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VOL I, ISSUE IX, JANUARY 2011  ` 100

D E F E N C E  D I P L O M A C Y  S E C U R I T Y


THE NEW WARRIOR The cyber warfare poses a big challenge to India
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Contents JAN.qxd 1/3/2011 4:54 PM Page 2

Photo courtesy:


Cyber warfare
After being at the receiving end of cyber attacks
from across the border for many years, India is
waking up to devise counter-measures for what is
going to be the new frontiers of modern warfare.



India’s civil and military leaderships are under substantial stress. Buying foreign armaments may help India, but if
Will India learn from the best practices of other nations and this practice goes on carelessly, the country’s
incorporate them in higher defence organisation? indigenisation programme will go for a six.


NEPAL REQUIREMENT The Indian Army has been looking
for an anti-tank missile that is
Nepal’s instable political scenario looks The Indian Army has issued a request for man-portable and easy-to-fire.
like a dark tunnel with no hope of light. information for light bullet-proof vehicles
for counter-insurgency operations.

(4) January 2011
Contents JAN.qxd 1/3/2011 4:56 PM Page 3


STRATEGY (P45) (P56) (P60) (P27)
China is trying to resolve its The Sixth Pay Commission has Over the years, interactions Rick McCrary, Director, F/A-18
emerging territorial and boundary made the paramilitary officers a between India and Brazil — Super Hornet programme in
disputes by raw show of strength dissatisfied lot. Their salaries and have brought them closer. The India, speaks to GEOPOLITICS
rather than through negotiations. promotions are unfavourable two countries are now working about the evolution of the
compared to Indian Police hard to take their relationship programme and the technical
Officers. to the next level. specialities.


India’s ‘Look East’ policy has entered its
third phase of evolution with a thrust on
achieving strategic balance in the Asia-
Pacific region.



Publishing Director Director (Corporate Affairs) POLITICAL POWER IN INDIA.
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All information in GEOPOLITICS is derived from sources we consider reliable. It is passed on to our
VOL I, ISSUE IX, JANUARY 2011  ` 100

readers without any responsibility on our part. Opinions/views expressed by third parties in abstract or D E F E N C E  D I P L O M A C Y  S E C U R I T Y

in interviews are not necessarily shared by us. Material appearing in the magazine cannot be HUNTING FOR
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at Nutech Photolithographers, B-240, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-I, New Delhi-110020. THE NEW WARRIOR The cyber warfare poses a big challenge to India
Ruchi Sinha
Readers are welcome to send their feedback at January 2011

Onlooker jan.qxd 1/3/2011 5:23 PM Page 4

THE RUSSIAN government has formed into the Pacific Ocean about 1,609km

Photo courtesy:

an investigative committee to review the (1,000mi) northwest of Hawaii.
December 5, 2010 launch failure of a Begun during the Soviet era,
Proton rocket that ultimately destroyed GLONASS-M has 21 satellites on orbit; a
three navigational satellites. successful launch would have complet-
The board, made up of representa- ed the 24-satellite constellation. The
tives from the Ministry of Defence; the 2008 war with Georgia renewed the
Russian federal space agency, Roscos- Russian government’s interest in
mos; and the Russian space industry, updating the M-class constellation and
will attempt to determine the cause of pushing forward with the reduced-
the rocket failure that will ultimately weight, next-generation GLONASS-K.
cost billions of roubles and set the
GLONASS programme — or Global Nav- WOMEN IN ‘BRITISH’
igation System, Moscow’s answer to the
US-built Global Positioning System SUBMARINES
(GPS) — back by at least six months. BRITISH AUTHORITIES are considering
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has changing the rules that date back more
also ordered an audit of the entire $2 bil- than 100 years to allow women to join the
lion programme. crews of the Navy’s “silent service”.
A programming error reportedly Women have been barred from subs
caused the Russian Proton-M booster until now partly because of concerns that
rocket carrying the three Glonass-M units mixed crews could cause tension on vessels
to veer off course following liftoff from that spends months underwater.
Baikonur space centre in Kazakhstan. More recently, there have been greater
“As a result of the failure, Glonass-M concerns that a woman’s reproductive
cluster was injected into non-targeted organs and pregnant women could be
orbit,” says Roscosmos, the Russian affected by the reactors on board modern
space agency. The move sent the rocket nuclear-powered submarines.
A study by the Institute of Naval
Medicine concluded there is no risk to
female or fetal health from submarine radi-
ation under normal operating conditions.
The Ministry of Defence (MoD) is now
reviewing its policy of excluding women as
submariners with a Navy source suggesting
the ban could be lifted as early as next year.
The Royal Navy’s use of submarines first
began in 1901 and a change in the rules
would mean the MoD having to provide
separate sleeping and showering quarters
within the vessels.
According to media reports, the Naval
Families Federation, said, “There was a
50/50 split about whether females should
serve in submarines. Some family members
did express concerns about where the
females were going to sleep, and a number
of these physical aspects were raised. We
were reassured by the Navy that all this is
being taken into account, but we are still
keen to hear from anyone who has a view.”
A Ministry of Defence spokeswoman
told the media, “The Royal Navy is conduct-
ing a review of its policy of excluding
females from serving in submarines and is
considering the operational, health, legal,
social, technical and financial implica-
tions. No decisions have been taken but
all options will be considered.”

(6) January 2011
Onlooker jan.qxd 1/3/2011 5:23 PM Page 5

O N L O O K E R g
volving members of the French
and UK parliamentary defence
committees has agreed to
discuss increased co-operation
in the unmanned air vehicle LEE KUAN Yew, Minister Mentor of Singa-
sector as one of its first two pore, commented in Forbes that during the
bilateral projects. last three decades China’s economy has
Senior officials from the grown at the phenomenal rate of 10 per
French National Assembly and cent per year, sometimes even exceeding
Senate and the UK House of 12 per cent. Can China maintain such high
Commons and House of Lords rates for at least another decade, he asked.
met for the first time in Paris on He went on to mention that it could.
December 8, 2010. They agreed “China is starting from a lower base, and its
that the planned transition of 1.3 billion domestic consumers will keep
responsibility to local forces in rates up because
Afghanistan and UAV matters will be their two This included proposals to establish a com- their disposable
working themes for 2011. bined joint expeditionary force, share use of incomes are
To meet twice a year, the group will study their aircraft carriers, integrate logistics sup- growing.”
the planned implementation of increased col- port for the Airbus Military A400M transport “As its GDP
laboration between the French and UK armed and pursue possible collaboration on un- has increased,
forces, as outlined in a defence treaty signed by manned combat air vehicles. China has be-
President Nicolas Sarkozy and Prime The next meeting will take place in London come more assertive regarding interna-
Minister David Cameron on November 2. by mid-2011. tional issues. Those countries on its
periphery — Korea, Japan, Taiwan and the
ten Asean countries (Brunei Darussalam,
Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia,
Winning battles Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore,
Thailand and Vietnam) — have felt China’s
billion contract as early as growing influence,” Yew wrote.
next month. Chicago-based He went on to mention that none of
Boeing and EADS, the par- the countries on China’s periphery have
ent company of Airbus, are been able to resist the attraction of its mar-
vying for the lucrative work ket. “Slowly, but inexorably, we are being
to build 179 jet tankers for drawn into China’s economic orbit. If you
the Air Force. look at China’s policies over the last three
It’s the second round of decades there is little doubt that it has every
competition between the intention of bringing its three northern
American and European neighbours — Korea, Japan and Taiwan —
defence giants in a contest as well as the Asean countries into its eco-
marked by fierce political nomic fold. Of course, at the same time we
fighting and prodigious do enjoy benefits in trade and investment.”
marketing campaigns. China, the senior politician and
EADS has said that, if suc- thinker, emphasized, is a political and eco-
cessful, it plans to assemble nomic power the region cannot ignore.
its KC-30 tankers at a $600 “But neither, indeed, can China ignore the
million, 1,500-worker facto- US. Although it has a smaller population —
ry to be constructed at 310 million versus China’s 1.3 billion — the
Brookley Field. purchasing power of Americans is many
Boeing has proposed to times that of the Chinese.”
THE EUROPEAN Aeronautic Defence and assemble its KC-767 tankers on its existing “Without an FTA Korea, Japan, Taiwan
Space (EADS) will win the US Air Force commercial assembly lines in Everett, and the Asean countries will be integrated
tanker contract over rival Boeing, accord- Washington, and modify them for the mil- into China’s economy”, writes Yew, it is an
ing to the most impartial observer. itary in Wichita, Kansas. outcome to be avoided from the American
One amongst said, “EADS has emerged EADS, then part of a team led by point of view. “A considerable counterbal-
as the clear favourite for the coveted deal, Northrop Grumman, won the tanker con- ancing force would be to add India to the
based on the Air Force’s internal analysis tract in 2008. But the deal unraveled after mix. Whether India would be willing to
of the two competing bids. Boeing has lost federal auditors, acting on a protest filed enter into an FTA with the US, Korea,
this competition. The only question now is by Boeing, found problems with the way Japan, Taiwan and the Asean nations is the
whether they choose to protest the award, the Air Force conducted its review. question. If India joined such an agreement
and I’m not sure they will.” That led to a new competition the combined markets would be more than
The US Air Force said it expects to beginning in July, when Boeing and EADS equal to the pull from China.”
announce a winner for the potential $40 submitted new bids on the contract. January 2011

