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Smart city

Pripremio: Prof. dr Mustafa Mehanović


Preuzeto: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_city; 19.09.2018.; 10:19

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For the 2006 film, see Smart City (film).

A depiction of a smart city

A smart city is an urban area that uses different types of electronic data collection sensors to
supply information which is used to manage assets and resources efficiently. This includes data
collected from citizens, devices, and assets that is processed and analyzed to monitor and
manage traffic and transportation systems, power plants, water supply networks, waste
management, law enforcement, information systems, schools, libraries, hospitals, and other
community services.[1][2][page needed] The smart city concept integrates information and
communication technology (ICT), and various physical devices connected to the network
(the Internet of things or IoT) to optimize the efficiency of city operations and services and
connect to citizens.[3][4] Smart city technology allows city officials to interact directly with both
community and city infrastructure and to monitor what is happening in the city and how the city is
evolving.
ICT is used to enhance quality, performance and interactivity of urban services, to reduce
costs and resource consumption and to increase contact between citizens and
government.[5] Smart city applications are developed to manage urban flows and allow for real-
time responses.[6] A smart city may therefore be more prepared to respond to challenges than
one with a simple "transactional" relationship with its citizens.[7][8] Yet, the term itself remains
unclear to its specifics and therefore, open to many interpretations.[9]
Other terms that have been used for similar concepts include cyberville, digital city, electronic
communities, flexicity, information city, intelligent city, knowledge-based city, MESH
city, telecity, teletopia, Ubiquitous city, wired city.
Major technological, economic and environmental changes have generated interest in smart
cities, including climate change, economic restructuring, the move to online retail and
entertainment, ageing populations, urban population growth and pressures on public
finances.[10] The European Union (EU) has devoted constant efforts to devising a strategy for
achieving 'smart' urban growth for its metropolitan city-regions.[11][12] The EU has developed a
range of programmes under 'Europe's Digital Agenda".[13] In 2010, it highlighted its focus on
strengthening innovation and investment in ICT services for the purpose of improving public
services and quality of life.[12] Arup estimates that the global market for smart urban services will
be $400 billion per annum by 2020.[14] Examples of Smart City technologies and programs have
been implemented in Singapore[15], Dubai,[16] Milton
Keynes,[17] Southampton,[18] Amsterdam,[19] Barcelona,[20] Madrid,[21] Stockholm,[22] China[23] and
New York.[24]

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Prevod:
Pametni grad
Pametan grad je urbano područje koje koristi različite tipove elektronskih senzora za prikupljanje
podataka za pružanje informacija koje se koriste za efikasno upravljanje imovinom i resursima.
Ovo uključuje podatke prikupljene od građana, uređaja i sredstava koja se obrađuju i analiziraju
kako bi nadgledali i upravljali saobraćajnim i transportnim sistemima, elektranama, vodovodnim
mrežama, upravljanju otpadom, policijskim službama, informacionim sistemima, školama,
bibliotekama, bolnicama i drugoj zajednici usluge. [1] [2] [stranica potrebna] Koncept pametnog
grada integriše informacionu i komunikacionu tehnologiju (IKT) i različite fizičke uređaje
povezane sa mrežom (Internet stvari ili IoT) radi optimizacije efikasnosti gradskih operacija i
usluga i povezati se sa građanima. [3] [4] Tehnologija pametnog grada omogućava gradskim
funkcionerima da interakciju direktno sa infrastrukturom u zajednici i gradovima i da prate šta se
dešava u gradu i kako se grad razvija.
IKT se koristi za poboljšanje kvaliteta, učinka i interaktivnosti urbanih usluga, smanjenja troškova
i potrošnje resursa i povećanja kontakta između građana i vlade [5]. Pametne gradske aplikacije
razvijene su za upravljanje urbanim tokovima i omogućavaju odgovore u realnom vremenu. [6]
Pametan grad može stoga biti više spreman da odgovori na izazove nego onaj sa jednostavnim
"transakcijskim" odnosom sa svojim građanima. [7] [8] Pa ipak, termin sam ostao nejasan
njegovim specifičnostima i stoga je otvoren mnogim interpretacijama [9].

Ostali pojmovi koji su korišćeni za slične koncepte uključuju sajbervil, digitalni grad, elektronske
zajednice, fleksibilnost, informativni grad, inteligentni grad, grad na znanju, grad MESH, telecity,
teletopia, prisutan grad, žičani grad.

