U.S.

Depaftment of Tfansportation bdeml Aviation Adtlmismtim

Advisory Circular
Date: 6/2/97 Initiated By: AFS-820 AC No: 9%32B Change:

Subject: SAFETY IN AND AROUND HELICOPTERS

1. PURPOSE. This Advisory Circular (AC) providessafetyguidelines persons for associated helicopter with operations suggests and ways to avoid hazardsand reducethe risk of accidents. The informationin this AC pertainsprimarily to helicopteroperations conducted underthe provisionsof Title 14 of the Codeof Federal Regulations CFR) part 91; however, safetyconsiderations (14 the discussed be applicableto all helicopter may operations. 2; CANCELLATION. AC 91-324, SafetyIn andAroundHelicopters, dated6/21/79,is canceled.

3. RELATED CFR PARTS. Partsof the regulationsrelatedto the information in this AC are 14CFR parts91,133,135,137, and 175. 4. RELATED READING MATERIAL. The informationcontained this AC complements documents in the listedbelow. Currenteditionsof the following AC’s may be obtained no costby sending written request at a to U. S. Departmentof Transportation, Subsequent Distribution Center,A&more East BusinessCenter,3341 Q 75thAvenue,Landover, 20785: MD a. AC 90-87, HelicopterDynamicRollover. b. AC 90-95, Unanticipated Right Yaw in Helicopters. c. AC91-42, Hazardsof RotatingPropellerandHelicopterRotorBlades. d. AC 133-1, RotorcraftExternal-Load Operations Accordance FAR Part 133 in with e. AC 137-1, AgriculturalAircraft Operations 5. BACKGROUND. Aviation personneland passengers have been injured, some fatally, in helicopter accidentswhich would not have occurredhad passengers beenproperly briefed and basic safety practices observed.Someaccidents involvepassengers unawareof the danger,walk toward the aircraft’stailrotor who, afterdeplaning.Someaccidents resultfrom passengers seated the front of the aircraftinadvertently in hitting the aircraftcontrols. In othercases, pilots leavethe aircraftcontrolswhile theengines rotorsareturningin order and to assist passengers coordinatethe aircraft loading. To be conductedsafely, any ground operation or accomplished engines rotorsturningrequires with and meticulousobservation recognized of safetyguidelines and strict enforcement passenger of controlmures by trainedcrewmembers.

AC 91-32B

6/2/97

6. FLIGHTCREW AND GROUND CREW PERSONNEL. Conscientious, well-trainedpersonnel the are key to a safe operationand a major factor in the reductionof accidents. Standardized initial and recurrent training is essential. Aviation personnel shouldapply the basic safetyguidelines providedin this AC, observe procedures detailedin the appropriate manual,andparticipate all availabletrainingprograms.In additionto a in formal trainingprogram adherence a companyoperations to manualandtheuseof standardi& handsignalsas well asradiosin a high-noise environment importantelements a safeoperation. are of a. Manuz~L A part 135 certificateholderis requiredto prepareand keepcurrent a manual statingthe operator’s policies and procedures.The manual must be usedby the certificateholder’sflight, ground,and maintenance personnel.Althoughit is not requiredby part 91, it is goodoperating practicefor all operators to develop operations an manualdefiningcompanyprocedures responsibilities. and b. Training. Initial and recurrent training on a company’s operating procedures shouldbe providedto all employees. (1) Initial trainingteaches newemployee company’s a the operating policiesandprocedures helpsthe and employee understand his/herresponsibilities theguidelines safeoperating and for practices. (2) Recurrent trainingrefreshes employee’s an memoryon companyoperating policiesand ensures that eachpersonis adequately trainedandcurrentlyproficientin companyequipment procedures.In addition, and recurrenttraining shouldencourage employees continueusing safe operatingpracticesin the workplace. all to Companiesmay derive additionalbenefits,such as reducedinsurancerates, by providing formal recurrent trainingfor all employees. C. Hand Signals. Because thehighnoisefactorassociated helicopters, may be impossibleto hear of with it verbalcommunications is, therefore, and extremelyimportantto usestandardized signals. Commonly-used hand handsignalsareshownin appendix 2. 7. PILOTS. Undertheprovisionsof 5 91.3(a),thepilot-in-command (PIG)of an aircraftis directlyresponsible for, and is the final authorityas to, the operationof that aircraft; however,teamworkcan help ensurea safe operation. a. Rotorcraft Flight Manual. In accordance 5 91.9,a pilot operating civil aircraft (rotorcraft)must with a comply with theoperating limitationsspecified theapproved in RotorcraftPlightManual. b. Cockpit Check ProcedurdChecklist. A pilot shoulduse a cockpit check procedureor checklist appropriate the aircraft and operation. Use of a check procedure/checklist to establishes how a specificjob functionis to beaccomplished helpscrewmembers and developsafetyawareness. c. QuickTumaro und. Helicopterpilots may use a quick turnaroundoperationto avoid delaysat airport terminalsandminim& stop/start cyclesof theengine.During thequick turnaround procedure, pilots sometimes leavethecockpitwhile theengineandrotorsareturning. If possible, pilot shouldremainat theflight controls the whenever engine runningandrotorsareturning;however, it is necessary thepilot to leavethecontrols the is if for of a runningmachine, pilot shouldobserve following safetyprecautions: the the (1) Ensurethatwind conditions allow suchan operation beconducted will to safely.