Global Eye.qxd 1/3/2011 5:08 PM Page 60


In its strategic concept adopted at the recent Lisbon
summit, NATO defines the establishment of a missile
defence system to defend populations and territories
against a ballistic missile attack as a core element of its
collective defence. However, important questions remain
to be resolved, writes OLIVER THRÄNERT

OR THE first time in the alliance’s
history, NATO is pushing for a mis-
sile defence capability to cover the
entire alliance. Building on the
Active Layered Theatre Ballistic
Missile Defence (ALTBMD) system launched
by NATO in March 2005 to protect deployed
troops against short-and medium-range
ballistic missiles, the new system is intended
to offer protection for the entire territory of
the alliance. Its capabilities are to be built up
incrementally beginning in 2011, with the
primary focus on protecting European NATO
members. The entire system is expected to be
established by approximately 2018. In order
to prevent this project from jeopardising
relations with Russia, Moscow, was invited at
the NATO summit in Lisbon in November
2010 to participate in an action plan for the
OPPORTUNITIES concrete design of the intended missile
GALORE: An defence architecture is to be presented
Iranian Shahab-3 at the NATO defence ministers’ meeting in
missile test June 2011.
Of course, the US missile defence plans,
which are to be combined with the
capabilities of European allies, play a key role
Photo courtesy: January 2011

Global Eye.qxd 1/3/2011 5:08 PM Page 61


in the build-up of the planned system. Under authority. In case of a missile attack, technology, which is necessary for increasing
former US president George W. Bush, the US the interceptor system would have to be operational range significantly beyond that
had still emphasised national missile defence activated within minutes. There would be no of the Shahab programme. The most impor-
plans. Elements of the defence architecture, time for consultations. NATO commanders tant advantage of the solid propellant is that
which was mainly intended to protect the US would have to be authorised in advance to the rocket boosters do not require time-
itself, were to be installed in Poland and the launch the missiles. Due to the possibility of consuming fuelling before launch, but are
Czech Republic on the basis of bilateral false alarms, some allies are unhappy with available virtually whenever needed. Howev-
treaties. Russia severely criticised these plans this solution. er, Iran still lacks the industrial capacity for
with reference to its own security interests. mass production of such missiles.
When the new US President Barack Obama THE MAIN THREAT: IRAN’S MISSILE Whether Iran will be able in the coming
cancelled Bush’s plans, many believed the PROGRAMME years to successfully continue its missile pro-
end of missile defence had come. This assess- The necessity of the missile defence system is gramme depends on factors that are difficult
ment proved to be wrong, however. The US often justified with the increasing prolifera- to assess, such as the effects of sanctions, the
remains interested in building a missile tion of offensive missiles and the technology country’s general economic development,
defence system, but has reassessed its priori- associated with them. NATO Secretary and the scope and quality of the assistance
ties. First of all, Washington is now basing its General Anders Fogh Rasmussen points out from abroad that Iran apparently continues
plans on the more likely threat: Europe will that more than 30 countries have the techni- to receive. It also remains unclear whether
be within reach of medium-range ballistic cal capabilities to produce ballistic missiles. Tehran will complete the entire path towards
missiles from the Middle East before the US Therefore, NATO troops on deployment the production of a nuclear capability. If a
comes within range of intercontinental mis- require protection against missile attacks in verifiable and sustainable diplomatic solu-
siles. Secondly, since the entire territory of order to ensure their operability. For civilian tion were found in the crisis over the Iranian
NATO is to come under the aegis of the new populations, ballistic missiles mainly nuclear programme, NATO would probably
program, the alliance as such will according- constitute a comprehensive threat if they are not terminate its missile defence programme
ly be included in planning. It is hoped that able to carry nuclear or chemical warheads. entirely, but continue developing it at a
this will strengthen coherence within the An opponent equipped with missiles and diminished intensity and pace.
alliance. Third, the Obama administration is nuclear weapons is capable of causing a very
striving to build systems that offer greater great deal of damage within a very short time, DEFICITS IN NUCLEAR
flexibility as well as reliability. Therefore, the even if the weapons used in an attack are not DETERRENCE
initial focus will be on sea-based defence particularly accurate. Considering its nuclear deterrence, why is
missiles, which have already been partially Even if, due to Turkish concerns, NATO’s NATO even planning to build a missile
introduced in the US armed forces. Land- Strategic Concept does not name any names, defence system? On the one hand, an acci-
based interceptor missiles would only be Iran is currently the only country that could dental launch by Iran or another country
added at a later date. Fourth, attempts will be acquire the potential to threaten central cannot be excluded. This alone would not,
made from the start to involve Russia in Europe with nuclear-tipped missiles in the however, justify building a missile defence
building a missile defence architecture for coming years. Already today, large parts of system for the protection of the civilian pop-
the alliance. NATO’s southern flank and of NATO partner ulation. On the other hand, the NATO missile
No decision has been made yet on the states are within reach of the missiles devel- defence system is intended to provide a
concrete design of the NATO missile defence oped by Tehran. damage-limitation option and to protect the
architecture. It is already clear, however, that Currently, however, this does not imply civilian population in the coming years
the US will carry the main burden. Washing- any nuclear threat. against the only state threat for which there
ton is contributing the largest share of The Shahab-3 missile, variants of which are no efficient military provisions yet. Such a
military hardware such as radar arrays and have been put into service with the Iranian damage-limitation option could have a de-
interceptors. In this respect, it is using the armed forces, is believed to have a maximum escalating effect in case of a crisis. Hostile
missile defence project to assert its leader- range of about 2,000 km. It is still unclear offensive capabilities would not necessarily
ship claim within the alliance. Elements whether this maximum range can also be have to be taken out through own offensive
contributed by the US must be integrated achieved with a payload of about 1,000 kg, operations at an early stage. Also, retaliatory
with the capabilities currently being devel- i.e., the estimated minimum weight of a strikes could be conducted at a far lower lev-
oped by NATO to protect deployed troops, nuclear warhead. The Shahab-3 is a single- el than if an attacker were to cause maximum
such as Patriot missile defence systems. stage liquid-propellant rocket based on the harm against a completely unprotected civil-
NATO itself would only have to supply design of the North Korean Nodong, which is ian population. Finally, a missile defence sys-
limited financing, currently estimated at ultimately derived from Soviet Scud missile tem increases the attacker’s uncertainty
around 200 million over a ten-year period. technology of the 1950s and 1960s. In regarding the potential success of his actions.
But this would only cover the cost of linking November 2008, Iran conducted the first test Should Iran — or, subsequently, further
individual defence modules. In addition, the of its new Sajil missile. Unlike the Shahab, states in the near and Middle East — acquire
alliance members are invited to contribute this is a two-stage missile using a solid the ability to reach Central Europe with
national investment. In view of shrinking propellant. For a country like Iran, this nuclear missiles, the nuclear capabilities of
defence budgets, a number of states are constitutes a technological quantum leap, NATO or the US would certainly suffice to
reluctant to make such commitments. though the reliability of the system is ques- deter Tehran from any attack. However, in the
Another issue that remains to be resolved tionable and its accuracy remains low. This future, the point may be not whether the
is the question of command-and-control has given Iran at least an entry to multi-stage alliance can deter Iran, but whether Iran is January 2011