Velike tehnološke, ekonomske i ekološke promene izazvale su interesovanje za pametne


gradove, uključujući klimatske promjene, ekonomsko restrukturiranje, prelazak na online
maloprodaju i zabavu, starenje stanovništva, rast gradskog stanovništva i pritiske na javne
finansije [10]. Evropska unija (EU) je posvetila konstantne napore u izradi strategije za
postizanje "pametnog" urbane ekonomije za svoje metropolitske gradske regije. [11] [12] EU je
razvila niz programa pod "Evropskom digitalnom agendom". [13] 2010. godine naglasila je da se
fokusira na jačanje inovacija i ulaganja u usluge IKT u cilju poboljšanja javnih usluga i kvaliteta
života. [12] Arup procjenjuje da će globalno tržište za pametne urbane usluge do 2020. godine
iznositi 400 milijardi dolara godišnje. [14] Primjeri Smart City tehnologija i programa
implementirani su u Singapuru [15], Dubaiju, [16] Milton Keynes, [17] Southampton, [ 18]
Amsterdam, [19] Barselona, [20] Madrid, [21] Stokholm, [22] Kina [23] i Njujork [24]

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Contents
1 Terminology
2 Characteristics
3 Frameworks
3.1 Technology framework
3.2 Human framework
3.3 Institutional framework
3.4 Energy framework
3.5 Data Management framework
4 Platforms and technologies
5 Roadmap
6 Research
7 Commercialisation
8 Examples
8.1 Amsterdam
8.2 Barcelona
8.3 Columbus, Ohio
8.4 Dublin
8.5 Laguna Croatá
8.6 Madrid
8.7 Malta
8.8 Manchester
8.9 Milton Keynes
8.10 New Songdo City
8.11 New York City
8.12 San Leandro
8.13 Santa Cruz
8.14 Smart cities in India
8.15 Smart Nation Singapore
8.16 Stockholm

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Sadržaj
1 Terminologija
2 Karakteristike
3 Okviri
3.1 Tehnološki okvir
3.2 Ljudski okvir
3.3 Institucionalni okvir
3.4 Energetski okvir
3.5 Okvir za upravljanje podacima
4 Platforme i tehnologije
5 Mape puta
6 Istraživanje
7 Komercijalizacija
8 Primeri
8.1 Amsterdam
8.2 Barselona
8.3 Columbus, Ohajo
8.4 Dablin
8.5 Laguna Croatá
8.6 Madrid
8.7 Malta
8.8 Mančester
8.9 Milton Kejns
8.10 Novi grad Songdo
8.11 New York City
8.12 San Leandro
8.13 Santa Cruz
8.14 Pametni gradovi u Indiji
8.15 Smart Nation Singapur
8.16 Stokholm
9 Kritika
10 Vidi takođe
11 Reference
12 Dalje čitanje
13 Spoljašnje veze

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Terminology
Due to the breadth of technologies that have been implemented under the smart city label, it is
difficult to distill a precise definition of a smart city. Deakin and Al Wear[25] list four factors that
contribute to the definition of a smart city:

1. The application of a wide range of electronic and digital technologies to communities and
cities
2. The use of ICT to transform life and working environments within the region
3. The embedding of such Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) in government
systems
4. The territorialisation of practices that brings ICTs and people together to enhance the
innovation and knowledge that they offer.
Deakin defines the smart city as one that utilises ICT to meet the demands of the market (the citizens
of the city), and that community involvement in the process is necessary for a smart city.[26] A smart
city would thus be a city that not only possesses ICT technology in particular areas, but has also
implemented this technology in a manner that positively impacts the local community.
Alternative definitions include:

 Giffinger et al. 2007: "Regional competitiveness, transport and Information and Communication
Technologies economics, natural resources, human and social capital, quality of life, and
participation of citizens in the governance of cities."[27]
 Smart Cities Council[when?]: "A smart city is one that has digital technology embedded across all
city functions."[28][full citation needed]
 Caragliu and Nijkamp 2009: "A city can be defined as 'smart' when investments in human and
social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure
fuel sustainable economic development and a high quality of life, with a wise management of
natural resources, through participatory action and engagement."[29]
 Frost & Sullivan 2014: "We identified eight key aspects that define a Smart City: smart
governance, smart energy, smart building, smart mobility, smart infrastructure, smart technology,
smart healthcare and smart citizen."[30]
 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Smart Cities: "A smart city brings together
technology, government and society to enable the following characteristics: smart cities, a smart
economy, smart mobility, a smart environment, smart people, smart living, smart
governance."[31][when?]
 Business Dictionary: "A developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development
and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key areas; economy, mobility, environment,
people, living, and government. Excelling in these key areas can be done so through strong
human capital, social capital, and/or ICT infrastructure."[32][when?]
 Indian Government 2014 : "Smart City offers sustainability in terms of economic activities and
employment opportunities to a wide section of its residents, regardless of their level of education,
skills or income levels."[33]
 Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, UK 2013: "The concept is not static, there is no
absolute definition of a smart city, no end point, but rather a process, or series of steps, by which
cities become more 'liveable' and resilient and, hence, able to respond more quickly to new
challenges."[34]

