0 Up votes0 Down votes

2 views179 pagesDifferential geometry, tensor calculus and some group theory notes explained in a non rigurous manner. This notes are thought for physics students on a 3rd year undergraduate course.

Feb 14, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

Differential geometry, tensor calculus and some group theory notes explained in a non rigurous manner. This notes are thought for physics students on a 3rd year undergraduate course.

© All Rights Reserved

2 views

Differential geometry, tensor calculus and some group theory notes explained in a non rigurous manner. This notes are thought for physics students on a 3rd year undergraduate course.

© All Rights Reserved

- Neuromancer
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- How Not to Be Wrong: The Power of Mathematical Thinking
- Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
- Chaos: Making a New Science
- The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity
- How to Read a Person Like a Book
- Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The 6th Extinction
- The Housekeeper and the Professor: A Novel
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- A Short History of Nearly Everything
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- The End of Average: How We Succeed in a World That Values Sameness
- Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The Universe in a Nutshell

You are on page 1of 179

methods.

Enrique Alvarez

VI Maii MMXVIII

2

Index

1.1 Curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.2 Surfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.1 Differential forms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.2 The metric tensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.3 Winding numbers and such. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

3 Gauss’ integral 35

4 Surfaces revisited. 37

5 Differential Geometry 41

5.1 Geodesics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

5.2 Covariant derivative and curvature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

5.3 Differential manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

5.4 The two-sphere, S2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

8 Distributions 65

8.1 Fourier transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

8.2 Distributions on submanifolds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

9 Finite groups. 79

9.1 Normal subgroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

9.2 Schur’s lemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

9.3 Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

9.4 Partitions and representations of Sn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

3

10 Lie groups. 103

10.1 Matrix groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

10.2 Representations of SU p2q and SOp3q through tensor methods. 109

10.3 Representations of GLpnq through tensor methods. . . . . . . 111

10.4 Representations of U pnq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

10.5 Representations of Opnq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

11.1 The Lie algebra SUp2q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

11.2 Highest weight representations of SUp2q . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

11.3 Spherical Harmonics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

11.4 Spinor representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

11.5 Product representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

11.6 Wigner-Eckart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

12.1 SU(3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

12.2 Dynkin diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

12.3 The exceptional algebra G2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

12.4 Fundamental weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

13 Representations. 157

13.1 The Weyl group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

15.1 Dn “ SOp2nq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

15.2 SOp2n ` 1q ” Bn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

15.3 Clifford algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

16 Automorphisms 173

4

1

1.1 Curves.

x “ xpuq

y “ ypuq

z “ zpuq

u1 ď u ď u2 (1.1)

or else

xi “ xi puq i “ 1, 2, 3. (1.2)

One example is the circular helix

x “ a cos u

y “ a sin u

z “ bu

0ďuď8 (1.3)

The arc length is given by Pythagoras’ theorem

˜ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙2 ˆ ˙2 ¸

2 2 2 2 dx 2 dy dz

ds ” dx ` dy ` dz “ ` ` du2 (1.4)

du du du

d

ż u1 ˆ ˙2 ˆ ˙2 ˆ ˙2

dx dy dz

s01 ” ` ` du (1.5)

u0 du du du

a

y“ R 2 ´ x2 (1.6)

5

c ´ ¯2

dx2 ` ?R2x´x2 dx2 “ ? dx

ş ş ş

s “ dsa “ R2 ´x2

“

ş dt ´1 x

“ ?1´t 2 “ sin R (1.7)

Then

x

sin s “ (1.8)

R

For example, for the helix,

a

s01 “ a2 ` b2 pu1 ´ u0 q (1.9)

d~

x

~t ” d~x ” du

” c´

1 d~x

(1.10)

ds ds ¯2 du

du d~

x

du

~t “ ? 1 p´a sin u, a cos u, bq (1.11)

a2 ` b2

The normal to the tangent at a given point,

~t.~n “ 0 (1.12)

~n2 “ 1 (1.13)

In our example

~n “ ˘ pcos u, sin u, 0q (1.14)

It is clear that

~t2 “ 1 (1.15)

which implies that

~t~t9 “ 0 (1.16)

We can write

d~t

” κ ~n (1.17)

ds

where κ is called the curvature at a given point (there is a sign that must

be fixed by some convention); and the radius of curvature is defined by

1

κ” (1.18)

R

In the example

d~t a

“ 2 p´ cos u, ´ sin u, 0q (1.19)

ds a ` b2

6

so that

a2 ` b2

R“ (1.20)

a

which reduces to a when b “ 0.

It is clear that ´ ¯2

κ2 “ ~t9 (1.21)

We define the binormal as

~b ” ~t ˆ ~n (1.22)

In the example

~b “ ? 1 p´b sin u, b cos u, ´aq (1.23)

a2 ` b2

It is clear that the vectors p~t, ~n, ~bq form a moving trihedron along the curve.

Consider now

~

~b9 ” db “ ~t9 ˆ ~n ` ~t ˆ ~n9 “ ~t ˆ ~n9 (1.24)

ds

It is clear that this vector is orthognonal to both ~t as well as to ~b, so that it

must lie in the direction of ~n

d~b

” ´τ ~n (1.25)

ds

ahere τ is called the torsion of the curve at the point considered. For the

helix

~b “ ? 1 p´b sin u, b cos u, aqq (1.26)

a2 ` b2

and then

d~b 1

“ 2 p´b cos u, ´b sin u, 0q (1.27)

ds a ` b2

and then

b

τ “¯ 2 (1.28)

a ` b2

which vanishes for b “ 0 as it does for any plane curve. Finally, the derivative

of the normal vector has to lie in the plane spanned by p~t, ~bq

d~n

“ C1~t ` C2~b (1.29)

ds

We find that

C1 “ ~t.~n9 “ ´~n.~t9 “ ´κ

9

C2 “ ~b.~n9 “ ´~n.~b “ τ (1.30)

d~n

“ ´κ~t ` τ ~b (1.31)

ds

7

This is the last of Frenet-Serret’s formulas.

Frenet-Serret’s formulas also imply that the acceleration is given by

d2~t

ds2

“ κ d~n

ds ` κ~ 9 n “ ´κ2~t ` κτ~b ` κ~

9n

d2 ~ ~ ~

´ κ9 ~t ` τ9~b “ ´ κ2 ` τ 2 ~n ´ κ9 ~t ` τ9~b

n dt db

` ˘

ds2

“ ´κ ds ` τ ds (1.32)

Neglecting the derivatives of the curvature and the torsion, this yields the

familiar centripetal acceleration for plane curves, for which τ “ 0.

1.2 Surfaces.

xi “ xi pu, vq u1 ď u ď u2 v1 ď v ď v2 (1.33)

For example, the circular cone z2 “ x2 ` y2

x “ u sin v

y “ u cos v

z“u (1.34)

x “ cos u

y “ sin u

z“v (1.35)

a,b“2

ÿ Bxi Bxj a b

ds2 ” δij dx dx ” Edu2 ` 2F dudv ` Gdv 2 (1.36)

a,b“1

Bxa Bxb

For the cone

ds2 “ 2du2 ` u2 dv 2 (1.37)

and for the cylinder

ds2 “ du2 ` dv 2 (1.38)

The tangent plane to the surface at a given point is generated by the two

vectors

~ta ” Ba ~x a “ 1, 2. (1.39)

and normalized in such a way that

~t2a “ 1 (1.40)

8

~tθ “ pcos θ cos φ, cos θ sin φ, sin θq

~tφ “ p´ sin φ, sin cos φ, 0q (1.42)

2

~tv ” pcos v, ´ sin v, 0q (1.43)

~tv ” p0, 0, 1q (1.44)

~ ” ~xu ˆ ~xv

N (1.45)

|~xu ˆ ~xv |

N (1.46)

~ ” ?1 psin v, cos v, ´1q

N (1.47)

2

And for the cylinder

~ ” pcos u, sin u, 0q

N (1.48)

Consider now a curve on the surface; its tangent vector surely lies on the

tangent plane. We can project the derivative of the tangent vector with

respect to the arc (the normal curvature vector) on a tangential and a normal

component.

d~t ~

” kn ` ~kt (1.49)

ds

where ´ ¯

~kn ” κn N

~ ” ~k.N ~ N ~ (1.50)

Now, the fact that N~ .~t “ 0 implies that

d~t ~ ~

dN ~

d~x dN

κn ” .N “ ´~t. “´ . (1.51)

ds ds ds ds

The second fundamental form is defined as

´d~x.dN (1.52)

9

This means that for the sphere the first and second fundamental forms are

the same.

ds21 “ ds22 (1.53)

For the cone it gives

ds22 “ udv 2 (1.54)

and for the cylinder

ds22 “ du2 (1.55)

For the sphere, the determinant

g2 ” eg ´ f 2 “ sin2 θ ě 0 (1.56)

g2 “ 0 (1.57)

It so happens that

κn “ “ (1.58)

Edu2 ` 2F dudv ` Gdv 2 E ` 2F λ ` Gλ2

where

dv

λ” (1.59)

du

This defines a function κn pλq. The extrema of this function ara the

directions of principal curvature, κ1 and κ2 . The condition of an extrema

can be written as

e ` f λ ` λpf ` gλq f ` gλ e ` fλ

κpλq “ “ “ (1.61)

E ` F λ ` λpF ` Gλq F ` Gλ E ` Fλ

Then

pe ´ κEqdu ` pf ´ κF qdv “ 0

pf ´ κF qdu ` pg ´ κGqdv “ 0 (1.62)

¨ 2

dv ´dudv du2

˛

M ”˝E F G‚ (1.63)

e f g

It is also easy to prove ([2]) that they are mutually orthogonal.

10

In terms of those, the mean curvature is defined as

κ1 ` κ2 Eg ´ 2f F ` eG

M” “ (1.64)

2 2 pEG ´ F 2 q

and the gaussian curvature as

eg ´ f 2

K ” κ1 .κ2 “ (1.65)

EG ´ F 2

It is clear that when

g2 ě 0 (1.66)

the normal chapters are all convex; those points are dubbed elliptic points.

When

g2 “ 0 (1.67)

there is one direction with κ “ 0; those are parabolic points. Finally, when

g2 ď 0 (1.68)

some normal chapters are convex and others are concave; those are hyperbolic

points.

For the cone

2u 1

M“ 2u2

“ u

K“0 (1.69)

Clearly something special happens at the apex of the cone, u “ 0, although

the gaussian curvature does not see it.

The three vectors ´ ¯

~

~xu , ~xv , N (1.70)

onstitute a moving frame (that is, a frame at each point of the surface).

Consequently, we can expand

~

~xuu ” Γ111 ~xu ` Γ211 ~xv ` e N

~xuv ” γ 1 ~xu ` Γ2 ~xv ` f N ~

12 12

~xvv ” Γ122 ~xu ` Γ222 ~xv ~

`gN (1.71)

where the Christoffel sumbols are given by

GEu ´2F Fu `F Eu

Γ111 “ 2pEG´F 2 q

GEv ´F Gu

Γ112 “ 2pEG´F 2 q

2GFv ´GGu ´F Gv

Γ122 “ 2pEG´F 2 q

2EFu ´EEv ´F Eu

Γ211 “ 2pEG´F 2 q

EGu ´F Ev

Γ212 “ 2pEG´F 2 q

EGv ´2F Fv `F Gu

Γ222 “ 2pEG´F 2 q

(1.72)

11

~ 2 “ 1 we know that

Also, from N

~ u “ p1 ~xu ` p2 ~xv

N

~ v “ q1 ~xu ` q2 ~xv

N (1.73)

onlt on E, F, G, and their first derivatives. This shows that it is a bending

invariant, in Struik’s words. This means that those properties are intrinsic

to the surface, and they do not depend on how the surface is imbedded in

euclidean ambient space. The theorem can be proven by demanding that

~xuuv “ ~xuvu

~xvvu “ ~xuvv (1.74)

12

2

spaces

n

ÿ

@v P V v“ v i ei ” v i ei (2.1)

i“1

contravariant coupled with covariant indices. Given a nonsingular n ˆ n

matrix, we can change to a different basis, fa

fa ” Aia ei (2.2)

v “ v a fa “ v i ei “ v a Aja ej (2.3)

and owing to the fact the the basis elements are linearly independent,

Aja Bia “ δij (2.5)

For the time being, indices cannot be raised or lowered. Consider now the

dual space, V ˚ .

We can define the dual basis of the basis of V through

13

Please note carefully the position of the indices in the Kronecker delta.

Those are the only deltas that are allowed in this course. Any element

ω P V ˚ can be expanded in the dual basis

ω ” ω i i (2.8)

ω i Ñ Aia ω a (2.9)

Everybody heard aboud some wild and ferocious animals called tensors.

What are those? Consider bilinear mappings from

V ˆV˚ Ñ R (2.10)

Owing to linearity, it is enough to know the values on the basis, because

The space of those animals is called the tensor product of V ˚ b V , and its

elements are called (1-covariant 1-contravariant) tensors. Under a change of

basis

Ti j Ñ Aai Bbj Ta b (2.13)

The set of all those (1,1) tensors is another vector space, which is calles the

tensor product of V ˚ b V

E l b ei P V ˚ b V (2.14)

that is

Ti j ‰ T j i (2.16)

Ordinary vectors and ordinary dual vectors are particular instances (0,1)

and (1,0) respectiveli. The generalization to

..V ˚

an absolute property. There is no in general a canonical way of raising or

lowering indices. When there is a metric, there is such a canonical way.

14

But before introducing a metric, let us examine some particularly intere-

sting tensors which are defined independently of the metric. As a matter of

notation, let us define the symmetrization operator

1 ÿ

Tpa1 ...ap q ” Taπp1q ...aπqnq (2.18)

p! πPS

p

where the sum extends over all p! elements of the permutation group Sp ; as

well as the antisymmetrization operator

1 ÿ

Tra1 ...ap s ” p´1qPπ Taπp1q ...aπqnq (2.19)

p! πPS

p

Let us identify tangent vectors ~v P Tx with directional derivatives of func-

tions defined at a given point

~v pf q ” v µ Bµ f (2.20)

Bµ (2.21)

df p~v q ” ~v pf q (2.22)

ω1 : v P Rn Ñ ωpvq P R (2.23)

dxa pBb q “ δba (2.24)

antisymmetric

Aa1 ...ap ” Ara1 ...ap s (2.25)

Dor examplem ω P Λ2 :

15

• Exterior product. The exterior product of two one-forms yields a

two-form

ˆ ˙

ω1 pv1 q α1 pv1 q

pω1 ^ α1 qpv1 , v2 q ” det (2.27)

ω1 pv2 q α1 pv2 q

form

ÿ

pωk ^ ωl q pv1 . . . vk`l q ” ˘ωk pvi1 . . . vik qωl pvik`1 . . . vik`l q (2.28)

ωp ^ ωq “ p´1qpq ωq ^ ωp (2.29)

Sometimes we shall write

dxµ1 ...µp ” dxµ1 ^ . . . ^ dxµp (2.30)

This means that for every odd degree form

ω2p`1 ^ ω2p`1 “ 0 (2.31)

• Coordinate basis.

In the basis of the tangent space associated to a local chart, pxα q,

ÿ

ωk ” ωι1 ...ιk dxι1 ^ . . . ^ dxιk (2.32)

ι1 ă...ăιk

ν

(2.33)

1

α ” αµ1 ...µp dxµ1 ^ . . . ^ dxµp (2.34)

p!

It is exceedingly useful to introduce the Kronecker symbols

λ1 λ

λµ11 ...λ p p

...µp ” p! δrµ1 . . . δµp s (2.35)

It is a good exercise to prove that

ρµ11...ρ p

...µp αρ1 ...µp “ p! αµ1 ...µp

...µq ν1 ...νp`q “ q! λν11...ν

...λq σ1 ...σp

p`q

...µq ρ1 ...ρp “ p! µ1 ...µq (2.36)

A general formula for the exterior product is given by

1 1

α^β “ αλ1 ...λp βµ1 ...µq dxλ1 ^ . . . ^ dxλp dxµ1 ^ . . . ^ dxµq (2.37)

p! q!

16

• Exterior differential. The differential of a function is given by a

one-form ÿ

df ” Ba f dxa (2.38)

In the general case, the differential of a p-form is a (p+1)-form

ÿ

dω ” dωι1 ...ιk ^ dxι1 ^ . . . ^ dxιk (2.39)

ι1 ă...ăιk

1

pdαqµ0 µ1 ...µp ” λ0 λ1 ...λp Bλ αλ ...λ (2.40)

pp ` 1q! µ0 µ1 ...µp 0 1 p

The uselfuness of exterior calculus stems essentially from the basic fact

that

d2 “ 0 (2.41)

It is also a fact that the graded Leibnitz rule holds, id est,

• Pullback.

φ : x P Mp Ñ y P Nq (2.43)

By i

ω “ ai dy i P ΛpN q Ñ φ˚ ω ” ai pypxqq dxa P ΛpM q (2.44)

Bxa

It is fact of life that

d pφ˚ ωq “ φ˚ dω (2.45)

~ ˆ ~v “ ~0 ùñ ~v “ ∇φ

∇ ~ (2.46)

dω “ 0 ùñ ω “ dα (2.47)

This is not true in general, and the number of independent ω that fail

to satisfy that is called the Bettti number of the manifold. Let us prove

this theorem. Given a p-form,

1

ωp P ΛpRn q ” ωa ...a px1 , . . . xn q dxa1 ^ dxa2 . . . ^ dxap (2.48)

p! 1 p

, define the homotopy operator, K in two steps. First define a Λp`1

form

1

pφ ˚ ωq ” ωa ...a ptx1 , . . . , txn q pxa1 dt ` tdxa1 q^pxa2 dt ` tdxa2 q^. . .^pxap dt ` tdxap q

p! 1 p

(2.49)

17

Now the operator K is defined in two steps. In those monomials of

φ˚ ω not involving dt

Kω “ 0 (2.50)

On monomials of φ˚ ω involving dt

ˆż 1 ˙

pKωq ” pφ ωq~a ptxqdt dx~a

˚

(2.51)

0

ω “ xdx ^ dy ` ez dy ^ dz (2.52)

` ˘

“ ´t2 xy dt ^ dx ` t2 x2 ´ etz tz dt ^ dy ` etz ty dt ^ dz ` no dt terms

(2.53)

ş1 ` ˘

α ” Kω “ ´t2 xy dt ^ dx ` t2 x2 ´ etz tz dt ^ dy ` etz ty dt ^ dz “

0

´ 2 z

¯ z

“ ´ 13 xydx ` x3 ´ e pz´1q`1

z dy ` y e pz´1q`1

z2

dz (2.54)

since ż

ueu du “ eu pu ´ 1q (2.55)

ω “ dα (2.56)

as

a

ηµ1 ...µn ” |g| 1...n

µ1 ...µn (2.57)

Actually, 1...n

µ1 ...µn is not a tensor. Let us work it out in two dimensions.

Denote the jacobian matrix

Bxb

Jab1 ” (2.58)

Bxa1

and its determinant by J ” detJab1 Also the determinant of the metric

itself does not transform as a true scalar, but rather

Then

? 1 1 1a 1 1 1 1 1

ηab dxa ^dxb “ gab Jaa1 Jbb1 dxa ^dxb “ g Ja1 b1 dxa ^dxb “ ηa1 b1 dxa ^dxb

J

(2.60)

18

This means that

?

g ab (2.61)

is a true tensor. Some properties;

1 µ1 ...µn

η µ1 ...µn “ a 1...n

|g|

µ ...µ

ηλ1 ...λp λp`1 ...λn η λ1 ...λp µp`1 ...µn “ p! λp`1

p`1 n

...λn

∇ρ ηµ1 ...µn “ 0

a

dpvolq ” ηµ1 ...µn dxµ1 ^ . . . ^ dxµn “ |g|dx1 ^ . . . ^ dxn

dxµ1 ^ . . . ^ dxµn “ η µ1 ...µn dpvolq (2.62)

The Hodge operator maps p-forms into (n-p)-forms.

˚ : Λp Ñ Λn´p (2.63)

It is defined by

1

p˚Aqµp`1 ...µn ” ηµ ...µ Aµ1 ...µp (2.64)

p! 1 n

It is clear that in R3

˚dz “ dx ^ dy

˚dy “ dz ^ dx

˚dx “ dy ^ dz (2.65)

degree of the form

˚2 : Λp Ñ Λp (2.66)

First of all

1 1

p˚Aqa1 ...an´p “ ηb ...b a ...a Ab1 ...bp “ p´1qppn´pq ηa1 ...an´p b1 ...bp Ab1 ...bp

p! 1 p 1 n´p p!

(2.67)

and

1 1 b1 ...bn´p d1 ...dp A

p˚2 Aqc1 ...cp “ p! pn´pq! ηc1 ...cp b1 ...bn´p η d1 ...dp “

d ...d

“ p!1 c11...cp Ad1 ...dp “ Ac1 ...cp

p

(2.68)

˚2 “ p´1qppn´pq (2.69)

In four dimensions (actually, in any even dimension)

˚2 “ p´1qp (2.70)

19

In R4

˚dx ^ dy “ dz ^ dw (2.71)

ω2 ” dx ^ dy ` dz ^ dw (2.72)

˚2 “ `1. (2.73)

It is given by

δ ” p´1qp ˚´1 d˚ (2.75)

1 µ1 ...µp

pδαqρ1 ...ρp´1 “ ´ ∇ν αµ1 ...µp (2.76)

p! νρ1 ...ρp´1

given by

pipXqωq pv1 . . . vp´1 q ” ωp pX, v1 . . . vp´1 q (2.77)

by an elementary cell of R3

– It stays the same when we add to a given vector a linear combi-

nation of the other vectors.

– Depends in a linear way on all vectors.

ÿ

V “ ijk v1i v2j v3k “ η p~v1 , ~v2 , ~v3 q (2.78)

example, in R4 ,

20

1 bcd

– Codimension-1 hypersurfaces dSa ” 3! ηabcd dx Consi-

der for example the hypersurface

S ” tx4 “ T u (2.80)

n “ p0, 0, 0, 1q (2.81)

xi “ ξ i (2.82)

so that

1 a

dSa ” n gpx4 “ T q d3 ξ (2.83)

3!

1 cd

– Codimension-2 hypersurfaces dVab ” 2! ηabcd dx Consi-

der the two-sphere

S2 ãÑ R4 (2.84)

x4 “ T

x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 “ R 2 (2.85)

xi “ xi pθ, φq (2.86)

n1 “ p0, 0, 0, 1q

n2 “ px, y, z, 0q (2.87)

a

dVab “ n1a n2b gpT, θ, φq dθ ^ dφ (2.88)

1 d

– Codimension-3 hypersurfaces dVabc ” 3! ηabcd dx

xi “ xi0 (2.89)

x4 “ σ (2.90)

21

there are now three normals

ni ” e i (2.91)

b

dVabc “ n1a n2b n3c gpxi0 q dσ (2.92)

ż ż

ω“ dω (2.93)

BV V

The classical theorems of Gauss, Stokes and the divergence are but

particular instamces of this. For example

ż ż

dA1 “ A1 (2.94)

S2 C1 ”BS2

If A1 is a 1-form of R3

A1 ” Ai dxi (2.95)

then

1

dA2 “ pBi Aj ´ Bj Ai q dxi ^ dxj (2.96)

2

It is customary to define the rotational or curl as

ż ż

1

dA2 “ pBi Aj ´ Bj Ai q dxi ^ dxj “ (2.98)

S S 2

It is customary to define

1

ni dS ” ijk dxj ^ dxk (2.99)

2

so that

ÿ ÿ

protAqi ni dS “ pBj Ak ´ Bk Aj q dxj ^ dxk (2.100)

i jk

ż ż

~ A

rot ~ ~n dS “ ~ d~x

A (2.101)

S BS

22

Let us now apply it to

ż ż

dω2 “ ω2 (2.102)

V3 BV3

Write

1

ω2 ” ωij dxi ^ dxj (2.103)

2

so that

1 1

dω2 ” Bk ωij dxk ^ dxi ^ dxj “ Bk ωij kij dV (2.104)

2 2

Now we define the dual one-form

1

Ωi dxi ” p˚ω2 q1 ” ijk ωjk (2.105)

2

then

~

dω2 “ Bk Ωk ” divΩ (2.106)

and we recover Gauss’divergence teorem

ż ż

~

div Ω dV “ ~ ~n dS

Ω (2.107)

V BV

x “ R sin θ cos φ

y “ R sin θ sin φ

z “ R cos θ (2.108)

a

z ” 1 ´ x2 ´ y 2 (2.109)

sin φ “ ? 2y 2

x `y

a

sin θ “ x2 ` y 2 (2.110)

Bθ cos φ

Bx “ cos θ

Bθ sin φ

By “ cos θ

Bφ y

Bx “ ´ sin2 θ

Bφ x

By “ sin2 θ (2.111)

Exterior normal

~ “ xv x `yv y `zv z

~v .ds R R2 sin θdθdφ “

“ R pv x sin θ cos φ ` v y sin θ sin φ ` v z cos θq sin θdθdφ

(2.112)

23

Assume, for example,

B

v“z (2.113)

Bz

(such that

~ v “ 1q

∇~ (2.114)

żR 3 ˇR

ż ż ˇ

~ v dpvolq “ r 4

∇~ 2

r dr sin θdθdφ “ 2π ˇˇ “ πR3 (2.115)

S2 0 3 0 3

This equals

ż

3

ˇπ 4π 3

R sin θ cos2 θdφ “ ´2πR3 cos3 θˇ0 “ R (2.116)

3

directional derivative

~v pf q “ £p~v qf (2.117)

The Lie derivative of a one-form is defined in a natural way.