Global Eye.qxd 1/3/2011 5:08 PM Page 62


capable of deterring NATO or the West in the sole host nation in case of a withdrawal conducting joint tests, manoeuvres,
general. This question may arise if a military of US weapons from other NATO states. The exercises, and simulations. This would make
intervention in the Middle East is considered question also remains whether, in a sce- it possible to develop shared threat and situ-
in order to counter undesirable Iranian influ- nario where Iran acquires nuclear arms, a ation analyses, possibly involving Russian
ence or aggression that is incompatible with withdrawal of US nuclear capabilities radar installations. The US does not appear,
international law. In such a crisis, a nuclear would not induce Turkey to develop atomic however, to envisage joint command and
escalation could not be excluded altogether, weapons of its own. Many new NATO control of the defence system. Rather, Wash-
considering possible time pressure and lack partners are also opposed to a complete ington wants the commander to be a NATO
of information on all sides involved. NATO withdrawal of US nuclear weapons from general — presumably, an American — as is
would be well advised to acquire a damage- Europe. They fear that this might herald the already the case with the alliance’s integrated
limitation option for such a contingency. end of the US military presence in Europe air defence system.
altogether — a development that they aim The Russian position is an inconsistent
MISSILE DEFENCE: A SUBSTITUTE to prevent with a view to Russia, which they one. On the one hand, Moscow wishes to go
FOR NUCLEAR SHARING IN NATO? still perceive as problematic. beyond the ideas proposed by the US and
In the run-up to the NATO summit, there Bearing in mind the deterioration of build a single integrated system rather than
was much speculation over a possible link- aging nuclear-capable European delivery two conjoined defence arrays. On the other
age between the build-up of a missile systems, NATO is under pressure to decide. hand, there are fundamental reservations
defence system and nuclear disarmament. In view of continuously shrinking defence against cooperation. In particular, the
However, France successfully resisted budgets, it is questionable whether both Russian military still harbours suspicions
deliberations that were gaining traction nuclear sharing and a NATO missile that the US and NATO are still ultimately
especially in Germany to reconsider the defence system will be affordable in the aiming to deprive Russia of its second-
alliance defence programme as a long-term future. There are many indicators suggest- strike capability. President Medvedev
replacement for nuclear deterrence. In its ing that the scales might tip in favour of a expressed this concern at a press confer-
strategic concept, NATO does profess the NATO missile defence system in the ence in Lisbon. He made clear that Russia
vision of a world free of nuclear weapons. coming years. This would mean that Wash- demands full equality when it comes to
The alliance would contemplate the use of ington would still be bound to Europe by a missile defence. Moscow is aware that its
nuclear forces only under extremely remote major military project. Such an outcome own capabilities are lagging far behind
circumstances. However, as in earlier NATO would accord with the interests of many those of the US. This runs contrary to its
concepts, deterrence resting on an appro- new NATO countries that wish to prevent a claim to be treated as an equal in coopera-
priate mix of conventional and nuclear weakening of the alliance. Construction of tion with the US. The question of command
capabilities remains the core of the alliance a NATO missile defence system would lib- and control could grow into a stumbling
strategy. As long as nuclear weapons exist, erate nuclear sharing from the burden of its block in this connection. Moscow’s vision of
NATO will remain a nuclear alliance — this role as the most important military anchor a joint command is still far removed from
is the quintessence of the Lisbon docu- of the transatlantic relationship. Since it the alliance’s plans, which rather envisage
ment. At the same time, however, the inten- would be an alliance project, the partners separate operational commands.
tion is to create the necessary conditions of the US would also have a say in it. Fur-
for further reduction of the remaining US thermore, effective protection against a OUTLOOK
nuclear weapons in Europe. The precondi- possible Iranian nuclear threat could pre- The project of a missile defence system for
tion for this is Russia’s willingness to vent Turkey from developing nuclear the entire alliance provides a great opportu-
increase transparency regarding its non- weapons of its own. nity for NATO to demonstrate renewed unity.
strategic nuclear weapons stationed in Nevertheless, controversial internal debates
Europe and to redeploy them away from COOPERATION WITH RUSSIA within the alliance on this issue may be
NATO’s borders. The main political challenge in the context expected in the future as well. Concerns over
Against this background, the debate of the planned missile defence shield con- both the cost and the efficiency of the missile
over the future of nuclear sharing within sists in convincing Russia that the system is shield will be raised. The problem of the
NATO can be expected to continue (cf. CSS not directed against its interests. This is why future command structure for the defence
Analysis no. 74). Germany, the Netherlands, NATO has invited Russia to participate. system will also continue to preoccupy the
Belgium, and Italy maintain air forces that Russia’s President Dmitry Medvedev gave a alliance. Mainly, however, the future of the
are designated for delivery of US nuclear fundamentally positive reply on this matter project will depend on whether Russia can
weapons stationed in these countries. Fur- at the Lisbon summit. This creates great be convinced to cooperate. If that succeeds,
thermore, the US maintains aircraft of its opportunities for both sides. Successful missile defence will also have made a signifi-
own in Italy and Turkey — where US cooperation on missile defence would be an cant contribution to rapprochement
nuclear weapons are also stored — that can important element of comprehensive rap- between the former opponents. Otherwise,
be used to deliver nuclear weapons. Ger- prochement between NATO and Russia, those NATO members for whom good rela-
many, the Netherlands, and Belgium as which has been explicitly mentioned as a tions with Russia are extremely important
well as some non-host nations such as Nor- goal by the alliance in Lisbon. will view the NATO missile defence project
way are advocating a rapid withdrawal of In its Nuclear Posture Review, the with scepticism.
these armaments. Obama administration had already offered
Italy and Turkey are more reserved in Russia a dialog on far-reaching cooperation (The article has been excerpted from
this matter. While Rome fears a loss of in missile defence. The offer included International Relations and Security
influence, Ankara does not wish to remain integrating US and Russian sensors and Network, ETH Zurich)

(10) January 2011
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Number Game January.qxd 1/3/2011 5:19 PM Page 4

g 160

THE INDIAN Air Force recently women. Four Indian Navy young officers to acquire full
got a new batch of officers with officers and one Indian Coast understanding and knowledge
171 newly-commissioned Flying Guard officer also received their of application of new technol-
Officers graduating from the Air flying brevets (Wings) at ogy to exploit the true potential
Force Academy (AFA), at Dundi- the graduation parade from the of aerospace power. Flying Offi-
gal near Hyderabad. Air Chief Air Chief. cer Nandeep CS, who
Marshal P V Naik reviewed the Addressing the newly- commanded the parade, was
combined graduation parade commissioned IAF officers, the awarded the President’s Plaque
and awarded the President’s Air Chief impressed upon the and the Chief of the Air Staff
Commission to graduating technological transformation of ‘Sword of Honour’ for standing
Flight Cadets that included 39 the Air Force and exhorted the first in the Pilot Course.