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AC 91032B

(2) Ensurethat all controlsare secured accordance the aircraft flight manualandthe company in with operations manual. (3) Reduce rotorand/orengine to groundidle or minimum recommended rpm settings. (4) Ensurethat all passengers closelysupervised appropriately are by trainedcrewmembers. (5) Ensurethatno unauthorixdperson(s) approach aircraftunlessproperlyescorted. the 8. CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS. The type andnumberof crewmembers otherthan pilots varies,depending thetypeof helicopter on operation. a. Ground Crew Personnel. Groundcrewpersonnel shouldobserve following safetypractices: the (1) Beforea helicopter takeoffor landing,personnel shouldensure thehelipador areaof operations that is clearof all people, cargo,baggage, anything might beblown around theforceof thedowndraft. (See or that by figure 1.)

FIGURE 1. CLEAR HELIPAD/AREA OF OPERATIONS

(2) To avoid contactwith the main rotor blade,long piecesof equipmentor tools shouldbe carried horizontallyat or below waist level. Equipmentor tools of this type shouldneverbe carrieduprightand/orover theshoulder.(Seefigure 2.)

FIGURE 2. CARRYINGTOOLS/EQUIPMENT

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AC 91032B

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(3) Ensurethat thereis no loosecargoonboardthe aircraft and all doorshavebeenproperlysecured beforedeparture. b. Mechanic. Mechanicsare responsible ensuringthat a helicopteris mechanicallysoundfor the for operationbeing conducted. Mechanicshave an opportunityto observeand correct many potential safety problemsthatoccuronthe ramparea. Somespecificareas wheremechanics helpare: can (1) Foreignobjectdamage. (2) Tool accountability. (3) Spill removal. c. Fuel Servicing Pemnnel. Fuel servicingpersonnel shouldbe trainedin the safeoperationof fueling equipment.The following guidelines shouldbe observed: (1) No smokingwithin 50 feetof an aircraft. (2) The helicopter fuelingvehicles and shouldbe grounded dissipate to staticelectricity. (3) If a spill occurs,refuelingshouldbe stopped theairportfire department and notified,if necessary. (4) Groundpowerunits shouldnot beconnected disconnected or duringrefueling. (5) Fuel servicing personnel shouldnot carry lightersor matches whenrefueling. (6) At thefirst sightof lightningin thearea,refuelingoperations shouldbe suspended. (7) Refueloutsideonly. (8) Refuelingshouldnot be conducted passengers boardthe aircraftexceptin accordance with on with theprovisions paragraph of 13. (9) Checkthecolor andtypeof fuel. 100octane aviationgasoline (avgas)is greenand 100octanelow it leadavgasis blue. Jetfuel is usuallyclear,but sometimes is a verylight yellow color. d. External Load Riggem and Hookup Personnel. All rotorcraft externalload personnelshouldbe thoroughlytrainedin companyprocedures.Sinceriggingrequirements vary several may times in a singleday, trainingin the useof thecompany’s RotorcraftLoad Combination Flight Manual is of theutmostimportance for a safeoperation. Personnel involvedin this type of operationshouldbe briefed.on their specific dutiesand responsibilities. (1) Personnel shouldknow thehandsignals usedduringan external operation. load (See appendix 2.) (2) The sigmlman shouldbe in a positionvisibleto thepilot andthehookupperson, locatedto oneside of theflight pathandascloseto theoperating aspossiblewith his/herbackto thewind. (Seefigure3.) area

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AC 91-32B

wind

FIGURE 3. SIGNALMAN POSITION 9. PASSENGERS.

a. Passenger Boarding.