Leibnitz’ rule holds true

~ “ x£p~v qα, Xy

£p~v qxα, Xy ~ ` xα, £p~v qXy

~ (2.120)

It is a fact that

~ Y

£pXq ~ “ rX,

~ Y~s

~ “ ipXqd

£pXq ~ ` dipXq

~ (2.121)

ξ : x P M Ñ y “ ξpxq P M (2.122)

define a different vector ξ˚ v P Ty through

24

Given a one-form ω P Ty˚ we define another form ξ ˚ ω P Tx through

If it were a 2-form

pξ ˚ ωq pv, wq “ ω pv, wq (2.127)

that is

pξ ˚ ωqαβ pxq “ ωµν pyqBα ξ µ Bβ ξ ν (2.128)

The metric tensor in Rn is defined through

with

g ” det gab ‰ 0 (2.130)

so that there is the inverse matrix

where

dΩ2 ” dθ2 ` sin2 θdφ2 (2.133)

Then, there is a canonical mapping from

V ÑV˚ (2.134)

V ˚ pV q ” gpV, V q (2.135)

This is

Va “ gac V c V a “ g ab Vb (2.136)

Ordinary derivatives of any object more complicated than scalar (id est, a

vector, or any higher rank tensor) are not tensors, not even in Rn . This is

because under the change of coordinates

xa Ñ y α pxa q (2.137)

25

under which

By α b

V α pyq ” V pxq (2.138)

Bxb

derivatives transform as

BV α pyq B 2 y α Bxc b By α BV b pxq Bxc

“ V pxq ` (2.139)

By γ Bxb Bxc By γ Bxb Bxc By γ

Let us lighten the notation a little bit. First of all,

B

Bα ”

By α

B

Bb ” b (2.140)

Bx

Er also introduce

By α

Jbα ” (2.141)

Bxb

Then

` ˘a Bxa

J ´1 β

” (2.142)

By β

is the inverse matrix ` ˘ ` ˘

J J ´1 “ J ´1 J “ 1 (2.143)

The previous equation reads

˘c ˘c

Bγ V α “ J ´1 γ Bc Jbα V b ` Jbα Bc V b J ´1 γ

` `

(2.144)

by the covariant indices and columns by the contravariant indices. The

equation then reads

` ˘

BV pyq “ J ´1 BJV ` J ´1 BV pxqJ (2.145)

derivative in such a way that

` ˘

∇V “ J ´1 ∇V J (2.146)

∇V “ BV ` ΓV (2.147)

(Γ is a three-index beast). In order for that to be true the transformed

covariant derivative

` ˘

BV pyq ` ΓpyqV pyq “ J ´1 BJV ` J ´1 BV pxqJ ` ΓpxqV pxq (2.148)

ought to be equal to

ˆ ˙

´1

J BV pxq ` ΓpxqV pxq J (2.149)

26

This would be true provided the Γ transform as

Γpyq “ J ´1 BJ ` J ´1 ΓJ (2.150)

This is what mathematicians call a connection. The surprising thing is that

whenever there is a metric, there is such a connection, which is called the

Levi-Civita one, and the coefficients, the Christoffel symbols,

1

Γαβγ ” g αλ p´Bλ gβγ ` Bβ gλγ ` Bγ gλβ q (2.151)

2

Let us check that

" ¯*

1 α λ al ´ ¯ ´ ¯ ´

Γαβγ

“ Ja Jl g b c l c

´ Bλ Jβ Jγ gbc ` Bβ Jλ Jγ glc ` Bγ Jβ Jλ gbl b l

“

2

"

1

“ Jaα Juλ g au ´ Bλ Jβb Jγc gbc ´ Jβb Bλ Jγc gbc ´ Jβb Jγc Bλ gbc `

2

`Bβ Jλl Jγc glc ` Jλl Bβ Jλc glc ` Jλl Jγc Bβ glc `

*

b l b l b l

`Bγ Jβ Jλ gbl ` Jβ Bγ Jλ gbl ` Jβ Jλ Bγ gbl (2.152)

If this were all, this would have been a true tensor. But there is more.

Taking into account that

Bα Jβa “ Bβ Jαa , (2.154)

the terms in the paces 11 and 21 cancel, as do the terms 12 and 32. The

rest (22+31) yield

QED.

The two basic properties of the Levi-Civita connection are

Γαβγ “ Γαγβ

∇α gβγ “ 0 (2.156)

Spheres are defined as

n

ÿ

S” x2a “ L2 (2.157)

a“1

27

The n-dimensional ball is defined as

n

ÿ

Bn : x2a ď L2 (2.158)

a“1

na “ cBa S “ c xa (2.159)

Let us study the one form in Rn

ÿ

rdr ” xi dxi “ x1 dx1 ` x2 dx2 ` . . . ` xn dxn (2.160)

i

It is clear that

“ p´1qi´1 xi dx1 ^ . . . ^ dxxi ^ . . . ^ dxn

ř

(2.161)

(n-1)-form

dSa “ cna ˚ rdr (2.162)

On the other hand

ÿ

d ˚ rdr “ p´1qi´1 dxi ^ dx1 ^ . . . ^ dx

xi ^ . . . ^ dxn “ nη (2.163)

L

V pBn q “ nV pSn´1 q

π n{2

V pBn q “ Γpn{2`1q (2.164)

In particular, we recover

V pB3 q “ 34 πL3

V pS2 q “ 4πL2 (2.165)

ω3 “ r2 sin θ dr ^ dθ ^ dφ (2.167)

r“L (2.168)

Consider ÿ

rdr “ xi dxi (2.169)

28

It is plain that

ÿ

˚rdr “ p´1qi´1 xi dx1 ^ . . . ^ dx

xi ^ . . . ^ dxn (2.170)

In E2

˚rdr “ xdy ´ ydx “ r2 dθ (2.171)

Again, in E3 , it is easy to work out that

It is a fact that

σ 1 “ ˚rdr (2.173)

(on the sphere Sn´1 ), because

Demonstratio.

d p˚rdrq “ nωn (2.174)

and in particular in E3

1

dp˚rdrq “ ω3 (2.175)

r2

π : En z0 ÝÑ Sn´1 (2.176)

~x

πp~xq ” (2.177)

|x|

We know that ` ˘

d π ˚ σ 1 “ π ˚ dσ 1 “ 0 (2.178)

(because there are no n-forms in Sn´1 ). Let us show that

σ

π˚σ1 “ ”τ (2.179)

rn

(σ 1 is the restriction of σ to Sn´1 ).

1 n n n

dτ “ n

dσ ´ n`1 prdrq ^ σ “ n ω ´ n ω “ 0 (2.180)

r r r r

Now, define

p´1qi´1 πi dπ1 ^ . . . ^ dπ

ř

π˚σ1 “ xi ^ . . . ^ dπn “

p´1qi´1 xri r 1

ř

“ 2pn´1q prdx1 ´ x1 drq ^ . . . ^ dπi ^ . . . ^ prdxn ´ xn drq “

x

(2.181)

29

In E2

x y y x 1

π˚σ “ d ´ d “ 2 σ “ dθ (2.182)

r r r r r

In E3 is clear that it is going to give the same as σ without the radial

coordinate. This defines the angular measure, τ .

f: M ÝÑ N (2.183)

This is dubbed the degree of f, deg f . When Σ ãÑ En z0, we can deinne the

projection as above

π : Σ Ñ Sn´1 (2.184)

Then

ż ż ż ż

τ“ π˚σ1 “ σ 1 “ deg π σ 1 “ deg π An´1 (2.185)

Σ Σ πpΣq Sn´1

f π

Mn´1 ÝÑ En z0 ÝÑ Sn´1 (2.186)

ż

1

w” f˚ τ (2.187)

An´1 M

In general, given

f

Mn ÝÑ Nn (2.188)

and a volume form β in N normalized to 1

ż

β“1 (2.189)

N

we have ż

degf “ f ˚β (2.190)

Let us now study the Hopf invariant. Normalize

ż

σn “ 1 (2.191)

Sn

Consider a map

f

S3 ÝÑ S2 (2.192)

30

Then

dpf ˚ σ2 q “ f ˚ pdσ2 q “ 0 (2.193)

Now, it is known that S3 does not have nontrivial cycles, so that D α1

dα1 “ f ˚ σ2 (2.194)

ż

α1 ^ f ˚ σ2 (2.195)

|z|2 ` |w|2 “ 1, and the sphere S2 as

zS ” rS eiφS (2.196)

1 1

ds2 ”

` 2

drS ` rS2 dφ2S

˘

2 2 dzS dz¯S “ ` ˘2 (2.197)

p1 ` |zS | q 1 ` rS2

xS

xS Ñ (2.198)

2L

so that

1 2Lx

xS ” 2L L`xn

ds2 Ñ 4L2 ds2 (2.199)

is now dimensionless.

ˆ ˙

4 1

σ2 “ C ` ˘2 rS drS ^ dφS “ ´2Cd ^ dφ (2.200)

1 ` rS2 1 ` rS2

The normalization is

1 ˇˇ8

ż ż8 ˇ

rdr

σ2 “ 8πC “ ´4πC “ 4πC (2.201)

0 p1 ` r2 q2 1 ` rS2 ˇ0

f z1

pz1 , z2 q ” x1 ` ix2 , x3 ` ix4 ” pr1 eiφ1 , r2 eiφ2 q P S3 ÝÑ zS ”

` ˘

P S2

z2

(2.202)

The condition

31

We shall see in due course that he standard parameterization in terms of

Euler angles of SU(2) is

i i i

g pθ, φ, χq ” e 2 χσ3 e 2 θσ1 e 2 φσ3 (2.204)

0ďθďπ

0 ď φ ď 2π

0 ď χ ď 4π (2.205)

g ´1 dg “ 2i σa ωaL

ω1L “ cos φ dθ ` sin θ sin φdχ

ω2L “ sin φ dθ ´ sin θ cos φ dχ

ω3L “ dφ ` cos θ dχ

(2.206)

It is convenient to define

χ`φ

z1 ” ei 2 cos θ

2

χ´φ

z2 ” e i 2 sin θ

2 (2.207)

ÿ

ds2 ” 2

ωaL “ dθ2 ` dφ2 ` 2 cos θ dφ dχ ` dχ2 (2.208)

z2

p : S3 Ñ S2 ppz1 , z2 q ” ”z (2.209)

z1

and if z2 ‰ 0

z1 1

p : S3 Ñ S2 ppz1 , z2 q ”

” (2.210)

z2 z

Denoting by H˘ the two hemispheres of the two-sphere S2 ,

ˆ ˙ ´ ¯

? u` i χ`φ θ i χ´φ

H` : pz, u` q P S2 ˆ S1 Ñ 2

, ?zu` ” e cos2

2, e sin

2

θ

2 `

1`|z| 1`|z|2

ˆ ˙ ´ ¯

?|z|u´ 2 , ?|z|u´ i χ`φ θ i χ´φ θ

H´ : pz, u` q P S2 ˆ S1 Ñ 2

” e 2 cos 2 , e 2 sin 2

1`|z| z 1`|z| ´

1

σ” pu1 du2 ^ du3 ` u2 du3 ^ du1 ` u3 du1 ^ du2 q (2.211)

4π

32

in such a way that

ÿ ui dui r

dr ^ σ ” ^σ “ du1 ^ du2 ^ du3 (2.212)

i

r 4π

ui dui “ 0 (2.213)

we get

1 du1 ^ du2

σ“ (2.214)

4π u3

Now the sterographic projection of CP1 ÝÑ S2 Ă R3 reads

´1 ` x2 ` y 2

ˆ ˙

2x 2y

z ” z ` iy ÝÑ gpzq ” u1 “ , ,

1 ` x2 ` y 2 1 ` x2 ` y 2 1 ` x2 ` y 2

(2.215)

The form g ˚ σ is given by

i dz ^ ds z z1 zs0 ´ zs0 ds

i pz1 dz0 ´ z0 dz1 q ^ pds z1 q

g˚σ “ ´ 2

“ 2 2

(2.216)

2π p1 ` |z| q 2π p|z0 | ` |z1 | q

1 1

f ˚σ “ pdx1 ^ dx2 ` dx3 ^ dx4 q “ dα (2.218)

π π

where

1

α” px1 dx2 ` x3 dx4 q (2.219)

π

and finally [?]

ż ż żπ żπ ż 2π

2 2

Hpf q “ αdα “ 2 x2 dx2 ^dx3 ^dx4 “ 2 dθ dφ dξ sin4 ξ sin3 φ cos2 θ “ 1

S3 π π 0 0 0

(2.220)

Assuming

zS “ rS eiφS

u` “ eiα (2.221)

33

This implies on H`

θ ? 1

cos 2 ” 1`r2

θ ? r

sin 2 ” 1`r2

χ “ 2α ` φS

φ “ ´φS (2.222)

On H´

1 1

zN ” “ e´iφS (2.223)

zS r

θ´ 1 ? r θ`

sin 2 ”? 2

“ 1`r2

“ sin 2

1`rN

θ´ θ`

cos 2 ” ? rN 2

“ ? 1

1`r2

“ cos 2

1`rN

χ “ 2α ` φS “ 2α ´ φN

φ “ ´φS “ φN (2.224)

On the equator

|z|

u` ” eiα “ u´ ” e´iφS u´ ” eipα`φS q e´iφS (2.225)

z

This is the twist that makes all the difference between the fiber bundle and

the product space.

(2.226)

34

3

Gauss’ integral

35

36

4

Surfaces revisited.

Choose a moving frame in such a way that p~e1 , ~e2 q are a basis for the tangent

plane and ~e3 is the normal to the surface. On the surface itself

where σ1 and σ2 are a couple of 1-forms. For example, in the case of the

two-sphere we can choose

ˆ ? ? ˙

1 B 1 x L2 ´x2 ´y 2 y L2 ´x2 ´y 2 a

2 2

~e1 “ L Bθ “ L

? , ? 2 2 ,´ x ` y “

x2 `y 2 x `y

´ ? ¯

“ L1 ?Lxz ? yz 2 ´ z2

2 ´z 2 , 2

L ´z 2 , ´ L

1 B ? 1

~e2 “ L sin θ Bφ “ L2 ´z 2 p´y, x, 0q

~e3 “ Br B

“ L1 px, y, zq (4.2)

Then

´ ¯

d~x “ dx, dy, ´ xdx`ydy

z “

´ ¯

yz

~e2 dx ` z ?LLy

` ˘

? Lx ~e1 ´ Lx ~e1 ` xz

“ z L2 ´z 2 2 ´z 2 Ly ~

e2 dy (4.3)

σ1 “ ? L pxdx ` ydyq

z L2 ´z 2

σ2 “ ? 1 p´ydx ` xdyq (4.4)

L2 ´z 2

b“3

ÿ

d~ea “ ωab~eb (4.5)

b“1

37

We find

´ 2

¯

xL2

d~e1 “ 1 ? z dx ` dz, ?L2z´z 2 dy ` 2 yL2 3{2 dz, ?L2z´z 2 dz “

L L2 ´z 2 pL2 ´z 2 q3{2 pL ´z q

1

` ˘

“ LpL2 ´z 2 q3{2

zpL2 ´ z 2 qdx ` xL2 dz, zpL2 ´ z 2 qdy ` yL2 dz, `zpL2 ´ z 2 qdz “

´ ´ ¯ ´ ¯

1 L2 x2 L2 xy L2 y 2 L2 xy

“ z x2 ` y 2 ´ z2

dx ´ L2 ´ z 2 ´

z dy, z z2

dy ´ z dx,

LpL2 ´z 2 q3{2

` ˘ ˘

, ´ L2 ´ z 2 pxdx ` ydyq (4.6)

´ ¯

d~e2 “ ´ ?Ldy 2 ´z 2 ´ yz

pL2 ´z 2 q3{2

dz, ? dx

L2 ´z 2

` xz

pL2 ´z 2 q3{2

dz, 0 “

` ˘

“ pL2 ´z1 2 q3{2 ´pL2 ´ z 2 qdy ´ yzdz, pL2 ´ z 2 qdx ` xzdz, 0 “

` ˘

“ 2 1 2 3{2 xydx ´ x2 dy, y 2 dx ´ xydy, 0 (4.7)

pL ´z q

1

d~e3 “ L pdx, dy, dzq (4.8)

Then

xdy ´ ydx

ω12 ” ~e2 d~e1 “ z (4.9)

LpL2 ´ z 2 q

` ˘ `

ω13 “ ~e3 .d~e1 “ ?1 z pxdx ` ydyq ` pL2 ` z 2 qdz “ ?1 ´z pxdx ` ydyq ` pL2 ´

L2 L2 ´z 2 L2 L2 ´z 2

“ ´ z ?L12 ´z 2 pxdx ` ydyq

1

ω23 “ ~e3 .d~e2 “ ? pydx ´ xdyq (4.11)

L L2 ´ z 2

But we have normalized in such a way that

so that

d~ea .~eb ` ~ea .d~eb “ 0 (4.13)

that is that the matrix of one-forms

Ω ” ωab (4.14)

is antisymmetric. In fact

z

ω21 “ ~e1 .d~e2 “ pydx ´ xdyq “ ´ω12 (4.15)

LpL2 ´ z2q

38

¨ ˛

0 $ ´ω1

Ω “ ´ΩT ” ˝´$ 0 ´ω2 ‚ (4.16)

ω1 ω2 0

We can the write in gory detail

d~e1 “ $~e2 ´ ω1~e3

d~e2 “ ´$~e1 ´ ω2~e3

d~e3 “ ω1~e1 ` ω2~e2

(4.17)

As a consequence of our definitions we have

A“2

ÿ A“2

ÿ

0 “ d2 ~x “ dσA~eA ´ σA d~eA “ 0 “ dσA~eA ´ σA ωAb~eb (4.18)

A“1 A“1

This implies

dσ “ σΩ (4.19)

That is

dσ1 “ $ ^ σ2

dσ2 “ ´$ ^ σ1

dσ3 ” 0 “ σ1 ^ ω1 ` σ2 ^ ω2 (4.20)

We also deduce

0 “ d2 σ “ dσΩ ´ σdΩ “ σΩ2 ´ σdΩ (4.21)

so that

dΩ “ Ω2 (4.22)

¨ ˛ ¨

´$2 ´ ω12

˛

0 $ ´ω1 ´ω1 ω2 ´$ω2

d ˝´$ 0 ´ω2 ‚ “ ˝ ´ω2 ω1 ´$2 ´ ω22 $ω1 ‚ (4.23)

ω1 ω2 0 ´ω2 $ ω1 $ ´ω12 ´ ω22

To be specific

d$ “ ´ω1 ^ ω2

dω1 “ $ ^ ω2

dω2 “ ´$ ^ ω1 (4.24)

Let us recap.

σ1 “ ? L pxdx ` ydyq

z L2 ´z 2

σ2 “ ?L21´z 2 p´ydx ` xdyq

ω1 “ z ?L12 ´z 2 pxdx ` ydyq “ L1 σ1

ω2 “ ´ L?L12 ´z 2 pydx ´ xdyq “ L1 σ2 (4.25)

39

Since there is only one linearly independent 2-form om the two-dimensional

surface Σ, we have

ω1 ^ ω2 “ Kσ1 ^ σ2 (4.26)

where K is our old friend the Gaussian curvature. For the sphere S2 we find

1

K“ (4.27)

L2

It is actually independent on the choice of the basis vectors p~e1 , ~e2 q. Exactly

the same reasoning tells us that

σ1 ^ ω2 ´ σ2 ^ ω1 “ 2Hσ1 ^ σ2 (4.28)

Here H is the mean curvature of the surface Σ. For the sphere S2 it reads

H “ L1 . In order to write the forms pω1 , ω2 q in terms of the forms pσ1 , σ2 q,

we have to be consistent wit the equation

σ1 ^ ω1 ` σ2 ^ ω2 “ 0 (4.29)

ω1 “ pσ1 ` qσ2

ω2 “ qσ1 ` rσ2 (4.30)

1

ω1 “ L σ1

1

ω2 “ L σ2 (4.31)

It follows that

p`r

H“ 2

K “ pr ´ q 2 (4.32)

d$ ` ω1 ^ ω2 ùñ d$ ` Kσ1 ^ σ2 “ 0 (4.33)

dσ1 “ $ ^ σ2

dσ2 “ ´$ ^ σ1 (4.34)

theorema egregium.

40

5

Differential Geometry

is, independent of the coordinates used in overlaps of open sets in a covering.

The two main ones are

ven the linear space FpM q of all functions f : M Ñ R, and a local

coordinate system xµ : M Ñ U Ă Rn

V P T : FpM q Ñ R (5.1)

V pf q ” V µ Bµ f (5.2)

It follows that

B 1 B

Vµ µ

“ V µ µ1 (5.3)

Bx Bx

df ” Bµ f dxµ (5.5)

Bf Bf 1

µ

dxµ “ µ1 dxµ (5.6)

Bx Bx

easily derived.

41

5.1 Geodesics

The integral given the distance is extended over the parameterized curve γ

xµ “ xµ pλq (5.7)

dxµ

x9 µ ” (5.8)

dλ

We can normalize the tangent vector

x9 µ

uµ ” ? (5.9)

x9 2

The extrema of the action are by definition the geodesics of the manifold.

We get

ż ż "

ρ µ ν µ ν ρ

δS “ ´mc dλ tBρ gµν δx x9 x9 ` 2gµν x9 δ x9 u “ ´mc dλ δx

*

µ ν λ µ µ

Bρ gµν x9 x9 ´ pBλ gµρ ` Bµ gλρ q x9 x9 ´ 2gµρ x

: (5.10)

Expressed in the form of four ordinary differential equations for the four

functions of one variable xµ psq they read

d2 xµ α

µ dx dx

β

` Γαβ “0 (5.11)

ds2 ds ds

Here the Christoffel symbols are given by

1 ρσ

Γλ,µν ” gλρ Γρµν ” gλρ g p´Bσ gµν ` Bµ gνσ ` Bµ gνσ q (5.12)

2

This is true insofar as we are parametrizing the curve using the arc length

(which is anyway possible only when the tangent to the curve is everywhere

timelike or spacelike). Assume now we use another parameter,

λ “ λpsq (5.13)

Then

dxα dxα dλ

uα ” ds “ dλ ds

duα d2 xα dλ 2 α d2 λ

` ˘

ds “ dλ2 ds ` dx

dλ ds2 (5.14)

d2 xα β

α dx dx

γ dxα

` Γβγ “ f pλq (5.15)

dλ2 dλ dλ dλ

42

where the function f pλq is given by

d2 λ

2

cpλq ” ´ ` ds ˘2 (5.16)

dλ

ds

diffeomorphisms. An element V P T behaves as

1

µ1 Bxµ

1

V px q ” V ρ pxq (5.17)

Bxρ

or in matrix motation

V 1 “ J.V (5.18)

It is obvious that

Bα V µ (5.19)

does not transform as a tensor unless the diffeomorphism is a linear one,

because

dV 1 “ dJ.V ` JdV (5.20)

The idea on a connection (” gaugef ield) is to modify the ordinary detivative

into a covariant derivative

DV ” dV ` ΓV (5.21)

∇ρ V µ ” Bρ V µ ` Γµρσ V σ (5.22)

1

1 Bxσ Bxµ

∇ρ1 V µ px1 q “ ∇σ V λ (5.23)

Bxρ1 Bxλ

It is easier to vidualize all this in matrix notation

“ JDV “ J pdV ` ΓV q (5.24)

Γ1 J ` dJ “ JΓ (5.25)

that is

Γ1 “ JΓJ ´1 ´ dJ.J ´1 (5.26)

In gory detail

λ1 B 2 xµ Bxσ

1

Bxσ Bxµ δ

1

µ1 Bx

Γρ1 λ1 λ` λ σ ρ1 “ ρ1 Γ (5.27)

Bx Bx Bx Bx Bx Bxδ σλ

43

Because of the inhomogeneous term the Christoffel symbols are NOT ten-

sors. Thay are connections, that is, gauge fields. It is useful exercise to

check at least that the Christoffel symbols are a solution of these equations.

Actually they are the unique solution involving the metric tensor alone.

It is also useful to check that for covariant tensors.

∇µ ων ” Bµ ων ´ Γλµν ωλ (5.28)

Using this formula, it is plain to check that the metric is covariantly constant

Γθrθ “ 12 g θθ pBr gθθ q “ 1

r (5.31)

r: ´ rθ92 “ 0

θ: ` 1 θ9r9 “ 0

r (5.32)

First integral

r9 2 ` r2 θ92 “ 1 (5.33)

It easier to start from

d ˆ ˙

dθ 2

ż

L“ dr r2 `1 (5.34)

dr

Euler-Lagrange ¨ ˛

d ˝ 2 θ1

r b ` ˘ ‚“ 0 (5.35)

dr 2 dθ 2

r dr ` 1

θ1

6 r2 b ` ˘ “C (5.36)

2

r2 dθ

dr ` 1

line

r sinpθ ` θ0 q “ r0 sin θ0 cos θ0 (5.37)

is a solution of the first integral.

44

• Let us compute now the geodesics on the ordinary two-sphere. The

arc distance is ż a

S” dθ2 ` sin2 θ dφ2 (5.38)

Let us describe the curve as

φ “ φpθq (5.39)

Then d

ż ˆ ˙2

dφ

S” dθ 1` sin2 θ (5.40)

dθ

Euler-Lagrange

ˆ ˙

d

b b

B 2 B

1 2

1 ` sin θ pφ q “ 1 ` sin2 θ pφ1 q2 “ 0 (5.41)

dθ Bφ1 Bφ

This means that

sin2 θ φ1

a “C (5.42)

1 ` sin2 θ pφ1 q2

That is

C

φ1 “ ? (5.43)

sin θ sin2 θ ´ C 2

ż

C

φ “ dθ ? (5.44)

sin θ sin2 θ ´ C 2

Let us change variables

dθ

u “ cot θ, du “ ´ dθ (5.45)

sin2 θ

?

1 ´ C2

ż ż

du du ´1 u

φ “ ´C a “´ ? “ cos `φ0 ; a”

1 ´ C 2 p1 ` u2 q a2 ´ u2 a C

(5.46)

This equation has got a nice geometric interpretation. Consider a fixed

unit vector defined by pθ0 , φ0 q. The plane orthogonal to it is generated

by the vectors such that

sin θ sin θ0 cos pφ ´ φ0 q ` cos θ cos θ0 “ 0 (5.48)

The interchapter of this plane with unit sphere yields the desired

geodesic.

The geodesic equation can be written as

∇u u “ f u (5.49)

that is, the tangent vector to the curve propagates parallel to itself, in the

sense that the tangent component of the covariant derivative is proportional

to the tangent vector itself.

45

5.2 Covariant derivative and curvature.

In fact the metric connection (Christoffels) is the unique symmetric connec-

tion such that the coveriant derivative of the metric vanishes.