`3,300-CR TO CHECK
Naxal-hit districts has been ment schemes have not suc-
THE FIRST batch of 160
jawans of the Indian Army
under the project Ksham-
aimed at addressing the devel- ceeded in the past since a major ta, a unique skill-building
opmental deficit and controlling chunk of the funds remained un- initiative undertaken in
the expansion and consolidation used. Also, questions have been association with Microsoft
of Naxal influence. Home Minis- raised about the efficacy of the India, has shown how
ter P Chidambaram unveiled the funds that were shown to have public and private part-
ambitious integrated action plan been spent. nerships (PPP) can work.
recently that will give 60 districts A study earlier this year indi- Project Kshmata aims at
a free hand to spend `25 crore cated that expenditure on training another 1,000
over the next four months. The health, education, childcare, jawans in Phase II.
THE CENTRAL plan to pump in districts would similarly get `30 electricity, roads, water, was Kshamta, meaning
Rs 3,300 crore over the next 16 crore each next year. significantly lower in most of the capability, is a 110-hour
months in micro projects in However, similar develop- 33 districts hit by Naxalism. training programme con-
sisting of 30 hours of the
Microsoft Digital Literacy
Skills Programme and 80

Kolkata and ODHIKAR in Dhaka. hours of spoken English
KILLED The report has recommended training. The Indian Army
ALONG that the government ensure that is over 1.1 million in
security forces do not use indis- strength, third largest in
BANGLADESH criminate force when checking the world, of which over
BORDER cross-border crimes. 50,000 soldiers retire every
Said Meenakshi year. Microsoft and the
MORE THAN 1,000 people have Ganguly, the South Asia Indian Army signed an
been killed in the last decade in Director of Human MoU on December 8, 2009
firing by the Border Security Rights Watch, “It is true for Project Kshamta.
Force (BSF) along the India- that a lot of illegal The model proposed
Bangladesh border, according to activities, including and approved by the Indi-
a report by Human Rights Watch smuggling and traffick- an Army is designed to
released recently. ing, occur on the train more than 1,000
The report, “Trigger Happy India-Bangladesh bor- master trainers in India,
— Excessive Use of Force by der, but smuggling is across 48 Army training
Indian Troops at the Bangladesh not a crime that war- units, who will in turn
Border”, documents the experi- rants the death train and certify fellow
ences of families whose indiscriminate use of force on penalty.” On its part, the BSF has jawans in their units.
members were killed in these fir- people living in areas along the justified the killings citing
ings as well as instances of tor- border. The research was con- self-defence reasons or that the
ture, arbitrary detention and ducted by two NGOs: MASUM in suspects were evading arrest.

(12) January 2011
Number Game January.qxd 1/3/2011 5:21 PM Page 5


THERE ARE 6,749 women
officers working in the armed
forces, with over one-third of
them inducted during the last
three years, Lok Sabha was
THE THREE wings of the armed is short of 1,016 officers of its tioned strength of 12,211 officers. informed recently.
forces are facing a shortage sanctioned strength,” Defence Antony said the shortage of “2,591 women officers
of over 15,000 officers, Lok Minister A K Antony said in a officers was attributable to a have been inducted into the
Sabha was informed during the written reply to a Lok Sabha number of factors including armed forces in the last three
recent session. query. He said the authorised tough selection procedures, years and a total of 6,749 of
“In Army, there is a shortage strength of officers in the Army difficult service conditions cou- them are working in the Ser-
of 12,510 officers. The Navy is was 47,864 officers, in the Navy pled with perceived high degree vices,” Defence Minister A K
short of 1,747 officers and the IAF 9,719 while the IAF had a sanc- of risk involved in service career. Antony said in a written
reply to a Lok Sabha query.
He said the highest numbers
of officers were with the

11,000+ 961 Army followed by the Army

acres Medical Corps and the
 Indian Air Force.
jammu & kashmir 107
acres 2,949
722 456 617
ACRES OF acres acres acres acres
Punjab Assam
494 418
ENCROACHED acres acres Delhi Uttar Pradesh
IN THE backdrop of scams like West Bengal
Adarsh dogging defence lands
across the country, the Defence 448 Pradesh
Ministry has now admitted that Gujrat acres acres
around 11,052 acres of its 17.30
lakh acres of land across the
country has been encroached or 304 acres Maharashtra
occupied illegally.
Leading the list of states, Some others in the 2,285
where the maximum number of list include Haryana acres
encroachments has taken place, (961 acres), J&K (722
is Uttar Pradesh (2,949 acres), acres), Assam (617 acres), Pun-
followed closely by Maharashtra jab (494 acres), Bihar (456 acres),
(2,285 acres), as per information Madhya Pradesh (448 acres), Gr
provided by Defence Minister A Rajasthan (418 acres), West Ben- ap
K Antony in a written reply to gal (406 acres), Gujarat (304 uch
Rajya Sabha recently. acres) and Delhi (107 acres). a January 2011

Spotlight.qxd 1/3/2011 5:31 PM Page 60



The Indian Army has been ANKS IN modern land warfare are posts hastening their defeat. To check the
the most lethal offensive asset in onslaught of tank columns during the Sec-
looking for an anti-tank missile any army. They have the capabili- ond World War, anti-tank weapons started to
that is man-portable and ty to break through the enemy be developed. These measures, which began
defences and penetrate deep with the anti-tank grenade, now comprise of
easy-to-fire. While the US- within enemy territory in a very short time anti-tank mines, rocket-propelled grenade,
made Javelin was test-fired by with inbuilt heavy firepower. The psycholog- mortar shells, artilleries and ammunition of
ical impact of marching tanks on the enemy different kinds and anti-tank missiles.
the Army successfully, ROHIT is enormous. The visuals of American M1A1
SRIVASTAVA found out that Abraham cruising across the Iraq-Saudi TANK WARFARE
desert made the Iraqi forces abandon their During the First World War, the British came
the DRDO-developed Nag was
the most-advanced currently
available. The Nag, however, is
a vehicle-based missile and,
therefore, not on the
Army’s top list

SEARCH IS ON: Indian Army is on the

look out to order anti-tank missiles with
unique characteristics

(14) January 2011
Spotlight.qxd 1/3/2011 5:32 PM Page 61


up with an innovative idea to develop an guidance system does the rest. The accuracy
armoured vehicle, which could break the
deadlock of trench warfare. They came up INDIA IS of these is almost 100 per cent if the system
doesn’t fail. The survivability of the tank
with the tank, which could manoeuvre easily
on the plains and was capable of crossing
CURRENTLY depends upon its armour protection.
The guidance system of this generation is
trenches and also had firepower of the artillery OPERATING based on infrared imager, laser and W-band
for attack and self-defence. This changed the
course of warfare forever. The static warfare of FRENCH-MADE radars. This generation is more susceptible to
electronic counter-measures. These measures
trenches was changed into the maneuver
warfare of today. Third generation warfare is
MILAN AND are the electro-optical jammer that disrupts
the laser beams, which designates the target
characterised by Blitzkrieg — bypassing ene- RUSSIAN and also an active protection system, which