The pilot or othercrewmember shouldadvisepassengers to:

(1) Stay awayfrom therearof thehelicopter. (2) Crouchlow beforegettingto andgoingunderthemainrotor. (Seefigure4.)

,

FIGURE 4. CROUCH UNDER THE MAIN ROTOR (3) Approachthe helicopterfrom the side or front, but never out of thepilot’s line of vision. (See figure5.)

FIGURE 5. APPROACHING HELICOPTER (4) Hold firmly to hatsandloosearticles. (5) Neverreachup or dartaftera hat or otherobjectthat mightbe blown off or away.
(6) Protecteyesby shielding with a handor by squinting.

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AC 91032B

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(7) If suddenly blindedby dustor a blowing object,stopandcrouchlower or, betteryet, sit down and wait for help. (8) Do nottry to gropeor feelthe way to or from thehelicopter. (9) Remainclearof anelevated heliportplatform (rooftop or hehdeck) the pilot givesthe signalto until boardthehelicopter. (10) If the takeoff site is on a hill, passengers shouldnot approachor departthe helicopteron the upslope side.Avoid theareaof lowestrotor clearance. Approachthehelicopter from thefront, nevertherear. b. Brief&. The type of operation beingconducted dictatewhat type of briefing is necessary.For all will flights,pretakeoff briefingsshouldincludeat leastthe followingitems: (1) The useof seatbelts,includingshoulder harnesses, installed. if (2) Location and meansof openingexits, egressprocedures and, for overwaterflights, ditching procedures theuseof flotationequipment. and (3) Locationanduseof all emergency andsurvivalequipmnt on board,appropriate thetype of gear to operation conducted. (4) Applicablesmokingrestrictions theaircraftandon theground. in c. Passenger l%ecautio~~. Appropriateto the terrain, landing site, and type of operationconducted, passengers shouldbeinstructed: (1) Neverto unbuckleseatbelts preparation departing helicopter in for the until told to do so.
(2) Never to open any door (passenger cargo)unlessdirectedto do so by the pilot or another or crewmember. (3) Neverto removepersonal gearuntil instructed do so. to

(4) To usecautionwhenremovingcargofrom a helicopter that therestraining so devices not become do tangledin themain or tail rotors. (5) To departdownhillif thelandingsiteis on a hill andalwayswalk aroundthefront of thehelicopter, nevertherear,whenwalkingaroundthehelicopter avoidtheareaof lowestrotor clearance. figure 6.) to (See

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AC 91-32B

FIGURE6 DEPARTiNG DOWNHILL (6) To usecautionwhenexiting a helicopter, especiallyif the helipador helidecksurfaceis metal and slipperyor wet. (Passengers shouldalsobe told to look for netsor ropesandwatchfor a groundcrewmeniber usinghandsignalsto givedirections.) 10. PASSENGER EMERGENCY PROCEDURES. A crewmember shouldprovidethefollowing additional informationfor passengers: a. PassengerPosition. The passenger’s position at the time of impact is an importantfactor in a body survivableaccident.The “brace-for-impact” positionis usedto reducesecondary impact andflailing around. If contactwith theaircraftinterioris likely, thepassenger shouldplacehis/herbodyagainstwhat thepassenger will hit beforethe impact occurs. If a passenger restingagainstthe surrounding is structure,he/shecan “ride the structuredown” during the crash,thus avoidinga secondary impact. In addition,this position will reducethe forcesactingon thebody andcanhelp reduce severityof injuries.If a passenger in a seateqyipped the is with a shoulder harness a safetybelt,theharness and shouldbe snug,not slack.(Seefigure7.) FORWARD FACING SEAT REARWARD FACING SEAT

FIGURE 7. EQUIPPED WITH A SHOULDER HARNESS b. EmergencyWater Landing. Passengers shouldfollow theinstructions theflightcrewin theeventof a of forcedlandingin water and inflate lifevestsonly whenclear of the aircraft. If the liferaft lanyardis dangling loose,crewmembers passengers and shouldexercise extremecautionnot to accidentally the lanyardor allow pull it to become entangled theaircraft. with 11. CARGO. Cargo shouldbe loadedby helicopter companypersonnel.This helpsensure the cargois that properlysecured thecorrectweightandlocationof thecargois notedin theweightandbalance and computations for theflight.