Bα gµν ´ Γλαµ gλν ´ Γλαν gλµ “ 0

Bµ gαν ´ Γλνµ gλα ´ Γλαµ gλν “ 0

Bν gµα ´ Γλαν gλµ ´ Γλαµ gλα “ 0 (5.50)

1-2+3 yields

´2 Γλαν gλµ “ Bα ` Bν ´ Bµ (5.51)

The commutator of two vectors, X, Y P T is defined as the vector

T ˆT ÑT (5.52)

rX, Y sα ” X µ Bµ Y α ´ Y µ Bµ X α “ X µ ∇µ Y α ´ Y µ ∇µ X α (5.53)

Ths covariant derivative in the direction of a vector V is

∇V : T Ñ T (5.54)

´ ¯

α µ αα α µλ

p∇V W q ” V ∇µ W ” V Bµ W ` Γµλ W (5.55)

The curvature of the connection ∇ is defines as the operator

R : T3 ” T ˆ T ˆ T Ñ T (5.56)

Z Ñ RXY Z ” r∇X , ∇Y s Z ´ ∇rX,Y s Z (5.57)

Let us slowly work this out

p∇Y Zqα “ Y λ pBλ Z α ` Γαλσ Z σ q (5.58)

The commmutator of two covariant derivatives reads

´ ¯

α ρ α α δ

p∇X ∇Y Zq ” X Bρ p∇Y Zq ` Γρδ p∇Y Zq “

" ´ ¯*

ρ

` λ α λ α σ

˘ α σ δ σ δ β

“ X Bρ Y Bλ Z ` Y Γλσ Z ` Γρδ Y Bσ Z ` Y Γσβ Z “

"

“ X Bρ Y λ Bλ Z α ` Y λ Bρλ Z α ` Bρ Y λ Γαλσ Z σ ` Y λ Bρ Γαλσ Z σ ` Y λ Γαλσ Bρ Z σ `

ρ

´ ¯*

α σ δ

`Γρδ Y Bσ Z ` Y Γσβ Z σ δ β (5.59)

"

α

p∇Y ∇X Zq ” Y Bρ X λ Bλ Z α ` X λ Bρλ Z α ` Bρ X λ Γαλσ Z σ ` X λ Bρ Γαλσ Z σ ` X λ Γαλσ Bρ Z σ `

ρ

´ ¯*

α σ δ

`Γρδ X Bσ Z ` X Γσβ Z σ δ β (5.60)

46

On the other hand, the covariant derivative in the direction of the commu-

tator reads

` ˘α ` ˘

∇rX,Y s Z “ X µ ∇µ Y λ ´ Y µ ∇µ X λ pBλ Z α ` Γαλσ Z σ q (5.61)

mapping, BZ disappear, what is left out is a linear mapping

antisymmetric in the last two indices

Its value can be easily read out from the preceding formulas

rugby ball.

Differential manifolds are smoooth objects that locally are similar to Rn , but

globally are different. Instead of giving the general theory we shall content

ourselves here with a detailed study of the simplest non-trivial example. Let

us first consider the simpler case of ordinary spheres embedded in euclidean

space.

The sphere Sn of radius l embedded in Rn`1 is defined thtough the

equations

A“n`1

ÿ

2

XA “ l2 (5.65)

A“1

We are all used to polar coordinates, a generalization of the polar angles pθ, φq

for the two-sphere S2 . We need n angles to define a point in the n sphere.

We shall call these angles, θ1 . . . θn , and to be specific,

Xn`1 “ r cos θn

Xn “ r sin θn cos θn´1

...

X2 “ r sin θn sin θn´1 . . . cos θ1

X1 “ r sin θn sin θn´1 . . . sin θ1 (5.66)

47

(were we to use r itself as the radial coordinate, those would be polar

coordinates in Rn`1 , in them the equation of the sphere is simply

r “ l “ constant (5.67)

here

0 ď θ1 ď 2π

0 ď θj ď π for j ‰ 1 (5.68)

The Xn`1 axis is special in those coordinates; any axis however can be taken

as the Xn`1 axis. The metric induced on S n by the euclidean metric in Rn`1

is

“ dθn2 ` sin2 θn dθn´1

2 ` . . . ` sin2 θn sin2 θn´1 . . . sin2 θ2 dθ12 (5.69)

ds21 “ dθ12

ds2n “ dθn2 ` sin2 θn ds2n´1 (5.70)

The tangent space is a vector space Tn with the same dimension as the

manifold itself. It can be defined as the set of vectors orthogonal to the

normal vector

nA “ XA (5.71)

In general, given a surface in Rn`1 defined by the equation

f pXA q “ 0 (5.72)

nA ” BA f (5.73)

To come back to the sphere, the tangent space is defined as those vectors

that obey ÿ

xA tA “ 0 (5.74)

A

Particularizing to the two-dimensional sphere, the tangent space is now the

tangent plane, that is, the set of vector in R3 such that

In the North or South pole (θ “ 0, πq the tangent plane is just the plane

X0 “ ˘l (5.76)

48

that is, the set of vectors

p0, n1 , n2 q (5.77)

and in the equator (θ “ π2 )

Polar coordinates do not cover the whole sphere (neither do they cover eu-

clidean space). They are not well defined at the two poles. It is interesting

to study other set of coordinates, which are actually close to what carto-

graphers do when drawing maps. The stereographic coordinates are defined

out of one of the poles (either North or South) Northern pole stereographic

projection

2l Xµ

xµS ” Xµ ” (5.79)

X0 ` l ΩS

(µ “ 1 . . . n). Let us choose cartesian coordinates in Rn`1 with origin in

the South pole itself. This meags tgeat the South pole is represented by

X A “ 0, and the norh pole by XA “ pl, 0, . . . , 0q. One can imagine that one

is projecting a point P pXA q P Sn from the South pole into into a point xµS

that one van view as living on the tangent plane at the North pole.

x2S

1´ 4l2

X0 “ l x2S

“ lp2ΩS ´ 1q “ lp2ΩN ` 1q (5.80)

1` 4l2

1

ΩS ” x2S

(5.81)

1` 4l2

x2S l ´ X0

2

“ (5.82)

4l l ` X0

This means that when X0 “ l (the North pole) then

x2S

“0 (5.83)

4l2

and when X0 “ ´l (the South pole) then

XS2 “ 8 (5.84)

xµ

Bµ X 0 “ ´Ω2S

l

xα xµ

Bµ X α “ ΩS δµα ´ Ω2S (5.85)

2l2

The induced metric

49

Performing the North pole projection

2l

xµN ” Xµ (5.87)

X0 ´ l

and uniqueness of X µ

ΩS µ 4l2

xµN “ xS “ ´ 2 xµS (5.89)

ΩN xS

Conversely,

4l2 µ

xµS “ ´ x (5.90)

x2N N

This leads to

1

ΩN “ ´ x2N

(5.91)

1` 4l2

X A Ø ´X A (5.92)

is equivalent to

xµS Ø xµN (5.93)

and the jacobian is

ˆ ˙

µ

“ ´ δν ´ 2 2 (5.94)

BxνS x2S xS

Only functions which are invariant under the exchange of North and South

pole stereographic coordinates are well defined on the sphere.

Let us work out in detail the two dimensional case. Define dimensionless

corrdinates asd

x x

ξ1 ” ´ z`l η1 “ l´z

y y

ξ2 ” z`l η2 “ l´z (5.95)

1 ´ ξ2 η2 ´ 1

z“L “ l (5.96)

1 ` ξ2 η2 ´ 1

50

and the change N/S now reads

1 1

η1 “ ξ2

ξ

η2 “ ´ ξ12 ξ 2 (5.97)

z ” ξ 1 ` iξ 2 (5.98)

1

zÑw” (5.99)

z

Consider now a field of vectors

B B 1 B B

ln pzq “ zn “ ´ 2 ln pzq “ ´w2´n (5.100)

Bz Bz z Bw Bw

If we want the field to be non-singulkar for all values of z and w, then

so that the only vector fields globally defined on the two-sphete S2 are

˘ B ˘ B

a ` bz ` cz 2 “ ´ aw2 ` bw ` c

` `

(5.102)

Bz Bw

(5.103)

dx2S dx2N

ds2 “ x2S 2

“ x2N 2

(5.104)

p1 ` 4l2

q p1 ` 4l2

q

which is conformally flat. This is the main virtue of these coordinates, and

the reason why cartographers are fond of them, We shall call a frame a basis

on the tangent space to the sphere as a manifold. Let us define a frame

through

δab eaµ ebν “ gµν (5.105)

The frames are given by

1

peS qaµ “ δaµ x2S

(5.106)

1` 4l2

1

peN qaµ “ ´δaµ x2N

(5.107)

1` 4l2

51

It is easy to check that

xµ

S xa

S

δµa ´ 2 xS2 BxνN

Lab pxq peS qbµ ” “ peN qaν (5.108)

1`

x2S BxµS

4l2

xa xb

Lab ” δba ´ 2 (5.109)

x2

In fact this was the reason for the apparently arbitrary minus sign in front

of the definition of eN , which is unneccessary to reproduce the metric.

There are many reasons to be drawn from this example. First of all,

it is never possible to cover a non trivial manifold with a single coordinate

system. In this case we need at least two, namely North and South stereogra-

phic coordinates. Second, at each coordinate system, there is a frame in the

tangent space, and if we refer all quantities to this frame formal operations

are similar to the flat space ones.

52

6

curvature.

The analogous to the field strength tensor for gauge theories is then the

Riemann-Christoffel tensor

The Ricci tensor is defined by contracting indices

Rλαµν ` Rλναµ ` Rλµνα “ 0 (6.5)

Substracting

53

conveys the fact that

Rµναλ “ Rαλµν (6.9)

We have then a symmetric tensor RIJ where each index is in the antisym-

metric rαβs (that is, D ” npn´1q

2 values). This yields

n2 pn2 ´ 1q

ˆ ˙

DpD ` 1q n

´ “ (6.10)

2 4 12

` ˘

There are also some differential identities, the Bianchi identities

Contracting δµβ

∇α Rνγ ´ ∇γ Rνα ` ∇µ Rµ νγα “ 0 (6.12)

Contracting again g να

We shall derive most of these equations in a short while. Many useful formu-

las of tensor calculus are to be found in Eisenhart’s book, still indispensable.

Also very useful are the Ricci identities that state that

done in many books.

All this means that the geodesic equations can be written as

uµ ∇µ uα “ 0 (6.15)

dxα

uα ” (6.16)

ds

In general, the metric

is not flat; to the extent that it differs from the flat metric, it indicates the

presence of a gravitational field. At each point there are tensors (or spinors)

that represent physical observables. For example, the energy momentum

tensor

Tµν pxq (6.18)

54

This tensor live in the tangent space; the set of all tangent spaces of the

manifold is the tangent bundle. A frame is a basis of the tangent vector

space at a given point of the space-time manifold. This four vectors are

represented by

Eaµ Bµ (6.19)

where the index a “ 0, 1, 2, 3 labels the four different vectors. The simplest

possibility is to choose one of them timelike (this is the one labeled E0 ) ,

and the other three spacelike. Furthermore, they can be normalized in such

a way that

gµν Eaµ Ebν “ ηab (6.20)

This is the reason why latin indices are dubbed Lorentz indices, whereas

the ordinary spacetime indices are called Einstein indices. Such a frame is

precisely a LIF (where FREFOS live) and the physical observables measured

in the LIF are simply

Tab ” Tµν Eaµ Ebν (6.21)

The determinant of E considered as a matrix cannot vanish. We can

then define the coframe made out of the dual one-forms

ea pEb q “ δβa (6.22)

When indices are put in place, this is equivalent to computing the inverse

matrix

eaµ Ebµ ” δba

eaµ Eaν “ δµν (6.23)

From the normalization condition

gµν Eaµ Ebν “ ηab

and multiplying both members by the dual form eaσ

ñ eaµ “ gµν η ab Ebν

This means that the dual form is simply the frame with the Einstein indices

lowered with the spacetime metric, and the Lorentz indices raised with the

Lorentz metric. Following most physicists we shall represent both the frame

and the coframe with the same letter, although when neccessary we will

indicate explicitly its nature, as in

~ea ” eµa Bµ

ea ” eaµ dxµ (6.24)

The parallel propagator is defined once frames at different points are

selected by some mechanism

g α β 1 px, x1 q ” eαa pxqeaα1 px1 q (6.25)

55

Then physical quantities at different points are related through

1

Aα pxq ” g α β 1 px, x1 qaα px1 q (6.26)

where

1

Ω” x2

(6.28)

1` 4L2

and the frame is defined by

eaµ “ Ωδµa (6.29)

in such a way that

1 µ

eµa “ δ (6.30)

Ω a

The Sn Christoffels read

Ωβ α Ωγ α Ωα

Γαβγ “ δ ` δ ´ δβγ (6.31)

Ω γ Ω β Ω

Under a local Lorentz transformation

c

rEa , Eb s “ Cab Ec

It is a fact that

1` a 1` a

dea “ Brµ eaρs dxρ ^ dxµ “ Bµ eν ´ Bν eaµ dxµ ^ dxν “ Bµ eν ´ Bν eaµ eµc eνd ec ^ ed “

˘ ˘

2 2

1` a ν a µ

˘ c d 1`

ed pec qeµ ´ eν ec peνd q ec ^ ed “

µ a a

˘

“ ec peν qed ´ ed peµ qec e ^ e “

2 2

1 1

“ red , ec sµ eaµ ec ^ ed “ ´ Ccd a c

e ^ ed (6.33)

2 2

To be specific, the structure constants read

´ ¯ ´ ¯

c

Cab “ ecµ eλa Bλ eµb ´ eλb Bλ eµa “ ecµ eλa ∇λ eµb ´ eλb ∇λ eµa (6.34)

example,

c Ωb Ωa

Cab “ 2 δac ´ 2 δbc (6.35)

Ω Ω

Under a local Lorentz transformation the vierbein transforms as

1

ea “ La b pxqeb (6.36)

56

This is not true of the derivatives of the vierbein, dea , owing to the term

in dLa b . We would like to introduce a gauge field (connection) in the LIF,

the so called spin connection, such that the two-form

transforms as

pDea q1 “ La bDeb (6.38)

For this to be true we need

´ ¯ ` ˘ ´ ¯ ´ ¯

a

d La b eb ` ω 1 b ^ Lb c ec “ La b deb ` ω b c ^ ec (6.39)

This is equivalent to

` ˘a

dLa b ^ eb ` ω 1 b ^ Lb c ec “ La b ω b c ^ ec (6.40)

` ˘a

dLa c ` ω 1 b Lb c “ La b ω b c (6.41)

` 1 ˘a a b c a c

ω d “ L b ω c Ld ´ dL c Ld (6.43)

Lab ” ηab ` ab (6.44)

δω a bµ “ ´Bµ ω a b ` r, ωsa b (6.45)

This should be valid for any field living in the LIF that transforms with a

representation of the Lorentz group. But any field can be so represented.

For example, a vector field, V µ is projected on the LIF by a FREFO as V a ”

eaµ V µ . We want that its Lorentz covariant derivative is also the projection

of Einstein’s covariant derivative, that is

Einstein connections to be

It is a fact (confer [15]) that the torsion can be defined through the connec-

tion ωba by

1 a b

dea ` ωba ^ eb ” T a ” Tbc e ^ ec

2

57

Demanding that the tangent metric is covariantly constant we learn that

d d

∇a ηbc “ 0 “ ´ωab ηdc ´ ωac ηdb ” ´ωc|ab ´ ωb|ac (6.48)

it follows that

ωa|bc ´ ωa|cb “ pBρ eaσ ´ Bσ eaρ q eσb eρc ” ~eb Bc ea ´ ~ec Bb ea “ ea Bb~ec ´ ea Bc~eb “

d~

“ ea . r~eb , ~ec s “ ea .Cbc ed ” Ca|bc (6.50)

This means that the torsion-free condition completely determines the anti-

symmetric part of the connection. One often is interested in the case when

the connection lies in the Lie algebra of a simple group. For example, if

ωµ P SOpnqq

ωµ|ab “ ´ωµ|ba (6.52)

For spheres we have

ˆ ˙

1 Ωc Ωb

ωa|bc “ δab ´ 2 δac (6.53)

2 Ω2 Ω

ˆ ˙

Ωb Ωa Ωb Ωµ Ωa Ωµ

2ωµ|ab “ δµa ´ δµb “ δaµ ` δab ´ δbµ ´ δab (6.54)

Ω Ω Ω Ω Ω Ω

FIDOS. The curvature of the connection is defined through

1 a c

dωba ` ωca ^ ωbc ” Ra b ” Rbcd e ^ ed

2

It is asy to check that this a true Lorentz tensor; that is, under a local

Lorentz transformation

Rba Ñ La c Rc d Lb d (6.55)

This leads immediately to Bianchi identities

“ Rba ^ eb ´ ωba ^ T b

dRba “ dωca ^ ωbc ´ ωca ^ dωbc “

pRca ´ ωda ^ ωcd q ^ ωbc ´ ωca ^ pRbc ´ ωdc ^ ωbd q “ Rca ^ ωbc ´ ωca ^ Rbc (6.56)

58

For a Levi-Civita connection the algebraic Bianchi identity in a natural basis

reads

1 a b µνλ

Rba ^ eb “ 0 “ Rbµν eλ dx (6.57)

2

In gory detail

Rλαµν ` Rλναµ ` Rλµνα “ 0 (6.60)

Substracting

conveys the fact that

Rµναλ “ Rαλµν (6.64)

We have then a symmetric tensor RIJ where each index is in the antisym-

metric rαβs (that is, D ” npn´1q

2 values). This yields

n2 pn2 ´ 1q

ˆ ˙

DpD ` 1q n

´ “ (6.65)

2 4 12

` ˘

natural basis reads

where the overline on an index means that this particular index is absent

from the antisymmetrization. Now

∇rα Rµ βγδs ” Brα Rµ βγδs ` Γµrασ Rσ βγδs ´ Γσrαβ Rµ σγδs ´ Γσrαγ Rµ βsσδs ´ Γσαδ Rµ βγσs “

“ Brα Rµ βγδs ` Γµrασ Rσ βγδs ´ Γσrαβ Rµ σγδs (6.67)

59

Using the relationship between ωbµa and Γα derived above we are done. On

βµ

the other hand

´ ¯ ´ ¯

Bα Rµ βγδ “ Bα eµa ebβ Ra bγδ “ pBα eµa q ebβ Ra bγδ `eµa Bα ebβ Ra bγδ `eµa ebβ Bα Ra bγδ

(6.68)

It is a fact of life that

a

Tbc “ Γabc ´ Γacb ´ Cbc

a

a

Rb,cd “ Ec Γadb ´ Ed Γacb ` Γedb Γace ´ Γecb Γade ´ Ccd

e a

Γeb (6.69)

surface

N

R“ D

“ 2

‰

N ” e eu gv ´ 2gv fu ` gu ` f rgv eu ` 2fu p2fv ´ gu q ´ ev p2fv ` gu qs `

“ ‰

`2f 2 revv ´ 2fuv ` gvv s ` g e2v ` eu p´2fv ` gu q ´ 2e pevv ` 2fuv ` gvv q

` ˘

D ” 2 f 2 ´ eg (6.70)

60

7

Σn´1 ãÑ Mn (7.1)

xα “ σ α py i q (7.2)

The indiced metric is given by

There are then two metric connections: the n-dimensional one, ∇g and

the (n-1)-dimensional one associated to the induced metric, Dh . From the

definition itself of the induced metric follows

(7.4)

Cyclic permutations

Bρ gαβ Di σ ρ Bj σ α Bk σ β ` gαβ Di pBj σ α qBi σ β ` gαβ Bj σ α Di pBk σ β q “ 0

1

0 “ gαβ Dj Dk σ α Di σ β ` Dk σ ρ Di σ α Dj σ β pBρ gαβ ` Bβ gρα ´ Bα gβρ q “

2

gαβ Dj Dk σ α Di σ β ` Dk σ ρ Di σ α Dj σ β tα, βρu “

´ ¯

“ gαβ Di σ β Dk Dj σ α ` t αβρ uDj σ β Dk σ ρ (7.5)

´ ¯

Kjk ” nα Dk Dj σ α ` t αβρ uDj σ β Dk σ ρ (7.7)

61

Taking the Dj

´ ¯

0 “ Dj gαβ Bi σ α nβ “ Dj gαβ Bi σ α nβ ` gαβ Dj Di σ α nβ ` gαβ Di σ α Dj nβ

(7.8)

On the other hand,

so that

´gαβ Dj σ α Dk nβ ´ nβ Dk σ ρ tβρ; αuDj σ α “ ´ξiα ∇ρ nα ξjρ (7.10)

This tensor is called the extrinsic curvature, and represents the derivative

of the normal vector, projected on the surface.

Our purpose in life is now to relate the Riemann tensor on the hypersur-

face (computed with the induced metric) with the corresponding Riemann

tensor of the spacetime manifold. Those are the famous Gauss-Codazzi

equations, which we purport now to derive. They were one of the pillars

of Gauss’ theorema egregium, [15] which asserts that If a curved surface is

developed upon any other surface whatever the measure of curvature in each

point remains unchanged.

We start with

´ ¯

0 “ Dj gαβ nα nβ “ Dj σ ρ ptαρ; βu ` tρβ; αuq nα nβ ` gαβ Dj nα nβ ` gαβ nα Dj nβ “

´ ¯

gαβ nβ Dj nα ` t αµν uDj σ pµ nνq “ gαβ nβ ∇µ nα Dj σ µ “ nα ∇µ nα ξjµ (7.11)

On the other hand, the explicit expression for the extrinsic curvature reads

symmetric, Kij “ Kji .

But ” ı

ξjβ , ξiα “ 0 (7.14)

so that

´Kij “ ´nα ξiα ∇β ξjα “ ∇β nα ξiβ ξlα “ Kji (7.15)

This symmetry implies a very useful formula for the extrinsic curvature,

namely

´Kij “ ∇pβ nαq ξiα ξjβ “ £pnqgαβ ξiα ξjβ (7.16)

62

By the way, in the physics jargon when Kij “ 0 it is said that it is a moment

of time symmetry.

On the other hand, remembering that

we deduce that

` ˘

(7.18)

(because of [7.11]).

Let us analyze the definition of extrinsic curvature in even more detail.

´ ¯

pDk Dj Di ´ Dj Dk Di q σ α “ ξm h Rhijk “ Dk ´t αβρ uξiβ ξjρ ` Kij nα ´

α mh

´ ¯

´Dj ´t αβρ uξiβ ξkρ ` Kik nα “ Bk t αβρ uξiβ ξjρ ´ t αβρ uDk ξiβ ξjρ ´ t αβρ uξiβ Dk ξjρ `

Dk Kij nα ` Kij Dk nα ` Bj t αβρ uξiβ ξkρ ´ t αβρ uDj ξiβ ξkρ ` t αβρ ξiβ Dj ξkρ ´ Dj Kik ´ Kik Dj nα

and using again the defnition of the extrinsic curvature to eliminate the term

with two derivatives,

´ ¯

h Rrijk rhs “ ´Bk t αβρ uξiβ ξjρ ´ t αβρ uξjρ ´t βµν uξiµ ξkν ` Kik nβ ` Dk Kij nα ` Kij Dk nα `

α mr

ξm

´ ¯

Bj t αβρ uξiβ ξkρ ` t αβρ uξkρ ´t βµν uξiµ ξjν ` Kij nβ ´ Dj Kik nα ´ Kik Dj nα “

´ ¯ ´ ¯

nα pDk Kij ´ Dj Kik q ` Kij Dk nα ` t αβρ unβ ξkρ ´ Kik Dj nα ` t αβρ nβ ξjρ ´

´ ¯

´ξiβ ξjρ ξkσ Bσ t αβρ u ´ Bρ t αβσ u ´ t αλρ ut λβσ ` t αλσ ut λβρ (7.19)

Using again the definition of the extrinsic curvature, as well as the one of

the full Riemann tensor, we get

h pRrijk rhs ` Kij Krk ´ Kik Krj q ´ nα pDk Kij ´ Dj Kik q “ ´ξiβ ξjρ ξkσ Rα βσρ rgs

α mr

ξm

Rlijk rhs ` Kil Kjk ´ Kik Klj “ ξlα ξiβ ξjρ ξkσ Rαβρσ rgs (7.20)

as well as

Please note that not all components of the full Riemann tensor can be recove-

red from the knowledge of the Riemann tensor computed on the hypersurface

plus the extrinsic curvature. As a matter of fact,

pnq

R“ pn´1q

Rij ij ` 2 pnq Ri nin “pn´1q R ` K 2 ´ Kij k ij ` 2 pnq Ri nin (7.22)

63

This means that an explicit computation of pnq Ri nin is needed before the

Einstein-Hilbert term could be written in the 1+(n-1) decomposition. To

do that, consider Ricci’s identity

∇γ ∇β nα ´ ∇β ∇γ nα “ Rρ αβγ nρ (7.23)

Now

Besides,

´ ¯´ ¯

∇γ nβ ∇β nγ “ ∇γ nβ nβ nµ ` ξiβ ξ µi nγ nν ` ξjγ ξ jν ∇µ nν “

Summarizing,

` ˘ ` ˘

Rnα nα “ nβ ∇γ ∇β nγ ´ nβ ∇β ∇γ nγ “ ∇γ nβ ∇β nγ ´ ∇γ nβ ∇β nγ ´ ∇β nβ ∇γ nγ `

`∇β nβ ∇γ nγ “

` ˘

“ ∇γ nβ ∇β nγ ´ nγ ∇β nβ ` Kij K ij ´ K 2 (7.26)

Then

pnq

R“ pn´1q

R ` Kij K ij ´ K 2 ´ Bα V α (7.27)

64

8

Distributions

δpxq “ 0 x‰0 (8.1)

but ż8

dx δpxq “ 1 (8.2)

´8

Consider the function φpx, q defined in such a way that

φpx, q “ 0 rě

2

´

φpx, q “ e 2 ´r 2 rď (8.3)

It is clear that

1

f p0q “ ‰0 (8.4)

e

nevertheless

ż ż 2 ż1

´ ´ 1

φpx, q d3 x “ e 2 ´r2 d3 x “ 4π3 e 1´r2 dr “ C3 (8.5)

´ ´ 0

Schwartz gave mathematical respectability to Dirac’s ideas by introducing

the concept of distributions. The main idea is to consider the dual of a

convenient function space.

To begin, let us start with the space of test functions K, of real functions

with continuous derivatives to all orders, and with compact support. It is

not empty (actually, our recent friend, the function φpx, q P K).

It can be shown that given any continuous function f(x) with bounded

support, there is always some φpxq P K arbitrarily close to it.

Define a distribution d P K 1 as a continuous linear functional on K

@φpxq P K xd, φpxqqy P R (8.6)

The two essential properties are

65

•

xd, a1 φ1 ` a2 φ2 y “ α1 xd, φ1 y ` a2 xd, φ2 y (8.7)

txd, φn yu (8.8)

converges to zero.

distribution, just by defining

ż8

xf, φy ” dx f pxq φpxq (8.9)

´8

But there are distributions (dubbed singular) which can not be written

in such a way. The most important one is precisely the Dirac delta

• Under a reflexion

ż ż

dx f px{λqφpxq “ λ dx f pxq φpλxq (8.13)

tions which, together with their derivatives, go to zero faster than any power

of 1r when r Ñ 8. For example

2

e´r P S (8.15)

S1 Ă K1 (8.16)

66

(the bigger the starting space, the smaller its dual). The derivative of a

distribution is defined as

This result holds for regular distributions just by neglecting surface terms.