5
Characteristics
It has been suggested that a smart city (also community, business cluster, urban agglomeration or
region) uses information technologies to:
1. Make more efficient use of physical infrastructure (roads, built environment and other
physical assets) through artificial intelligence and data analytics to support a strong and
healthy economic, social, cultural development.[35]
2. Engage effectively with local people in local governance and decision by use of open
innovation processes and e-participation, improving the collective intelligence of the city's
institutions through e-governance,[6] with emphasis placed on citizen participation and co-
design.[36][37][38]
3. Learn, adapt and innovate and thereby respond more effectively and promptly to changing
circumstances by improving the intelligence of the city.[6][39]
They evolve towards a strong integration of all dimensions of human intelligence, collective
intelligence, and also artificial intelligence within the city.[40][41] The intelligence of cities "resides in the
increasingly effective combination of digital telecommunication networks (the nerves),
ubiquitously embedded intelligence (the brains), sensors and tags (the sensory organs),
and software (the knowledge and cognitive competence)".[42]
These forms of intelligence in smart cities have been demonstrated in three ways:

Bletchley Park often considered to be the first smart community.

1. Orchestration intelligence:[6] Where cities establish institutions and community-based


problem solving and collaborations, such as in Bletchley Park, where the Nazi Enigma
cypher was decoded by a team led by Alan Turing. This has been referred to as the first
example of a smart city or an intelligent community.[43]
2. Empowerment intelligence: Cities provide open platforms, experimental facilities and smart
city infrastructure in order to cluster innovation in certain districts. These are seen in the
Kista Science City in Stockholm and the Cyberport Zone in Hong Kong. Similar facilities have
also been established in Melbourne.[44]

Hong Kong Cyberport 1 and Cyberport 2 Buildings

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3. Instrumentation intelligence: Where city infrastructure is made smart through real-time
data collection, with analysis and predictive modelling across city districts. There is much
controversy surrounding this, particularly with regards to surveillance issues in smart cities.
Examples of Instrumentation intelligence have been implemented in Amsterdam.[19]This is
implemented through:[6]
1. A common IP infrastructure that is open to researchers to develop applications.
2. Wireless meters and devices transmit information at the point in time.
3. A number of homes being provided with smart energy meters to become aware of
energy consumption and reduce energy usage
4. Solar power garbage compactors, car recharging stations and energy saving lamps.
Some major fields of intelligent city activation are:

Innovation economy Urban infrastructure Governance

Innovation in industries, clusters, districts Administration services to the


Transport
of a city citizen

Knowledge workforce: Education and Participatory and direct


Energy / Utilities
employment democracy

Creation of knowledge-intensive Protection of the environment / Services to the citizen: Quality


companies Safety of life

According to David K. Owens, the former executive vice president of the Edison Electric Institute, two
key elements that a smart city must have are an integrated communications platform and a "dynamic
resilient grid." Both are large investments.[45]

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Frameworks
In order to achieve an accurate description and explanation of the concept of Smart City it is needed
to first analyse the topic through a specific framework. The framework is divided into 4 main
dimensions:
Technology framework
Several concepts of the Smart city rely heavily on the use of technology; a technological Smart City
is not just one concept but there are different combinations of technological infrastructure that build a
concept of smart city.

 Digital city: it combines service oriented infrastructure, innovation services and communication
infrastructure; Yovanof, G. S. & Hazapis, G. N.[46] define a digital city “a connected community
that combines broadband communications infrastructure; a flexible, service-oriented computing
infrastructure based on open industry standards; and, innovative services to meet the needs of
governments and their employees, citizens and businesses”.
The main purpose is to create an environment in which citizens are interconnected and easily
share information anywhere in the city.

 Virtual city: In these kinds of cities functions are implemented in a cyberspace; it includes
the notion of hybrid city, which consists of a reality with real citizens and entities and a
parallel virtual city of real entities and people. Having a smart city that is virtual means that in
some cities it is possible the coexistence between these two reality, however the issue of
physical distance and location is still not easy to manage. The vision of the world without
distance still remains unmet in many ways. In practice this idea is hold up through physical IT
infrastructure of cables, data centers, and exchanges.
 Information city: It collects local information and delivered them to the public portal; In that
city, many inhabitants are able to live and even work on the Internet because they could
obtain every information through IT infrastructures, thanks to the sharing information method
among citizens themselves. Using this approach, an information city could be an urban
centre both economically and socially speaking; the most important thing is the linkage
among civic services, people interactions and government institutions.
 Intelligent city: it involves function as research or technological innovation to support
learning and innovation procedure. The notion emerges in a social context in which
knowledge, learning process and creativity have great importance and the human capital is
considered the most precious resource within this type of technological city. In particular one
of the most significant feature of an intelligent city is that every infrastructure is up to date,
that means have the latest technology in telecommunications, electronic and mechanical
technology. According to Komninos and Sefertzi,[47] the attempt to build an “intelligent” Smart
City is more a radical innovation rather than an incremental innovation owing to a big
quantity of efforts to use IT trying to transform the daily life.
 Ubiquitous city (U-city): It creates an environment that connect citizens to any services
through any device. According to Anthopoulos, L., & Fitsilis, P.,[48] U-city is a further extension
of digital city concept because of the facility in terms of accessibility to every infrastructure.
This makes easier to the citizen the use of any available devices to interconnect them. Its
goal is to create a city where any citizen can get any services anywhere and anytime through
any kind of devices. It is important to highlights that the ubiquitous city is different from the
above virtual city: while the virtual city creates another space by visualizing the real urban
elements within the virtual space, U-city is given by the computer chips inserted to those
urban elements.
 Cognitive Smart City: Cognitive smart city expands the concept of the smart city by referring
to the convergence of the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) and smart city technologies, their