my lines with speed and accuracy and uses the Doppler radar system where an
destroying them from the rear. The tanks plays incoming missile is located and protective
an important role in this. The whole concept rocket is fired, which detonates near the
of Blitzkrieg was woven around the tanks in an seeker devices, which would follow the laser missile and destroys it.
infantry support role where their speed was beam designating the target. Called semi- The third-generation missiles come with
increased. Along with that there was the active as the operator and missile both were different types of warheads designed to pene-
support of indirect fire of long-range artillery involved in homing. The accuracy of the trate armour. The advancement in the armour
guns pounding enemy lines. Anti-Tank Guided Missiles (ATGMs) jumped of tanks has impacted upon the development
To check the onslaught from tanks which to 50 per cent with the semi-active guidance of the warhead to penetrate them. Most of
were immune to the guns available with system. To top it all, there was a quantum these are portable devices, like the Javeline.
infantry special weapons began to emerge, jump in the efficiency and lethality of These systems are very easy to operate and
like anti-tank grenades, armour-piercing rifles anti-tank missiles from the last generation. don’t require very long training like first and
and mines. All of these are still relevant in The radio-guided missile was suscepti- second generation missiles. The operator
warfare in anti-tank roles. ble to jamming and the wire-guided could needs to fire and then move to a safe point.
hit targets as far as the wire could go. The
FIRST-GENERATION MISSILES wire-guided had serious limitations in RANGE
During the 50s, the armies across the vegetation as the wire would get entangled For any ATGM to engage tanks effectively, its
Western world began developing wire-guided and break. But the wire-guided missiles operator must be beyond the range of the
missile against tanks. These where manually- could avoid counter-measures like chaff and tanks that are generally three km away. Every
guided missiles, where an operator would flares. These also required the operator to be ATGM should have a range above three km.
guide the missile to its target through a well skilled and trained. The typical range of with the capability to increase range. However,
joystick. These were called Manual the ATGM varied from two to seven km there are two important issues. The first is
Command to Line of Sight or MCLOS-guided depending upon the guidance system. accuracy. The battlefield being dynamic and
missiles. The operator had the dual task of uneven, the long range creates problem in
optically observing the target and simultane- THIRD-GENERATION MISSILES targeting. Secondly, there is the portability
ously guiding the missile through a joystick. This generation missiles are also called the problem. A short-range missile could be
The accuracy of these missiles was less than fire-and-forget missiles. The missile is man-portable as in case of most of the
25 per cent and required enormous training. required to be locked on to the target before second-generation with wire guidance
It also required the operator to be static and launching it towards the target and but generally longer-range ones like
within the line of sight of a tank, which made thereafter the missile-active Hellfire are vehicle or heliborne.
them vulnerable to counter-attack.
SECOND-GENERATION MISSILES There has been an explosion in the
To overcome the shortcomings of MCLOS, warhead design in the last couple of
the second-generation Semi Automatic decades to keep up with the simulta-
Command to Automatic Line of Sight or neous development in armour. To
SACLOS was developed. These required the effectively protect the tank and its
operator to just keep tracking the missile crew, tank armour must counter a
through a sighting device and the device wide variety of anti-tank threats.
would then guide the missile to its target These include composite armour,
through radio or electronic signals. This kind which is a mix of ceramic, plastic and
of missile still needed active guidance from metal and steel armour, a strong plate
operators like continuous tracking of the of steel and reactive armour that
target; thus the operator could not leave the reacts with the weapon to reduce the
spot and yet was vulnerable. This generation impact of the projectile.
has semi-active guidance system. Here the To counter these threats, the High
missile had a homing device which seeks THE LATEST ORDER: 4,100 Explosive Anti Tank (HEAT) warheads
signal in form of radio waves or electronic Milan-2T missiles are employed. HEAT warheads began
signal through wire and later versions had to emerge post-WWII to penetrate January 2011

Spotlight.qxd 1/3/2011 5:32 PM Page 62


mechanised and armour forces is also needed

to be seen in this context. India is still awaiting
the Arjun MBT and T-72 modernisation. The
latest procurement order of Milan is for 2T
version, which has extended range and with
tandem charge, to successfully engage the
tanks with composite armours. India has been
forced to buy these missiles at higher cost
even when the latest third-generation missiles
are available to continue with commonality in
training and launch systems. These systems
were to be replaced by Nag but delays in
its development derailed the planning of
Indian Army.
To fill the gap between requirement and
capability, India is buying the third-genera-
tion ‘fire-and-forget’ shoulder-fired Javelin
ATGM, developed and produced by Raytheon
READY-TO-USE: After completing its final validation trials, Nag is expected to join and Lockheed Martin. The first batch of these
Indian Army in 2011 would be off-the-shelf procurement and
thereafter will be license-produced after due
steel armours. To counter these HEAT infra-red (IIR) sensor-based seeker and top — technology transfer. India is procuring Javelin
warheads, composite armour was developed, attack mode — the missile hits tanks most through foreign military sales.
which is lighter in weight but very thick while vulnerable turret portion by flying up John Patterson, Raytheon spokesman,
it reduces the speed of the HEAT warhead. To and falling vertically down at 90 degrees over said, "The Javelin Joint Venture is fully sup-
defeat these, the tandem charge warheads are the tank. porting the USG in its efforts to quickly
employed, which has two or more charges, the The range of Nag is around four-six km field the Javelin Close Combat Weapon sys-
first charge penetrates the soft part of the and operational from helicopter and NAMI- tem to the Indian Army. The Javelin system
armour and subsequent charges penetrate the CA - Nag missile carrier, a converted BMP-2 is currently deployed in Afghanistan with
hard part of the armour. Sarath, which can carry 12 missiles in both the US and UK forces, making the
ready-to-launch mode and also has IIR seek- Javelin introduction to the Indian Army a
INDIAN PERSPECTIVE ers installed over them. The heli-borne natural fit for operational interoperability
Media reports suggest there is a shortfall of version of Nag with a range of seven kilome- and employment. The Javelin Joint Venture
around 44000 ATGM in the Indian inventory. tres to be operated from advanced light has a history of working with trusted part-
The sanctioned strength of ATGM is around helicopters and Light Combat Helicopter is ners around the world, and would welcome
81000. India is currently operating French- being developed, called HELINA. the opportunity to work with India. This is
made Milan and Russian Konkurs. Both are The Indian Army has ordered for 443 a government-to-government sale, and
second generation laser-based wire-guided Nag for `335 crore even before the test therefore any specific inquires need to be
missiles. Milan has a range of around two km results are out. The requirement of Indian addressed to the respective governments."
and Konkurs longer with a four km range. Army for ATGM is very high as Army has Javelin has a maintenance-free shelf
Being second-generation ATGMs they already ordered for 4100 Milan and 15000 life of ten years. It’s a man-portable 22 kg
are susceptible to jamming. When such Konkurs M, both are second-generation system operated by single individual. It can
cases arise, the operator has to take control ATGMs, and have been ordered in last two be reloaded in 15 seconds after firing of
of the missile and guide it to the target. This years to bolsters Indian infantry anti-tank missiles, which takes 30 seconds to locate,
decreases the accuracy of missile to the capability against Pakistan which has been lock and launch the missile to any target
first-generation level. improving its mechanised forces with T- 85, within the range of 2.5 km through its tan-
Bharat Dynamics Limited is license pro- T-80 and Al Khalids. The shortfall in Indian dem charged warhead. So, within a minute,
ducing these missiles systems. Both of these two targets can be engaged. The missile is
missiles are surface-to-surface version and lock-on-before-launch version and is
cannot be operated from helicopters. India based on passive IR seeker, meaning it
needs an indigenous missile system that can
have both air-launched and surface- JAVELIN follows the heat emission from the target
for guidance.
launched versions. Towards this end, the
DRDO has been developing Nag ATGM since
HAS A During Yudh Abhyas 2010 in Alaska, the
Indian Army test-fired Javelin ATGM suc-
1983, which has undergone the last phase of MAINTENANCE- cessfully. The deal is expected to be signed in
test recently by user. The Nag is part of the
Integrated Guided Missile Development FREE SHELF coming months between India and the US.
Sources in DRDO consider Nag to be
Programme by Defence Research and Devel-
opment Organisation at the cost of `300
LIFE OF the most advanced ATGM currently available
and is almost unjammable. The Army
crore. The first test flight of the missile TEN YEARS requires system that is man-portable for
was done around 1990. The missile is third its infantry units, whereas Nag is vehicle-
generation fire-and-forget with imaging based missile.

