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Lecture 4

Michael Herrmann

mherrman@inf.ed.ac.uk

phone: 0131 6 517177

Informatics Forum 1.42

30/09/2011

and the Building Block Hypothesis

Reminder: The Canonical Genetic Algorithm

1 Old population

2 Roulette-wheel selection

3 Intermediate population

rate pc (per pair of individuals) one generation

position in all strings)

termination)

S ∈ AL (A: alphabet; canonical: A = {0, 1}, L xed)

Search Spaces as Hypercubes

Binary encoding: solution c ∈ { 0 , 1 }L

⇒ Each Solution is a corner of the hypercube.

e.g.c = (0, 1, 0) for L = 3 or c = (0110) for L = 4

Sets of solutions:

(0, ∗, 0) denotes a line (1, ∗, ∗, ∗) denotes a subcube.

Schemata (J. Holland, 1975)

only asterisks, i.e. schema H ∈ {0, 1, ∗}L \ {∗}L

A schema denes a set of solutions (which coincide at the

no-wildcard symbols)

schemata

The order of the schema is the number of bits that are actually

there, e.g. **01***1 is a schema of order 3 (and length 8)

There are 3

L−1 dierent schemata (not counting the schema

of order 0: ** . . . *)

L hyperplanes (or 2

L−1 schemata)

How do GAs work?

The schema theorem (J. Holland, 1975)

and and crossover?

Goal:

1

H is a schema

t counts generations

E is the mathematical expectation

The Schema Theorem

(before starting the proof)

f (ci , t ): tness of solution ci in generation t

m (ci , t ): number of copies of ci in the population in generation t

f¯ (t ): average tness of the population in generation t

i

P

1 f (c ,t )

n f¯(t )

i

the probability of selecting ci n: population size

So above-average-tness strings get more copies in the next

generation and below average tness strings get fewer.

The Schema Theorem

Growth of t subpopulations

i (1+δ)f¯

f¯ m (ci , t ) = (1 + δ)m (ci , t )

If δ is constant then m (ci , t ) = (1 + δ)t m(ci , 0): Exponential growth

If m (ci ) is small compared to the population size n then δ can

indeed be considered constant ⇒ Innovations that cause an

increase in tness spread quickly in the population.

more t individuals also the average tness increases⇒ Fit solution

tend to dominate the population (crossover and mutation being

ignored for the moment).

Fitness of Schemata

tnesses dene the (average) tness of H at time t

1

û (H , t ) = m (ci , t ) f (ci , t )

X

m (H , t ) c ∈H

i

Note, that the sum is not taken over all possible c i ∈ H but only over those

which are actually present in the population.

How many instances of H can be expected after selection?

û (H , t )

E (m (H , t + 1)) = ¯ m (H , t )

f (t )

Selection of Fit Schemata: Example

What happens when we select and duplicate strings based of tness?

Suppose the solutions ci ,cj ,ck sample the schema H , i.e. ci ∈ H etc.

Using the formula for solutions:

f (cj , t ) = 2.5, m (cj , t ) = 2 ⇒ E (m (cj , t + 1)) = 2 × 21..50 = 5

f (ck , t ) = 1.5, m (ck , t ) = 2 ⇒ E (m (ck , t + 1)) = 2 × 11..05 = 3

All are tter than average, all increase in their number in the population.

For the schema H (assume sampled only by ci ,cj ,ck ): m (H , t ) = 6,

û (H , t ) = 61 (2 × 2.0 + 2 × 2.5 + 2 × 1.5) = 2

1

û (H , t + 1) = 12 (4 × 2.0 + 5 × 2.5 + 3 × 1.5) = 2, 083

Number of samples in this hyperplane is expected to increase, but...

Disruption of Schemata

regards to schemata. consider only disruptive eects.

Crossover:

1 1 * * * * * * Probability of disruption by

crossover?