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generated big data, and artificial intelligence techniques. Continuous learning through human
interactions and consequently performing a dynamic and flexible behavior and actions based
on the dynamic environment of the city are the core components of such framework.
Human framework
Human infrastructure (i.e., creative occupations and workforce, knowledge networks, voluntary
organisations) is a crucial axis for city development.

 Creative city: creativity is recognized as a key driver to smart city and it represents also a
version of it. Social infrastructures, like for instance intellectual and social capital are
indispensable factors to build a city that is smart according to the human framework. These
infrastructures concern people and their relationship. Smart City benefits from social capital
and it could be possible and easier to create a Smart city concept if there are mix of
education and training, culture and arts, business and commerce as Bartlett, L.[49] said.
 Learning city: according to Moser, M. A.,[50] learning city is involved in building skilled
workforce. This type of city in the human context improves the competitiveness in the global
knowledge economy and Campbell [16] established a typology of cities that are learning to
be smart: individually proactive city, city cluster, one-to-one link between cities, and city
network. That lead a city to learn how it should be possible and realistic to be smart through
learning process followed by city workforce.
 Humane city: It exploits human potential, in particular the knowledge workforce. Following
this approach, it is possible focus on education and builds a center of higher education,
which is the city, obtaining better-educated individuals. According to Glaeser, E. L., & Berry,
C. R,[51] this view moves a smart city concept in a city full of skilled workforces; the same
reasoning could be make for those high tech knowledge-sensitive industries which want to
migrate in a so dynamic and proactive community. As a consequence of the above
movement, the difference between Smart City and not are getting wider; Smart places are
getting smarter while other places getting less smart because such places act as a magnet
for creative people and workers (Malanga, S. 2004 [52]).
 Knowledge city: It is related to knowledge economy and innovation process; this type of
Smart City is very similar to a learning city, the only difference refers to “a knowledge city is
heavily related to knowledge economy, and its distinction is stress on innovation” (Dirks, S.,
Gurdgiev, C., & Keeling, M.[53]).
The concept of knowledge city is linked with similar evolving concepts of Smart City such as
intelligent city and educating city. The most important feature of this city is the fundamental
concept of knowledge-based urban development, which has become an important and
widespread mechanism for the development of knowledge cities.
Institutional framework
According to Moser, M. A.,[50] since 1990s the Smart Communities movement took shape as
a strategy to broaden the base of users involved in IT. Members of these Communities are
people that share their interest and work in a partnership with government and other
institutional organizations to push the use of IT to improve the quality of daily life as a
consequence of different worsening in daily actions. Eger, J. M. [54]said that a smart
community makes a conscious and agreed-upon decision to deploy technology as a catalyst
to solving its social and business needs. It is very important to understand that this use of IT
and the consequent improvement could be more demanding without the institutional help;
indeed institutional involvement is essential to the success of smart community initiatives.
Again Moser, M. A.[50]explained that “building and planning a smart community seeks for
smart growth”; a smart growth is essential what the partnership between citizen and
institutional organizations try to do that is a reaction to worsening trends in daily things, like
for instance traffic congestion, school overcrowding and air pollution. However it is important
noticed that technological propagation is not an end in itself, but only a means to reinventing

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cities for a new economy and society. To sum up, it could possible to assert that any Smart
City initiatives necessitate the governance support for their success.
The importance of these three different dimensions consist that only a link, correlation
among them make possible a development of a real concept of Smart City. According to the
definition of Smart City given by Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., & Nijkamp, P.,[55] a city is smart
when investments in human/social capital and IT infrastructure fuel sustainable growth and
enhance quality of life, through participatory governance.
Energy framework
Smart cities use data and technology to create efficiencies, improve sustainability, create
economic development, and enhance quality of life factors for people living and working in
the city. It also means that the city has a smarter energy infrastructure. A more formal
definition is this: “… An urban area that has securely integrated technology across the
information . . . and Internet of Things (IoT) sectors to better manage a city’s assets.”[56]
A smart city is powered by “smart connections” for various items such as street
lighting, smart buildings, distributed energy resources (DER), data analytics, and smart
transportation. Amongst these things, energy is paramount; this is why utility companies play
a key role in smart cities. Electric companies, working partnership with city officials,
technology companies and a number of other institutions, are among the major players that
helped accelerate the growth of America’s smart cities.[57]
Data Management framework
Smart city employs a combination of data collection, processing, and disseminating
technologies in conjunction with networking and computing technologies and data security
and privacy measures encouraging application innovation to promote the overall quality of
life for its citizens and covering dimensions that include: utilities, health, transportation,
entertainment and government services.[58]