Let us work out some examples

• Consider the Heaviside function

θpxq “ 0 x ă 0

θpxq “ 1 x ą 0 (8.18)

ż8

1 1

xθ pxq, φpxqy ” ´xθpxq, φ pxq ” ´ φ1 pxqdx “ φp0q (8.19)

0

xλ` (8.21)

defined for ´1 ă λ ă 0 as

xλ` “ 0 x ď 0

xλ` “ xλ xą0 (8.22)

This is locally summable, which is not the case with the ordinary

derivative

λxλ´1 (8.23)

We have to regularize the integral

ż8

λxλ´1 dx (8.24)

0

´ ¯1 ż8 ż8

λ λ 1

x x` , φpxqy “ ´ x φ pxq dx ” ´ lim xλ φ1 pxq dx (8.25)

0 Ñ0

du “ dφ ùñ u“φ`C

λ

v“x (8.26)

67

This leads to

ˆ ˇ8 ż 8 ˙

ˇ

λ´1 ˇ λ´1

´ lim pφ ` Cq λx ˇ ´ λx pφ ` Cq dx (8.27)

Ñ0

that

C “ ´φp0q (8.28)

We are then led to the definition

´ ¯1 ż8

λ

x x` , φpxqy ” pφpxq ´ φp0qq λxλ´1 dx (8.29)

0

yÑ0

Now

logpx ` i0q “ log |x| ` iπθp´xq (8.31)

We have seen that

θ1 pxq “ δpxq (8.32)

Now

θpxq ` θp´xq “ 1 ùñ θ1 pxq “ ´δpxq (8.33)

as well as

d x d 1 x 1

x2 “ |x|2 ùñ |x| “ ùñ log |x| “ “

dx |x| dx |x| |x| x

(8.34)

Then

d 1

logpx ` i0q “ ´ iπδpxq (8.35)

dx x

d

• Let us explore dx |x| in the sense of distributions

ş ş0 ş8

x|x|1 , f y ” ´ |x|f 1 ““ ´8 xf 1 ´ 0 xf 1 “

ş0

“ xf |0´8 ´ ´8 f ` 0 f ´ xf |8

ş8 ş

0 “ σpxqf (8.36)

1

∆ (8.37)

r

68

Following the general definition

ż ż

1 1 1 1

x ∆ , φ y “ x , ∆φ y “ d3 x ∆φ ” lim d3 x ∆φ “

r r r Ñ0 rě r

ż ˆ ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙ ˙

1 i 1

lim d3 x ∇i ∇ φ ´ ∇i ∇i φ “

Ñ0 rě r r

ż ˆ ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙ ˙

3 1 i i1 1

“ lim d x ∇i ∇ φ ´ ∇i ∇ φ ` ∆ φ (8.38)

Ñ0 rě r r r

term is ˆ ˙

2 1 d 1

´ lim 4π φ ` φ 2 “ ´4πφp0q (8.39)

Ñ0 dn

Then

1

∆ “ ´4πδ 3 pxq (8.40)

r

ż ż

2

∆ log r φpxq d x ” log r ∆φ d2 x “

rě rě

ż " *

“ ∇ plog r ∇φq ´ ∆ log r φ ` ∇ p∇ log r φq “

rě

ż

1

“0`0` 2πr dr φ “ 2π φp0q (8.41)

0 r

converges to the derivative of the limit, in the sense of distributions.

For example, it is a fact that any series of the form

8

ÿ

an einx (8.42)

´8

converges in the sense of distributions.

Proof. In fact such a series can always be obtained by sufficient number

of term-by-term derivatives of another series of the type

8

ÿ an

einx (8.43)

´8

pinqk

QED

69

• A sequence of distributions

da , d2 . . . dn (8.44)

nÑ8

of regular functionals.

8

ÿ 1

sin nx (8.46)

n“1

n

π´x

f pxq ” 0 ă x ă 2π (8.47)

2

Consider the function over two periods

π x

´ ´ ´ 2π ă x ă 0

2 2

π x

´ 0 ă x ă 2π (8.48)

2 2

which has a 2π discontinuity at the origin. Its derivative is

ż ż0 ż8

1 1 π`x 1 π´x 1

xd , φy ” ´ dx dpxq φ pxq “ dx φ pxq ´ φ “

´8 2 0 2

1 0 1 8

ż ż

π π

“ φp0q ´ φ dx ` φp0q ´ φ dx (8.49)

2 2 ´8 2 2 0

Then

1

d1 “ π δpxq ´ (8.50)

2

Differentiating the whole series, we get a delta at each discontinuity

8

ÿ 1 ÿ

cos nx “ ´ ` π δpx ´ 2πnq (8.51)

2 ´8

8

ÿ 8

ÿ

ix 2ix ´ix ´2ix inx

1`e `e `...`e `e `... ” e “ 2π δpx ´ 2πnq

´8 ´8

(8.52)

70

• A delta convergent sequence tfi u, is one such that

ˇż b ˇ

ˇ ˇ

ˇ fj pξq dξ ˇ ď C (8.53)

ˇ ˇ

a

– 2.- For any fixed nonvanishing a and b

żb

lim fj pξq dξ “ 0 a ă b ă 0 or 0ăaăb

jÑ8 a

żb

lim fj pξq dξ “ 1 aă0ăb (8.54)

jÑ8 a

1

fj “ (8.55)

π x ` 2

2

as Ñ 0.

• The starting point in order to define the Fourier transform (FT) of

distributions is Parseval’s theorem. For regular distributions it asserts

that ż ż

1

˚

dxf pxqgpxq dx “ dk f˜˚ pkqg̃pkq (8.56)

2π

where we have defined the FT as

ż8

˜

f pkq ” eikx f pxq dx (8.57)

´8

in a moment) for every distribution in K 1 . This is by definition the FT

of the original distribution. Fourier transform establishes a one-to-one

mapping

K ÐÑ Z (8.58)

where Z is defined as follows. It consists of slowly increasing functions,

that is, all entire functions ψpsq (where s ” σ ` iτ ) such that

71

• Let us compute the FT of Dirac’s delta.

ż

pδ̃, φ̃q ” 2πpδ, φq “ 2πφp0q “ φ̃pkq ” p1, φ̃q (8.60)

Ergo,

F T rδs “ δ̃ “ 1 (8.61)

Also

ż

p1̃, φ̃q “ 2πp1, φq “ 2π φpxq dx “ 2π φ̃p0q “ 2πpδ, φq (8.62)

Similar computations lead to

F T rδ p2m`1q pxqs “ p´1qm`1 ik 2m`1 (8.64)

1 sin νx

fν pxq ” (8.65)

π x

for 0 ă ν ă 8). First of all,

ż8

fν pxq dx “ 1 (8.66)

´8

eiz

ż

“ 2πie (8.67)

z ´ i

żb ż bν

1 sin y

fν pxq dx “ (8.68)

a π aν y

formly @ν. Therefore we are dealing with a delta-convergent sequence.

νÑ8

sin νx eiξx

“ dξ (8.70)

x ν 2π

72

Then what we have just proved is that

żν

lim eiξx dξ “ 2πδpxq (8.71)

νÑ8 ´ν

not grow at infinity faster that some power of |x|, has got a Fourier

transform in the sense of distributions.

• Let us recall that the convolution of two ordinary functions (regular

distributions) is defined as

ż ż

xf ˚ g, φpxqy ” f pξqgpx ´ ξqdξdx “ dξdηf pξqgpηqφpξ ` ηq (8.72)

to generalize this last version of convolution to

xt1 ˚ t2 , φy ” xt1 pxqt2 pyq, φpx ` yqy (8.73)

It is plain that

t1 ˚ t2 “ t2 ˚ t1 (8.74)

as well as

t1 ˚ pt2 ˚ t3 q “ pt1 ˚ t2 q ˚ t3 (8.75)

Let us now compute the convolution of Dirac’s delta.

xδ ˚ t, φy “ xδpxqtpyq, φpx ` yqy “ xtpyq, φpyqy “ xt, φy (8.76)

That is, Dirac’s delta acts as a unit with respect to convolutions

δ˚t“t (8.77)

Also,

B pt ˚ sq “ pBtq ˚ s “ t ˚ pBsq (8.78)

Indeed

xB pt ˚ sq , φy “ ´xt ˚ s, Bφy ” ´xtpxq, pxspyq, Bφpx ` yqyqy “ xBt ˚ s, φy

(8.79)

• Consider a linear differential equation with constant coefficients

P pBq y “ Jpxq (8.80)

Define an elementary solution or Green function as

P pBq G “ δ (8.81)

Then we can write solutions of our PDE as

y “J ˚G (8.82)

because

P pBq y “ J P pBq G “ J ˚ δ “ J (8.83)

73

• Consider the ODE

d2

ˆ ˙

` ω2 xptq “ jptq (8.84)

dt2

Let us first show that the function

eiω|t|

Gptq ” (8.85)

2iω

is an elementary solution. Indeed

d

Gptq “ iωGptq.σptq (8.86)

dt

and

d2 ` 2 ˘

Gptq “ ´ω ` iω2δptq Gptq (8.87)

dt2

Incidentalt, the same thing happens with

eiωt

GR ptq “ θptq (8.88)

2iω

as well as

eiωt

GR ptq “ ´θp´tq (8.89)

2iω

• We have seen previously that

1 1

Gpxq “ ´ n´2

pn ą 2q

pn ´ 2qΩn r

1 1

Gpxq “ ´ log pn “ 2q (8.90)

2π r

is an elementary solution of the laplacian. This leads to Poisson’s

formula for the newtonian potential due to a density ρpxq

ż ż

V pxq “ dξρpξqGpx ´ ξq (8.91)

That is,

ż

1 ρpξ1 , ξ2 , ξ3 q

V px, y, zq “ ´ a dξ1 dξ2 dξ3

4π pξ1 ´ xq2 ` pξ2 ´ yq2 ` pξ3 ´ zq2

(8.92)

• We know that every periodic locally summable fuction f pθq can be

written in the form of a Fourier series

ÿ8

f pθq “ cn einθ (8.93)

´8

8

ÿ

f˜pkq “ cn δpk ` nq (8.94)

´8

74

• Let us derive the marvelous Poisson summation formula. Starting

from ÿ ÿ

einx “ 2π δpx ´ 2πnq (8.95)

we easily get

ÿ ÿ ÿ

f pxq ” einπx{L “ 2π δpπx{L ´ 2πnq “ 2L δpx ´ 2nLq (8.96)

ż

˜

ÿ ÿ 1 ÿ n

f pkq ” dxe´2πixk δpx ´ 2nL “ 0 e´2πikp2nLq “ δpk ´ q

n 2L 2L

(8.97)

Now, the transform of a gaussian

2

gpxq ” e´x (8.98)

is another gaussian

? 2 x2

f˜pkq ” πe´π (8.99)

Let us apply Parseval’s theorem to this couple of functions

ż ż

f pxqgpxqdx “ f˜pk “ g̃p´kqdk (8.100)

ÿ 2 L2 1 ÿ ´ π2 m22

e´4m “ e 4L (8.101)

2L

This has got plentiful physical applications.

• Consider

δpf pxqq (8.102)

It is clear that in the simplest case

ż ż

δpf pxqqgpxqdx “ dtδptqgpxptqq (8.103)

where

t ” f pxq ñ dt “ f 1 pxqdx (8.104)

In some case, some care must be taken. For example, consider

δpx2 ´ m2 q (8.105)

75

4

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3

-2

-4

Then

ż8 ż ´µ ż8

dt dt

dx “ a ` a (8.106)

´8 8 ´2 t ` µ2 ´µ 2 t ` µ2

Then ż8

gp´µq gpµq

dxδpx2 ´ µ2 q gpxq “ ` (8.107)

´8 2µ 2µ

the delta function and its derivatives.

• Consider codimension one hypersurfaces given by

P px1 . . . xn q “ 0 (8.108)

We sould like to define such things as δpP q, etc. Let us assume that

Bµ P |P ‰ 0 (8.109)

dP ^ ω “ dpvolq (8.110)

BP

Provided Bx 1 ‰ 0, there is always some coordinate system such that

the equation of the surface reads

u1 “ P u2 “ x2 ... un “ xn (8.111)

76

Then

ˆ ˙

n Bx

1 2

dpvolq ” dx ^ dx ^ . . . dx “ det du1 ^ du2 . . . ^ dun “

Bu

1

BP

du1 ^ du2 . . . ^ dun (8.112)

Bx1

Ergo,

1

ω“ BP

dx2 . . . ^ dxn (8.113)

Bx1

In fact it can be shown that ω has an intrinsic meaning. It is only

natural to define ż

xδpP q, φy ” φpxq ω (8.114)

P “0

As an example, let us work out

δpxy ´ cq (8.115)

u1 “ xy ´ c

u2 “ y (8.116)

Then

dy

ω“ (8.117)

y

because

dy

pxdy ` ydxq ^ “ dx ^ dy (8.118)

y

It is a fact ż ˆ ˙

c dy

xδ pxy ´ cq , φpx, yqy “ φ ,y (8.119)

y y

Let us work out another example, namely δpr ´ Rq The Leray form

coincides with the euclidean area element Rn´1 dΩ

ż

xδpr ´ Rq, φy “ Rn´1 φ dΩ (8.120)

r“R

an appropiate way (in which case pδ n p~xq, φq would diverge). If it were

instead δpr2 ´ c2 q, we could define

u1 “ r2 ´ R2

u2 “ θ1

...

un “ θn´1 (8.121)

77

This means that

1 1

ω“dΩ “ Rn´1 dΩ (8.122)

2r 2R

and

Rn´2

ż

xδpr2 ´ R2 q, φy “ φ dΩ (8.123)

2 r“R

If we define a Heaviside function

θpP q “ 1 ðñ P pxq ě 0

θpP q “ 0 ðñ P pxq ă 0 (8.124)

Then it can be shown that

θ1 pP q “ δpP q (8.125)

and on P.

ω0 pφq ” φ ω

dω0 ” dP ^ ω1 pφq

...

dωk´1 pφq ” dP ^ ωk pφq

... (8.126)

Then we define the derivatives of the delta function as

ż

pkq k

xδ pP q, φy ” p´1q ωk pφq (8.127)

P “0

For example, let us compute δ pkq pr ´ Rq. Using the same coordinates

as before, we recover

ω “ rn´1 dΩ (8.128)

Then

ω0 “ φ rn´1 dΩ (8.129)

and ` ˘

B φ rn´1

ω1 pφq “ dΩ (8.130)

Br

In fact

` ˘

B k φ rn´1

ωk pφq “ dΩ (8.131)

Brk

Then

` ˘

p´1qk B k φ rn´1

ż

pkq

xδ pr ´ Rq, φy “ n´1 dΩ (8.132)

R r“R Brk

78

9

Finite groups.

GˆGÑG (9.1)

such that

1.- g1 , g2 P G Ñ g1 g2 P G

2.- The composition law is associative: g1 pg2 g3 q “ pg1 g2 q g3 .

3.- There is a unit e P G, such that eg “ ge “ g @g P G.

4.- Every element has got an inverse g ´1 g “ gg ´1 “ e

• A group is finite if the set has a finite number of elements. This is called

the order of the group, |G|. Cyclic groups are particular instances such

that

@g P G, g n “ 1 (9.2)

for some integer n. For example, Z3 such that a3 “ b3 “ e, has got

the multiplication table

e a b

e e a b

(9.3)

a a b e

b b e a

gh “ hg @g, h P G (9.4)

• A representation is a mapping

g P G Ñ Dpgq (9.5)

where Dpgq is a linear operator acting in some linear space V and such

that

79

– Dpeq “ 1

– Dpg1 qDpg2 q “ Dpg1 g2 q

space V . For example a three dimensional representation of the cyclic

group Z3 in R3 is

¨ ˛

1 0 0

e Ñ Dpeq ” ˝0 1 0‚

0 0 1

¨ ˛

0 0 1

a Ñ Dpaq ” ˝1 0 0‚

0 1 0

¨ ˛

0 1 0

b Ñ Dpbq ” ˝0 0 1‚

1 0 0

(9.6)

of the group with a basis in VN , a vector space of dimension equal to

the order of the group. For example,

¨ ˛

1

e Ø epeq ” e1 ” 0‚

˝

0

¨ ˛

0

a Ø epaq ” e2 ” 1‚

˝

0

¨ ˛

0

b Ø epbq ” e3 ” ˝0‚ (9.7)

1

Then we define

Dad pg1 qepg2 q ” epg1 g2 q (9.8)

With the natural definition

It follows

3

ÿ

Dij pghq ” eTi Dpghqej “ eTi DpgqDphqej “ eTi Dpgq ek eTk Dphqej “

k“1

ÿ

“ Dik pgqDkj phq (9.10)

k

80

If we change the basis of the linear space on which the representation

acts ÿ

ei Ñ ẽi ” Sij ej (9.11)

j

Then

ei Ñ Dij ej

` ´1 ˘l ˘k

ẽ Ñ Dil S ´1 q j ẽk

`

S i l

ẽ Ñ SDS ´1 ẽ (9.12)

That is

D̃ “ SDS ´1 (9.13)

It is said that D and D̃ are equivalent representations.

• It is fact that all representations of finite groups are equivalent to

unitary representations, that is, one such that

DD` “ D` D “ 1 (9.14)

ÿ

S” D` pgqDpgq “ U ´1 ΛU (9.15)

gPG

where

Λ “ diag pλ1 . . . λn q (9.16)

and all eigenvalues λi ě 0. Actually all λi ą 0 because if it were one

zero eigenvalue, then there must be a vector such that

ÿ

Sv “ 0 “ v ` Sv “ ||Dpgqv||2 (9.17)

gPG

there is a matrix

1

S 1{2 ” U ´1 Λ 2 U (9.18)

and defining

D̃pgq ” S 1{2 DpgqS ´1{2 (9.19)

we are done, because

« ˜ ¸ ff

“ ‰ ÿ

D̃` pgqD̃pgq “ S ´1{2 D` pgqSDpgq S ´1{2 “ S ´1{2 D` pgq D` phqDphq Dpgq S ´1{2 “

hPG

« ff « ff

ÿ ÿ

“ S ´1{2 D` phgqDphgq S ´1{2 “ S ´1{2 D` pkqDpkq S ´1{2 “ S ´1{2 SS ´1{2 “ 1(9.20)

hPG kPG

81

• A representation is reducible if it has an invariant subspace. If P 2 “ P

is the projector on this subspace, the condition is

subspace with projector

¨ ˛

1 1 1

1˝

P “ 1 1 1‚ (9.22)

3

1 1 1

@g P Z3 DpgqP “ P (9.23)

sentation (in this case, the trivial representation). When this is not the

case, the representation is irreducible. A representation is completely

reducible if it can be written in block diagonal form as the direct sum

of irreducible subrepresentations

our favorite Z3 example, defining

¨ ˛

1 1 1

1

S “ ˝1 α2 α ‚ (9.25)

3

1 α α2

where

2πi

α“e 3 (9.26)

Then

¨ ˛

1 0 0

D̃peq “ 0

˝ 1 0‚

0 0 1

¨ ˛

1 0 0

D̃paq “ 0

˝ α 0‚

0 0 α2

¨ ˛

1 0 0

D̃pbq “ 0

˝ α2 0 ‚

0 0 α

(9.27)

82

In fact, every representation of a finite group is completely reduci-

ble. Let us work with the unitary form of the representation. It it is

reducible, it means that there is a projector P such that

But D` pgq “ D´1 pgq “ Dpg ´1 q and g ´1 runs over G as well as g does

(because for every g, there is a unique g ´1 . To summarize, we claim

that

@g P DpgqP “ P Dpgq (9.30)

It follows that

• Given a subgroup H, we define a (left) coset

gH (9.32)

gh @g P G @h P H (9.33)

It is plain that every element in G must be in one (and only one) coset,

because we first pick g1 R H and construct the |H| elements g1 H those

are all different. Then we pick some g2 R H, g2 R g1 H, and so on. This

proves the theorem of Lagrange.

g1 „ g2 ô g1 “ g2 h, hPH (9.35)

G{ „ (9.36)

is the set of those left cosets.

It is important to distinguish that from another equivalence relatioship

g1 „ g2 ô Dh P G, hg1 “ g2 h (9.37)

83

The set of those (conjugacy) classes is

G{ „ (9.38)

@g P G gH “ Hg (9.39)

are dubbed normal. In this case, the coset space is also a group,

because

(9.40)

G{H is called the factor group of G by H.

• The center of a group, Z is the set of all elements that commute with

all elements of the group,

z P Z Ø zg “ gz @g P G (9.41)

important for a variety of reasons. One of them is Cayley’s theorem:

Eevery finite group |G| “ n is isomorphic so a subgroup of Sn . The

elements of S3 are

e

a1 ” p123q

a2 ” p321q

a3 ” p12q

a4 ” p23q

a5 ” p31q

(9.42)

a1=(123) a1 a2 e a5 a3 a4

a2=(132) a2 e a1 a4 a5 a3

(9.43)

a3=(12) a3 a4 a5 e a1 a2

a4=(23) a4 a5 a3 a2 e a1

a5=(13) a5 a3 a4 a1 a2 e

84

First of all, let us notice that the subset te, a1, a2u is a subgroup, the

alternating group A3 , consisting on all even premutations, and which

in this case happens to be isomorphic to Z3 . Moreover

a3 A3 “ ta3 , a4 , a5 u

a4 A3 “ ta4 , a5 , a3 u

a5 A3 “ ta5 , a3 , a4 u (9.44)

because

A3 a3 “ ta3 , a5 , a4 u

A3 a4 “ ta4 , a3 , a5 u

A3 a5 “ ta5 , a4 , a3 u (9.45)

that a24 “ e) which is not normal.

• The conjugacy classes are sets such that if they contain an element s,

they also contain all its conjugates

S ” tg ´1 sg @g P Gu (9.47)

g ´1 Sg “ S (9.48)

a´1

1 “ a2

a23 “ a24 “ a25 “ e (9.49)

ta1 , a2 u (9.50)

and then the three two-cycles

ta3 , a4 , a5 u (9.51)

mutations have the same cycle structure; in particular the permuta-

tions in the same class are either all even or else all odd.

85

• For fixed g P G, the mapping

h P G Ñ ghg ´1 P G (9.52)

` ˘` ˘

gg1 g ´1 gg2 g ´1 “ gg1 g2 g ´1 (9.53)

Outer automorphisms are all those automorphisms that are not inner.

• If there are two inequivalent irreducible representations D1 and D2 of

a group G, such that there is a matrix A that obeys

Av “ 0. Then there is a projector P onto the subspace that annihilates

A on the right. This subspace is invariant under D2 , because

state, it must annihilate them all.

If no vector annihilates A on either side, then it must be an invertible

square matrix, Then

D1 “ AD2 A´1 (9.57)

and the two representations are equivalent.

Another proof is as follows. Define

1 2

Dij Aja “ Aib Dba (9.59)

then

1

ei Dij Aja “ D1 pej Aja q “ ei Aib Dba

2

(9.60)

Denoting

Eb ” ei Aib (9.61)

this shows that

D1 pEa q “ Eb Dba

2

(9.62)

which is not possible if D1 is irreducible.

86

• On the other hand, it is a fact that if there is a finite dimensional

irreducible representation D such that

A, has at least one eigenvalue Then

A ´ λ1 (9.65)

has a null eigenvector. Then the former argument shows that

A ´ λ1 “ 0 (9.66)

there is no further freedom to make nontrivial similarity transforma-

tions on the states.

9.3 Characters

ÿ

A” Dpgq X Dpg ´1 q (9.67)

gPG

life that

rDphq, As “ 0 @h P G (9.68)

Indeed

ř ř ř

DphqA ” Dphq gPG Dpgq X Dpg ´1 q “ gPG DphgqXDpg ´1 q “ gPG DphgqXDpg ´1 h´1 qDphq “

ř

“ gPG Dpgq X Dpg ´1 qDphq ” ADphq (9.6

A “ λ1 (9.70)

Let us now choose as starting point the particular matrix

Then ÿ

Dil pgqDmj pg ´1 q “ λlm δij (9.72)

gPG

87

Taking the trace δ ij we learn that

ÿ |G|

Dil pgqDmj pg ´1 q “ δlm δij (9.74)

gPG

dR

Let us now repeat the same procedure using two different representa-

tions, id est, ÿ

B” D2 pgqXD1 pg ´1 q (9.75)

gPG

It is plain that

D2 phqB “ BD1 phq (9.76)

B“0 (9.77)

and using

X ” Elm (9.78)

we learn that ÿ

Dil2 pgq Dmj

1

pg ´1 q “ 0 (9.79)

gPG

Consider the set of all irreps

µ

Dij pgq (9.80)

pµ, i, jq. These vectors are orhogonal in the sense that

ÿ |G| µν

Dilµ pgq Dmj

ν

pg ´1 q “ δ δlm δij (9.81)

gPG

dR

For each irrep, µ there are d2R mutually orthogonal vectors in K|G| .

This is possible only provided that

ÿ

d2µ ď |G| (9.82)

µ

88

• The character of a given irrep is just the trace

ÿ

χµ pgq ” T r Dµ pgq ” Dij pgq (9.83)

i

tr D “ tr hDh´1 (9.84)

ÿ

χµ pgqχν pg ´1 q “ |G| δ µν (9.85)

gPG

with number of elements

C

ÿ

dKi “ |G| (9.86)

i“1

implies

χpgq “ χpg ´1 q (9.88)

ÿ

χµi χνi dKi “ dG δ µν (9.89)

i

This means that the number of irreps must be smaller or equal to the

number of classes.

We can use the orthogonality relations to decompose the adjoint re-

presentation.

First of all, assume a reducible representation

D “ D1 ‘ D2 ‘ . . . ‘ Dk (9.90)

so that ÿ

χ“ χj (9.91)

The number of times the irrep piq appears in this decomposition is

equal to

xχ|χi y (9.92)

Remember that

Dpsqet ” est (9.93)

89

Now if s ‰ 1 then st ‰ t, so that the diagonal terms in the matrix

Dpsq just vanish. Then

χps ‰ eq “ 0 (9.94)

and

χpeq “ dG (9.95)

Then

1 ÿ ad ´1

xχad |χi y ” χ pt qχi ptq “ di (9.96)

dG tPG

Ergo ÿ

d2i “ dG (9.97)

i

matrix in V aasociated to an irrep, DR

ÿ

DfR ” f ptqDR ptq (9.98)

tPG

It is plain that

rDfR , Dphqs “ 0, @h P G (9.99)

Then by Schur’s lemma

DfR “ λ1 (9.100)

We can compute λ ÿ

dR λ “ f ptqχptq (9.101)

tPG

of H, the space of central functions on the group.

We need to prove that any element of H orthogonal to all the characters

is zero.

Assume

xf |χµ y “ 0 @µ (9.102)

λ“0 (9.103)

for all irreps. Then

Dfµ “ 0 (9.104)

for all representations direct sum of irreps. Let us work this out for

the regular representation.

0 “ Dfad e1 ”

ř ř

tPG f ptqDptqe1 “ tPG f ptqet (9.105)

90

It follows that

f ptq “ 0 @t P G (9.106)

QED.

It follows that the number of irreps is equal to the number of classes.

