You are on page 1of 1


Selasa, 12 Februari 2019

1. Let 𝑆 be the set of all subsets of some fixed set 𝑈. For 𝐴, 𝐵 ∈ 𝑆, define 𝐴 + 𝐵 =
(𝐴 − 𝐵) ∪ (𝐵 − 𝐴) and 𝐴𝐵 = 𝐴 ∩ 𝐵. Then 𝑆 is a ring. Is 𝑆 commutative? Does it
have an identity?
2. A ring 𝑅 such that 𝑎2 = 𝑎 for all 𝑎 ∈ 𝑅 is called a Boolean ring. Prove that every
Boolean ring 𝑅 is commutative and 𝑎 + 𝑎 = 0 for all 𝑎 ∈ 𝑅.
3. Let 𝑅 be a ring with more than one element such that for each nonzero 𝑎 ∈ 𝑅
there is a unique 𝑏 ∈ 𝑅 such that 𝑎𝑏𝑎 = 𝑎. Prove:
(a) 𝑅 has no zero divisors.
(b) 𝑏𝑎𝑏 = 𝑏.
(c) 𝑅 has an identity.
(d) 𝑅 is a division ring.
4. An element of a ring is nilpotent if 𝑎𝑛 = 0 for some positive integer 𝑛. Prove that
in a commutative ring 𝑎 + 𝑏 is nilpotent if 𝑎 and 𝑏 are. Show that this result may
be false if 𝑅 is not commutative.
5. In a ring 𝑅 the following conditions are equivalent.
(i) 𝑅 has no nonzero nilpotent elements.
(ii) If 𝑎 ∈ 𝑅 and 𝑎2 = 0, then 𝑎 = 0.