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Platforms and technologies
New Internet technologies promoting cloud-based services, the Internet of
Things (IoT),[59] real-world user interfaces, use of smart phones [60] and smart
meters, networks of sensors and RFIDs, and more accurate communication based on
the semantic web, open new ways to collective action and collaborative problem solving.
Online collaborative sensor data management platforms are on-line database services that
allow sensor owners to register and connect their devices to feed data into an on-line
database for storage and allow developers to connect to the database and build their own
applications based on that data.[61][62]
In London, a traffic management system known as SCOOT optimises green light time at
traffic intersections by feeding back magnetometer and inductive loop data to a
supercomputer, which can co-ordinate traffic lights across the city to improve traffic
throughout.[63]
The city of Santander in Cantabria, northern Spain, has 20,000 sensors connecting
buildings, infrastructure, transport, networks and utilities, offers a physical space for
experimentation and validation of the IoT functions, such as interaction and management
protocols, device technologies, and support services such as discovery, identity
management and security[64] In Santander, the sensors monitor the levels
of pollution, noise, traffic and parking.
Electronic cards (known as smart cards) are another common platform in smart city contexts.
These cards possess a unique encrypted identifier that allows the owner to log into a range
of government provided services (or e-services) without setting up multiple accounts. The
single identifier allows governments to aggregate dataabout citizens and their preferences to
improve the provision of services and to determine common interests of groups. This
technology has been implemented in Southampton.[25]

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Roadmap
A smart city roadmap consists of four/three (the first is a preliminary check) major
components:[2]

1. Define exactly what is the community: maybe that definition can condition what you
are doing in the subsequent steps; it relates to geography, links between cities and
countryside and flows of people between them; maybe – even – that in some
Countries the definition of City/community that is stated does not correspond
effectively to what – in fact – happens in the real life
2. Study the Community: Before deciding to build a smart city, first we need to know
why. This can be done by determining the benefits of such an initiative. Study the
community to know the citizens, the business's needs – know the citizens and the
community's unique attributes, such as the age of the citizens, their education,
hobbies, and attractions of the city.
3. Develop a Smart City Policy: Develop a policy to drive the initiatives, where roles,
responsibilities, objective, and goals, can be defined. Create plans and strategies on
how the goals will be achieved.
4. Engage The Citizens: This can be done by engaging the citizens through the use
of e-government initiatives, open data, sport events, etc.
In short, People, Processes, and Technology (PPT) are the three principles of the success of
a smart city initiative. Cities must study their citizens and communities, know the processes,
business drivers, create policies, and objectives to meet the citizens' needs. Then,
technology can be implemented to meet the citizens' need, in order to improve the quality of
life and create real economic opportunities.This requires a holistic customized approach that
accounts for city cultures, long-term city planning, and local regulations.
“Whether to improve security, resiliency, sustainability, traffic congestion, public safety, or
city services, each community may have different reasons for wanting to be smart. But all
smart communities share common attributes—and they all are powered by smart
connections and by our industry’s smarter energy infrastructure. A smart grid is the
foundational piece in building a smart community.” — Pat Vincent-Collawn, chairman of
the Edison Electric Institute and president and CEO of PNM Resources[65]

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Research
University research labs developed prototypes for intelligent cities. IGLUS is an action
research project led by EPFL focused on developing governance systems for
urban infrastructures. IGLUS announced a MOOC through Coursera.[66] MIT Smart Cities
Lab[67] focuses upon intelligent, sustainable buildings, mobility systems (GreenWheel Electric
Bicycle, Mobility-on-Demand, CityCar, Wheel Robots); the IntelCities[68] research consortium
for electronic government, planning systems and citizen participation; URENIO developed
intelligent city platforms for the innovation economy[69] focusing on strategic
intelligence, technology transfer, collaborative innovation, and incubation, while it promotes
intelligent cities research and planning;[70] the Smart Cities Academic Network[71] is working on
e-governance and e-services in the North Sea region. The MK:Smart project[17] is focusing on
issues of sustainable energy use, water use and transport infrastructure alongside exploring
how to promote citizen engagement[72] alongside educating citizens about smart cities.[73][74]

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Commercialisation
Large IT, telecommunication and energy management companies such as Cisco, Schneider
Electric, IBM and Microsoft market initiatives for intelligent cities. Cisco, launched the Global
Intelligent Urbanization initiative[75] to help cities using the network as the fourth utility for
integrated city management, better quality of life for citizens, and economic development.
IBM announced its SmarterCities[76] to stimulate economic growth and quality of life in cities
and metropolitan areas with the activation of new approaches of thinking and acting in
the urban ecosystem. Sensor developers and startup companies are continually developing
new smart city applications.
Smart city technological companies exist in Israel, with Tel Aviv getting an award in
2014.[77][78][79][80]

