and after it he take permission from Sultan that his relatives enter palace at any time. One night,
he killed the Mubarak shah and assessed the throne, but he did not rule more time. He was killed
by Ghazi Malik. After the death of Mubarak shah, Khilji dynasty ended.

Condition of Society under Khilji Dynasty:

In the Khilji dynasty, the condition of society was not very good. Ala ud-din was profound a new
religious with the help of his four personal man who was Ulugh Khan, Zafar Khan, Nusrat Khan
and Alp Khan. Here Ulugh khan, Nusrat Khan and Zafar khan were the brothers of Ala ud-din and
Alp khan was brother-in-law of Ala ud-din. After the suppression of Mongol’s invasion, most of
the Mongol’s converted into Muslim this Muslim was known as the ‘New Muslim’. This new
Muslim settled near the Delhi.

Condition of other religion under the Khilji Dynasty:

Under the rule of Khilji Dynasty, condition of Hinduism and other religion like Jainism and
Buddhism were not good. The condition of them was very worst. Ala ud-din imposed extra tax on
these religion. All the money and gold and all the valuable article was taken by Ala ud-din and left
it to begging. People of other religion except Muslim were treated as servant and slaves of Muslim
officers.

There was an incident that was remember by all the people of that time. When Rani Padma vati
burnt herself and refused to give her in the hands of Muslim. Ala ud-din was very angry for this
incident and killed thousands of children and old men and thirty thousand Hindu’s were killed in
one day. He destroy the temples of Hindu, Jainism and Buddhism and made mosque from the
material of Hindu temples.

Condition of women in Khilji Dynasty:

Condition of women in the Khilji period was very bad. Officers of Ala ud-din was taken women
from Hindu and married her. Sultan also defeated Hindu Ruler of India and also captured his
Kingdom and Ruler’s wife, daughter and other female member of his family and take and send to
Delhi and married himself or married with his sons and other relatives.

Kamla Devi who was the wife of Gujarat ruler Raja Rai Dev and Deval Devi Daughter of
Raja Rai Dev and wife of Shankar Deva, the son of the Ram Chandra Deva who was the ruler of
Devagiri, was captured by Ala ud-din armies after defeated the both rulers and send Kamla Devi
and Deval Devi to Delhi and where Ala ud-din married with Kamla Devi and Ala ud-din son’s
Khizar khan married to Deval Devi. This show that respect of women in Khilji dynasty. Women
treated as a toy to Sultan, which was used only for his entertainment.

Architect of Khilji Dynasty:


In Khilji dynasty, Islamic architect was introduced in India. The structure not only depicts the
finesse of Islamic architecture but also murmurs the brilliance of the development of architecture
during Khilji dynasty. Islamic architecture in India is an interesting mingling during the period of
Khilji Dynasty. It marked developments in building techniques.

Jalal ud-din Khilji completed the work of Qutub Minar which was started by the Sultan of Slave
Dynasty. Ala ud-din Khilji also fond of architecture. He was made many Monuments when he was
the ruler of Delhi Sultanate. Ala ud-din made the Alai Darwaza. The Alai Darwaza as a whole is
a wonderful Islamic architecture in the Indigenous style. Ala- ud-din Khilji created four entrances
to the Alai Darwaza mosque two of which were to be on the long eastern side, and one each on the
north and south.

Apart from the Alai Darwaza, the other architectures during Khilji Dynasty were Siri Fort, the
second of the seven cities of Delhi, constructed in 1303 and the Jamaat Khana Masjid at the tomb
of Nizam-ud-din Auliya, a distinguished saint of the period. One is recognised as a college and
another one is the tomb of the Ala- ud-din Khilji. Siri Fort in Delhi was the best example of
Architecture and purpose behind made of Siri Fort was protect people from the invasions of
Mongols. Apart from the palace, Siri Fort had living quarters of Khilji and several other buildings
inside it. The well-known 1,000-pillar palace of Ala-ud-din Khilji, named Hazar Sutun was also
present inside the Siri Fort,

The Last ruler of Khilji dynasty, Mubarak Khan also made a mosque whose name is the Ukha
Masjid at Bayana in Bharatpur State, at Rajasthan. The architecture of Khilji dynasty came to an
end due to the death of its last Sultan Mubarak.
CONCLUSION

As a Researcher, I knows that in a Khilji dynasty, the military policy and administrative policy
was regulate in a particular dynasty. Understand the ruler policy about market control and revenue
policy. There was a discrimination in a society. Women of Hindu ruler and other religion were
treated as toy and the Muslim officer was very fond to get the wife of other ruler. Women’s were
not safe in the Muslim dynasty. Here rulers married his own brother wife’s. Member of Khilji
dynasty fight for the throne and killed his own brothers, uncle’s and brother’s sons. Rulers
regulated his policy on market control, Revenue policy and military polices implied very strictly.
In the Khilji Dynasty, first time military was under the control of Sultan. Rulers of Khilji dynasty
profound his religion and decline of other religion. Force to people to follow his religion.
BIBILIOGRAPHY

BOOKS:

1. A.L Srivastava, the Sultanate of Delhi.

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