In conclusion, ÿ

d2R “ |G| (9.107)

R

Let us check this in the abelian group ZN ” z0 ” e, z1 . . . zN ´1

zi zj “ zi`jpmod Nq (9.108)

The irreps are given by

2πk

i

Dn pak q “ e N (9.109)

The orthogonality relationship means now that

N ´1

1 ÿ ´ 2πn1 k i 2πn2 k i

e N e N “ δn1 n2 (9.110)

N k“0

It is actually vary easy to prove that all irreps of an abelian group are

one-dimensional. Every element is a conjugacy class by itself. Then

the number of irreps is equal to the order of the group. Each of them

is got to be one-dimensional

• Let us repeat the former theorem in a different language. Given any

class function, F pgq, we can expand it as

ÿ

F pgq “ Fajk Da pgqjk (9.111)

ajk

1 ÿ 1 ÿÿ

F pgq “ F ph´1 ghq “ Fajk Da ph´1 ghqjk “

|G| hPG |G| hPG ajk

1 ÿÿ ÿ 1

“ Fajk Da ph´1 qjj1 Da pgqj1 j2 Da phqj2 k “ Fajk Da pgqj1 j2 δj1 j2 δjk “

|G| hPG ajk da

ÿ 1 ÿ 1

a

“ da Fajj Dkk pgq “ f a χa pgq (9.112)

ajk

da aj

da

This means that the number of irreps is actually equal to the number

of conjugacy classes. If we label conjugacy classes by α , |α| being the

number of elements of the class α, then defining the square matrix

d

|α|

Vαa ” χD pgα q (9.113)

|G| a

91

the orthogonality relation

ÿ

χ˚Da pgq χDb pgq “ |G| δab (9.114)

gPG

means that

VV` “1 6 V `V “ 1 (9.115)

To be specific

ÿ |G|

χ˚Da pgα qχDa pgβ q “ δαβ (9.116)

a |α|

Given any rep, it will containg all irreps Da some number of times,

mD

a . This can be easily computed using

ÿ

χDa pgq˚ χD pgq “ |G|mD

a (9.117)

gPG

χpeq “ |G|

χpg ‰ eq “ 0 (9.118)

Then

mD

a “ χa peq “ |Da | (9.119)

Each irrep appears in the adjoint a number of times equal to its

dimension.

Consider again the case of S3 . In this case |G| “ 6. We know the one

dimensional irrep

Dpgq “ 1 (9.120)

It is such that

χ0 pgq “ 1 (9.121)

Now ÿ

1` n2µ “ 6 (9.122)

µ‰0

nµ “ 1, 2 (9.123)

Let us try and determine the characters using orthogonality

0 1 1 1

(9.124)

1 1 1 -1

2 2 -1 0

92

Let us prove that given an arbitrary ( in general reducible) represen-

tation, D, the operator

da ÿ

Pa ” χ̄D pgq Dpgq (9.125)

dG gPG a

that

da ÿ ˚ b

χ pgq Dlm pgq “ δ ab dlm (9.126)

dG gPG Da

¨ ˛

1 0 0

e Ñ Dpeq “ 0 1

˝ 0‚

0 0 1

¨ ˛

0 0 1

a1 Ñ Dpa1 q “ ˝1 0 0‚

0 1 0

¨ ˛

0 1 0

a2 Ñ Dpa2 q “ ˝0 0 1‚

1 0 0

¨ ˛

0 1 0

a3 Ñ Dpa3 q “ ˝1 0 0‚

0 0 1

¨ ˛

1 0 0

a4 Ñ Dpa4 q “ ˝0 0 1‚

0 1 0

¨ ˛

0 0 1

a5 Ñ Dpa5 q “ 0

˝ 1 0‚ (9.127)

1 0 0

ÿ ÿ

Dpgq|jy “ |kyxk|Dpgq|jy ” |kyDkj pgq (9.128)

k k

93

Let us now emply this three-dimensional rep to determine the projec-

tion operators

¨ ˛

˜ j“5

¸ 1 1 1

1 ÿ 1˝

P0 “ D3 peq ` D3 paj q “ 1 1 1‚

6 3

j“1 1 1 1

˜ j“2 j“5

¸

1 ÿ ÿ

P1 “ D3 peq ` D3 paj q ´ D3 aj “ 0

6 j“1 j“3

¨ ˛

˜ j“2

¸ 2 ´1 ´1

1 ÿ 1˝

P2 “ 2D3 peq ´ D3 paj q “ ´1 2 ´1‚(9.129)

6 3

j“1 ´1 ´1 2

D3 “ D0 ‘ D2 (9.130)

¨ ˛

1 0 0 0 0 0

˚0 1 0 0 0 0‹

˚ ‹

˚0 0 1 0 0 0‹

Dpeq “ ˚˚0 0 0 1 0

‹ (9.131)

˚ 0‹‹

˝0 0 0 0 1 0‚

0 0 0 0 0 1

¨ ˛

0 0 1 0 0 0

˚1 0 0 0 0 0‹

˚ ‹

˚0 1 0 0 0 0‹

Dpa1 q “ ˚

˚0

‹ (9.132)

˚ 0 0 0 1 0‹‹

˝0 0 0 0 0 1‚

0 0 0 1 0 0

¨ ˛

0 1 0 0 0 0

˚0 0 1 0 0 0‹

˚ ‹

˚1 0 0 0 0 0‹

Dpa2 q “ ˚

˚0

‹ (9.133)

˚ 0 0 0 0 1‹‹

˝0 0 0 1 0 0‚

0 0 0 0 1 0

¨ ˛

0 0 0 1 0 0

˚0 0 0 0 1 0‹

˚ ‹

˚0 0 0 0 0 1‹

Dpa3 q “ ˚

˚1

‹ (9.134)

˚ 0 0 0 0 0‹‹

˝0 1 0 0 0 0‚

0 0 1 0 0 0

94

¨ ˛

0 0 0 0 1 0

˚0 0 0 0 0 1‹

˚ ‹

˚0 0 0 1 0 0‹

Dpa4 q “ ˚

˚0

‹ (9.135)

˚ 0 1 0 0 0‹‹

˝1 0 0 0 0 0‚

0 1 0 0 0 0

¨ ˛

0 0 0 0 0 1

˚0 0 0 1 0 0‹

˚ ‹

˚0 0 0 0 1 0‹

Dpa5 q “ ˚

˚0

‹ (9.136)

˚ 1 0 0 0 0‹‹

˝0 0 1 0 0 0‚

1 0 0 0 0 0

¨ ˛

1 1 1 1 1 1

˚1 1 1 1 1 1‹

˚ ‹

1˚ 1 1 1 1 1 1‹

P0 “ ˚ ‹ (9.137)

6 ˚1 1 1

˚ 1 1 1‹‹

˝1 1 1 1 1 1‚

1 1 1 1 1 1

¨ ˛

1 1 1 ´1 ´1 ´1

˚1 1 1 ´1 ´1 ´1‹

˚ ‹

1˚ 1 1 1 ´1 ´1 ´1‹

P1 “ ˚ ‹ (9.138)

6˚˚´1 ´1 ´1 1 1 1‹‹

˝´1 ´1 ´1 1 1 1‚

´1 ´1 ´1 1 1 1

¨ ˛

2 ´1 ´1 0 0 0

˚´1 2 ´1 0 0 0‹

˚ ‹

1˚ ´1 ´1 2 0 0 0‹

P2 “ ˚ ‹ (9.139)

3˚˚0 0 0 2 ´1 ´1‹ ‹

˝0 0 0 ´1 2 ´1‚

0 0 0 ´1 ´1 2

• Let us recall that a cycle is a cyclic permutation of a subset. An

arbitray permutation has got kj j-cycles, where

j“n

ÿ

jkj “ n (9.140)

j“1

95

• Let us quickly revew a few general properties of cycles.

Every cycle can be written as a product of transpositions, allowing for

an index to appear several times:

odd otherwise. The canonical way of writing a permutation is as a

product of cycles without any common element. There are then n1

one-cycles (usually not written down), n2 two cycles, n3 three-cycles,

ad so on, in such a way that

the number n.)

The cycle structure is invariant under conjugation. We claim that

ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙

12 . . . n s1 s2 . . . sn

pa1 . . . ap q “ pb1 . . . bp q (9.143)

s1 s2 . . . sn 12 . . . n

The reason is that for the numbers not involved in the cycle (let us

say, 3) the cycle is irrelevant in the sense that

ˆ ˙ˆ ˙

3 s3

“ ps3 q (9.144)

s3 3

so that s3 remains invariant.

For example

p123qp12qp132q “ p23q (9.145)

Also

p12qp123qp12q “ p132q (9.146)

How many elements are there in each conjugacy class? There are n!

permutations to begin with. But order is immaterial between cycles

of the same length; so we must divide by kj |. Also cyclic order does

not matter within a cycle; this yields a factor j kj . Altogether we have

n!

Nj “ ś kj k !

(9.147)

jj j

of boxes of length j, top justified and arranged in decreasing j from

3!

left to right. For example, in S3 , the identity 13 (with 3! “ 1 element)

is

(9.148)

96

3!

The class (2,1) (with 2 “ 3 elements)

(9.149)

3!

and the class 3 (with 3 “ 2 elements)

(9.150)

It is a fact that each tableau yields an dirrep of Sn with dimension

n!

dR “ (9.151)

H

where H is the hooks factor. To be specific,

3!

d “ “1 (9.152)

3.2

3!

d “ “2 (9.153)

3

3!

d “ “1 (9.154)

3.2

the partitions of the integer n. An unlabelled Young diagram or Young

frame corresponds to a partition of the integer n, consisting of n boxes

arranged in r rows

ÿr

n“ λj (9.155)

i“1

λ1 ě λ2 ě . . . ě λr (9.156)

32 1 “ t331u “

(

(9.157)

97

• A Young tableau, or labelled Young diagram is an assignment of the

numbers 1, 2 . . . n to the boxes of a Young frame. The tableau is stan-

dard if the numbers are increasing both along rows from left to right

and along columns from top to bottom.

The Young operator corrresponding to a given tableau is obtained by

first symmetrizing rows (let us call p the horizontal permutations) and

then antisymmetrizing columns (denote by q vertical permutations)

˜ ¸˜ ¸

ź ź

P “C δπ π π (9.158)

q p

the constant C. We shall do it in some examples. We shall define

a mapping from a given tableau to a state in the adjoint (that is, an

element of Sn ) by defining a em lexicografic ordering: from left to right

and then top down, like reading a page in usual latin conventions. For

example

6 3 4

5 1 2

7 8

9 ÝÑ p634512789q (9.159)

• Let us now work in gory detail the case of S3 First of all, consider the

frame

(9.160)

1

2

3 ÝÑ p123q (9.161)

and six others (all possible permutations). The Young operator maps

ˆ ˙

p123q ÝÑ YS ” C 1`p12q`p13q`p23q`p123q`p132q (9.162)

The projector is

1

PS ” Y0 (9.163)

6

This is a one-dimensional subspace corresponding to the trivial repre-

sentation

π ÝÑ 1 (9.164)

(9.165)

98

Again, there is only one standard tableau

1 2 3 ÝÑ p123q (9.166)

ˆ ˙

p123q ÝÑ YA ” C 1´p12q´p13q´p23q`p123q`p132q (9.167)

representation

1

PA ” YA (9.168)

6

π ÝÑ p´1qπ (9.169)

Let us now turn to the hook.

(9.170)

There are two standard tableaux. Let us write them with their opera-

tors.

1 2 ˆ ˙ˆ ˙ " *

3 ÝÑ p123q ÝÑ Y1 ” C 1 ´ p13q 1 ` p12q “ C 1 ´ p13q ` p12q ´ p123q

1 3 ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙

2 ÝÑ p132q ÝÑ Y2 ” C p1 ´ p12qq p1 ` p13qq “ C 1 ` p13q ´ p12q ´ p132q

Let us compute

Y12 “ p1 ´ p13q ` p12q ´ p123qq r1 ´ p13q ` p12q ´ p123qs “ r1 ´ p13q ` p12q ´ p123qs `

` r´p13q ` 1 ´ p123q ` p12qs ` rp12q ´ p132q ` 1 ´ p23qqs ` r´p13q ` p32q ´ p13q ` p132qs “

“ 3Y1 (9.171)

Also

Y22 “ 3Y2 (9.172)

This means that

1 1

Y1 , Y2 (9.173)

3 3

are true projectors.

Besides

99

" *" *

P1 .P2 “ 1 ´ p13q ` p12q ´ p123q 1 ` p13q ´ p12q ´ p132q “ r1 ´ p13q ` p12q ´ p123q

P1 .PS “ P1 .PA “ 0

P2 .PS “ P2 .PA “ 0 (9

PS ` PA ` P1 ` P2 “ 1 (9.175)

2 3 ˆ ˙

1 ÝÑ p231q ÝÑ P3 ” r1 ´ p12qs r1 ` p23qs “ C 1 ` p23q ´ p12q ´ p123q

2 1 ˆ ˙

3 ÝÑ p213q ÝÑ P4 ” r1 ´ p23qs r1 ` p12qs “ C 1 ` p12q ´ p23q ´ p132q

3 1 ˆ ˙

2 ÝÑ p312q ÝÑ P5 ” r1 ´ p23qs r1 ` p13qs “ C 1 ` p13q ´ p23q ´ p123q

3 2 ˆ ˙

1 ÝÑ p321q ÝÑ P6 ” r1 ´ p13qs r1 ` p23qs “ C 1 ´ p13q ` p23q ´ p132q

P1 ` P2 “ P3 ` P4

P6 ` P5 “ P1 ` P2

(9.176)

¨ ˛

1 0 ´1 1 0 ´1

˚´1

˚ 1 0 ´1 1 0‹‹

˚0 ´1 1 0 ´1 1 ‹

Y1 ” C ˚

˚1

‹ (9.177)

˚ ´1 0 1 ´1 0 ‹ ‹

˝0 1 ´1 0 1 ´1‚

´1 0 1 ´1 0 1

ˆ ˙

A A

Y1 “ C (9.178)

B B

100

with

¨ ˛ ¨ ˛

1 0 ´1 1 ´1 0

A ” ˝´1 1 0 ‚ B”˝ 0 1 ´1‚ (9.179)

0 ´1 1 ´1 0 1

Eigenvectors read

¨ ˛ ¨ ˛ ¨ ˛¨ ˛

1 ´1 0 0

˚´1‹ ˚0‹ ˚ 0 ‹˚ 0 ‹

˚ ‹ ˚ ‹ ˚ ‹˚ ‹

˚0‹ ˚1‹ ˚ 0 ‹˚ 0 ‹

˚ ‹

˚0‹

˚ ‹

˚0‹

˚ ‹˚ ‹

˚ 1 ‹ ˚´1‹ (9.180)

˚ ‹ ˚ ‹ ˚ ‹˚ ‹

˝0‚ ˝´1‚ ˝ 0 ‚˝ 1 ‚

0 1 ´1 0

¨ ˛

1 ´1 0 ´1 0 1

˚0 1 ´1 1 ´1 0 ‹

˚ ‹

˚´1 0 1 0 1 ´1‹

Y2 ” C ˚

˚ ‹ (9.181)

˚´1 1 0 1 0 ´1‹‹

˝ 0 ´1 1 ´1 1 0‚

1 0 ´1 0 ´1 1

The structure is ˆ ˙

B D

Y2 “ C (9.182)

´B ´D

with B as above and

¨ ˛

´1 0 1

D ” ˝ 1 ´1 0 ‚ (9.183)

0 1 ´1

although not identical representations.

is computed by dividing n! by the factorial of the hook length of each

box in the first column of λ and multiply by the difference of each pair

of such hook lengths. For example,

4!

dim “ p4 ´ 1q “ 3 (9.184)

4!1!

pp ` 4q! pp ` 4qpp ` 1q

dim tp`2, 2u ” ... “ pp`1q “

pp ` 3q!2! 2

(9.185)

101

102

10

Lie groups.

Lie groups are particular instances of continuous groups, where each element

g P G depends on a finite number of real continuous pareters

gpaqgpbq “ gpcq (10.2)

where the functions

ci “ fi paj , bk q (10.3)

are sufficiently regular. The canonical example is the thee-dimensional ro-

tation group, SOp3q, where the parameters are the three Euler angles. In is

often convenient to choose the parameters in such a way that

gp0q “ e (10.4)

for all manifolds, Lie groups can be compact or non compact. (Remember

that in Rn this means that a set is both closed and bounded). Compact

groups (again SO(3) is the simplest nontrivial example) are much simpler,

and in many ways analogous to finite groups.

The Lie magic is that many of the characteristics of a Lie group are

determined by the properties of the neighborhood of the origin (which can

be chose arbitrarily in the group manifold). The tangent space at the origin

is dubbed the Lie algebra, G. The relationship between a Lie group and its

Lie algebra is the exponential mapping

ři“n

g “ ei i“1 ai Ti

(10.5)

αÑ0

103

On the other hand, it is plain that

gppt ` sqαi q “ gptαi qgpsαi q (10.7)

ˇ

dˇ

Taking the derivative with respect to dt t“0

we get

d

gpsαi q “ αi Ti gpsαi q (10.8)

ds

whose solution is the matrix exponential. Please note that

eA eB ‰ eA`B (10.9)

(BCH)

Let us work out the composition law

i j i

´ eiα Ti eiβ Tj¯” ´e

iγ pα,βqTi “

¯

k

α α

1 ` iαi Ti ´

l

T T ` . . . 1 ` iβ iT ´ βk βl T T ` . . . “

2 k l i 2 k l

i j

`1 i j 1 i j i j

˘

“ 1 ` iα Ti ` iβ Tj ´ 2 α α ` 2 β β ` α β Ti Tj ` . . .

` i ˘ ` ˘` ˘ ` ˘

“ 1 ` i α ` β i Ti ` 12 ai ` β i αj ` β j Ti Tj ` 12 αi β j ´ αj β i Ti Tj ` . . . “

` ˘ ` ˘` ˘

“ 1 ` i αi ` β i Ti ` 12 ai ` β i αj ` β j Ti Tj ` 12 αi β j rTi Tj s ` . . . (10.10)

The elements Ti are a basis for the Lie algebra, which is nothing else than

a vector space with an internal composition law, the commutator.

k“n

ÿ k“n

ÿ

k

rTi , Tj s “ Cij Tk “ i fijk Tk (10.11)

k“1 k“1

In this way

γ i pα, βq “ αi ` β i ` fkl

i k l

α β ` ... (10.12)

The constants (ork

Cij fijk )

are denoted the structure constants of the algebra.

A consequence of this is that the generators are traceless

T r Ti “ 0 (10.13)

Jacobi’s identity reads

rTi , rTj , Tk s`rTk , rTi , Tj s`rTj , rTk , Ti s “ 0 ðñ Cilm Cjk

l m l

`Ckl m l

Cij `Cjl Cki “ 0

(10.14)

Let us now define the adjoint representation as

´ ¯i

Tkad ” ifkji

(10.15)

j

equal to

i Tj ´ Ti Tj “ fi fj ´ fi fj “ fj fi ` fj fi “

“ ad ad ‰

Tk , Tl “ Tkj lm lj km lj km kj lm lm jk mk jl

j i j ` ad ˘i

“ ´fkl fjm “ ifkl Tj m (10.16)

104

Let us define a matrix in the algebra, G, the Killing metric as

q p

gkl ” tr Tkad Tlad ” ´fkp flq (10.17)

It can be shown that for compact groups the Killing matrix is definite

positive.

An intrinsic definition [13] is as follows. Consider an endomorphism of

L:

AdpXq : Y P L Ñ rX, Y s P L (10.18)

and the Killing form as

j

κpX, Y q ” Tr pAdpXq, AdpY qq “ X i Y l Cij

k

Clk (10.19)

w

` ˘i ` ˘j k w

C̃uv “ M ´1 u M ´1 v Cij Mk (10.21)

` ˘i ` ˘j

κ̃ab ” M ´1 a M ´1 b κij (10.22)

b

(10.23)

k

fpijq “0 (10.24)

Let us compute

b ` fl fafb

ik lb ja (10.25)

´ ¯ ´ ¯ ´ ¯

flba fijl fka

b

“ ´ fbla fijl fka

b

“ fila fjb

l

` fjla fbil fka

b

(10.26)

as well as

´ ¯ ´ ¯ ´ ¯

l a b

fik flb fja “ fbla fki

l b

fja a l

“ ´ fki fib ` fila fbk

l b

fja (10.27)

If is customary to define the quadratic Dynkin index as

p2q

tr Ta Tb ” IR δab (10.28)

105

106

We define an invariant subalgebra, A as a set of generators that maps into

itself under commutation with any element of the algebra G.That is, it is a

subalgebra which is also an ideal in the algebraic sense. There are always

two trivial invariant subalgebras, namely,e and G itself.

A simple Lie algebra is such that it does not have any nontrivial invariant

subalgebra. This the only type of Lie alegras we are going to study in this

course.

In this case, the adjoint representation is irreducible. (Compare with

finite groups). Assume there is an invariant subspace, generated by TA .

Call the other generators Tα . This means that

with two indices α vanish; the only possibility is to have three A or three α;

so that the algebra is not simple to begin with.

A semisimple algebra is such that there is no any abelian invariant su-

balgebra. They consist of direct products of simple algebras. The necessary

and sufficient condition for an algebra to be semisimple is that the Killing

form is non-degenerate, that is,

Let us prove the first part. Assume there is an invariant abelian subalgebra,

B generated by Tα ( the full set of generators will be denoted by i “ pα, Aq).

This means that

rB, Gs Ă B ÝÑ fiαA “ 0 (10.31)

Then the row of the Killing metric corresponding to the subalgebra, that is,

This means that a whole row of the Killing matrix vanishes, and so does its

determinant.

Semisimple Lie algebras are direct products of simple Lie algebras, such

as

G “ G 1 ˆ G2 ˆ . . . (10.33)

where all Gi are simple.

Most important are matrix groups.

plex (real) numbers is denoted as GLn pCq (GLn pRq).

107

• The group of n-dimensional unimodular (unit determinant) matrices

in the field of complex (real) numbers is denoted as SLn pCq (SLn pRq).

• The group of n-dimensional unitary (complex matrices in the field of

complex (real) numbers is denoted as SUn pCq (unitary group).

g ` g “ gg ` “ 1 (10.34)

The unitary Lie algebra SU pnq is such that

`

e´iaT eiaT “ 1 “ 1 ` ia T ´ T ` ` Opa2 q

` ˘

(10.35)

That is, elements of the Lie algebra are hermitian matrices. How many

are those? The condition is

Tij “ Tji˚ (10.36)

2

The n diagonal elements are real; and the n 2´n complex elements

below diagonal are deternined by those above; altogether we have

(deleting the trace)

n2 ´ n

n`2 ´ 1 “ n2 ´ 1 (10.37)

2

real parameters.

• The group of n-dimensional real orthogonal matrices is denoted as

SOpnq (orthogonal group).

g T g “ gg T “ 1 (10.38)

The Lie algebra SOpnq is given by

T

eiaT eiaT “ 1 ` iapT T ` T q ` Opa2 q (10.39)

antisymmetric matrices. The number of parameters is then

npn ´ 1q

(10.40)

2

• The group of matrices the leave invariant the diagonal quadratic form

with p values of +1 and q values of -1

¨ ˛

1 0 ... 0 0

˚0 1 . . . 0 0‹

˚ ‹

Ip,q ” ˚

˚ ... ‹

‹ (10.41)

˝0 0 . . . ´1 0 ‚

0 0 . . . 0 ´1

is denoted SOpp, qq and they are non-compact as soon as either p or q

are non-vanishing. The Lorentz group SOp1, 3q belongs to this class.

108

• The group of matrices that leave invariant the quadratic form

ˆ ˙

0 I

J” (10.42)

´I 0

• The group of matruces that leave invariant the quadratic form

tensor methods.

First of all, it is a fact that

M P SU p2q ùñ M

Ď P SU p2q (10.44)

respect to M

Ď. It so happens that

Ďa M w δ v “ M M ` a “ δ a

δba Ñ M

` ˘

v b w b b (10.45)

also

v w

ˆ 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1

˙

M1 M1 ´ M1 M1 “ 0 M1 M1 ´ M1 M2 “ det M

“ “

´det M M21 M22 ´ M22 M21 “ 0

“ det M vw “ vw (10.46)

as well as

ab ÝÑ ab (10.47)

From an upper and a lower index we can always form a simpler representa-

tion with two indices less

where

T .β ” Tγγβ “ tα1 ` 2tα2 (10.49)

Then

` α

1

˘

tα1 “ 2T ´ T .β

3

` .β

1

˘

tα2 “ 2T ´ T α

3 (10.50)

109

We can then eliminate either contravariant or covariant indices; the only

thing that matters is the difference, which we will write downstairs. Even

then, from say

Tαβ (10.51)

we can form

αβ Tαβ (10.52)

We know that the combinations with repetition of n objects taken m at

a time is the number of ways of combining n ´ 1 bars and m crosses; such

that the number of crosses to the left of the first bar stands for the number

of times times the first object appears; the number of crosses between the

first and the second bar stands for the`number ˘ of times the second object

n`m´1

appears and so on. This is pn`m´1q!

m!pn´1q! “ m .

In our case n “ 2 and the irreps are generated˘ by symmetric covariant

tensors with m indices, of which there are m`1

`

m “ m ` 1.

In the case of SOp3q all irreps are real, so we need to consider covariant

indices only. In spite of that

as well as

ijk ÝÑ ijk Rli Rm

j k

Rm “ det R lmn “ lmn (10.54)

j indices. In our case n “ 3, so this yields

ˆ ˙

j`2 pj ` 2qpj ` 1q

“ (10.55)

j 2

ˆ ˙

j jpj ´ 1q

“ (10.56)

j´2 2

d “ 2j ` 1 (10.57)

m “ 2j (10.58)

(that is, m is an even integer) does the SU p2q irrep be also an irrep of SOp3q.

110

10.3 Representations of GLpnq through tensor me-

thods.

Weyl’s treatment of finite dimensional group representations rests on a

simple fact. Consider any tensor that under L P GLpnq transforms as

Then

Tµ1 1 µ2 ...µn “ Lλµ11 . . . Lλµnn Tλ1 ...λn “ Lλµ11 . . . Lλµnn Tλπp1q ...λπpnq “ Lλµ1πp1q . . . Lλµnπpnq Tλ1 ...λn

(10.61)

It follows that

Tµ1 πp1q µπp2q ...µπpnq “ Tµ1 1 µ2 ...µn (10.62)

That is, the subspace of tensors invariant under any permutation symm-

metry is invariant under GLpnq transformations. Let us perform now some

elementary checks.

• n “ 2. There are only two symmetry classes: antisymmetric

T (10.63)

µ

ν

and symmetric

T (10.64)

µ ν

The Young projectors are

1 ˘ pµνq

(10.65)

2

• n “ 3. There are now three classes.