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Examples
See also: ASEAN Smart Cities Network (ASCN)
Major strategies and achievements related to the spatial intelligence of cities are listed in
the Intelligent Community Forum awards from 1999 to 2010, in the cities
of Songdo and Suwon (South Korea), Stockholm (Sweden), Gangnam District of Seoul
(South Korea), Waterloo,
Ontario (Canada), Taipei (Taiwan), Mitaka (Japan), Glasgow (Scotland,
UK), Calgary (Alberta, Canada), Seoul (South Korea), New York City (USA), LaGrange,
Georgia (USA), and Singapore, which were recognized for their efforts in developing
broadband networks and e-services sustaining innovation ecosystems, growth, and
inclusion.[81] There are a number of cities actively pursuing a smart city strategy:
Amsterdam

Street lamps in Amsterdam have been upgraded to allow municipal councils to dim the lights
based on pedestrian usage.[82]

The Amsterdam Smart City initiative[19] which began in 2009 currently includes 170+ projects
collaboratively developed by local residents, government and businesses.[26] These projects
run on an interconnected platform through wireless devices to enhance the city's real time
decision making abilities. The City of Amsterdam (City) claims the purpose of the projects is
to reduce traffic, save energy and improve public safety.[83] To promote efforts from local
residents, the City runs the Amsterdam Smart City Challenge annually, accepting proposals
for applications and developments that fit within the City's framework.[84]An example of a
resident developed app is Mobypark, which allows owners of parking spaces to rent them out
to people for a fee.[85] The data generated from this app can then be used by the City to
determine parking demand and traffic flows in Amsterdam. A number of homes have also
been provided with smart energy meters, with incentives provided to those that actively
reduce energy consumption.[6][86] Other initiatives include flexible street lighting (smart
lighting)[87] which allows municipalities to control the brightness of street lights, and smart
traffic management[88] where traffic is monitored in real time by the City and information about
current travel time on certain roads is broadcast to allow motorists to determine the best
routes to take.
Barcelona

A new bus network was implemented in Barcelona due to smart city data analytics.

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Barcelona has established a number of projects that can be considered 'smart city'
applications within its "CityOS" strategy.[89]For example, sensor technology has been
implemented in the irrigation system in Parc del Centre de Poblenou, where real time data is
transmitted to gardening crews about the level of water required for the plants.[20][90] Barcelona
has also designed a new bus network based on data analysis of the most common traffic
flows in Barcelona, utilising primarily vertical, horizontal and diagonal routes with a number of
interchanges.[91] Integration of multiple smart city technologies can be seen through the
implementation of smart traffic lights[92] as buses run on routes designed to optimise the
number of green lights. In addition, where an emergency is reported in Barcelona, the
approximate route of the emergency vehicle is entered into the traffic light system, setting all
the lights to green as the vehicle approaches through a mix of GPS and traffic management
software, allowing emergency services to reach the incident without delay. Much of this data
is managed by the Sentilo Platform.[93][94]
Columbus, Ohio
In the summer of 2017, the City of Columbus, Ohio began its pursuit of a smart city initiative.
It partnered with American Electric Power Ohio to create a group of new electric vehicle
charging stations. Many smart cities such as Columbus are using agreements such as this
one to prepare for climate change, expand electric infrastructure, convert existing public
vehicle fleets to electric cars, and create incentives for people to share rides when
commuting. For doing this, the U.S. Department of Transportation gave the City of Columbus
a $40 million grant. The city also received $10 million from Vulcan Inc.[95]
One key reason why the utility was involved in the picking of locations for new electric
vehicle charging stations was to gather data. According to Daily Energy Insider, the group
Infrastructure and Business Continuity for AEP said, "You don’t want to put infrastructure
where it won’t be used or maintained. The data we collect will help us build a much bigger
market in the future."[95]
Because autonomous vehicles are currently seeing "an increased industrial research and
legislative push globally", building routes and connections for them is another important part
of the Columbus Smart City initiative.[95]
Dublin
Dublin finds itself as an unexpected capital for smart cities.[96] The smart city programme for
the city is run by Smart Dublin [97] an initiative of the four Dublin Local Authorities to engage
with smart technology providers, researchers and citizens to solve city challenges and
improve city life. It includes Dublinked- Dublin’s open data platform that hosts open source
data to smart city applications.
Laguna Croatá
PLANET is a project which has been designed by professionals, experts in urban planning
and 'smart utilities', and a project characterised by developments in the Smart City concept.
The 'smart' city is now becoming more inclusive, opening up to a new target: low-medium
income brackets. One of the universal concepts key to the Smart City project is its eco-
sustainability: PLANET extends this concept strategically at an economic level. The
sustainability of the costs and the investments becomes an essential priority of the 'Social
Smart City'. PLANET creates and implements this project while staying within the economic
parameters imposed by government Social Housing programs (Brazilian Minha Casa, Minha
Vida). The Smart City does not need to be close to a pre-existing city: it is a new
autonomous and functional city and, as such, it can attract both individuals and
businesses.[98]