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AC 91032B
12. HAZARDOUS lMAmRIALs (HAZMAT).

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a. The International Civil Aviation Organization and the IntemationalAir Transport Association TechnicalInstructions statethat no personmay transportany dangerous goodsin commerce unlessthat material is properlyclassed, describedpackagedmarked,labeled,handled, in conditionfor shipmentas specifiedin and theTechnicalInstructions. b. HAZMATTraining. HAZMAT recognition trainingis required air carrieremployees.AU aviation for personnelshould at least be able to identify HAZMAT since it is not always properly marked for air trarisportation. Crewmerribers shouldbe alertfor any HAZMAT which might be unlmowinglyloadedor carried onboard aircraft. the 13. RAPID REFUELING. Rapid refuelingis a refuelingoperationconducted while engines and/or rotor bladesareturning. Normally, helicopter rotor bladesshouldbe stopped beforerefuelingbegins.Both the aircraft andthe refuelingunit shouldbe properlygrounded thepilot shouldensure the propergradeof fuel and and that correctadditivesaredispensed thehelicopter system. While it is generallydiscouraged, into fuel rapid refueling of turbine-powered aircraftcan be accomplished safelyin sometypesof operations conducted if undercarefully controlledconditionsby properlytrainedpersonnel.Someoperators electto userapid refuelingprocedures in orderto reduce thermalstress, avoid hot-starts, keepengine and cyclesandstartsto a minimum. Air tour flights, flights conducted underthe provisionsof part 133 or 137, and similar operations conductingrapid refueling operationsshould ensure that all personneladherestrictly to safe operating practices. Reciprocating engine-powered aircraft fueled with avgasSHOULD NEVER be rapid refueledbecausegasolineis highly flammable. a. Training. All personnel flight crewmembers and who will be involvedin rapid refuelingprocedures shouldbe trainedin safe techniques procedures and beforeconductingsuch operations. Initial and recurrent ground trainingonrapid refuelingshouldbe includedin theoperator’s trainingprogramandspecifyeachperson’s dutiesand responsibilities.Training shouldincludeall of the specificenginemanufacturer’s recommendations and/orprocedures regarding checking fluid levels,cool downtimes,andotherpertinentitemsfor extendedperiod operations.Additionally.thetraininrrshouldincludethefollowing topics:
M’ Y

of 0 Characteristics jet fuel.

(2) Fuel quality controlprocedures.
of and (3) Operation fuel vehicles fuel tanks. of (4) Avoidance rotorblades. with (5) Communications thepilot.

(6) Fuel spill procedures.
of (7) Propergrounding theaircraft. injury response. (8) Personal

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AC 91032B

b. Passenger Safety. The marshallingand containment passengers a major consideration rapid of is in refuelingoperations.It is imperativethat the operatordevelopappropriate procedures ensurethe safetyof to passengers duringrapid refuelingoperations. c. Guidelines. The following guidelinesare generalsafe operatingprocedures.Flightcrew and ground crewmembersshould refer to the aircraft flight manual and other guidancedevelopedby the helicopter . manufacturer refuelingprocedures areuniqueto a specifichelicopter.Helicopterfueling while onboard for that engines operating are shouldbepermittedonly underthefollowing conditions: (1) Only turbine-powered helicoptersfueledwith Jet A or Jet A-l fuels shouldbe fueledwhile an onboard engine operating. is (2) Helicopters berefueled to while an onboard engine operating is shouldhaveall sources ignition of of potentialfuel spills locatedabovethe fuel inlet port(s). Ignition sources include,but arenot limited to, engines, engine exhausts, auxiliarypowerunits (APU), andcombustion-type cabinheater exhausts. (3) A Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) certificated pilot qualifiedin the helicopter must be at the aircraftcontrolsduringtheentirefuel servicing process. (4) Passengers shouldbe deboarded a safelocationbeforerapidrefuelingoperations to beginunlessthe PIC deemsit necessary passenger for safetythat they remainaboard. If passengers remainaboardthe aircraft duringfuel servicing, leastoneperson(otherthanthe PIC) trainedin emergency at evacuation procedures should be aboard. The operatorshould establishspecific procedures covering emergency evacuationunder such circumstances. (5) Smokingmust beprohibitedin andaroundthe helicopter duringALL refuelingoperations.Fueling personnel shouldnot carrycigarette lighters,matches, anytypeof sparking or ignitor deviceon their person while fueling. (6) Passengers shouldnot boardor deplane duringrapid refuelingoperations.No passengers shouldbe allowedwithin 100feetof thehelicopter rapidrefuelingoperation. (7) Only designated personnel, properlytrainedin rapid refuelingoperations, shouldoperate fueling the equipment.Written procedures shouldincludeguidelines safehandlingof thefuel andequipmnt. for (8) Persons directlyinvolvedwith therefuelingoperation not shouldbekeptclearof therefuelingarea. points that allow entry to the interior of the helicopterand are (9) All doors,windows, and access adjacent or in the immediatevicinity of the fuel inlet ports shouldbe closedandkept closedduringrefueling to operations. Fumesmust beadequately vented from theaircraftcabinduringfuelingoperations. (10) Fuel shouldbe dispensed approved from “dead-man” nozzleswith a flow rate not to exceed type 10gallons-per-minute liters-per-minute). (38 Whenfuel is dispensed fmed piping systems, hosecabinet from the shouldnot extendinto the rotor space. A curb or otherapprovedbarrier shall be providedto restrictthe fuel servicingvehiclefrom comingcloserthan 10feet (3 meters)to any helicopterrotatingcomponents. a curb or If approved barriercannotbe provided, fuel servicing vehicles should be kept 20 feet (6 meters)beyondany helicopterrotating components, a trainedpersonshoulddirect the fuel servicingvehicle’sapproachand and departure.