T

µ ν λ

T

µ

ν

λ

T (10.66)

µ ν

λ

Let us work out this third case in detail. The Young operator is given

by

(10.67)

111

pY T qµνλ “ Tµνλ ` Tνµλ ´ Tλνµ ´ Tνλµ (10.68)

It is clear that

Y 2 “ 3Y (10.69)

so that

1

P ” Y (10.70)

3

is a projector. Any tensor in this class is such that

(10.72)

It is a fact that in general these tensors form a basis for an irreducible

representation of GLpnq, without any further ado. Let us compute some

dimensions of those representations. The dimension of the space

r. This can be computed as imagining (n-1) vertical lines and r crosses. The

number is ˆ ˙

pn ` r ´ 1q! n`r´1

CRrn “ “ (10.74)

r!pn ´ 1q! r

For example in the case n “ 3, r “ 3 this formula yields

D “ 10 (10.75)

T111 T112 T113 T122 T123 T133 T222 T223 T233 T333 (10.76)

outer products. For example

b “ ‘ (10.77)

npn ` 1q npn ´ 1q

n2 “ ` (10.78)

2 2

One can also work out slightly more complicated examples; for example

b “ ‘ (10.79)

112

The dimension of the representetion easily follows:

n2 pn ` 1q

ˆ ˙

n`2

“ `D (10.80)

2 3

npn2 ´ 1q

D “ (10.81)

3

First of all, U pnq „ SU pnq ˆ U p1q. It is plain that all irreps of GL(n) are

also reps of any subgroup; but not necessarily irreps. As a trivial example,

the tensor

Trabs ” T ab (10.82)

It is also the case that the diagram r2n s has only one standard tableau,

1 1

for example 2 2 . There is only one basis element. Actually the Young

projector reads in this case

´ pTα1 α4 α3 α2 ` Tα4 α1 α3 α2 ` Tα1 α4 α2 α3 ´ Tα3 α4 α1 α2 ´ Tα4 α3 α1 α2 ´ Tα3 α4 α2 α1 q (10.84)

" ´ ¯ ´

pP T qα1 α2 α3 α4 Ñ gαβ11 gαβ22 gαβ33 gαβ44 ` gαβ12 gαβ21 gαβ33 gαβ44 ` gαβ11 gαβ22 gαβ34 gαβ43 ´ gαβ13 gαβ22 gαβ31 gαβ44 ` gαβ12 gαβ23 gαβ31 gαβ44 `

¯ ´

`gαβ13 gαβ22 gαβ34 gαβ41 ´ gαβ11 gαβ24 gαβ33 gαβ42 ` gαβ14 gαβ21 gαβ33 gαβ42 ` gαβ11 gαβ24 gαβ32 gαβ43 ´ gαβ13 gαβ24 gαβ31 gαβ42 `

¯*

β1 β2 β3 β4 β1 β2 β3 β4

´gα4 gα3 gα1 gα2 ´ gα3 gα4 gα2 gα1 Tβ1 β2 β3 β4 (10.86)

113

This result is actually quite generic. If we have a rep of GL(n), say rλ1 . . . λn s,

and we add to it a column of n boxes to it, the only set of indices in standard

order that can be inserted in the additional column of rλ1 ` 1 . . . λn ` 1s is

p1, 2, . . . , nq.

Thus the number of standard tableaux of the representation rλ1 ` 1 . . . λn ` 1s

is the same as this number for rλ1 . . . λn s; the only change is a new factor

of det g. This means that thse two patters are equivalent for unimodular

groups.

Then for unimodular groups we need to consider only patters with fewer

than n rows.

rλ1 . . . λn s “ rλ1 ´ λn . . . λn´1 ´ λn s (10.88)

There is a second equivalence (related to Hodge duality), namely

“ n´1 ‰

1 “ r1s (10.89)

“ n´p ‰

1 “ r1p s (10.90)

Which is equivalent to

(10.92)

This is the only case in which the Kronecker delta with two covariant or else

two contravariant indices makes sense, because

Traceless tensors are transformed into traceless tensors. There is a complete

decomposition of an arbitary tensor into a traceless piece plus other terms

containing Kronecker deltas. For example

ˆ ˙

1 1 1

Tij “ Tij ´ T δij ` T δij ” Tij0 ` T δij (10.95)

n n n

114

where

T ” δ ij Tij (10.96)

Another example

0

Tijk ” Tijk ` δij Ak ` δik Bj ` δjk Ci (10.97)

Ti23 ” δ jk Tijk

Tj13 ” δ ik Tijk

Tk12 ” δ ij Tijk (10.98)

Ti23 “ Ai ` Bi ` n Ci

Tj13 “ Aj ` nBj ` Bj

Tk12 “ n Ak ` Bk ` Ck (10.99)

then

1 ` 23

T ` T 13 ´ p1 ` nqT 13

˘

A“´

n2

`n´2

1 ` 23

T ´ p1 ` nqT 13 ` T 13

˘

B“´ 2

n `n´2

1

´p1 ` nqT 23 ` T 13 ` T 13

` ˘

C“´ 2 (10.100)

n `n´2

another traceless tensor. We can then apply Young operators to a traceless

tensor to obtain traceless tensors of a given symmetry type.

In fact, there is a theorem that states that the traceless tensors corre-

sponding to Young diagrams in which the sum of the lengths of the first two

columns exceeds n must vanish.

Let us work out the hook in n=2 dimensions (its traceless part

should vanish in agreement with the preceding theorem). The action of the

Young projector is proportional to

´ ¯

P Hook T ” tijk ` tjik ´ tkji ´ tjki (10.101)

ijk

115

Let us compute components in gory detail

H

T111 “0

H

T112 “ t112 ` t112 ´ t211 ´ t121

H

T121 “ t121 ` t211 ´ t121 ´ t211 “ 0

H

T122 “ t122 ` t212 ´ t221 ´ t221

H

T222 “0

H

T211 “ t211 ` t121 ´ t112 ´ t112

H

T212 “ t212 ` t122 ´ t212 ´ t122 “ 0

H

T221 “ t221 ` t221 ´ t122 ´ t212 (10.102)

H H

T211 “ ´T112

H H

T221 “ ´T122 (10.103)

H H H

T112 ` T222 “ T112 “0

H H H

T122 ` T111 “ T122 “0 (10.104)

Let us define associate diagrams. Assume the length of the first column

in T, say a ă n ď 2. Then the legth of the first colum of T 1 is a1 ” n ´ a,

and all othe columns of T and T 1 have the same length.

Fot example, for n=3

T ” Ñ T1 ” (10.105)

In n=4

T ” Ñ T1 ” (10.106)

In general the pattern T will contain a given number of indices , r “ 1, 2, . . .

and

µ 1 ` µ2 ` . . . ` µν ” r (10.107)

indices (where as usual µ1 ě µ2 ě . . . ě µν ). When n is an even number,

then

n

ν” (10.108)

2

116

n

(in this case diagrams with 2 rows are self-conjugate) and if n is an odd

number, then

n´1

ν” (10.109)

2

In SO(n) the reps corresponding to associate diagrams T and T 1 are

equivalent.For SO(3), ν “ 1, and irreps are desibed by the diagram

... (10.110)

We shall denore by so(n) the Lie algebra of SO(n).

117

118

11

SOp3q „ SU p2q{Z2.

Assume we are interested in the matrix that relates two different orthonor-

mal frames

~ea “ Ra b~eb (11.1)

This a matrix R P SOp3q. This means that

RRT “ RT R “ 1 (11.2)

Put it into another form, this is the condition that

x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 (11.3)

remains invariant under such a linear transformation.

Any rotation is always a rotation around an axis, which is the locus of

the fixed points of the rotation. Let us characterize the axis by a unit vector,

n̂.

Given any vector, ~v P R3 , it is plain that the component of it in the

direction of the axis, ~vk ” p~v .n̂q n̂ will be unaffected, whereas the orthogonal

component ~vK ” ~v ´ ~vk will become a combination of ~vK and n̂ ˆ ~v .

~vk1 “ ~vk

1 “ α~

~vK vK ` β n̂ ˆ ~vK (11.4)

The conservation of the norm implies that

α2 ` β 2 “ 1 (11.5)

Altogether

~v Ñ α ~v ` p1 ´ α q p~v .n̂q n̂ ` β n̂ ˆ ~vK (11.6)

and the rotation matrix is

Rn̂ “ α δij ` p1 ´ αq ni nj ` β ikj nk (11.7)

119

It is easy to check that this matrix is orthogonal,

ÿ

Rij Rjk “ δik (11.8)

j

Choosing

α ” cos α

β ” sin α (11.9)

¨

n21 ` pn22 ` n23 q cos α

˛

p1 ´ cos αqn1 n2 ´ n3 sin α p1 ´ cos αqn1 n3 ` n2 sin α

R “ ˝ n3 sin α ` n1 n2 p1 ´ cos αq n22 ` pn21 ` n23 q cos α p1 ´ cos αqn2 n3 ´ n1 sin α‚

´n2 sin α ` p1 ´ cos αqn3 n1 p1 ´ cos αqn3 n2 ` n1 sin α n23 ` pn22 ` n21 q cos α

(11.10)

All this yields, for n̂ ” p0, 0, 1q

¨ ˛

cos α sin α 0

R “ ˝´ sin α cos α 0‚ (11.11)

0 0 1

which when α “ π2 transforms the positive OX axis, p1, 0, 0q into the negative

OY axis, p0, ´1, 0q. The opposite sign corresponds

¨ ˛ to α Ø ´α.

0

For arbritrary n̂ transforms the vector ˝0‚ into

1

¨ ˛ ¨ ˛

0 p1 ´ cos αqn1 n3 ` n2 sin α

Rn ˝0‚ “ ˝p1 ´ cos αqn2 n3 ´ n1 sin α‚ (11.12)

1 2 2 2

n3 ` pn2 ` n1 q cos α

n2 n3 p1´cos αq´n1 sin α

tan Φ “ n1 n3 p1´cos αq`n2 sin α (11.13)

¨ ˛

sin θ cos φ

This depends on three parameters, as it should: two from n̂ ” ˝ sin θ sin φ ‚

cos θ

and another one from α.

sin φ cos θp1´cos αq´cos φ sin α

tan Φ “ cos φ cos θp1´cos αq`sin φ sin α (11.14)

We can ask, for example, what is the rotation that transforms a given

univ vector, say n̂1 into another one, say, n̂2 . Let us denote

120

It is plain that the axis of rotation will be

n̂1 ˆ n̂2

n̂ ” (11.16)

sin θ

We need

n̂2 ´ cos θ n̂1

n̂2 “ cos α n̂1 ` sin α (11.17)

sin θ

This clearly needs α “ θ.

The groups SOp3q and SU p2q{Z2 are intimately related. Indeed any

unitary matrix can be parameterized as

ˆ ˙

cos α eiβ sin α eiγ

u“ (11.18)

´sin α e´iγ cosα e´iβ

0 ď β ď 2π

0ďαďπ

0 ď γ ď 2π (11.19)

ˆ ˙

1 ` z x ´ iy

M” (11.20)

x ` iy 1 ´ z

Its determinant is

det M “ 1 ´ r2 (11.21)

It is plain that the transformation

M Ñ uM u` (11.22)

It is plain that both ˘u yield the same rotation; this is the reason for a

factor Z2 . To be specific, when β “ γ “ 0

ˆ ˙

` 1 ` z cos 2α ` x sin 2α ´i y ` x cos 2α ´ z sin 2α

uM u “

i y ` x cos 2α ´ z sin 2α 1 ´ z cos 2α ´ x sin 2α

(11.24)

which means that

¨ 1˛ ¨ ˛¨ ˛

x cos 2α 0 ´sin 2α x

˝y 1 ‚ “ ˝ 0 1 0 ‚˝y ‚ (11.25)

z 1 ´sin 2α 0 cos 2α z

121

It represents a rotation of angle 2α around the y axis, R2 p´2αq. This

rotation is negative, because when 2α “ π2 this yields

¨ ˛ ¨ ˛

1 0

˝0‚ Ñ ˝0‚

0 1

¨ ˛ ¨ ˛

0 ´1

˝0‚ Ñ ˝ 0 ‚ (11.26)

1 0

Also, when, α “ 0,

¨ 1˛ ¨ ˛¨ ˛

x cos 2β sin 2β 0 x

˝y 1 ‚ “ ˝´sin 2β cos 2β 0‚˝y ‚ (11.27)

z1 0 0 1 z

namely, R3 p´2βq. It is curious that when

π

α“

2

β“0 (11.28)

In the general case,

ˆ ˙

` 1 ` z 1 x1 ´ iy 1

uM u “ (11.29)

x1 ` iy 1 1 ´ z 1

´ ¯

1 ` z 1 ” 1 ` z cos 2α ` eipβ´γq px ´ iyq ` eipγ´βq px ` iyq sin 2α

x1 ´ iy 1 ” e2iβ px ´ iyqcos2 α ´ e2iγ px ` iyq sin2 α ´ eipβ`γq z sin 2α

x1 ` iy 1 ” e´2iβ px ` iyq cos2 α ´ e´2iγ px ´ iyqsin2 α ´ e´ipβ`γq z sin 2α

´ ¯

1 ´ z 1 ” 1 ´ z cos 2α ´ eipβ´γq px ´ iyq ` eipγ´βq px ` iyq sin 2α(11.30)

That is

¨ ` ˘

cos2 α cos 2β ´ sin2 α cos 2γ ´ cos2 α sin 2β ` sin2 α sin 2β ´ sin 2α cos pβ ` γq

˛

R “ ˝´ cos2 α sin β ` sin2 α sin 2γ cos2 α cos 2β ` sin2 α cos 2γ sin 2α sinpβ ` γq ‚

sin 2α cos pβ ´ γq sin 2α sin pβ ´ γq cos 2α

(11.31)

This means that in order to go from the unit vector along the third axis, ~e3

to an arbitrary unit vector corresponding to the polar angles pθ, φq all we

have to do is identify

sin 2α sinpβ ` γq ” sin θ sin φ

cos 2α ” cos θ (11.32)

122

which can be achieved by letting

θ

α“ 2

β`γ “π´φ (11.33)

in SU p2q language

cos 2θ ´ sin 2θ e´iφ

ˆ ˙

u“ (11.34)

sin 2θ eiφ cos 2θ

Staring again at this formula, we learn that when precisely

β“0

π

γ“ (11.35)

2

we recover a rotation around the first axis, R1 p2αq

x1 “ x

y 1 “ y cos 2α ` z sin 2α

z 1 “ ´y sin 2α ` z cos 2α (11.36)

Euler showed that every rotation R P SOp3q can be written in the form

R “ R3 pψq R1 pθq R3 pφq (11.37)

The range of the Euler angles is

0 ď φ ď 2π

0ďθďπ

0 ď ψ ď 2π (11.38)

In our SU p2q language this is

˜ ψ ¸ˆ ˙ ˜ iφ ¸ ˜ φ`ψ ψ´φ

¸

ei 2 0 cos 2θ i sin 2θ e 2 0 ei 2 cos 2θ i ei 2 sin θ

2

u“ ´i ψ θ π φ “ φ´ψ φ`ψ

0 e 2 i sin 2 cos 2 0 e´i 2 i ei 2 sin 2θ e´i 2 cos θ

2

0 ď φ ` ψ ď 4π

0 ď φ ´ ψ ď 4π

0ďθďπ (11.39)

Indeed

ψ`φ“β

π

ψ´φ“γ´

2

θ

α“ (11.40)

2

123

Descriptio 11.1: Euler angles

124

The relationship with Gel’fand’s notation is

ψ Ñ ´φ1

φ Ñ ´φ2

θ Ñ ´θ (11.41)

In SOp3q language this is

¨ ˛¨ ˛¨ ˛

cos ψ sin ψ 0 1 0 0 cos φ sin φ 0

R “ ˝´sin ψ cos ψ 0‚˝0 cos θ sin θ ‚˝´sin φ cos φ 0‚ “

0 0 1 0 ´sin θ cos θ 0 0 1

¨ ˛

cos ψ cos φ ´ cos θ sin φ sin ψ sin φ cos ψ ` cos θ sin ψ cosφ sin θ sin ψ

˝´cos φ sin ψ ´ cos θ cos ψ sin φ ´sin ψ sin φ ` cos θ cosψ cos φ sin θ cos ψ ‚

sin θ sin φ ´sin θ cos φ cos θ

Please note that this matriz transforms the unit vector along the third axis

to the vector ¨ ˛ ¨ ˛

0 sin θ sin ψ

˝0‚ Ñ ˝sin θ cos ψ ‚ (11.42)

1 cos θ

corresponding to the direction n “ pθ, π2 ´ ψq.

Start with

T P SUp2q ðñ T “ T ` & tr T “ 0 (11.43)

The most general solotion is

ˆ ˙

a b

T “ (11.44)

c d

with

a “ ā

b “ c̄

d “ ´a (11.45)

That is

ˆ ˙

z x ´ iy

T “ ” xσ1 ` yσ2 ` zσ3 ” ~x~σ (11.46)

x ` iy ´z

The Puli matrices generate the simplest Clifford algebra.

tσi , σj u “ 2δij (11.47)

rσi , σj s “ 2iijk σk (11.48)

so that

σi σj “ δij ` iijk σk (11.49)

125

11.2 Highest weight representations of SUp2q

Let us review the representations of the SU(2) algebra that you are already

familiar with from quantum mechanics. We shall do it in a way which

generalizes to arbitrary groups. The algebra reads

Define

J1 ˘ J2

J˘ ” ? (11.51)

2

We are looking for finite dimensional unitary representations. Let us call

j the highest value of J3 .

J3 |j, αy “ j|j, αy (11.52)

First of all, just because it is a highest weight state, we can easoily determine

the value of the casimir

J 2 ” J12 ` J22 ` J32 (11.53)

` 2 ˘

(11.54)

then

J 2 |j, jy “ jpj ` 1q|j, jy (11.55)

Were there more than one highest weight state, we normalize as

If we define

J1 ˘ iJ2

J˘ ” ? (11.57)

2

Then

rJ3 , J ˘ s “ ˘J ˘

rJ ` , J ´ s “ J3 (11.58)

so that

J3 J ˘ |my “ J ˘ m|my ˘ J ˘ |my “ pm ˘ 1qJ ˘ |my (11.59)

We have assumed from the beginning that there is no state with J3 “ m ` 1;

then it must be the case that @α

J ` |j, αy “ 0 (11.60)

as well as

J ´ |jαy “ Nj pαq|j ´ 1, αy (11.61)

126

Let us compute

“ xj, α|J3 “ |j, αy “ jδαβ (11.62)

Nj pαq “ Nj “ j (11.63)

On the other hand

1 ` ´ a

J ` |j ´ 1, αy “ |J J |j, αy “ j|j, αy (11.64)

Nj

In general

J ´ |j ´ k, αy “ Nj´k |j ´ k ´ 1, αy

J ` |j ´ k ´ 1, αy “ N

sj´k |j ´ k, αy (11.65)

Actually,

Nj´k “ xj ´ k ´ 1|J´ |j ´ ky

Nj´k “ xj ´ k|J ` |j ´ k ´ 1y “ Nj´k

s ˚ (11.66)

Nj´k “ N

sj´k (11.67)

“ |Nj´k´1 |2 ` j ´ k (11.68)

kpk ` 1q

ak “ ak´1 `j ´k “ ak´2 `j ´k `j ´k `j ´pk ´1q “ . . . “ a0 ´kj ´

2

(11.69)

that is

2 kpk ` 1q k`1

Nj´k “ pk ` 1qj ´ “ p2j ´ kq (11.70)

2 2

in other words, c

pj ` mqpj ´ m ` 1q

Nm “ (11.71)

2

We are looking for finite dimensional representations. This means that

necessarily we must real some m ” j ´ l such that

J ´ |j ´ l, αy “ 0 (11.72)

127

This is only possible if there is a certain value of k “ l such that

c

p2j ´ lqpl ` 1q

0 “ Nj´l “ (11.73)

2

which means

l “ 2j (11.74)

We learn that

l

j“ (11.75)

2

where l P N, just because it counts the number of times we have applied the

operator J´ . Besides, from now on we can drop the index α.

We can summarize, in the usual notation

b

xj, m1 |J ` |j, my “ pj`m`1qpj´m

2 δm1 ,m`1

b

xj, m1 |J ´ |j, my “ pj`mqpj´m`1q

2 δm1 ,m´1

(11.76)

Let us assume there is an action of G in M , that is

GˆM ÑM (11.77)

Then there is a representation of the group in the space of functions on M ,

FpMq ` ˘

f P FpMq Ñ pTg f q pxq ” f g ´1 x P FpMq (11.79)

It is indeed a representation, because

` ˘ ` ˘ ´ ¯

Tg pTh f q pxq “ Tg f h´1 x “ f h´1 g ´1 x “ f pghq´1 x “ pTgh f q pxqq

(11.80)

Consider now the two-sphere, M ” S2 . Let us consider an infinitesimal

(negative) rotation around the axis OZ. It must be so that

Bf

pTg f q pθ, φq ” f pθ, φ ´ αq “ f pθ, φq ´ α ` ... (11.81)

Bφ

Then

B

A3 ” ´ (11.82)

Bφ

128

Now consider the (again, negative) rotation around the axis OX.

x1 “ x

y 1 “ y cos α ` z sin α

z 1 “ ´y sin α ` z cos α (11.83)

It follows that

dφ

dx ˇ

ˇ dθ

dα α“0 “ 0 “ cos θ dα cos φ ´ sin φ dα sin θ

ˇ

dy ˇ dθ dφ

dα ˇ “ ´z “ ´ cos θ “ cos θ dα sin φ ` sin θ cos φ dα

α“0

ˇ

dz ˇ dθ

dα α“0 “ y “ sin θ cos φ “ ´ sin θ dα (11.84)

dθ

dα “ ´ sin φ

dφ cos θ

dα “ sin θ cos φ (11.85)

so that

B B

A1 “ sin φ ` cot θ cos φ (11.86)

Bθ Bφ

In an analogous way we get

B B

A2 “ ´ cos φ ` cot θ sin φ (11.87)

Bθ Bφ

The hermiyian generators are

Hi ” iAi (11.88)

´ ¯

H` ” H1 ` iH2 ” iA1 ´ A2 “ eiφ B

Bθ

B

` i cot θ Bφ

´ ¯

B B

H´ ” H1 ´ iH2 ” iA1 ` A2 “ e´iφ ´ Bθ ` i cot θ Bφ

B

H3 “ iA3 “ ´i Bφ (11.89)

B

H3 Ylm “ ´i Ylm “ mYlm (11.91)

Bφ

Then

1

Ylm pθ, φq “ ? eimφ Flm pθq (11.92)

2π

129

is normalized by ż

|Ylm pθ, φq| sin θ dθ dφ “ 1 (11.93)

provided żπ

sin θ dθ |Flm pθq|2 “ 1 (11.94)

0

Let us now impose that

B2

ˆ ˙

2 1 B B 1

´H “ sin θ ` (11.96)

sin θ Bθ Bθ sin2 θ Bφ2

In terms of µ ” cos θ, and defining Plm pµq ” Flm pcos θq, the ODE reads

m m2

ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙

d 2 dPl pµq

p1 ´ µ q ` lpl ` 1q ´ Plm pµq “ 0 (11.97)

dµ dµ 1 ´ µ2

d c

pl ` mq! 2l ` 1 1 ` ˘ m l´m 2

2 ´2 d

Plm pµq ” 1 ´ µ pµ ´ 1ql (11.98)

pl ´ mq! 2 2l l! dµl´m

polynomial of order l.

c

2l ` 1 1 dl ` 2 ˘l

Pl pµq ” µ ´ 1 (11.99)

2 2l l! dµl

No all representations of SU p2q are also representations of SOp3q, only those

with l P N qualify for that. The rest, that is, the ones such that l P 2N`1

2 are

the famous spinor representations, sometimes called somewhat confusingly,

bivalued representations of SOp3q.

First of all, for the s “ 12 representation

1 a α β

vα Ñ pσ qβ v (11.100)

2

In particular ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙

1 1 1 1

H3 ” ´ σ3 “´ (11.101)

2 0 2 0

ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙

1 0 1 0

H3 ” ´ σ 3 “ (11.102)

2 1 2 1

130

Let us denote ˆ ˙ ˆ ˙

1 0

eα : e1 ” ; e2 ” (11.103)

0 1

It is easy to find the space of functions for such representations. It is the

space of symmetric spinors with n “ 2s indices.

1 1 α1 α12s

apα1 ...α2s q eα11 b . . . b eα1n ” apα1 ...α2s q τα11 b . . . b τα2s eα1 b . . . b eαn (11.105)

It is a fact that

ˆ 1 ˙ ˆ 1 ˙

´2 0 ´2 0

H3 apa1 ...an q eα1 b . . . b eαn ” apa1 ...an q 1 b ... b 1 apa1 ...an q “

0 2 0 2

p2 ´p1

“ 2 apa1 ...an q eα1 b . . . b eαn (11.106)

where p1 counts the number of times the value 1 appears amongst the set

of indices, and p2 likewise for the value 2.

We need

p1 “ l ´ m

p2 “ l ` m (11.107)

in order that

~2 ~σal ~σlj 1

J ψa ” ψj “ 3ψa “ sps ` 1qψa (11.109)

2 2 4

σa

~ ~σb

´ ¯

~

Jψ ” 2pi ψa|jq ` 2pj ψi|b

pijq

a σb

~

σpi ~ σju

´ ¯ ´ ¯ ´ ¯ ´ u ¯

σa

~

J~2 ψ ” 2

~

Jψ ` 2pj Jψ ~ “ 2i ~σ2a ψuj ` 2 ψau `

pijq a|jq i|b

σjb σbu

´ u ¯

~

σi

` 2 2 ψub ` 2 ψiu “ 2ψij “ sps ` 1qψij (11.110)

131

• Diagonalizing σ3

pσ3 qji ζjẑ˘ ” ˘ζiz̄˘ (11.112)

´ ¯s`jẑ ´ ¯s´jẑ

ψ sjẑ “ ζ ẑ` ζ ẑ´ (11.113)

We can simplify the notation as shown because all indices are totally

symmetrized anyway.