16
Madrid
Madrid, Spain's pioneering smart city,[99] has adopted the MiNT Madrid Inteligente/Smarter
Madrid platform to integrate the management of local services. These include the
sustainable and computerized management of infrastructure, garbage collection and
recycling, and public spaces and green areas, among others.[100] The programme is run in
partnership with IBMs INSA, making use of the latter's Big Data and analytics capabilities
and experience.[101] Madrid is considered to have taken a bottom-up approach to smart cities,
whereby social issues are first identified and individual technologies or networks are then
identified to address these issues.[102]This approach includes support and recognition for start
ups through the Madrid Digital Start Up programme.[103]
Malta
18th century Żejtun may be considered as the earliest smart city in Malta.[104] By the 21st
century SmartCity Malta is partially operational while the rest is on construction, as a Foreign
Direct Investment.
Manchester
In December 2015, Manchester's CityVerve project was chosen as the winner of a
government-led technology competition and awarded £10m to develop an Internet of
Things (IoT) smart cities demonstrator.[105]
Established in July 2016, the project is being carried out by a consortium of 22 public and
private organisations, including Manchester City Council, and is aligned with the city's on-
going devolution commitment.[106]
The project has a two-year remit to demonstrate the capability of IoT applications and
address barriers to deploying smart cities, such as city governance, network security, user
trust and adoption, interoperability, scalability and justifying investment.
CityVerve is based on an open data principle that incorporates a 'platform of
platforms'[107] which ties together applications for its four key themes: transport and travel;
health and social care; energy and the environment; culture and the public realm. This will
also ensure that the project is scalable and able to be redeployed to other locations
worldwide.
Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes has a commitment to making itself a Smart City. Currently the mechanism
through which this is approached is the MK:Smart initiative,[17] a collaboration of local
government, businesses, academia and 3rd sector organisations. The focus of the initiative
is on making energy use, water use and transport more sustainablewhilst
promoting economic growth in the city. Central to the project is the creation of a state-of-the-
art 'MK Data Hub' which will support the acquisition and management of vast amounts of
data relevant to city systems from a variety of data sources. These will include data
about energy and water consumption, transport data, data acquired through satellite
technology, social and economic datasets, and crowdsourced data from social media or
specialised apps.
The MK:Smart initiative has two aspects which extend our understanding of how Smart
Cities should operate. The first, Our MK,[72] is a scheme for promoting citizen-led
sustainability issues in the city. The scheme provides funding and support to engage with
citizens and help turn their ideas around sustainability into a reality. The second aspect is in
providing citizens with the skills to operate effectively in a Smart City. The Urban Data
school[73] is an online platform to teach school students about data skills while the project has
also produced a MOOC[74] to inform citizens about what a Smart City is.

17
New Songdo City]
Further information: Songdo International Business District
[108][109]

New York City


New York City is developing a number of smart city initiatives. A notable example is the
series of city service kiosks in the LinkNYC network. These provide services including free
WiFi, phone calls, device charging stations, local wayfinding, and more, funded by
advertising that plays on the kiosk’s screens[citation needed]
San Leandro
The city of San Leandro, California is in the midst of transforming from an industrial center to
a tech hub of the Internet of Things (IoT) (technology that lets devices communicate with
each other over the Internet). California's utility company PG&E is working with the city in
this endeavor and on a smart energy pilot program that would develop a distributed energy
network across the city that would be monitored by IoT sensors. The goal would be to give
the city an energy system that has enough capacity to receive and redistribute electricity to
and from multiple energy sources.[56]
Santa Cruz
An alternative use of smart city technology can be found in Santa Cruz, California, where
local authorities analyse historical crime data in order to predict police requirements and
maximise police presence where it is required.[110] The analytical tools generate a list of 10
places each day where property crimes are more likely to occur, and then placing police
efforts on these regions when officers are not responding to any emergency. This use of ICT
technology is different to the manner in which European cities utilise smart city technology,
possibly highlighting the breadth of the smart city concept in different parts of the world.
Smart cities in India
Main article: Smart Cities Mission
It's a retrofitting and urban renewal program being spearheaded by the Ministry of Urban
Development, Government of India. The Government of India has the ambitious vision of
developing 100 cities by modernizing existing mid-sized cities.[111]
Smart Nation Singapore
Main article: Smart Nation
Despite its size and lack of natural resources, Singapore has overcome many of its
challenges in 50 short years to become one of the world's most advanced and liveable
countries. It has embarked on its next phase of transformation towards a Smart Nation, and
endeavours to harness the power of networks, data and info-comm technologies to improve
living, create economic opportunities and build closer communities.
Stockholm

The Kista Science City from above.