(16) January 2011
DefBIZ cover jan.qxd 1/3/2011 5:02 PM Page 1

Photo courtesy:


Exporting military products through ‘foreign military sales’ scheme benefits the
United States immensely. But does it really help importers like India?
Acquisition jan.qxd 1/3/2011 4:44 PM Page 60



HE INDIAN Army has recently moving five fully-loaded soldiers. The vehicle Mashina Pekhoty II, Indian APC) in any of its
issued request for information is also expected to allow the “effective use of CI operation, as these heavy vehicles look
(RFI) for Light Bullet Proof Vehicles weapons while on the move”. The vehicle intimidating and doesn’t cut a good image of
(LBPV) for counter-insurgency must also be able to “operate on unmetalled the armed forces among the local population.
(CI) operations. The vehicles will roads”. These are some of the most basic Keeping in line with the narrow alleys
be employed in movement of sections or requirements of any armoured CI vehicle. and congested towns and cities of both the
units. The large number of casualties in any Generally, the armed forces from the West Northeast and Kashmir, India has been
CI operations is during movement of troops employ heavy armoured personnel carriers operating light armoured motor vehicles.
or while getting down from vehicles. That is (APC) or infantry combat vehicles. These are These are basically commercial (Light Multi-
the time when the forces are most vulnerable. basically meant for infantry movement dur- role Vehicles) LMVs with four wheel drives,
To minimise the number of casualties, forces ing wars operated by mechanised force generally used in passenger transport. These
across the globe are using armoured vehicles. brigades. The US and its allies use the ‘Striker’ vehicles are customised to suit the opera-
The requirement sent out by Indian Army APC in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Indian tional requirements of the Army. Keeping this
states that the vehicle should be capable of Army doesn’t deploy its BMP II (Boyevaya in mind, the RFI clearly states the operational
Continued on page 20

A vehicle for
military use January 2011

Acquisition jan.qxd 1/3/2011 4:44 PM Page 61



THE INDIAN Army has shown interest in
acquiring 120 Vehicle Based Minelet Scatter-
ing System (VBMSS). The Request for
Information (RFI) was recently released in
this regard. The Army wants VBMSS to come
with the High Mobility Vehicle (HMV) 6×6,
to provide the system with the desired
mobility on the plains, deserts, semi-deserts,
etc. The system is required to disperse 400
mines at varying densities. The scattering is
done at different density depending upon
the requirement. The factors like size of area
being mined, topography, vegetation and the
size of enemy column are taken into consid-
eration before deciding the density of min-
ing in any given area.
The RFI clearly asks for the control sys-
tem where single and multiple tubes can be
used to deploy mines. It also requires the
system to deploy mines on both sides of the
vehicle and also at the rear end at a distance
of a minimum of 50 metres and must also
scatter mines at a range of 25-75 metres.
This will help in rapid deployment in the
DE-MINING TACTICS: Mine detection is done at different densities depending upon the
range of 150 metres at one time. In the requirement, and (below) a mine
desert and plains of north India, the VBMSS
will provide the capability to mine a large landing (mines become activated immedi- It may be noted that landmines play a
area that in turn will halt larger columns ately after deployment), long shelf life of very crucial role in the land warfare. They
of enemy. the mines and able to survive under 100mm are defensive and harassing in nature.
The VBMSS will be reloadable in 40 of water. Anti-tank mines should be capable Minefields can halt or slow down enemy
minutes by its crew of two. The control unit of penetrating armour plating of 50mm of troop movements to a great extent and
of the launcher would “display” the status Rolled Hardened Armour (RHA). inflict heavy damage on the enemy with-
of each launcher, the record number of The scattering system is meant to out risking men and material. India, a
mines dispensed, mention the co-ordinates improve the defensive capability of Indian non-signatory to the Ottawa treaty that
of the area in which the mines are being Army. The fast rate of scattering will pro- bans use of landmines in warfare and
dispensed, store and process data for mine- vide any retreating column and defence of insurgency, considers landmines a tool in
field recording. strategic assets in a very short duration very its military operations.
It has been seen that keeping manual accurately with minimum manpower The Indian Army deployed around
record of mines accurately is very difficult deployment. These systems can be deployed 1,000 per sq km around the Pakistan border
and a slow process. The demining process at the corps/division level and will save cru- after Operation Parakram. Later, the Indian
becomes very difficult due to these inaccura- cial time during wars. Army had to do the de-mining at immense
cies. This system could solve these issues in costs. Reports suggest that more than 1,000
many ways but the accuracy could remain an died due to these landmines (2001-09).
issue. Yet, an electronically recorded and Laying mines in defensive formation is a
stored data will always be handier for slow process and took weeks during
the forces. Parakaram. During a war, retreating
The VBMSS system is required to have a columns would require quick deployment of
field-settable Self-Destruction (SD) peri- landmines across a large surface area. To
ods/back up Self-Deactivation (SDA) periods achieve this objective, vehicle and aircraft-
of the anti tank mines and indicator incorpo- based automatic mines dispersal systems
rated in the mine to indicate that it is fully are employed. In addition, armies also
deactivated and safe after expiry of SDA employ artillery shells to disperse land
period. The mines should be equipped with mines. The rate of dispersal through rockets
anti-lift (a device arranged to detonate the and artillery shells is not as fast as the
mine), immediate arming of mines after vehicle/aircraft-based systems. January 2011

Acquisition jan.qxd 1/3/2011 4:45 PM Page 62


requirement: the vehicles wanted will be

specifically for military use. Recently, some of
the companies in India have come with very
innovative indigenous products, which were
displayed at the Defence Expo 2010.
The Army requires the vehicle to “provide
360 degrees observation all around the vehi-
cle”. It should “ergonomically and comfort-
ably seat five soldiers” with full battle load
and driver. The soldiers should be comfort-
able in observation and effective use
of weapons.
The RFI also points out the protection

Photo courtesy:

level of the vehicles. The vehicle must comply
with the NIJ III standard (National Institute of
Justice of USA, Standard III). The American
Department of Justice through the National
Institute of Justice has set the standard of
armouring based on the capability to defend
against weapons. Level three is the level
where the armour can provide protection
against automatic assault rifles like M16, ON A WAR-FOOTING: The Army requires the vehicle which should have 360 degrees
AK47 and machine guns like M80 or equiva- observation and effective use of weapons
lent. In terms of bullet size, the armour
should be able to provide protection against containing up to 100 grams of Penta-Erythri- directions. There should also be arrange-
9.6 g (148 gr) 7.62x51mm NATO M80 ball bul- tol Tetra-Nitrate (PETN) explosive. ments to prevent a grenade from being
lets and below. This standard is desired for the The vehicles should also have firing ports lobbed through the hatch when open.
top, sides, windshield and side glasses. These on all the sides to give all-round strike capa- It seems the Indian Army has planned to
parts during the movement and otherwise bility to the troops. Enough space is required have flexibility in the use of the vehicles
come under direct fire and since a majority of for soldiers to use their personal automatic across the nation if and when the need arises
insurgents these days use assault rifles, this weapons. The firing port when not in use and also foresees the expansion of its CI role.
level of protection is adequate for the vehicle. should also have the same level of protection For transporting these vehicles when require-
Although not adequate for grenades and land to that of the sides of the vehicles. The vehicle ment arises, these must be transportable
mines like clamour mines, the level is consid- must have a hatch at top with a suitable through rail “standard rakes without necessity
ered sufficient for urban CI ops, especially in mounting for the in-service Light Machine of Over Dimensional Container (ODC) Clear-
J&K and the Northeast where landmines and Gun (LMG). The mounting should permit fir- ance and in an in-service transport aircraft
Claymores are not used. ing of the LMG through 360 degrees while (IL-76)”. The transportability by standard
The bottom and undercarriage, which providing protection to the firer from all rakes will save time and cost. Air transporta-
generally have to deal with stray bombs bility will also ensure the vehicle to be trans-
and grenades generally scattered by A MATTER OF ported at a very short time to any part of the
insurgents to deny the forces swift
PROTECTION: A vehicle nation including bases in the interiors.
with all-d
movement, should be capable of LBPVs must have “environmental con-
protection to the firer is
affording protection against the trol arrangements, which should be capable
blast of a hand grenade of maintaining the ambient temperature in
the cabin between +22°C and +25°C. The
vehicle must also have auto-defrost capabili-
ty on all glass panes (including windshield,
window and side glasses)” and must also
have “adequate safety measures against
accidental locking”.
The acquisition of LBPV under the
specification mentioned will have sub-
stantial impact over the operational
capability of the Indian Army in future
CI operations and will take the trans-
portation to the next level which at
present uses armoured commercial
vehicles which are short of the require-
ments. With that the Indian Army will move
into the arena of customised vehicles for
specific uses.

