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Elementary product:

Examples:

Remark: A necessary and sufficient condition for an elementary product to be identically


false is that it contains atleast one pair of factors in which one is the negation of the other.
Elementary sum:

Example:

Remark: A necessary and sufficient condition for an elementary sum to be identically


true is that it contains atleast one pair of factors in which one is the negation of the other.
Disjunctive normal form:
A formula which is equivalent to a given formula and which consists of a sum of
elementary products is called a disjunctive normal form of the given formula

Conjunctive normal form:

A formula which is equivalent to a given formula and which consists of a


product of elementary sums is called a conjunctive normal form of the
given formula
DNF and CNF:
• Disjunctive Normal Form (DNF)
( ..  ..  .. )  ( ..  ..  .. )  …  ( ..  .. )

Examples: (P  Q)  (P  Q)
P  (Q  R)

• Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF)


( ..  ..  .. )  ( ..  ..  .. )  …  ( ..  .. )
Examples: (P  Q)  (P  Q)
P  (Q  R)
Converting Expressions
to DNF or CNF
The following procedure converts an expression to DNF or CNF:
1. Remove all  and .
2. Move  inside. (Use De Morgan’s law.)
3. Use distributive laws to get proper form.
Simplify as you go. (e.g. double-neg., idemp., comm., assoc.)
Example 3:
EXAMPLE 5:
EXAMPLE 6: