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Agenda

 Presentation Rudolf Hensel GmbH and Audax-Keck GmbH


 Why do we need Fire Protection?
 Why do we need to protect Steelwork against fire?
 Steel Fire Protection Systems – Possibilities of Fire Protection
 Steel Fire Protection Systems – Principle of Fire Protection Coatings
 Steel Fire Protection Systems – Then and Today
 Steel Fire Protection Systems – Improvement of Constructions
 Steel Fire Protection Systems – What You can expect
 Steel Fire Protection Systems in the Future – Where do we want to go?
 Fire Protection Systems for Wood and Concrete
Presentation Rudolf Hensel GmbH
and Audax-Keck GmbH
Presentation Rudolf Hensel GmbH
and Audax-Keck GmbH
Why do we need Fire Protection?

A number of fundamental requirements


of fire protection are specified
in the Building Regulations
which are different in any country
Why do we need Fire Protection?

• Means of escape
• Internal spread of flame to linings
• Structural Integrity of the building
• Fire compartmentation
• Access and facilities for emergency services
• Reduce the rising cost of insurance polices
• Protect capital investment
• Reduce the possible risk to the fire fighters
Why do we need to protect
Steelwork against fire?

• Building Codes require that steel is protected


to ensure loadbearing strength
Why do we need to protect
Steelwork against fire?

• Building Codes require that steel is protected


to ensure loadbearing strength

• Temperatures rises from 20°C


to more than 1000°C
Why do we need to protect
Steelwork against fire?
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Fire Protection

Active Passive
Fire Protection Fire Protection

Sprinkler Halogen Fire Protection


Cementitious
Coverings Coating
Systems
Suppression Extinguishers
Systems

Activation only in case of Fire: Always active and alert:


High Maintenance Costs Low Maintenance Costs
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Active
Fire Protection

Sprinkler Halogen

Suppression Extinguishers

Activation only in case of Fire:


High Maintenance Costs
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Passive
Fire Protection

Fire rated doors


Structural fire protection
Barriers, Sealings

Fire Protection
Cementitious
Coverings Coating
Systems
Systems

Always active and alert:


Low Maintenance Costs
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Passive
Fire Protection

Structural fire protection

Fire Protection
Coverings Cementitious
Coating
(Boards) Systems
Systems

Always active and alert:


Low Maintenance Costs
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Passive
Fire Protection

Structural fire protection

Fire Protection
Coverings Cementitious
Coating
(Boards) Systems
Systems
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Structural fire protection

Coverings
(Boards)

Advantages
• Clean, dry installation
• Fire performance and finish all in one
• Up to 240 minutes fire performance
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Structural fire protection

Coverings
(Boards)

Disadvantages
• Hides the feature of the steel member
• No good on complex shapes
• Long application time
• Thickness at higher performance can be an
issue
• Weight can be an issue with dense boards
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Passive
Fire Protection

Structural fire protection

Fire Protection
Coverings Cementitious
Coating
(Boards) Systems
Systems
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Structural fire protection

Cementitious
Systems

Advantages
• Low Cost
• Thermal and accoustic insulation
• Up to 240 minutes fire performance
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Cementitious
Systems

Disadvantages
• Very messy application
• Easily damaged (no impact resistance)
• Space required for given protection
• Wire reinforcement might be required
• Difficult to ensure uniform thickness
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Passive
Fire Protection

Structural fire protection

Fire Protection
Coverings Cementitious
Coating
(Boards) Systems
Systems
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Coating
Systems

Advantages
• Ideal where the exposed profile of the steel
is a feature of the building design
• Only system suitable for castellated and
cellular beams where the openings are used
for services
• Light weight compared to other systems
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Coating
Systems

Advantages
• Thin film systems reduces the amount of
space used
• Up to 10 times faster to apply than boarding
systems
• Decorative topseals available
• Fibre free, no dust
• Easy to clean and maintain
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Coating
Systems

Disadvantages
• Quality checks required
• Primer compatibility checks required
• Drying times
• Masking may be required to surrounding
areas
• Skilled labour application for best results
Possibilities of Fire Protection

Coating
Systems

Intumescent coatings are the most efficient


coatings for
30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes
retardation time.
Now also successfully tested
up to 180 minutes!
Principle of Fire Protection Coatings

A Fire Protection Coating is a perfect fire protection for simple steel constructions
as well as for complex modern steel constructions.

The fire protection system

 reacts to the heat


and produces a temperature insulating char

 protects the steel construction


against critical temperatures

 saves valuable time


for evacuation and firefighting
Principle of Fire Protection Coatings
Intumescent Coatings

Principle (lat. intumescere = to foam) Temperature

Oxygen
Formation of a voluminous insulating
protective layer by developing a
Heat
carbon-rich foam and a concurrent Decomposition
expansion. products
Combustible Smoke
Heat gases
General composition of
an intumescent coating: Pyrolyse
Protective layer

1) Carbon source
Decomposition

2) Acid donor

3) Blowing agent Expansion

© Clariant Produkte DE GmbH


Principle of Fire Protection Coatings

* Melting of the binder


* Acid release by thermolysis of the acid donor
>300°C >550°C n
(NH4 PO3 ) n (HPO3 )n -n H O P4 O10
-n NH3 4
2 2

* Reaction of acid with the polyalkohol

(HPO3) n + Cx(H2O)m "C" x + (HPO3 )n m H2O

© Rudolf Hensel GmbH - 2014


* Thermolysis of the foaming agent
H2 N N NH 2
O2
N N NH3 N2 + H2O

NH2
* Development of a compact inorganic foam structure
2 HPO3 + TiO2 TiP2O7 + H2O
Principle of Fire Protection Coatings

The intumescent foam attains a thickness 10 to 100 times that of the


originally applied coating and insulates the substrate material by its
low thermal conductivity.
Principle of Fire Protection Coatings

Intumescent Coating

Flame Retardant Paint Fire Resistant Coating

• Public / Residential Fields


Construction Fields Industrial Fields
• Installations Fields

• Timber and/or Textile in • Airports


• Hotels • Hotels
• Industrial Plants
• Restaurants • Hospitals
• Off-Shore Plants
• Doors • Sky Scrapers
• Fuel Storage Tanks
• Roofs / Sealing • Shopping Centers

• Residential Houses • Nuclear Power Plants


• Cable trees and –ducts • LCD / PDP Plants
• Sealants

Spread of Flame / Flame Retardant Tests Cellulosic Fire Tests Hydrocarbon Fire Tests
Principle of Fire Protection Coatings

Fire Protection Coatings are efficient


in the phase of a fully developed fire!
Temperature

Flame Retardant Paints are efficient


in the phase of fire development!

fully developed fire

fire development
developmen

fire
ongoing
0 minutes hrs time
fire start flash-over

ignition source flame spread


full scale fire
risks flammability heat release

smoke, irritant, toxicity, corrosivity


Principle of Fire Protection Coatings

1200
1100
1000
900
Hydrocarbon Fire Curve
800
Temperature

700
Cellulosic Fire Curve
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time
ISO 834 UL 1709
Principle of Fire Protection Coatings
Temperature [°C]

Uniform-temperature-time-curve acc. to ISO R 834

Steel temperature at HpA = 200


without IC
Steel temperature
with IC Hensel

Time [min]

• ISO 834
Fire-resistance tests - Elements of building constructions
• ASTM E-119 / UL263
Standard test methods for fire tests of building constructions and materials
• BS 476 Part 20 and 21
Fire tests on building materials and structures
• EN 1363-1
Fire resistance tests - Part 1: General requirements
• EN 13381-8
Tests methods for determining the contribution to the fire resistance of
structural embers - Part 8: Reactive Coatings for steel members
Principle of Fire Protection Coatings

Primer

Primer
+ Intumescent Coating
Primer
+ Intumescent Coating
+ Top Coat

sand-blast cleaned steel surface accord to Sa 2,5

1st layer Primer → protection against corrosion

2nd layer Intumescent Coating → protection against fire

3rd layer Top Coat → protection against environmental influences


Steel Fire Protection Systems
Then and Today
Source: Rudolf Hensel GmbH Source: Rudolf Hensel GmbH

Source: Rudolf Hensel GmbH | © Werner J. Hannappel, Tomas Riehle R90 DFT 2-4 mm
Deko Paint VOC
R30 SB R30 SB R60 WB/SB R90 WB/SB
Green Building
indoor use less solvents weather-resistant weather-resistant
DFT 2-4 mm DFT 1-2 mm DFT 1-3 mm outdoor use LEED / DGNB

1970 1980 1990 2000 2010


Steel Fire Protection Systems
Then and Today
> 1970
 Architects recognize benefits of > 1980
fire protection paints for steel  Realisation of huge construction projects with steel-,
 IC solvent based anti-corrosion- and fire protection coatings
 For open profiles  Launch of single-layer systems with less solvent
 Fire resistance classification R30 contents
 High film thicknesses (2-3mm)  IC still mainly solvent based
 Mainly for indoor use  Improved colour designs due to top coat
developments

> 1990
 Launch of water-based IC
 Fire resistance classification > 2000
up to 60 Minutes (R60)  First approval for a solvent-based IC with
 Indoor use without top coat fire resistance classification R90
 More efficient formulas due to  First approval for water-based IC
a new generation of raw materials:  Construction projects with high surface
 improved weather-resistance requirements (smooth or textured)
 low coverage rates  Decorative steel fire protection systems
become more important
Steel Fire Protection Systems
Then and Today

> 2010

 R90 steel fire protection systems are more attractive


than plaster or panels
 Film thicknesses of 2 – 4 mm for R90/R120
(for plaster or panels ≥ 20 mm are necessary)
 DekoPaint-Standard (2010) requires very low VOC-emissions
 Growing demand of „Green Building“, sustainable building and LEED
Steel Fire Protection Systems
Then and Today

Modern steel fire protection systems

 provide maintenance-free long-term protection


 protect against corrosion
 are aesthetic due to low film thicknesses
 provide long fire resistance up to three hours (R180)
 protect filigree constructions too
 are cost-effective
 meet relevant standards worldwide
 are sustainable
Improvement of Constructions

Common tasks

• Optical attractive design

• Weight- and cost-optimized construction

• High-quality surfaces

Result Source: Rudolf Hensel

• Visible circular and rectangular hollow sections

• Thin-walled steel sections

• Inappropriate colour shades

Challenges

• Fire protection not duly taken into consideration in the planning stage
Improvement of Constructions

Background
• Heat conductivity of open profiles is better than heat conductivity of circular and rectangular
hollow sections
• Partially no approvals for circular and rectangular hollow sections
• Higher film thicknesses for filigree profiles required

Consequences for fire protection


• High film thicknesses for hollow sections required
• Additional work steps to reach the necessary film thickness
• Additional costs
• Big influence on the optical appearance of the steel sections

Conclusion
• Consideration of fire protection in the earliest planning stage will lead to cost-effective solutions
combined with a high level of fire safety and surface appearance.
Improvement of Constructions

Thermal absorption of different steel profiles

• Massive profiles heat up slowly

• Critical temperature is reached slowly

• Low film thickness of fire protection coating is sufficient

• Filigree profiles heat up quickly

• Critical temperature is reached quickly

• High film thickness of fire protection coating is necessary


Improvement of Constructions

Section Factor
(Low) Hp/(High) A
Section Factor
(High) Hp/(Low) A

• High fire resistance


•Less protection required
• Low fire resistance •Low film thickness
• Greater protection required
• High film thickness
Improvement of Constructions

Mathematical formulas for the calculation of the section factor Hp/A


Improvement of Constructions

brushed rolled sprayed


Steel Fire Protection Systems in the Future –
Where do we want to go?

Modern steel fire protection systems


for sustainable building

 Water-based
 Free from plasticizers
 Free from Substances of Very High Concern
(SVHCs)1),3)
 Free from CMR-Substances according to CMR-
Guidelines2),3)
 Free from halogenes3)

Source: Rudolf Hensel GmbH | © fotolia

1) Acc. to REACH-Regulation (EG) No. 1907/2006


2) BAuA (consisting of CLP-Regulation 1272/EG/2008 and TRGS 905/906)
3) Small amount > 0,1 % contained
Steel Fire Protection Systems in the Future –
Where do we want to go?

Modern steel fire protection systems


for sustainable building

 Green Building-Certifications:
LEED, BREEAM, DGNB
 PCF (Product Carbon Footprinting)
„CO2-Footprinting“4) acc. to ISO-Norm 14040/44
 Recycling: Clearance Certificate

Source: Rudolf Hensel GmbH | © fotolia

4) „CO2-Footprinting“ simplified for „CO2e-Footprinting“


Sustainable Fire Protection Systems

VOC Content vs. VOC Emission

VOC Content ≠ VOC Emission

product-specific property application-specific property


Sustainable Fire Protection Systems

Practical example of VOC in a project of 1,000 m²

Primer sb: 31 % VOC (m/m) Primer sb Primer wb

Primer wb: 4 % VOC (m/m) m VOC/Project [kg]: 59 8

DFT 60 µm: 190 g/m²

V (Solid) IC1-3: 70 %
IC1: 350 VOC g/Ltr
IC2: 50 VOC g/Ltr
IC3: 5 VOC g/Ltr

Wet amount IC1 VOC IC2 VOC IC3 VOC IC1 VOC IC2 VOC IC3 VOC
DFT [µm] WFT [µm] [Ltr/m²] [g/m²] [g/m²] [g/m²] Project [kg] Project [kg] Project [kg]

500 714 0,714 250 36 4 250 36 4


1000 1429 1,429 500 71 7 500 71 7
5000 7143 7,143 2500 357 36 2500 357 36
Sustainable Fire Protection Systems
VOC Emission

Absorption
and
Air Change
Analysis
Emission

Source: www.eurofins.com/voc-testing

Time Source: Eurofins

3 days (Renovation) 14 days 28 days


Sustainable Fire Protection Systems

Labels

Minimum legal
Quality labels Environmental label Building Labels
requirements

Emissionsge
prüftes
Bauprodukt
nach DIBt-
Grundsätzen

Z-…….
Sustainable Fire Protection Systems
Environmental Product Declaration

The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) includes information regarding resource consumption, e.g. energy,
water and renewable resources as well as information regarding emissions in air, water and soil.

The Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is based on the results of the LCI and specifies the concrete
environmental effects.

These are:
 Greenhouse effect
 Destruction of the ozone layer in the stratosphere
 Acidification of water and soil
 Eutrophication
 Formation of photochemical oxidants
 Exhaustion of fossil energy resources
 Exhaustion of mineral resources

Source: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_Product_Declaration

Furthermore additional information with respect to environmental issues (e.g. threats and risks for
human health) and/or information regarding function and performance of a product can be given.
Source: Technisches Komitee ISO/TC 207 „Environmental Management“, ISO 14025-2006
Sustainable Fire Protection Systems
Environmental Product Declaration (EPD)

Source: www.bau-umwelt.de
Sustainable Fire Protection Systems
Reference – HUGO BOSS AG, Metzingen – with HENSOTHERM® 420 KS

A new administration building for Hugo Boss


AG has been build on the campus of the
headquarters in Metzingen. With this building
the overall concept developed in the year 2000
has been continued. The construction site
started in February 2012. In May 2013 the
building was handed over to the user.

Certified according to DGNB Gold Standard IWS


Award 2013
Sustainable Fire Protection Systems
Fire Protection Systems for wood

Primer
HOLZGRUND AQ or
HOLZGRUND SB

Intumescent Coating
HENSOTHERM®2 KS AUSSEN

Top Coat
HENSOTOP 84 AUSSEN
Fire Protection Systems for concrete

Underground car park with HENSOTHERM® 820 KS

Preparation of the surface HENSOMASTIK® B 3000


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Thank you for your attention
Rudolf Hensel GmbH Audax-Keck GmbH
Lack- und Farbenfabrik Weiherstraße 10
Lauenburger Landstraße 11 75365 Calw
21039 Börnsen

www.rudolf-hensel.de www.audax.de
info@rudolf-hensel.de g.keck@audax.de

Phone +49 40 721062-10 Phone +49 7051 1625-0