January 2011
DefBiz january.qxd 1/3/2011 5:03 PM Page 21



NEW POLICY made/developed within the
THE DEFENCE Ministry has country in specified timeframes
issued show-cause notices to to meet critical operational
the four foreign and three requirements. All such projects
Indian armament compa- will necessarily include transfer
nies to explain why they of technology, unless exceptions
should not be blacklisted are required for specific reasons,
after being named in the to ensure subsequent genera-
Central Bureau of Investiga- tions of the weapon systems are
tion (CBI) FIR against former developed indigenously.”
Ordnance Factories Board The production policy allows
(OFB) Chief Sudipto Ghosh for government funding of new
in a corruption case in technology projects up to 80 per
May 2009. cent of the cost by domestic
The foreign firms in the INDIA’S DEFENCE ACQUISITION COUNCIL private companies.
dock are Israeli Military (DAC) has just put its seal on two policies, a The approval procedures for develop-
Industries (IMI), Singapore new version of the Defence Procurement ment/integration/make of new defence
Technology, BBT Poland and Procedure and a new Defence Production systems indigenously are being “further
Media Architects Singapore, Policy. The DAC is set to formally approve the simplified”, according to the policy.
while the Indian ones are new policies within the next few weeks. The production policy says domestic fund-
HYT Engineering, T S Kissan Indian media quoting from the draft poli- ing will apply to “strategic and critical
& Co and R K Machine Tools. cy said: “Only those weapon systems/platforms technologies” to “reduce vulnerabilities” in case
This was stated by the will be procured from abroad which cannot be of sanctions and denials.
Defence Minister A K Antony
in a written reply to Lok


Sabha recently. The CBI had
issued a chargesheet against
Ghosh, T S Kissan and R K
Machine Tools, among NATIONAL AEROSPACE he said the government had given NAL the
others, till now. Laboratories (NAL), the mandate to do a one-year feasibility study
In respect of the other Bengaluru-based nodal cen- on the configuration definition and systems
companies, the CBI report tre for the design of the definition for the national aircraft for region-
indicates there is prima facie Regional Transport Aircraft al connectivity.
or circumstantial evidence (RTA), is set to issue expressions of Stating that NAL would submit
of payment of illegal gratifi- interest (EoIs) to invite potential the feasibility report to the govern-
cation to Ghosh. The matter partners for the project from the pri- ment by April 2011, Upadhya said
is under investigation. vate sector, from both India and that around 120 airfields, each with
abroad, according to NAL Director 3,000-5,000-sft runway, had been
AR Upadhya. identified across the country for
“The Centre has given us a direc- facilitating landing of these smaller
tive to design a framework to form aircraft. About 50 per cent of the
a joint venture (JV) for carrying out country’s population live close to
the RTA project through public-private these smaller airfields. So, there is a big
partnership. We have already drafted the requirement for the establishment of indige-
EoI, which will be issued in a month's time. nous aircraft manufacturing industry, he said.
The JV will be for design, development and “Of the 450 airfields that the country has
manufacture of the RTAs. It ( JV ) could be at present, only 70 are operational. There is a
two separate entities too. Roping in potential to convert the remaining airfields
cost-sharing partners within a segment or into airports,” Upadhya said, adding that
a particular activity ... that has to be looked India required 1,300 aircraft by 2015,
at,” Upadhya said. of which 240 were expected to be RTAs to
In a recent interview to an English daily, connect smaller towns and cities.

(21) January 2011
DefBiz january.qxd 1/3/2011 5:03 PM Page 22

The approval for LPDs has been
given by the Cabinet Committee on
Security (CCS) “Buy and Make
Indian” clause of the the Defence Pro-

curement Policy (DPP-9). "Under the
'Buy and Make Indian' category, the
Defence Ministry would invite pro-

posals from those Indian industries
that have requisite financial and tech-
nical capabilities to enter into joint
ventures and also absorb technology
and undertake indigenous manufac-
ture of the warships," Chief of the In-
THE INDIAN Navy has been given the ap- dian Navy Admiral Nirmal Verma said recently.
proval for acquisition of four landing platform The Navy has also invited information from
docks (LPDs) to transport and land various el- the global vendors for supply of Landing Craft
ements of amphibious forces to support shore Mechanised (LCMs) that can be carried by am-
operations. phibious warships to land troops or tanks
The amphibious warships, with helipads during assaults on the coastline. So far, the In-
and capacity to move a large number of troops dian Navy has four LCMs, which were bought
and tanks or humanitarian aid, would be a during the acquisition of Jalashwa from the
match to the second largest combat ship in US. The Navy is looking for LCMs ,which are
the Indian Navy's flotilla, INS Jalashwa (earlier able to carry 150 troops with gear or a T-90 or
USS Trenton). T-72 tank from ship to shore. IAI President Itzhak Nissan
ISRAEL IS concerned over losing
its largest defence market to


close ally US, which has reached
an understanding with India
that could result in billions of
NONE OTHER than Indian Air Force (IAF) points from them. We started late and we dollars of American defence
Vice-Chief Air Marshal Barbora has are also slowing down.” sales to New Delhi, according to
criticised the public and private defence Under the defence procurement policy, a media report.
industry for lacklustre performance in the it is mandatory for overseas firms securing “(US President) Obama is
aerospace sector and attributed the slow Indian defence contracts to outsource 30 embracing the Indian Prime
pace of indigenisation to complicated per cent of the defence deal to Indian com- Minister and 40 to 50 billion
defence policy, especially on offsets. panies as offset works. The offset obligation USDs worth of deals are being
Speaking at the fifth international con- applies to all capital acquisition catego- wrapped up in one shot,” Israel
ference on Energising Indian Aerospace rized as Buy (global) or Buy and Make with Aerospace Industries (IAI) Presi-
Industry organised by the Confederation of transfer of technology, where the estimated dent Itzhak Nissan told Middle
Indian Industry (CII) recently, Barbora said cost of the procurement proposal is $67 East Newsline adding, “We don’t
a “well-defined offset policy is the need of million and above. have such personalities.”
the day”. India annually imports Israeli defence companies
Barbora said that an esti- about 80 per cent of aero- have been urging their Defence
mated $20 billion (`90,800 space products, including air- Ministry to ease export controls
crore) was “hanging” to be craft and parts. Barbora added arguing that the new controls,
absorbed by Indian industry. that current foreign direct demanded by the United States
And the figure is likely to esca- investment limit of 26 per in 2005, were hampering mar-
late up to $40 billion by the cent in the defence sector was keting and technology transfer
end of the year. a “restricting factor”. “Foreign required to maintain exports.
“Our offset policy is very companies are reluctant to India is Israel's largest
nascent. It is complicated and offer and transfer cutting- defence market accounting for
foreign vendors find it difficult edge technologies because of almost 50 per cent of Israeli
to understand. I know a com- lack of management role in sales. IAI dominates the Israeli
pany, which has submitted its Indian companies,” he said. defence presence in New Delhi
(offset) proposal at least 20 Reminding Indian scientists and is about to conclude a $1.1
times. It results in delays in that “time and tide wait for no billion project of supplying three
procurement,” he said and added: “Certain one,” the IAF Vice-Chief added: “By the Phalcon airborne early-warning
countries like Brazil, Spain have well- time you come up with something, it’s systems to the Indian Air Force.
defined offset policies. We should take good redundant.”