Denote

ζi ” α` ζiẑ` ` α´ ζiẑ´ (11.114)

ζ i1 . . . ζ i2s ψi1 ...i2s “ α` αl xsjẑ |ψy (11.115)

jẑ

B ˇ F B ˇ F

`i ´i 1 0 1 1 ˇˇ 0 1 1 1 ˇˇ

α` ζ ψi ` α´ ζ ψi “ α` α´ ψ ` α` α´ ´ ˇψ

2 2ˇ 2 2

(11.116)

ˆ n̂,` ˙ ˆ ˙ ˜ ẑ,` ¸

ζ c ´s˚ ζ

n̂,´ “ (11.117)

ζ s c ζ k̂,´

with

θ

c ” cos 2

θ

s ” eiφ sin 2 (11.118)

Then

` ˘s`jn̂ ` n̂,´ ˘s´jn̂ ` ẑ,` ˘s`jn̂ ` ˚ ẑ,` ˘s´jn̂

ψ s,jn̂ “ ζ n̂,` ζ “ cζ ´ s ζ ẑ,´ s ζ ` c ζ ẑ,´ “

ř `s`jn̂ ˘ `s´jn̂ ˘ ` ẑ,` ˘s`jn̂ ´p ` ˘p ` ˘ s´j ´q ` ˘ q

“ pq p q cζ ´s ζ ẑ,´ s˚ ζ ẑ,` n̂

c ζ ẑ,´ ”

” jẑ Rjsn̂,ẑ pθ, φq ψ s,jẑ

ř

(11.119)

where

ˆ ˙ˆ ˙

ÿ s ` jn̂ s ´ jn̂ m`

Rjsn̂,ẑ pθ, φq ” c p´sqs`jn̂ ´m` cs´jn̂ ´m´ ps˚ qm´

m˘ ; m` `m´ “s`jẑ

m` m´

(11.120)

132

• Let us revisit spherical harmonics from the spinor viewpoint. Let us

define as usual ˆ ˙

j j z x ´ iy

xi ” ~x ~σi “ (11.121)

x ` iy ´z

AH4 also define

ˆ ˙

´px ´ iyq z

xij ” ik xkj “ (11.122)

z x ` iy

x ` iy “ sin θeiφ

z ” cos θ

ζi “ pα` , α´ q

ζi ” ij ζj “ p´α´ , α` q (11.124)

ˆ ˙

` ˘ ´s˚ c ` ˘ 2 2

´α´ α` ´α´ α´ “ ´s˚ α´ ´ 2cα` α´ ` sα`

c s

(11.125)

It is possible to construct the tensor product of two irreps.

Dpgq ” D1 b D2 (11.126)

The basis of the product space is just the tensor product of the two basis

e1 b e2 (11.127)

(11.128)

This should be familiar from the addition of angular momentum in

quantum mechanics. It is clear that the generators of

D ” p1 ` T q b p1 ` T q (11.129)

are

p1 b T q ‘ pT b 1q (11.130)

133

In SU(2), since we work in a basis where J3 is diagonal, the values of J3 just

add.

Consider, for example, the product of the three-dimensional irrep with the

two-dimensional one, 1 b 1{2. We shall analyze this tensor product by the

familiar highest weight technique.

The highest weight state is unique

c

pj ` mqpj ´ m ` 1q

J ´ |j, my “ |j, m ´ 1y (11.133)

2

we get

c c

´ 3 1

J |3{2, 3{2y “ |3{2, 1{2y “ |1{2, ´1{2y b |1, 1y ` |1{2, 1{2y b |1, 0y

2 2

c c (11.134)

1 2

|3{2, 1{2y “ |1{2, ´1{2y b |1, 1y ` |1{2, 1{2y b |1, 0y (11.135)

3 3

There is an state orthogonal

c c

2 1

|ψy “ |1{2, ´1{2y b |1, 1y ´ |1{2, 1{2y b |1, 0y (11.136)

3 3

This will be later taken as the highest weight of another chain.

? b b b

J ´ |3{2, 1{2y “ 2|3{2, ´1{2y “ 13 |1{2, ´1{2y b |1, 0y ` 23 12 |1{2, ´1{2y b |1, 0y `

b b b

2 4 1

3 |1{2, 1{2y b |1, ´1y “ 3 |1{2, ´1{2y b |1, 0y ` 3 |1{2, 1{2y b |1, ´1y (11.137)

then

c c

2 1

|3{2, ´1{2y “ |1{2, ´1{2y b |1, 0y ` |1{2, 1{2y b |1, ´1y “

3 3

(11.138)

c c

2 1

|χy ” |1{2, ´1{2y b |1, 0y ´ |1{2, 1{2y b |1, ´1y (11.139)

3 3

134

Let us apply the operator J ´ once more

c c

2 1

J ´ |3{2, ´1{2y “ |3{2, ´3{2y “ |1{2, ´1{2yb|1, ´1y` |1{2, ´1{2yb|1, ´1y “ |1{2, ´1{2yb|1, ´1y

3 3

(11.140)

Let us now check that the state |ψ is a good candidate for a highest weight

state. For this to be true it is necessary that

J ` |ψy ” 0 (11.141)

then

b b b b

2 1 1 1

J ´ |ψy “ 3 |1{2, ´1{2y b |1, 0y ´ 3 2 |1{2, ´1{2y b 1, 0y ´ 3 |1{2, 1{2y b |1, ´1y “

b b

2 1

“ 3 |1{2, ´1{2y b 1, 0y ´ 3 |1{2, 1{2y b |1, ´1y (11.142)

ψy ” |1{2, 1{2y

|χy ” |1{2, ´1{2y (11.143)

That is,

1 b 1{2 “ 3{2 ‘ 1{2 (11.144)

11.6 Wigner-Eckart

A tensor operator Ols l “ ´s . . . ` s) transforming under the spin-s repre-

sentation of SU(2) is a set of 2s+1 operators such that

rJa , Ols s “ Om

s

pJas qml (11.145)

In the standard basis

pJ3s qll1 “ lδll1 (11.146)

(´s ď l, l1 ď s); so that

rJ3 , Ols s “ lOls (11.147)

A trivial example is a particle in an spherically symmetric potential. Then

Ja “ La ” abc xb pc (11.148)

and ´ ¯

rJa , xb s “ ´iacb xc “ xc Jaadj (11.149)

cb

To go the canonical basis, first realize that

x0 “ x3 (11.150)

135

ans then

x1 ˘ ix2

rJ ˘ , x0 s ” x˘1 “ ¯ ? (11.151)

2

Twnsor operators have got the interesting property that

` ˘

Ja Ols |jmαy “ Ols1 |jmαy pJas ql1 l ` Ols |jm1 αy Jaj m1 m (11.152)

this is the transformation of the tensor product

sbj (11.153)

Note inprticular that

J3 Ols |jmαy “ pl ` mqOls |jmαy (11.154)

The Wigner-Eckart theorem states that

xJ, m1 , β|Ols |j, m, αy “ δm1 ,l`m xJ, l ` m|s, j, l, myxJ, β|Os |j, αy (11.155)

Let us work out an example in detail.Let us assume known the matrix

element

1 1 1 1

x , , α|x3 | , , βy ” A (11.156)

2 2 2 2

and we would like to compute x 12 , 21 , α|x1 | 21 , 12 , βy. First,

1

x1 ” ? p´x`1 ` x´1 q (11.157)

2

Starting with the highest weight state

ˇ F ˇ F

ˇ3 3 ˇ1 1

ˇ ,

ˇ 2 2 ” x`1 ˇ 2 , 2 (11.158)

ˇ

we get ˇ F c ˇ F c ˇ F

ˇ3 1 2 ´

ˇ3 3 2 ´ ˇ1 1

ˇ ,

ˇ 2 2 “ 3 J ˇ 2 , 2 “ 3 J x`1 ˇ 2 , 2 (11.159)

ˇ ˇ

But using

J ´ x`1 “ x0 ` x`1 J ´ (11.160)

ˇ F c ˇ F c ˇ F

ˇ3 1 2 ˇ1 1 1 ˇ1 1

ˇ ,

ˇ 2 2 “ 3 x0 ˇ 2 , 2 ` 3 x`1 ˇ 2 , ´ 2 (11.161)

ˇ ˇ

Finally

@1 1 3 1

D b2 @1 1 1 1

D b1 @1 1 1 1

D

0“ , | ,

2 2 2 2 “ ,

3 2 2 |x 0 | ,

2 2 ` 3 2 , 2 |x`1 | 2 , ´ 2 (11.162)

1 1 ˇˇ ˇ1 1 ?

, ˇ x`1 ˇ , ´

ˇ “ ´ 2A (11.163)

2 2 2 2

and finally B ˇ ˇ F

1 1 ˇˇ ˇˇ 1 1

, x1 , ´ “A (11.164)

2 2ˇ ˇ2 2

136

12

commuting generators Hi “ Hi` as large as possible

rHi , Hj s “ 0 (12.1)

The dimension of the Cartan subalgebra is called the rank of the group.

In the case of SU p2q, the rank is one and the only H is precisely J3 . The

normalization in a given irrep is defined (Georgi) as

which then uses to define the dual basis of the Lie algebra L. .

In a more intrinsic way, AdL H is simultaneously diagonalizable. That is,

L is the direct sum of the subspaces

The set of nonzero roots α P H ˚ is denoted by Φ. This yields the Cartan

decomposition of the Lie algebra

L “ CL H ‘ YαPΦ Lα (12.5)

to identificate H with H ˚ :

φ P H˚ Ñ Tφ P H (12.6)

such that

φpHq “ κpTφ , Hq (12.7)

137

The states of a given irrep will read

µi “ µ̄i (12.9)

is called a weight vector.

Let us remind ourselves of the adjoint representation. In order to define

it, consider a linear space with an state associated to every generator

Xa ÐÑ |Xa y (12.10)

1

xXa |Xb y ” tr Xa` Xb (12.11)

λ

in such a way that

xHi |Hj y “ δij (12.12)

It is plain that

ř ř ` adj ˘

Xa |Xb y “ c |Xc yxXc |Xa |Xb y “ c Xc Da cb ” ´ifacb |Xc “

“ ifabc |Xc y “ |ifabc Xc y “ | rXa , Xb sy (12.13)

It is plain that for the states corresponding to the Crtan generators the

weight vanishes

Hi |Hj y “ | rHi , Hj sy “ 0 (12.14)

The other states have non zero weight vectors

This equivalent to

rHi , Eα s “ αi Eα (12.16)

This generators cannot be hermitian, because

“ ‰

Hi , Eα` “ ´αi Eα` (12.17)

E´α “ Eα` (12.18)

This is the generalization of the well-known elements J˘ in the SU p2q case.

Is it possible to normalize in such a way that

1

xEα |Eβ y “ tr Eα` Eβ “ δαβ (12.19)

λ

138

It is fact of life that the E˘α are lowering and raising operators for the

weights. Starting from

Hi |µy “ µi |µy (12.20)

we get

Hi E˘α |µy “ prHi , E˘α s ` E˘α Hi q |µy “ p˘αi ` µi q E˘α |µy (12.21)

Eα |E´α y (12.22)

has zero weight, so that it must be a linear combination of Cartan generators.

1 1 1

βi “ xHi |Eα |E´α y “ tr pHi rEα , E´α sq “ tr pE´α rHi , Eα sq “ αi tr E´α Eα “ αi

λ λ λ

(12.24)

We conclude that

rEα , E´α s “ α.H (12.25)

It so happens that for any non-zero pair of root vectors, ˘α, there is an

SU p2q subalgebra, with generators

1

J˘ ” |α| E˘α

J3 ” α.H

|α|2

(12.26)

Indeed,

” ı

1 1 α.H

|α| Eα , |α| E´α “ α2

” ı

α.H

|α|2

, E˘α “ E˘α (12.27)

From that we can prove, for example, that root vectors correspond

to unique generators.

Demonstratio. Let us assume that there are two, Eα and Eα1 and we shall

get a contradiction. Choose adequate linear combinations in such a way

that

1 ` ˘ 1 ` ˘

xEα |Eα1 y ” tr Eα` Eα1 “ tr E´α Eα1 “ 0 (12.28)

λ λ

We now act with the J´ . This has zero weight vector, so that it is in the

Cartan subalgebra. But

1 ` “ ‰˘ 1 ` “ ‰˘ αi ` ˘

xHi |J´ |Eα1 y “ tr Hi J´ , Eα1 “ ´ tr J´ Hi , Eα1 “ ´ tr J´ Eα1 “ 0

λ λ λ

(12.29)

139

It follows that

J´ |Eα1 y “ 0 (12.30)

But this is not possible, because

`1.

´α) is also a root.

SU(2) associated to 2α and the SU(2) associated to α.

the SU(2) associated to some root α

α.H α.µ

J3 |µy ” 2

|µy “ 2 |µy (12.32)

|α| α

But we know that the J3 allowed values are either integers or half-integers.

Ergo

2α.µ

PZ (12.33)

α2

Now the state |µy can always be written as a linear combination of states

transforming according to definite reps of SU p2q. Assume the highest spin

state appearing in this linear combination is j. There must necessarily exist

an integer p such that

p

J` |µy ‰ 0 (12.34)

but

p`1

J` |µy “ 0 (12.35)

Then

α.pµ ` pαq α.µ

“ 2 `p“j (12.36)

α2 α

Likewise, there must be another integer, q such that

q

J´ |µy ‰ 0 (12.37)

but

q`1

J´ |µy “ 0 (12.38)

Then

αpµ ´ qαq α.µ

2

“ 2 ´ q “ ´j (12.39)

α α

140

It follows that

a.µ p´q

2

“´ (12.40)

α 2

One can also consider the α string through α itself. It is clear that in

this case

q´p“2 (12.41)

But we know that p “ 0, because 2α is not a root. Then q=2. This just

reexpresses the fact that 0 and ´α are also roots.

In [13] ia defined the α-string through β as the set of roots

βpHα q “ ´ pp ´ qq (12.43)

There is a formal identification of H ˚ with H:

Let us, against the famous Coleman’s advice, belabor this point.

Given a basis Hi P H and the dual basis αi in H˚

ř

Then any H P H, H “

and

κkl pHαi qk “ δli ñ pHαi qk “ κki (12.47)

and the formal identification is explicitly given by

ÿ ÿ

β “ βi αi ñ Hβ “ βi κki Hk ” β k Hk (12.48)

ÿ

pα, βq ” κ pHα , Hβ q ” αi βi (12.49)

i

with Eα

α.β 1

2

“ ´ pp ´ qq (12.50)

α 2

Defining the SU(2) algebra with Eβ yields

β.α 1

2

“ ´ pp1 ´ q 1 q (12.51)

β 2

141

The angle between both roots then is determined by

pα.βq2 pp ´ qqpp1 ´ q 1 q

cos2 θ ” “ (12.52)

α2 β 2 4

There are only four possibilities

pp ´ qqpp1 ´ q 1 q θ

0 900 “ π2

1 600 “ π3 ; 2π

3 (12.53)

2 450 “ π4 ; 3π

4

3 300 “ π6 ; 5π

6

12.1 SU(3)

Let us define the Gell-Mann matrices

¨ ˛

0 1 0

λ1 ” ˝1 0 0‚ (12.54)

0 0 0

¨ ˛

0 ´i 0

λ2 ” ˝ i 0 0 ‚ (12.55)

0 0 0

¨ ˛

1 0 0

λ3 ” ˝0 ´1 0‚ (12.56)

0 0 0

¨ ˛

0 0 1

λ4 ” ˝0 0 0‚ (12.57)

1 0 0

¨ ˛

0 0 ´i

λ5 ” ˝0 0 0 ‚ (12.58)

i 0 0

¨ ˛

0 0 0

λ6 ” ˝0 0 1‚ (12.59)

0 1 0

¨ ˛

0 0 0

λ7 ” ˝0 0 ´i‚ (12.60)

0 i 0

¨ ˛

1 0 0

1 ˝

λ8 ” ? 0 1 0‚ (12.61)

3 0 0 ´2

142

We define the SU(3) generators in such a way that

1

Ta ” λa (12.62)

2

and

1

tr Ta Tb “ δab (12.63)

2

It is clear that

tT1 , T2 , T3 u (12.64)

generate an SU(2) subgroup.

Let us choose the Cartan subalgebra to be

tH1 ” T3 ; H2 ” T8 u (12.65)

´ ? ¯

e1 Ñ 21 , 63

´ ? ¯

e2 Ñ ´ 21 , 63

´ ? ¯

e3 Ñ 0, ´ 33 (12.66)

plane

The roots are differences of weights. This often the best way to compute

them.

e1 ´ e2 “ p1, 0q

?

3

e1 ´ e3 “ p 12 , 2 q

?

e2 ´ e3 “ p´ 12 , 23 q (12.67)

It is a fact that

T1?

˘iT2

E˘1,0 ” 2

T4?

E˘ 1 ,˘ ?3 ” ˘iT 2

5

2 2

T6?

˘iT7

E¯ 1 ,˘ ?3 ” 2

(12.68)

2 2

In an arbitrary Lie algebra (and in some basis) we will say that a given

weight µ is positive if its first non-zero component is positive, and negative

if its first non-zero component is negative. This property defines an ordering,

to wit

µ ą ν ðñ µ ´ ν ą 0 (12.69)

143

Descriptio 12.1: Roots and weights of SU p3q.

144

The highest weight in a representation is then defined in an obvious way.

In the adjoint representation, positive roots will correspond to raising

operators, and negative roots to lowering operators. The highest weight

state must be annihilated by all positive roots.

In the particular case of SU(3), positive roots are on the right half of

the cartesian pH1 , H2 q plane, and negative roots are on the left hand side of

it.

Again, in a general setting, we define simple roots as positive roots

that cannot be written as sums of other positive roots. Let us call ∆ the

set of all simple roots. It is fact of life that from the geometry of the simple

roots, it is possible to reconstruct the whole Lie algebra. Let us see how.

This is so because otherwise either

α “ β ` pα ´ βq (12.70)

or else

β “ α ` pβ ´ αq (12.71)

(depending on whether α ´ β ą 0 or β ´ α ą 0).

E´α |Eβ y “ E´β |Eα y “ 0 (12.72)

Then using the master formula

α.β p´q

2

“´ (12.73)

α 2

we learn that q “ 0. Also,

β.α p1 ´ q 1

“ ´ (12.74)

β2 2

the roots, as well as the angle between them.

β2 p

2

“ 1 (12.75)

α p

? 1

pp

cos θα,β “ ´ (12.76)

2

• A trivial consequence is that

π

ď θα,β ď π (12.77)

2

(remember that simple roots are positive).

145

• Then all simple roots are linearly independent.

Demonstratio. Assume ÿ

Cα α “ 0 (12.78)

α

µ ` “ µ´ (12.79)

with ÿ

µ` “ α (12.80)

Cα ą0

ÿ

µ´ “ α (12.81)

Cα ă0

and µ` µ´ ď 0.

roots with non-negative integer coefficients

ÿ

φ“ Kα α (12.83)

α

orthogonal to all simple roots (and therefore orthogonal to all roots),

@φ P Φ, rξ.H, Eφ s “ 0 (12.84)

• When we write ÿ

β“ Kα α (12.85)

αP∆

ÿ

ht β ” Kα (12.86)

146

• Let us spell in detail how to build all roots out of the simple roots in

the simple case of SU(3); this then is easily generalized by induction.

The simple roots are

?

3

α1 “ p 12 , 2 q

?

α2 “ p 21 , ´ 23 q (12.87)

with

α12 “ α22 “ 1

α1 .α2 “ ´ 12

2α1 .α2 2α2 .α1

α21

“ α22

“ ´1 (12.88)

Thus p=1 for both α1 acting on |α2 y as well as for α2 acting on |α1 y.

Then

α1 ` α2 (12.89)

α.µ

α2

`p“j

α.µ

α2

´ q “ ´j (12.90)

It could be the case that |µy has lower spin components; but j is the

highest one. The value of j is determined by

p ` q “ 2j (12.91)

In case |µy is a root |µy “ |βy in the adjoint representation, the situa-

tion is simpler, because we know that each root appears only once in

the adjoint, and we conclude that

α.β

|βy “ |j; y (12.92)

α2

which is completely determined up to a phase. Let us check this in

the case of SUp3q. The root diagram is built out of

147

To this one has to add the two null roots to get the eight fimensions

of the algebra. Besides, we know that

α12 “ α22 “ 1

α1 .α2 “ ´ 12

α1 .α2 α1 .α2

α21

“ α22

“ ´ 21 (12.94)

thing missing is the

rHi , Eα s (12.95)

p ` q “ 1 “ 2j (12.96)

We have

1

Jpα1 q` |Eα2 y ” |α1 | Eα1 |Eα2 y “ Eα1 |Eα2 y “ | rEa1 , Eα2 sy (12.97)

ˇ1 1

|Eα2 y “ ˇ , ´

ˇ (12.98)

2 2

because

α1 .α2 1

J3α1 |Eα2 y “ 2 |Eα2 y “ ´ |Eα2 y (12.99)

α1 2

But we know that ˇ F ˇ F

α1

ˇ1 1 1 ˇˇ 1 1

J` ˇ ,´

ˇ 2 2 “ ?2 ˇ 2 , 2 (12.100)

ˇ F

1 ˇˇ 1 1 1

? ˇ , “ ? η |Eα1 `α2 y (12.101)

2 2 2 2

where η is a phase, which we can choose equal to 1, as our convention. It

follows that ?

|Eα1 `α2 y “ 2 |rEα1 , Eα2 sy (12.102)

so that ?

Eα1 `α2 “ 2 rEα1 , Eα2 s (12.103)

The Jacobi identity applied to rE´α2 , rEα1 , Eα2 ss ` . . . now determines both

1

rE´α1 , Eα1 `α2 s “ ? Eα2 (12.104)

2

(which is part of the SUp2qα1 algebra, so that it was already known) as well

as

148

1

rE´α2 , Eα1 `α2 s “ ´ ? Eα1 (12.105)

2

The phase p´1q is fully determined now.

The Dinkin diagram associetes simple roots with open circles. Pairs of

circles are connected by lines, depending on the angle between both roots:

π

• No line if the angle is 2 “ 900 ùñ |α.β| “ 0

2π

• One line if the angle is 3 “ 1200 ùñ |α.β| “ ´ 12 .|α||β|

?

3π 2

• Two lines if the angle is 4 “ 1350 ùñ |α.β| “ ´ 2 .|α||β|

?

• Three lines if the angle is 5π

6 “ 1500 ùñ |α.β| “ ´ 23 .|α||β|

In the figure we have indicated the real compact forms of the complex

Lie algebra. There are also non-compact real forms of the same complex

algebras, for example, a non-compact form of SU pnq is SLpnq.

The dynkin diagrams evidences some isomorphisms between lower rank

algebras.

SOp4q „ SU p2q ˆ SU p2q

SOp6q „ SU p4q

SOp5q „ spp4q (12.106)

This algebra has got two simple roots

α1 ” p0, 1q

´? ¯

α2 ” 23 , ´ 32 (12.107)

It follows that

α12 “ 1

α22 “ 3

α1 .α2 “ ´ 32

2α1 .α2

α21

“ ´3

2α1 .α2

α22

“ ´1

?

α1 .α2 3

|α1 |.|α2 | ” cos θ12 “ ´ 2

θ12 “ 1500 (12.108)

149

Descriptio 12.2: SU(3) simple roots.

150

Descriptio 12.3: Allowed angles between roots.

151

Descriptio 12.4: The Classification of simple groups.

152

The Dynkin diagram is simply two circles united by a triple line.

The α1 string through α2 has got p “ 3. The α2 string going through

α1 instead has p “ 1. This means that

φ2 ” α1 ` α2

φ3 ” 2α1 ` α2

φ4 ” 3α1 ` α2 (12.109)

check whether 2α1 ` 2α2 is a root (could it be reached by acting on

φ3 with a simple root (α2 )?)

2α2 p2α1 ` α2 q

“ ´2 ` 2 “ 0 “ ´pp ´ qq (12.110)

α22

p “ 0 and 2α1 ` 2α2 is not a root. Another argument is that it is twice

a root, namely α1 ` α2 , and no multiple of a root can ever be a root.

level 5 is 3α1 ` 2α2 .

2α2 p3α1 ` α2 q

“ ´3 ` 2 “ ´1 (12.111)

α22

a root.

• Also, 3α1 ` 3α2 is not a root, so that at level 6 we only need to check

4α1 ` 2α2

2α1 p3α1 ` 2α2 q

“6´6“0 (12.112)

α12

We know that q “ 0, so that we are done.

In general, in order to keep track of the integers pi and qi cooresponding

ř of a simple root αi on a state |φy, Aassume that the positive

to the action

root φ “ ki αi (with ki ą 0); then

qi ´ p i “ “ kj ” kj Aji (12.113)

αi2 j

αi2 j

153

where the Cartan matrix is defined as

2αj .αi

Aji ” (12.114)

αi2

Its diagnonal entries are all equal to 2. For SU(3) the Cartan matrix is

ˆ ˙

2 ´1

A“ (12.115)

´1 2

And for G2 ˆ ˙

2 ´1

A“ (12.116)

´3 2

Now when we go from φ to φ ` αl by the action of the raising operator Eαl ,

this changes kl to kl ` 1 so that

qi ´ p i ÝÑ qi ´ pi ` Ali (12.117)

It is now easy to work this out in gory detail in the SU(3) case. The Cartan

matrix gives the qi ´ pi , and we know the value of qi , namely qi “ 2 for the

root αi itself (because it is the J` of an SU(2)), whereas qi “ 0 for any other

root (because αi ´ αj is not a root). Let us work out A2 “ SUp3q again in

detail. Cartan’s matrix is

ˆ ˙

2 ´1

A“ (12.118)

´1 2

is not a root).

A12 “ A21 “ ´1 “ q ´ p (12.119)

Then α1 ` α2 is a root; but neither α1 ` 2α2 nor α2 ` 2α1 are. We

have then three roots (plus the negatives) plus two H; these exhaust

the 8 dimensions of the algebra.

root q´p

α1 r2, ´1s (12.120)

α2 r´3, 2s

root), that p “ 1, so that α1 ` α2 is indeed a root, but α1 ` 2α2 is not a

root. α1 is then the highest weight of a doublet of SU p2qα2 . On the other

hand α2 is a triplet under SU p2qα1 : α2 ` 2α1 and α2 ` 3α1 are also roots

154

(nut this is not the case with α2 ` 4α1 ). Consider the α2 -string through

β ” a2 ` 3α1 . It so happens that

ˆ ˆ ˙˙

2β.α2 2 ´3

2 “ 3`3 “ ´1 “ q ´ p (12.121)

α2 3 2

Giving the fact that we know that q=0 (because 3α1 is not a root), this

means that γ ” 2α2 ` 3α1 is also a root. pβ, γq form a doublet under

SU p2qα2 .

The highest weight of a rep is such that

µ`φ (12.122)

2αi .µ

Eαi |µy “ 0 ô “ li ě 0 (12.123)

αi2

The integers li are the Dynkin coefficients. It is useful to introduce the

fundamental weights which are m vectors such that

2αi .µj

“ δij (12.124)

αi2

The highest weight can the be written as

ÿ

µ“ li µi (12.125)

?

3

α1 “ p 21 , 2 q

?

α2 “ p 12 , ´ 23 q (12.126)

they read

?

3

µ1 “ p 12 , 6 q

?

µ2 “ p 12 , ´ 63 q (12.127)

as its highest weight. Its Dynkin indices are then p1, 0q. Start with

H1 |µ1 y “ 12 |µ1 y

?

3

H2 |µ1 y “ 6 |µ1 y (12.128)

155

It is clear that

E´α2 |µ1 y “ 0 (12.129)

because it is a highest weight state, and by definition, µ1 .α2 “ 0.