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AC 91032B 14. ROOFFOP HELIPORTS. rooftopheliports.

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Antennas,turbulence,and noise shouldbe considered when operating on

a. Antennas extremly difficult to seeduringdaylightandalmostinvisibleat night. Antennas are which have beenerected someone is not familiar with helicopter by who operational requirements an ongoing are problem b. Turbulencenear buildings is a significantsafety consideration.With severaltall buildings in close proximity andsufficientbreeze, turbulence the generated thewind blowing aroundthe buildingscancreate from severe turbulence up and down draftswhich may exceed operational and the limitations of the helicopter. The tiormzition obtainedby a pilot for flight planning shouldinclude wind velocity, gust spread,and type and locationof obstacles relationto the wind. Atitionally, the pilot shouldobtainreportsof the currentweather in conditions theheliportsite. at 15. HELICOPI’ER NOISE. Helicopteroperations frequentlyoccur in quiet areas. Such operations may requirethe use of noiseabate-t procedure. Pilots shouldbe trainedin techniques minim& noiseand be to awareof noise-sensitive areas. a. Turbine-poweredhelicopS generally quieterthanreciprocating are engine-powered helicopters.Blade slappingis themodulatingsoundof themain rotor;however,pilot techniquecanminimiz bladeslapping.Also, selecting specificroutes,altitudes,airspe&, ,andclimb and descent profiles can reducethe noiseperceptible to persons theground. on b. Meteorological conditions alsocan affix-t helicopternoise.Sincewind carriesnoise,a pilot shouldfly downwindof noise-sensitive areas, possible. if c. Warm air is more turbulentthancool air and turbulentair disperses sound. An inversionlayer has a tendency ‘bounce”the noiseto the surface,magnifyingthe sound. Whenpossible pilots shouldavoid flying to morningwith no underor in an inversion. The weatherconditionwhich most propagates noiseis an overcast wind
9

in d. It is good operatingpractice to includepertinent noiseabatement procedures the companyoperations manual.

David Acting

E. Hanley Deputy Director, Flizht Standards Service

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AC 91032l3 Amendix 1

APPENDIX 1. SAFETY PROCEDURES AROUND HELICOPTERS
1. Approachor leavethemachine a crouching in manner(for extraclearance main rotor). fkom

2. Approachor leaveonthe downslope (to avoidmain rotor). side

3. Approachor leavein pilot’sfield of vision (to avoidtail rotor).

4. Gamytoolshorizontally,belowwaistlevel(neveruprightor overshoulder).

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AC 91032B Appendix 1 5. Hold ontohardhatwhenapproaching leavingmachine, or unless strapsareused. chin

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6. Fastenseatbelt andshoulder harness installed)on entering (if helicopter leavefastened pilot and until signalsyou to release andgetout. it

7. If leavingmachine thehover,getout andoff in onesmooth,unhmied motion. at

8. Do not touchbubbleor anyof themovingparts(tail rotor linkage,etc.).

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612197 9. Keephelispotclearof loosearticles(waterbags,groundsheets, emptycans,etc.).

