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ECOTOXICOLOGY

1) Introduction: Classical toxicology, ecotoxicology, and environmental toxicology;


Assessment of toxicity: Dose-response; Acute toxicity bioassay; Relationship between
acute and chronic toxicity; Comparative bioassays; Sediment toxicity assays, Toxicity at
the molecular level – carcinogenesis; Genotoxicity assays; Chromosome studies.
2) Routes and kinetics of toxicant uptake: Route of toxicant uptake – skin, lung, gills,
digestive system, uptake by plant, toxicokinetics; Interaction between and among trophic
levels as affected by toxic substances, Population and community end-points. Case study:
Benthic invertebrate communities in metal-contaminated sites exceeding criteria for
acceptable sediment quality.
3) Factors affecting toxicity: Biotic factors, Abiotic factors, (Temperature,pH and
alkalinity, Salinity, Hardness, Chemical mixtures, Dissolved organic carbon), Role of
particulates.
4) Metals and other inorganic chemicals: Properties and environmental behaviour of
metals and metalloids; Analytical methods; Temporal and spatial distribution of metals
and metalloids in the environment; Properties, occurrence, environmental behavior,
toxicity of – (i) mercury, (ii) Lead, (iii) Cadmium, (iv) Copper, (v) Nickel, (vi) Selenium,
(vii) Phosphorus, (viii) Fluorine.
5) Organic compounds: The nature of organic compounds; Pesticides – Chlorinated
organics, Organophosphate pesticides, Carbamate pesticides, Phenoxyacid herbicides;
Pharmaceuticals in the environment; Effect of organic chemicals on male reproductive
health; Environmental influences on breast cancer; Case study: Feminisation of fish in
English rivers.
6) Ionising radiation: Definitions and units of measurement; Sources of radiation; Effects
of radiation at the molecular and cellular level; Assessment of risk from radiation;
Electricity production from nuclear power; Ecological effects of radiation; Case study:
The Chernobyl accident.
7) Complex issues: The mining and smelting of metals; Environmental impacts of pulp and
paper mills and mitigation means; Environmental toxicology of mill effluent; Electrical
power generation – The issue of hydroelectric power; The environmental toxicology of
oil, fertilizers, pesticides.
8) Risk assessment: Methodology of ecological risk assessment and risk management,
Factors triggering risk assessment, Case study: Risk assessment of the Clark River
Superfund site.
9) Recovery, rehabilitation, and reclamation: Exposure and hazard; Removal of the
source of contamination; Removal of the contaminated material; In situ treatment;
Remedial action plans. Case study: The Thames Estuary: Compound pollution and
recovery.
10) Regulatory toxicology: Legal approaches to the regulation of toxic substances;
Procedures and policies; Risk assessment in a regulatory context.

Reference book: Wright, D. A. and Welbourn, P. 2002. Environmental Toxicology,


Cambridge University Press, UK.
1) Introduction: Classical toxicology, ecotoxicology, and environmental toxicology;
Assessment of toxicity: Dose-response; Acute toxicity bioassay; Relationship between
acute and chronic toxicity; Comparative bioassays; Sediment toxicity assays.
2) Toxicity at the molecular level: Carcinogenesis; Genotoxicity assays; Chromosome
studies.
3) Routes and kinetics of toxicant uptake: Route of toxicant uptake – skin, lung, gills,
digestive system, uptake by plant, toxicokinetics.
4) The general concepts and principles for biological indicators
5) Interspecies effects of toxic substances
6) Interaction between and among trophic levels as affected by toxic substances, Population
and community end-points.
7) Case study: Benthic invertebrate communities in metal-contaminated sites exceeding
criteria for acceptable sediment quality.
8) Factors affecting toxicity: Biotic factors, Abiotic factors, (Temperature, pH and
alkalinity, Salinity, Hardness, Chemical mixtures, Dissolved organic carbon), Role of
particulates.

Metals and other inorganic chemicals:


The properties and environmental behaviour of metals and metalloids;
Analytical methods, temporal and spatial distribution of metals and metalloids in the
environment
Mercury: properties, occurrence, and environmental behavior of mercury, toxicity of
mercury and populations at risk.
Lead: occurrence, sources, and properties of lead, Environmental transport and behaviour of
lead, Environmental exposure and toxicity of lead.
Cadmium: occurrence, sources, and properties of cadmium, Physiological and ecological
behaviour of cadmium, Toxicity of cadmium.
Copper: occurrence, sources, and properties of copper, Physiological and ecological
behaviour of copper, Toxicity of copper.
Nickel: occurrence, sources, and properties of nickel, Physiological and ecological behaviour
of nickel, Toxicity of nickel.
Selenium: occurrence, sources, and properties of selenium, Physiological and ecological
behaviour of selenium: toxicity of selenium.
Phosphorus: occurrence, sources, and behaviour of phosphorus, physiological and ecological
behaviour of phosphorus.
Fluorine: occurrence, sources, and behaviour of fluorine, toxicity of fluoride.
Organic compounds:
The nature of organic compounds; Pesticides – Chlorinated organics, Organophosphate
pesticides, Carbamate pesticides, Phenoxyacid herbicides, Bipyridilium herbicides, Triazine
herbicides; Polychlorinated biphenyls; Pharmaceuticals in the environment ; Effect of organic
chemicals on male reproductive health; Environmental influences on breast cancer;
Environmental mobility of organic compounds; Case study: Feminisation of fish in English
rivers.

Ionising radiation:
Definitions, Units of measurement, Sources of radiation, Effects of radiation at the molecular
and cellular level, Assessment of risk from radiation, Electricity production from nuclear
power, Ecological effects of radiation, Case study: The Chernobyl accident.

Complex issues:
The mining and smelting of metals, Environmental impacts of pulp and paper mills and
mitigation means, The environmental toxicology of mill effluent, Electrical power generation
– The issue of hydroelectric power, The environmental toxicology of oil, fertilizers,
pesticides,

Risk assessment:
Methodology of ecological risk assessment and risk management, Factors triggering risk
assessment, Case study: Risk assessment of the Clark River Superfund site.

Recovery, rehabilitation, and reclamation:


Exposure and hazard, Removal of the source of contamination, Removal of the contaminated
material, In situ treatment, Remedial action plans. Case study: The Thames Estuary:
Compound pollution and recovery.

Regulatory toxicology:
legal approaches to the regulation of toxic substances, Procedures and policies, Risk
assessment in a regulatory context.