2µ1 .α1

“1 (12.130)

α12

? ´? ? ¯

H2 E´α1 |µ1 y “ E´α1 63 |µ1 y ´ pα1 q2 E´α1 |µ1 y “ 63 ´ 23 |µ1 y “

“ ´ ?13 |µ1 y (12.131)

1

µ1 ´ α1 “ p0, ´ ? q (12.132)

3

Now

pµ1 ´ α1 q.α2

2 “1 (12.133)

α22

This tells us that µ1 ´ α1 ´ α2 must be a weight. We can represent this

procedure as follos

1 0 µ1

´1 1 µ1 ´ α 1

0 ´1 µ1 ´ α 1 ´ α 2

(12.134)

ˆ ˙

2 ´1

(12.135)

´1 0

substract the first row of the Cartan matrix, and get to ´1 1 , which

must be the top of an α2 doublet. We then substract the second row of the

Cartan matric and end up into 0 ´ 1 and we are done

156

13

Representations.

Let us rewrite again the SU(3) Cartan matrix in another way (corresponding

to level 0 and level one roots). The boxed numbers represent tha value of

q´p

k“1 2 ´1 ´1 2

k“0 0 0 (13.1)

q“ 2 0 0 2 (13.2)

From that, we can go up one step in level

k“2 1 1 α1 ` α2

k“1 2 ´1 ´1 2 α1 |α2

k“0 0 0 (13.3)

we are done with the positive roots.

To construct the µ2 irrep (Dynkin indices p0, 1q) we proceed in a similar

way, and get

0 1 µ2

1 ´1 µ2 ´ α2

´1 0 µ2 ´ α2 ´ α1 (13.4)

All states in a given irrep can easily be built out of the highest weight

state as

E´αan . . . E´αa1 |µy (13.5)

157

Descriptio 13.1: Roots of G2 .

158

Descriptio 13.2: Weights of the 3 and 3̄ of SU p3q.

159

where

αai P ∆ (13.6)

A scalar product exists in this linear space which is such that given two

~ , β~ Ă ∆

subsets of ∆, α

ˇ ˇ

xµ ˇEα~ E´β~ ˇ µy „ δα~ ,β~ (13.7)

ˇ ˇ

for large irreps.

This is the set of all Weyl reflections. They stem for the fact that the SU(2)

irreps are symmetrical under

J3 Ñ ´J3 (13.8)

Remember that

2α.µ

q´p“ (13.9)

α2

so that

ˇ F

α.µ α.µ α.µ ˇˇ 2α.µ

J3 |µy “ |µy ÝÑ |µ ´ pq ´ pqαy “ ´ |µ ´ pq ´ pqαy ” ´ µ ´ α

α2 α2 α2 ˇ α2

In slightly more formal terms we are multiplying the weigh by the idempo-

tent

2αi αj

pI α qji ” δij ´ (13.10)

α2

It is easy to show that

Iα2 “ 1 (13.11)

I α .α “ ´α (13.12)

In general, we can decompose any vector with respect to the direction of α

v “ vK ` vk (13.13)

then

I α .v “ vK ´ vk (13.14)

In the particular case of the 3̄ ” p0, 1q of SU(3), all weights are just the

negative of the weights of the 3 ” p1, 0q. This means that the two irreps are

related by complex conjugation.

(13.15)

160

This irrep is usually dubbed D̄. The irrep D is said to be real if it is

equivalent to its complex conjugate. Otherwise, it is said to be complex.

Given the fact that Hi` “ Hi if µ is a weight in D, then ´µ is a weight

in D̄. Then the lowest weight of p1, oq is minus the highest weight of p0, 1q

and the other way around.

The highest weight of pn, mq is nµ1 ` mµ2 , and the lowest weight of

pn, mq is ´nµ2 ´ mµ1 , so that that highest weight of pm, nq is nµ2 ` mµ1 .

The irreps pn, mq ans pm, nq are complex conjugates.

Let us work out the p2, 0q irrep of SU(3). Remember the SU p3q Cartan

matrix ˆ ˙

2 ´1

(13.16)

´1 2

Then the string of weights looks as follows

2 0 2µ1

0 1 2µ1 ´ α1

´1 2 2µ1 ´ 2α1 1 ´1 2µ1 ´ α1 ´ α2

(13.17)

2α.µ1

J3α1 |2µ1 y “ |2µ1 y “ |2µ1 y (13.18)

α2

Let us begin with the Weyl reflections of µ.

I α2 pµ ” 2µ1 q “ µ

I α2 p2µ1 ´ 2α1 q “ 2µ1 ´ 2α1 ´ 2α2

I α1 p2µ1 ´ 2α1 ´ 2α2 q “ 2µ1 ´ 2α1 ´ 2α2 (13.19)

I α1 leaves this weight invariant, because it is orthoginal to α1 . Otherwise

I α2 p2µ1 ´ α1 q “ 2µ1 ´ α1 ´ α2

I α1 p2µ1 ´ α1 ´ α2 q “ 2µ1 ´ 2α1 ´ α2

I α2 p2µ1 ´ 2α1 ´ α2 q “ 2µ1 ´ 2α1 ´ α2 (13.20)

p2, 0q “ 6 (13.21)

161

Consider now the irrep p1, 1q. It so happens that

µ1 ` µ1 “ α 1 ` α 2 (13.22)

which is the highest weight of the adjoint of SU(3), already studied. We

know thet the zero weight is doubly degenerate. Let us check now that the

two ways of getting zero weight ara actually linearly independent.

|01 y ” E´α1 E´α2 |µ1 ` µ2 y

|02 y ” E´α2 E´α1 |µ1 ` µ2 y (13.23)

Our task is to show that

x01 |02 y2 ‰ x01 |01 yx02 |02 y (13.24)

Demonstratio. This is easy, because

x01 |01 y ” xµ |Eα2 Eα1 E´α1 E´α2 | µy “ xµ |Eα2 pE´α1 Eα1 ` α1 .Hq E´α2 | µy “

ˇ ` ˘ˇ

“ xµ ˇEα αi E´α Hi ´ αi E´α ˇ µy “ µ.α1 ´ α1 .α2 “ 1 ` 1 “ 1 (13.25)

2 1 2 2 2 2 2

x02 |02 y ” xµ |Eα1 Eα2 E´α2 E´α1 | µy “ xµ |Eα1 pE´α2 Eα2 ` α2 .Hq E´α1 | µy “

ˇ ` ˘ˇ

“ xµ ˇEα αi E´α Hi ´ αi E´α ˇ µy “ µ.α2 ´ α2 .α1 “ 1 ` 1 “ 1 (13.26)

1 2 1 1 1 2 2

x01 |02 y ” xµ |Eα2 Eα1 E´α2 E´α1 | µy “ xµ |Eα2 E´α2 Eα1 E´α1 | µy “

“ xµ |α2 .Hα1 .H| µy “ pα2 .µq pα1 .µq “ 21 . 12 “ 1

4 (13.27)

The p3, 0q, with highest weight µ “ 3µ1 . It follows that the string of weights

reads

3 0 3µ1

1 1 3µ1 ´ α1

´1 2 3µ1 ´ α1 ´ α2 2 ´1 3µ1 ´ 2α1

0 0 3µ1 ´ 2α1 ´ α2 ´3 3 3µ1 ´ 3α1

1 ´2 3µ1 ´ 2α1 ´ 2α2 ´2 1 3µ1 ´ 3α1 ´ α2

´1 1 3µ1 ´ 3α1 ´ 2α2

0 ´3 3µ1 ´ 2α1 ´ 3α2 (13.28)

All states are obviously unique except the 0 0 . But this is also unique

because as you can undoubtly prove

E´α1 E´α2 E´α1 |3µ1 y „ E´α2 E´α1 E´α1 |3µ1 y (13.29)

So that p3, 0q “ 10. Its complex conjugate 1Ď0 “ p0, 3q

162

14

AN ´1 “ SU pN q

1

tr pTa Tb q “ δab (14.1)

2

The generators of the Cartan subalgebra in the fundamental irrep N are

given by (A “ 1, . . . , N ´ 1; i, j, k “ 1 . . . N )

˜ ¸

A

` A˘ 1 ÿ

H ij “ a δik δjk ´ aδi,A`1 δj,A`1 (14.2)

2ApA ` 1q k“1

1q-dimensional vectors, which are the eigenvalues of the H in the Cartan

subalgebra ˜ ¸

b“A

a 1 ÿ

pµ qA ” a δab ´ Aδa,A`1 (14.3)

2ApA ` 1q b“1

For example

´ ¯

?1 , ?1 , ?1 , ..., ? 1

µ1 “ 4 12 24 2N pN ´1q (14.4)

´ 1 1 1 1

¯

µ2 “ ´ ?4 , ?12 , ?24 . . . , ?2N pN ´1q (14.5)

´ 2 1 1

¯

µ3 “ 0, ´ ?12 , ?24 , . . . , ?2N pN ´1q (14.6)

´ ¯

4 0, 0, ´2 ?1 , . . . , ? 1

µ “ 24 2N pN ´1q (14.7)

... (14.8)

´ 1

¯

µN “ 0, 0, 0, . . . , 0, ? (14.9)

2N pN ´1q

163

We can compute the weight length

Nÿ

´1 N ´1 ˆ ˙

1 1 1 1 ÿ 1 1

µ .µ “ “ ´ (14.10)

A“1

2ApA ` 1q 2 A“1 A A ` 1

Let us dub

Nÿ

´1 Nÿ

´1

1 1 1

f pN q ” “1` ´ (14.11)

A“1

A A“1

A`1 N

Then

N ´1

µ1 .µ1 “ (14.12)

2N

and in fact this results holds for all other weights.

For a ă b, for example,

` ˘2

µ1 .µ2 “ µ1 ´ 21 “ ´ 2N 1

(14.13)

1 1

µa .µb “ ´ ` δab (14.14)

2N 2

We shall adopt here a backwards convention: a positive weight is one

such that the last non-zero component is positive. Then

µ1 ą µ2 ą . . . ą µN (14.15)

µa ´ µb pa ‰ bq (14.16)

µa ´ µb pa ă bq (14.17)

The simple roots are

αA ” µA ´ µA`1 (14.18)

It so happens that

1

` 1 ˘ ` 1 ˘ ` 1 ˘

αa .αb “ ´ 2N ` 21 δab ´ ´ 2N ` 12 δa,b`1 ´ ´ 2N ` 12 δa`1,b ` ´ 2N ` 12 δa`1,b`1 “

“ 12 δab ´ 12 δa,b`1 ´ 12 δa`1,b ` 12 δa`1,b`1 “ δab ´ 12 δa,b`1 ´ 12 δa`1,b (14.19)

This explains the shape of the Dynkin diagram, the simplest of them all. It

is then plain that the fundamental weights are given by

a“A

ÿ

MA ” µa (14.20)

a“1

164

Indeed

2αB M A “ 2 a“A

ř a

` B ˘

B`1 “

a“1 µ µ ´ µ

“ a“A

ř

a“1 pδaB ´ δa,B`1 q “ δAB (14.21)

a“N

ÿ

µa “ 0 (14.22)

a“1

Then

a“N

ÿ´1

µN “ ´ µa “ ´µN ´1 (14.23)

a“1

Then

p1, 0 . . . 0q “ p0, . . . , 1q (14.24)

and so on.

165

166

15

Orthogonal algebras

The Dynkin diagrams of SOp2nq and SOp2n ` 1q are different, and this re-

flects some important differences between the two sets of orthogonoal groups.

Let us first examine the structure of both algebras.

15.1 Dn “ SOp2nq

The Lie algebra consists on imaginary antisymmetric matrices of dimesion

2n- There are np2n ´ 1q of those. The Cartan generators in the fundamental

representation can be chosen as

a

Hjk ” ´i pδj,2m´1 δk,2m ´ δk,2m´1 δj,2m q (15.1)

ˆ ˙

1 σ2 0

H “

0 0

ˆ ˙

2 0 0

H “ (15.2)

0 σ2

The corresponding eigenvectors are

For example, ¨ ˛

1

˚˘i‹

˘e1 ” ˚

˝0‚

‹ (15.4)

0

¨ ˛

0

2

˚0‹

˘e “ ˚˝1‚

‹ (15.5)

˘i

167

In general

Ha p˘eb q “ δab p˘eb q (15.6)

This means that the weight vectors are given by

˘a ˘ b pa ‰ bq (15.8)

There are npn ´ 1q of those (“ np2n ´ 1q ´ n). The positive roots are given

by

a ˘ b pa ă bq (15.9)

Finally, the simple roots are given by

a ´ a`1 a “ 1...n ´ 1

n´1 ` n (15.10)

It is plain that

` ˘2

a ´ a`1 “ 2

` a ˘` ˘

´ a`1 a`1 ´ a`2 “ ´1

cos θ “ ´ 14 (15.11)

On the other hand the two last simple roots are orthogonal

` n´1 ˘` ˘

` n n´1 ´ n “ 0 (15.12)

15.2 SOp2n ` 1q ” Bn

This algebra has an extra one-dimensional subspace associated with a zero

weight. The dimension of the algebra is np2n ` 1q. The Cartan subalgebra

is the same, with one extra row and column. For example

ˆ ˙

σ2 0

H“ (15.13)

0 0

There are extra roots connecting the extra dimensional subspace with the

others:

˘a ˘ b

˘a (15.14)

168

Altogether, we have 2n extra roots, which is the difference between the

dimensions of Bn and Dn . The positive roots are just

a ˘ b pa ă bq

a (15.15)

a ´ a`1 pa “ 1 . . . n ´ 1q

n (15.16)

n q ` 2n . This changes the angle between the two last roots

pn´1 ´ n q.n “ ´1

cos θ “ ´ 12 (15.17)

i“a

ÿ

Ma ” i a “ 1...n ´ 1 (15.18)

i“1

i“n

1ÿ i

Mn ” (15.19)

2 i“1

Indeed

ři“a ` ˘

2M a αb “ i b

i“1 ´

b`1 “ δ

ab

1 ři“n i a

n a

` a`1

˘

2M α “ 2 j“1 ´ “0

n n

ři“n i n

2M α “ j“1 . “ 1 (15.20)

a 1ÿ c 1ÿ c 1` 1

I M N “ p1 ´ 2a b a q . p ´ 2a q Ñ ˘ ˘ 2 ˘ . . . ˘ n

˘

“

2 c 2 c 2

(15.21)

n

This is a 2 dimensional representation, the spinor representation. We shall

work in a rep space which the n-th tensor product of the two-dimensional

space S of the spin 1{2 irrep.

S b . . .pn b S (15.22)

1 1

Hj ” 1 b . . . b σ3 b . . . b 1 ” σ3j (15.23)

2 2

169

Then it can be shown that

E˘1 “ 12 σ˘

1

E˘2 “ 12 σ31 σ˘

2

...

1 1 j´1 j

E˘j “ 2 σ3 . . . σ3 σ˘ (15.24)

To summarize,

M2j,2n`1 “ 12 σ31 . . . σ3j´1 σ2j (15.25)

αj “ j ´ j`1

αn`1 ” n ` n`1 (15.27)

fundamental weights. Let us call them Dn and Dn`1

1

` ˘

µn ” 2 1 ` . . . ` n ´ n`1

` ˘

µn`1 ” 12 1 ` . . . ` n ` n`1 (15.28)

Mjk j, k ď 2n ` 1 (15.29)

shown that in Dn the extra generator in the Cartan subalgebra reads

1

Hn`1 ” M2n`1,2n`2 “ ´ σ31 . . . σ3n (15.30)

2

1

Hn`1 ” M2n`1,2n`2 “ σ31 . . . σ3n (15.31)

2

170

15.3 Clifford algebras

The simplest definition of a Clifford algebra is through the relations

sentation of SOpN q given by

i

Mij ” ´ rγi , γj s (15.33)

4

of SOpN q

For Bn ” SOp2n ` 1q there is an explicit representation of the Clifford

algenbra that yields precisely the spinor representation of Bn .

γ2 ” ´σ11 σ32 . . . σ3n

γ3 ” σ22 σ33 . . . σ3n

γ4 ” ´σ12 σ33 . . . σ3n

...

γ2n´1 ” σ2n

σ2n ” ´σ1n

γ2n`1 ” σ31 σ32 . . . σ3n (15.35)

γ1 γ2 . . . γ2n`1 “ in (15.36)

We do jot have enough elements to construct a representation of SOp2n`2q;

but we can construct the SOp2nq algebra just by leaving out γ2n`1 . This is

a reducible representation; there is a nontrivial matrix that commutes with

all the generator, namely γ2n`1 itself. There are two projectors. One onto

Dn´1

1

p1 ´ γ2n`1 q (15.37)

2

and another onto Dn

1

p1 ` γ2n`1 q (15.38)

2

171

There is a natural SU pN q subgroup of SOp2N q. In fact from a Clifford

algebra one can construcy the operators

1

aj ”2 pγ2j´1 ´ iγ2j q

aj ” 12 pγ2j´1 ` iγ2j q

`

(15.39)

They obey

! )

taj , ak u “ a` j , a`

k “0

(

aj , a`

k “ δjk (15.40)

ÿ

Ta ” a`

i pTa qij aj (15.41)

ij

1

( 1“ ` ‰ 1 i 1

a` `

i aj “ 2 ai , aj ` 2 ai , aj “ 2 δij ` 2 M2i´1,2j´1 ` 2 M2i´1,2j ´

´ 12 M2i,2j´1 ` 2i M2i,2j (15.42)

The Fock states generate the representation DN for N even, and DN ´1 for

Nodd. There is an SOp2N q generator which commutes with the SU pN q

subgroup, namely

N N

ÿ ÿ N

S” M2j´1,2j “ a`

i ai ´ (15.43)

j“1 i“1

2

N

1ÿ i

S“ σ (15.44)

2 i“1 3

N

S |0y “ ´ |0y (15.45)

2

172

16

Automorphisms

where

aT

R ” eiθ a

(16.2)

Ta Ñ ´Ta˚ (16.3)

enjoys nontrivial automorphisms. Sometimes this is trivial, like in the SU p4q

exchanging

Eα1 Ø Eα3 (16.4)

equivalent. In fact all complex conjugations automorphisms can be obtained

from reflexion symmetries of the Dynkin diagram. The opposite is not true:

not all reflecion symmetries correspond to complex conjugation. The cano-

nical example is SOp8q. Nontrivial automorphisms allow to classify all real

forms of complex Lie algebras. Let us see how thos work for the complex al-

gebra A1 . In order to do that it is better to forget about physicist’s notation

and wrote

g ” eα.T (16.5)

173

ˆ ˙

1 0

T3 ”

0 ´1

ˆ ˙

0 1

T1 ”

0 0

ˆ ˙

0 0

T2 ”

1 0

ˆ ˙

i 0

I3 ”

0 ´i

ˆ ˙

0 i

I1 ”

0 0

ˆ ˙

0 0

I2 ”

i 0

(16.6)

Restriction to real matrices leaves the algebra of SLp2, Rq. The algebra is

rT1 ” T` , T2 ” T´ s “ T3

rT3 , T` s “ 2T`

rT3 , T´ s “ 2T´ (16.7)

This is exactly what we have been advocating for SU p2q. But were we to

stick to real generators the algebra would really have been

Ji ” iHi (16.8)

Defining

H˘ ” H1 ˘ H2 (16.10)

T3 Ñ ´H3 (16.12)

sm in SL(2,R)

φ pT˘ q “ ´T˘

φpT3 q “ T3 (16.13)

174

Now Weyl’s unitary trick intruct to consider the algebra

T˘ Ñ iH˘ (16.14)

and this is the real compact form of the complex Lie algebra. In this case,

SUp2q Ă SLp2, Cq. A complex Lie algebra includes menay real forms in

general, although only one of them is compact.

175

176

Acknowledgments

We have been partially supported by the European Union FP7 ITN INVI-

SIBLES (Marie Curie Actions, PITN- GA-2011- 289442)and (HPRN-CT-

200-00148) as well as by FPA2012-31880 (Spain), FPA2014-54154-P, COST

action MP1405 (Quantum Structure of Spacetime) and S2009ESP-1473 (CA

Madrid). This work is supported by the Spanish Research Agency (Agencia

Estatal de Investigaciń) through the grant IFT Centro de Excelencia Severo

Ochoa SEV-2016-0597.

177

178

Conspectus librorum

(Hermann)

[2] Dirk Struik, Lectures in classical differential geometry (Dover,1961)

[3] H. Flanders, Differential forms (Academic press,1963)

[4] Dubrovin, Novikok y Fomenko,

Geometria contemporánea (MIR, Moscu, 1979)

[5] M.J. Lighthill, An introduction to Fourier analysis and generalized

functions (Cambridge,1958)

[6] IM Gelfand and GE Shilov, Generalized Functions, Vol 1 (Academic

Press)

[7] P. Jacobson, Lie algebras (Dover)

[8] Hermann Weyl, The classical groups (Princeton)

[9] H. Borner Representations of groups (North Holland 1970).

[10] A. O. Barut and R. Raczka, “Theory Of Group Representations And

Applications,” Singapore, Singapore: World Scientific ( 1986) 717p

[11] M. Hamermesh, Group theory (Addison Wesley, 1964)

[12] JP. Serre, Representations lineaires des groupes finis (Hermann,Paris,

1998)

[13] James E. Humphreys, Introduction to Lie algebras and representation

theory (Springer-Verlag,1980)

[14] H. Georgi, “Lie Algebras In Particle Physics. From Isospin To Unified

Theories,” Front. Phys. 54, 1 (1982).

[15] S. Sternberg, Curvature in mathematics and physics (Dover,2012)

Group theory and physics (Cambridge, 1995)

[16] Pierre Ramond, Group Theory (Cambridge,2010)

179

- Curvature Tensor on Para-Sasakian Manifold admitting Quarter Symmetric Metric ConnectionUploaded byIOSRjournal
- Ferrier_kinematics3Uploaded byagboolac
- Some Properties of Conformal β-ChangeUploaded byIoan Degau
- 140 Hw Answers 2012Uploaded byDongHa Bahn
- Nonholonomic Black Ring and Solitonic Solutions in Finsler and Extra Dimension Gravity TheoriesUploaded bySergiu Vacaru
- FunkyMathPhysics.pdfUploaded byAnonymous nb6QWz
- Survey of Applicable Mathematics.pdfUploaded byMichael Elser
- LaplaceTable (1).pdfUploaded byMartin Muñoz
- Differentialgeometry Threedimensionalspace 140924225031 Phpapp01Uploaded bySufyan
- FQHE, ESUploaded byArjun Dey
- challenging_intercepts+solnsUploaded byGadanhha
- Mesh-Intro 14.5 WS05e Applications ManifoldUploaded byarafath1985
- d89c873e7f397ebcf6b17d36b15db7cfUploaded byParvathi N
- C3 Practice PaperUploaded byAhmed Nurul
- Cover AssignmentUploaded byLee Masuka
- Geometric ModellingUploaded byAbhinash Jami
- Differential GeometryUploaded byFVR
- CHAPTER 2 Vector Valued Function.pptxUploaded byCylah Eylah
- 1208.0177 Gouy-Stodola Theorem as a Variational Principle for Open Systems.Uploaded byElzimar Freitas
- Chap12_Sec3 [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded bysam
- sol-2013-06Uploaded byMohamed IBrahim
- The structure of Cosmic TimeUploaded byDeepanshu
- alg_09f.pdfUploaded byAnonymous Rr4j4Fb
- ME 8243 Midterm.answersUploaded byCryptic Rifat
- BiquaternionUploaded byJohan Papado
- Tensor Product - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded bySuncreationsKkdi
- 0012032v1Uploaded byBayer Mitrovic
- Nlinear Problems in Riemannian Geometry Springer Monographs in MathematicsUploaded byMelissa Filizzola Merlano

- Geometry, topology and physics list of ErratasUploaded bymaikos
- Introducion to differential geometry, topoly and group theory for physicist. MukhiUploaded bymaikos
- diff geometry1.pdfUploaded bylamngoctam89
- Piezoelectric CeramicsUploaded bymaikos
- Crystal defects, growth and epitaxyUploaded bymaikos
- Introduction_To_Solid_State_Physics_8Th_Edition_-_Solution_Manual-Kittel__Charles.pdfUploaded bySmarajit Paul Choudhury
- Problems Nanophysics IUploaded bymaikos
- Strong InteractionUploaded bymaikos
- MIT22_02S12_lec_ch4.pdfUploaded bymaikos
- Selected Solutions -David a.B. Miller Quantum MechanicsUploaded byRamzan8850
- Physics - Quantum Mechanics, Vol 1 - Cohen - TannoudjiUploaded bymaikos

- 10_03_Lengths_of_Tangent.pdfUploaded bySri D
- A537641241_15730_28_2017_Practice MCQs MTH165 Unit 5Uploaded byNeeraj Rana
- Maths formula TrignometryUploaded byVivek Singh
- The Seven Famous Unsolved Math PuzzlesUploaded byManuel F. Presnilla
- cilindros-superficies_cuadraticasUploaded byJuan David Orejuela
- Volumes of Solids Swept Tangentially Around CylindersUploaded bycloz54
- 16. Jacobian Elliptic Functions and Theta FunctionsUploaded byAlexandra Nicoleta Teisi
- Awesome Formula SheetUploaded bysurendranath jadhav
- Conic Section Part 8 of 8Uploaded bymajji satish
- (Graduate Studies in Mathematics, Vol. 69) Sebastian Montiel and Antonio Ros-Curves and Surfaces-American Mathematical Society (2009).pdfUploaded byMarcus Vinicius Sousa Sousa
- 13602662-engineering-graphics-ed-for-be-students-130204230650-phpapp02.pptUploaded byGaneshKumar
- Lecture 14 - Classification of Lie Algebras and Dynkin Diagrams (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)Uploaded bySimon Rea
- Lefs Chet z PencilUploaded byJingyu Zhao Aurora
- RIEMANNIAN MANIFOLDS WITH GEOMETRIC STRUCTURESUploaded byAnkitSisodia
- Laplace_Table.pdfUploaded byVignesh Velmurugan
- GE MATHUploaded byRhea Lyn Cayobit
- Hyperbola ProblemsUploaded bykishangopi123
- 9 Trigonometric RatiosUploaded byAhmed Nurul
- Differential geometry notesUploaded bySanjeev Shukla
- MAC1140 Test 2 Review Cheat SheetUploaded byednysDOTcom
- 1.3 Epicycloid ConstructionUploaded byMartin De Boras Pragash
- Test Par & EllipUploaded byMitesh Kumar
- Delacruz,JanreggieUploaded byjamesjastinesolivio
- Conic SectionsUploaded byKalpana Bhadouria
- Mathematics Today January 2018Uploaded byJatin
- Chapter 19Uploaded byjedboy88
- Ellipseregular-2Uploaded byNibha Pandey
- Conic Sections- Complete InfoUploaded bySesha Sai Kumar
- Hyperbola.unlocked.pdfUploaded byAvr Maths
- Continuity and DifferentiationUploaded byVishal Jalan

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.