AC 91032B Appendix 1

10. Keepcookingfires well clearof helispot.

11. Loadingassistants shouldalwaysbe suppliedwith plasticeyeshields.

12. After hookingup thecargosling,moveforwardandto the sideto signalpilot (to avoidentanglement andgettingstruckwith loaded sling).

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13. Whendirectingthe machinefor landing,standwith backto the wind andarms outstretched toward thelandingpad.

wind

14. When directing the pilot by radio, give no landing instructionsthat require acknowledgement because pilot will havebothhandsbusy. the

15. Whenmovinglargercrews: a. Brief thecrew on safetyprocedures. b. Keepthemtogether well backat the sideof thelandingzone. (This providesa clearareafor and thepilot in theeventhe/she to landsuddenly has duringeitherlandingor takeoff.) c. Havethemfaceawayfrom the machine duringlandingandtakeoff. d. Haveeachperson afterhis/herownpersonal look gear. e. Havepersons pairedoff andreadyto getaboardas soonasthepilot givesthesignal.

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AC 91-32B Appendix 2

APPENDIX 2. HAND SIGNALS
The following signalsare given by a signalmanto an aircraft. The signalmanshouldface the aircraft fi-oma positionwherethe signalman readilybe seen thepilot. can by THIS AREA: Arms aboveheadin verticalpositionwith palmsfacinginward.

MOVE FORWARD: Arms a little aside,palms facing backwardand repeatedly movedupward-backward from shoulder height.
DAY NIGHT

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AC 91-32B Appendix 2

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MOVE TO LEFT: Right arm extended horizontallysideways directionof movement otherarm swung in and overhead samedirectionin a repeating in movement.

DAY

MOVE TO RIGHT: Left arm extended horizontallysideways directionof movement otherarm swung in and overhead samedirectionin a repeating in movement.

n

DAY

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AC 91-32B Appendix 2

STOP= Arms heldcrossed overhead.

DAY

NIGHT

CHOCKS INSERTED: Arms down, palms facingbackward,clenched fists, thumbsextended inward, mo+e armsfrom extended positioninward.
DAY

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AC 91-32B Appendix 2 .

6/2/97

CHOCKS REMOVED: Arms down,palms facing forward,clenched fists, thunibsextended outward,move armsfrom extended positionoutward.
DAY

SLOW DOWN: Arms downwith palmstowardground, movedup anddownseveral then times.

DAY

NIGHT

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AC 91-32B Appendix 2

MOVE REARWARD: shoulder he@.

Arms by sides,palms facing forward, swept forward and upward repeatedly to

DAY

ALL CLEAR= Right arm raisedat elbowwith thumberect.
DAY NIGHT

AC 91032B Appendix 2

.

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HOVER Arms extended horizontallysideways, palmsdownward.
DAY NIGHT

MOVE UPWARD: Arms extended horizontallysideways, beckoning upwardwith palmsturnedup.
DAY NIGHT

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AC 91-32B Appendix 2

MOVE DOWNWARD: down.

Arms extended horizontallysideways,beckoningdownwardswith palms turned

DAY

NIGHT

LAND: Arms crossed extended and downward front of thebody. in DAY

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AC 91-32B Appendix 2

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CUT ENGINE(S): Eitherarm andhandlevelwith shoulder, handmovingacross throat.
DAY

NIGHT

MOVE HOOK UP OR DOWN: Right fist held abovehead;left arm extended horizontally,palm facing outward,thensweptdownor up to indicatedirectionof hookmovement. DAY NIGHT

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AC 91032B Appendix 2

HOOKUP= Handsraisedalternately abovetheheadin a rope-climbing motionto takeup slack.

DAY

NIGHT

RELEASE SLING LOAD: Left arm extendedforward horizontally, fist clenched,right hand making horizontalslicingmovement belowtheleft fist, palm downward.

DAY

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AC 91032B Appendix 2

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TAKEOFF=

The right handis movedin a circularmotionoverhead, endingin a throwingmotionin thedirection

. .

of takeoff.Also meansloadclear,hookupgood.

fiImmlwm

SIGNAL:

Handraised, thumbUP.
NIGHT

DAY

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AC 91032B Appendix 2

NEGATIVE SIGNAL: Handraised,thumbdown.

DAY

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U.S. Department of liianspoftation Federal Aviation Administfation
800 Independence Ave., Washington, D.C. 20591 Official Penalty Business for Private S.W.

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