1 * * * * * * 1

Mutation:

Schema Jargon

1 0 * * 1 1 0 * order 5

* 0 * * 1 1 * * order 3

last bit of the schema (i.e. number of potential cuts)

1 0 * * 1 1 0 * dening length 6

* 0 * * 1 1 * * dening length 4

i.e. bit position of last 0/1 minus bit position of rst 0/1

Disruptive Eects of Crossover

1-point crossover with probability pc

d (H ) is the dening length of H

H =* * 1 0 * 1 * * ⇒ d (H ) = 3

In a single crossover there are L − 1 crossover points:

1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 7 crossover points

d (H )

Pr (disruption) = pc

L−1

Example: Suppose pc = 0.8, d (H ) = 3, L = 100 ⇒

3

Pr (disruption) = 0.8 × 100 = 0.024

Disruptive Eects of Mutation

in turn)

o (H ) is the order of H

H = * * 1 0 * 1 * * ⇒ o (H ) = 3

H = 1 1 1 0 * 1 * 1 ⇒ o (H ) = 6

Probability that a bit survives is 1 − pm

Flipping a dened bit always disrupts a schema, so the

probability that the schema survives is

Pr (survival) = (1 − pm )o (H )

and o (H ) are both low

NAT04 30/09/2011 J. M. Herrmann

Towards the Schema Theorem

First Component of the Schema Theorem

û (H , t )

E (m (H , t + 1)) = ¯ m (H , t )

f (t )

d (H )

Pr (surviving crossover) = 1 − pc

L−1

Pr (surviving mutation) = (1 − pm )o (H )

û (H , t ) d (H )

(1 − pm )o (H )

E (m (H , t + 1)) = ¯ m (H , t ) 1 − pc ???

f (t ) L−1

The Schema Theorem

Schemata are not only being destroyed, but can also be created

though crossover and mutation. So we should write an inequality

Goal:

1

û (H , t ) is large: t

Highest

d (H ) is small: short

when

o (H ) is small: small number of dened bits

The Schema Theorem in words:

Short, low-order, above-average schemata receive exponentially

increasing trials in subsequent generation of a genetic algorithm.

Consequences of the Schema Theorem

crossover

The algorithm does not easily distinguish important genes

from hitchhikers

Other ways to change the tness?

The Building Block Hypothesis

During crossover, these building blocks become exchanged and

combined

solution although it only addresses the disruptive eects of

crossover (and the constructive eects of crossover are supposed to

be a large part of why GA work).

How do we address the constructive eects?

performance through the juxtaposition of short, low-order, high-

performance schemata, called the building blocks.

candidate solutions

stepping stone solutions which combine Hi and Hj to create

even higher tness schemata

The Building Block Hypothesis

Arguments against the validity of the BBH

converge, even slightly, it is no longer possible to estimate the

static average tness of schemata using the information

present in the current population.

size, the observed tness of a schema may be arbitrarily far

from the static average tness, even in the initial population.

guarantee larger schemata that are more t and these are less

likely to survive.

Encoding and Local Optima

variable

average over the

corresponding hyperplane

(or rather the sample

across the population)

Sampling of the

hyperplanes is essentially

unaected by local optima

The Building Block Hypothesis

Experimental Evidence

and observe the population. Do the building blocks combine to give

a good solution in the way the BBH predicts?

functions. Details: Mitchel, Chapter 4, pp 127-133.

Dene tness in terms of particular schemata:

Substrings that, if present in a population ought to be combinable

into the optimal solution.

They should lay out a Royal Road to the global optimum.

Each si has a tness coecient ci The tness R1( (x ) of some bit

1 if x ⊂ si

x R1 (x ) = i ci δi , δi (x ) =

P

string is given by:

0 otherwise

Royal Road Functions

Simple example using 16 bits. Suppose:

s1 = 1 1 1 1 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗

s2 = ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 1 1 1 1 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗

s3 = ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 1 1 1 1 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗

s4 = ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 1 1 1 1

and suppose c1 = c2 = c3 = c4 = 4 and

Sopt = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

P4

Then R1 Sopt = i =1 ci δi Sopt = 16

Take the string 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1. It samples matches s1

and s4 . So δ1 (x ) = δ4 (x ) = 1 and δ2 (x ) = δ3 (x ) = 0.

And R1 (1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1) = 8

Royal Road Functions

combinations of schemata with building blocks at dierent levels,

e.g. 4 contiguous 1s, 8 contiguous 1s, 18 contiguous 1s, etc.

against a number of hill-climbing schemes

Outlook

More examples

Genetic programming

GA: Experimental Evidence for Parameter Variation

40000 generations

1988-2009: 21 years

Initial population: 12

strains of Escherichia

Coli

Constant conditions:

restricted glucose supply

life span and eciency

strains but without any obvious eects on tness

more complex than expected

J. Barrick et al. (2009) Genome evolution and adaptation in a long term experiment

with Escherichia coli. Nature 08480.

NAT04 30/09/2011 J. M. Herrmann

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