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# CONTENT

TITLE PAGES
Introduction 1

Objective 3

Theory 3

## Apparatus / Equipment 4.5

Procedures 6

Data Collection 7

Analysis / Calculation 8

Question 9

Discussion 10

Conclusion 11

Reference 12
INTRODUCTION
Asphalt mix design is a complex issue with a lot of variables involved. In
Malaysia, the Marshall Method of mix design has become the norm in the road
industry. Before any asphalt mixes can be placed and laid on the road, the
aggregate and the binder types are generally screened for quality and
requirement.

## Approximately 15samples are required to be prepared to determine the

required Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC). The prepared case samples are to be
analyzed for bulk density, air void and stability. By using the Asphalt Institute
Method, the Optimum Asphalt Content is determined from the individual plots of
bulk density, voids in total mix and stability versus percent asphalt content. The
average of the 3 OAC values is taken for further sample preparation and analysis.
SAFETY AND HEALTH
PROCEDURE

## 1) Always wear safety boots in laboratory

2) You should know where the laboratory safety equipment is located
3) Tell the instructor or lecturer of any accident immediately
4) No laboratory work should be carried out in the absence of the instructor
or lecturer
5) No eating , drinking, smoking, or chewing of gum is permitted in the work
area
6) Never wear sandals, shorts, or short skirts in the lab.
7) Report all damage to instructor ASAP
8) Tie back long hair
9) Always wash your hands before leaving lab

## 10)Make sure your hand dry before using an electrical equipment

OBJECTIVE
To determine the optimum binder content of given bituminous mix by marshall
method of mix design.

THEORY
Some of the requirements of an asphalt concrete paving mix are:
 Stability
 Durability
 Flexibility
 Fatigue Resistance: Thick Layers; Thin Layers
 Fracture Strength: Overload Conditions; Thermal Conditions.
 Skid Resistance
 Impermeability
 Workability

The binder type and content govern most of these properties and to some
extend the degree of compaction, aggregate gradation and shape. It is clearly
impossible for one single test to cover all these factors but the Marshall Test gives
the engineer considerable help. The complete test reveals:
 Stability
 Flow
 Density
 Voids in Total Mix (VTM)
 Voids in the Mineral Aggregate (VMA)
 Voids filled with binder (VFB)
 Resilient Modulus (MR)

These parameters plotted against the binder content enable the optimum to
be obtained for specific applications of the asphalt concrete or provide guidance
for a change in the aggregate composition.
APPARATUS
Oven

sample extractor

CBR mould

Filter paper
Marshall compacted pedestal

Measuring weight

thermometers
water bath
PROCEDURE
1. The coarse aggregates, fine aggregates and filler material are mixed in such
a way that final mix after blending has the graduation within the specified
range.
2. the weighed aggregates and the bitumen are heated separately upto 170⁰C
and 163⁰C respectively.
3. The heated aggregates and bitumen are mixed and transfered to the
compaction mould arranged on the compaction pedestal.
4. Give 75 blows on the top side of the specimen mix with Marshall
compacted pedestal. Reverse the specimen and give 75 blows again.
5. The specific gravity valued of different aggregates, filler and bitumen used
are determined first. The theoretical specific gravity of the mix is
determined.
6. The specimen are removed from the mould by gentle pushing. The
specimen were marked and cured at room temperature, overnight.
7. A series of specimens are prepared by a similar method with varying
quantities of bitumen content, with an increment of 0.5% (3 specimens) or
1 bitumen content.
8. Soon after the compacted bituminous mix specimens have cooled to room
temperature, the weight, average thickness and diameter of the specimens
are noted. The specimens are weighted in air and then in water.
9. The bulk density value of the specimen if calculated from weight and
volume
10. Before testing of the mould, keep the mould in the water bath having a
temperature of 60oC for half an hour.
11. The specimens are taken out one, placed in the marshall test and the
marshall stability value and flow are noted.
12. Step 11 is repeated for the other specimens.
DATA COLLECTION
ANALYSIS AND CALCULATION
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
REFERENCE
internet:

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_bearing_ratio
 http://scienceray.com/biology/ecology/california-bearing-ratio/
 http://www.engineeringcivil.com/

book:

##  highway engineering. page 437 .written by PAUL H.WRIGHT/KAREN

K.DIXON
 civil engineering (conventional and objective type). page 354. written by
R.S. KHURMI/J.K. GUPTA