18
Stockholm's smart city technology is underpinned by the Stokab dark fibre system[112] which
was developed in 1994 to provide a universal fibre optic network across
Stockholm.[113] Private companies are able to lease fibre as service providers on equal terms.
The company is owned by the City of Stockholm itself.[22] Within this framework, Stockholm
has created a Green IT strategy.[114] The Green IT program seeks to reduce the
environmental impact of Stockholm through IT functions such as energy efficient buildings
(minimising heating costs), traffic monitoring (minimising the time spent on the road) and
development of e-services (minimising paper usage). The e-Stockholm platform is centred
on the provision of e-services, including political announcements, parking space booking and
snow clearance.[115] This is further being developed through GPS analytics, allowing residents
to plan their route through the city.[115] An example of district-specific smart city technology
can be found in the Kista Science City region.[116] This region is based on the triple helix
concept of smart cities,[35] where university, industry and government work together to
develop ICT applications for implementation in a smart city strategy.

19
Criticism
See also: Surveillance issues in smart cities
The criticisms of smart cities revolve around:[35]

 A bias in strategic interest may lead to ignoring alternative avenues of promising urban
development.[117]
 A smart city, as a scientifically planned city, would defy the fact that real development in
cities is often haphazard. In that line of criticism, the smart city is seen as unattractive for
citizens as they "can deaden and stupefy the people who live in its all-efficient
embrace".[118] Instead, people would prefer cities they can participate to shape.
 The focus of the concept of smart city may lead to an underestimation of the possible
negative effects of the development of the new technological and networked
infrastructures needed for a city to be smart.[119]
 As a globalized business model is based on capital mobility, following a business-
oriented model may result in a losing long term strategy: "The 'spatial fix' inevitably
means that mobile capital can often 'write its own deals' to come to town, only to move
on when it receives a better deal elsewhere. This is no less true for the smart city than it
was for the industrial, [or] manufacturing city."[35]
 The high level of big data collection and analytics has raised questions
regarding surveillance in smart cities, particularly as it relates to predictive policing.
 As of August 2018, the discussion on smart cities centres around the usage and
implementation of technology rather than on the inhabitants of the cities and how they
can be involved in the process[120].
 Especially in low-income countries, smart cities are irrelevant to the majority of the urban
population, which lives in poverty with limited access to basic services. A focus on smart
cities may worsen inequality and marginalization.[121]

20
See also
 Automated vacuum collection
 City
 Collaborative innovation network
 Collaborative intelligence
 Collaborative software
 Connected car
 Conscious city
 Crowdsourcing
 Digital divide
 E-democracy
 Eco-city
 Future Internet
 Hotspot (Wi-Fi)
 Global brain
 Intelligent environment
 Intelligent transportation system
 Knowledge ecosystem
 Knowledge Economy
 Knowledge spillover
 Metropolitan area network
 Municipal wireless network
 Open Data
 Pervasive informatics
 SafeTrek § Downtown St. Louis collaboration
 Smart grid
 Smart road
 Smarter planet
 Sustainable city
 The Wisdom of Crowds
 Ubiquitous computing
 Urban computing
 Urban informatics
 2000-watt society
 All pages with a title containing smart city

21
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 Hollands, R. G (2008). "Will the real smart city please stand up?". City. 12 (3): 303–
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26
Further reading
 Shepard, Mark (2011). "Sentient City: Ubiquitous Computing, Architecture, and the
Future of Urban Space. New York City". Architectural League of New York. ISBN 978-
0262515863.
 Batty, M.; et al. (2012). "Smart Cities of the Future". European Journal of Physics
ST. 214: 481–518. doi:10.1140/epjst/e2012-01703-3.
 Townsend, Antony (2013). Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a
New Utopia. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393082873.
 Moir, E.; Moonen, T.; Clark, C. (2014). "What are future cities - origins, meaning and
uses" (PDF). Foresight Future of Cities Project and Future Cities Catapult.
 The Atlantic, USA, July
2015 https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/07/when-you-give-a-tree-an-
email-address/398210/
 Saraju Mohanty, Everything You wanted to Know about Smart Cities, IEEE Consumer
Electronics Magazine, Volume 6, Issue 3, July 2016, pp. 60–70.
 Cavada M.;et al. (2016) Do smart cities realise their potential for lower carbon dioxide
emissions? = http://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/doi/abs/10.1680/jensu.15.00032
 "Smart Cities Technology Roadmap". Alliance for Telecommunications Industry
Solutions. April 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
 Saraju Mohanty, Everything You wanted to Know about Smart Cities, IEEE
Distinguished Lecture 2017, IEEE CE Society Webinar, 5th Oct 2017.
 Viitanen, J & Kingston, R (2014) 'Smart cities and green growth - outsourcing democratic
and environmental resilience to the global technology sector' Environment and Planning
A, vol 46, no. 4, pp. 803–819. DOI: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1068/a46242

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External links
National initiatives

 UK Budget 2015 funding for smart cities development


 British Standards Institute initiative on Smart Cities
 Future of Cities UK Government 'Foresight' Project on cities
 Future Cities Catapult A UK government funded 'global centre of excellence on urban
innovation'.
 Cyber-Physical Society
 "About i-Canada Alliance". Aiming to make 'all Canadian communities – large and small,
urban and rural – into

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