(22) January 2011
DefBiz january.qxd 1/3/2011 5:03 PM Page 23

marines. The Indian Navy will NOVA INTEGRATED Systems Ltd, subsidiary of Tata
put out a tender to purchase Sons Limited, is developing facility in
submarines with a standard Aerospace and Precision Engineering Special Eco-
power plant. Russian nomic Zone (SEZ) Adibatla, Andhra Pradesh. The
agency Rosoboronexport main Greenfield facilities for radar, missile and un-
said it offered the Amur- manned aerial vehicles (UAV) are being planned
1650 submarine to partici- and will be ready by 2011. Nova is bringing in and
pate in the Navy’s tender developing cut-
for six non-nuclear sub- ting-edge tech-
marines. nology to India in
THE RUSSIAN-INDIAN joint Established in 1998, this strategic sec-
venture BrahMos Aerospace BrahMos Aerospace, a tor where indige-
Ltd. has signed new contracts joint Indian-Russian ven- nous capability is
on supplies of BrahMos mis- ture, produces and desired.
siles till 2017. markets BrahMos super- Nova Inte-
Under the contracts, mis- sonic missiles, whose grated Systems
siles will be supplied to the sea-based and land- has been set up
Indian Air Force, the Navy and based versions have been with a view to
the Indian Army. It is also successfully tested and achieving self-reliance in defence and aerospace
agreed that if India intends to put into service with the systems, and will focus on the manufacture and in-
acquire new Russian non- Indian Army and Navy. tegration of systems, sub systems, and, accessories
atomic submarines, Russia's Analysts estimate for missiles, radar, UAV, electro-optics, electronic
Rubin Central Design that India could pur- warfare and homeland security systems.
Bureau for Marine Engi- chase up to 1,000 NOVA has already set up the interim integration
neering will prepare BrahMos missiles for and testing facilities for radar and electro-optics at
variants to be equipped its armed forces in Hyderabad. UAV, electronic measures and surveil-
with the BrahMos missiles. the next decade, lance systems are the major tactical component of
It is understood that and export 2,000 to today’s warfare. Till now India is majorly dependent
India intends to acquire other countries dur- on imported systems, Nova plans to provide cutting
six non-atomic sub- ing the same period. edge solution in this sector.


RUSSIA AND India have agreed HAL and Russia's United
about the estimated cost of a Aircraft Corporation (UAC)
design contract for their joint during a visit by Russian Presi-
fifth-generation fighter aircraft dent Dmitry Medvedev to
project (FGFA) at $295 million, India on December 20-22. The
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited two sides agreed to develop
(HAL) Chairman Ashok Nayak both a single-seat and a two-
told Russian news agency RIA seat versions of the aircraft by
Novosti in an interview recently. 2016, focussing on the single-
"The cost of preliminary design seat version in the initial
is estimated at $295 million. The stages of development. The
work is expected to be complete costs will be shared equally
within 18 months," Nayak said. between Russia and India.
Russia's Sukhoi and India's Hin- The first Russian prototype
dustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) that it had finalised a draft contract at a T-50 made its maiden flight in January
agreed in early 2010 to jointly develop a meeting with Russia in early October. 2010. The new fighter aircraft is expect-
fifth-generation fighter jet based on the Nayak said the contract could be ed to enter service with the Indian Air
prototype T-50 design. India confirmed signed by the representatives of India's Force by 2020. January 2011

Def F Military sales.qxd 1/3/2011 5:04 PM Page 60


The US “Foreign Military Sale” scheme has become the
major armaments provider for many nations, including
India. ABHIJIT BHATTACHARYYA argues that while the
scheme is certainly advantageous for the beleaguered
US economy, it can be good for India only on a
short-term or temporary basis. In the long run,
it will ensure the loss to indigenous
enterprise to be self-sufficient in defence
and the country cannot afford that
Foreign military sales
scheme is far-fetched
aspiration for India.
Seen in the picture is
US Army M107
Howitzer January 2011

Def F Military sales.qxd 1/3/2011 5:05 PM Page 61


NE OF the murky and opaque of feuding client states. Clients may quarrel but
all international businesses is the common leader supplies the common
the financial transaction of arms fighting tools. It is business as usual for the
between buyer and seller, the USA as the producer to make profit through
occasional high profile defence foreign military sales across the board.
of its being “government-to-government Perhaps the best and one of the most
transaction” notwithstanding. “Government- successful of all US foreign military sales proj-
to-government” argument will hold good only ects fructified with the sale of F-16 “Fighting
if, and when, the manufacturing unit/supplier Falcon” aircraft to the air forces of NATO
of the transacted product also belongs to the members. It was referred to as “the deal of the
seller government thereby justifying its action century” by the Europeans who resented the
and existence as being that of the govern- “forced entry” of the American aircraft in their
ment. Thus, there exists two sets of arms backyard at the expense of their armament
manufacturers, private and government. industries. The statement of French General
Before the demise of the USSR, virtually all Hugues de l’Estaile in 1973 said it all: “The real
shipyards and aviation factories belonged stakes are whether Europe will have an aircraft
to the state. Hence, India could successful- industry or whether it will be a captive market
ly pretend to defend her actions while for America.” In a way, US “foreign military
buying Soviet-made everything; from sales” does destroy or diminish the indige-
tank to tanker and aircraft to rotorcraft. nous enterprise of military industry of the
It was virtually the unsaid and unwrit- client country importing the American hard-
ten Soviet counterpart of America’s ware. Such is the domination of “foreign
“Foreign Military Sale” scheme, which military sales” of the USA that the F-16 fighter
bypasses the complex bidding process SORRY PLIGHT: Israel’s fighter-making manufacturer, Lockheed Martin (though orig-
like quotation, tender, etc. capability has totally been phased out inally General Dynamics was the maker of the
Thus, ever since the Indo-Soviet security because of US FMS scheme machine) to date has a total of 4,519 aircraft
pact concluded on August 9, 1971, Moscow- ordered or requested, including planned
made machines had a field day of being a services through foreign military sales or USAF procurement of 2,230 and 28 embar-
monopoly supplier in which price of transac- direct commercial sales. goed Pakistani Air Force fighters.
tion could never be doubted or questioned The USA being the sole superpower, its However, despite the European resistance
owing to “government-to-government” trans- foreign military programme, supported by to the choice of American fighter aircraft
action. It was an exclusive, confidential and foreign military financing, reaches out to (which implied the defeat for European tech-
mutual privilege between the buyer and seller 70-plus countries across the globe. However, nology), real pressure sprang up from the Pen-
and hence beyond the gaze of public and there was a time, at the height of the Cold tagon and the US Air Force. In the mid-1970s
beyond scrutiny of the people. No one dared War, in the 1970s, when more than 80 coun- the US Secretary of Defence, Jim Schlesinger,
question the method and methodology of the tries “benefited” from the US foreign military was determined to have the same type of
financial transaction because there was no sales scheme. fighter on both sides of the Atlantic — unlike
private player involved in the deal; hence “no The USA now is in dire need to explore the US made F-104 Starfighter (nicknamed
possibility” of going through third party assis- new markets to sell military hardware to “Flying Coffin” or “Widow Maker” by the then
tance or help. The Indo-Soviet arms deals of bring about a balance to her shooting unem- West German air force) — which had never
the 20th century were the precursor to the ployment figures and sustaining the tradi- been adopted even by the US Air Force.
present US scheme of foreign military sales tional military edge over friends and foes When F-16 finally won the US Air Force
through which Washington DC’s arms are now alike. In fact, the lifeline of American domi- contract in January 1975, “with the eventual
transferred to specific and friendly countries nation over the outside world and a key prospect of orders for 650 planes” (Jane’s all
and a “strategic partner” like India. source of technology development to a great the world’s aircraft 1975-1976; page 341-
However, US “foreign military sales” extent rests on the use of indigenous US mil- 342), falling in line for Europe was only a
programme manages government-to-govern- itary hardware and extensive application question of time as the “Pentagon rolled on”.
ment sales and are usually backed by “foreign thereof around the globe: from South Ameri- President Gerald Ford, who on a visit to
military financing”, thereby providing grants ca to South Korea and New Zealand to Ice- Brussels for NATO meeting, made it a “point
and loans to help foreign customers (coun- land. The idea is to infuse and implement the of discussing the deal” with the Belgian
tries) purchase weapons and equipment policy of “interoperability”, which implies Prime Minister Leo Tindemans. “Could you
produced by US companies but sold through that if the same types of US-made weapons imagine us using our President as a sales-
their government. The other important but are used by several friendly states as clients, man?” exclaimed an executive of French
smaller fully-paid purchases by foreign cus- Washington DC being the producer thereof, fighter manufacturer Marcel Dassault!
tomers is also overseen by the unit of foreign would automatically enjoy the confidence At last, on June 6, 1975, just at the time
military sales. The main characteristic of the and have an upper hand thereby ensuring of the Paris Air Show, the triumphant outcome
foreign military sales programme is that the status quo of her being the leader and super was announced. All four NATO countries (Bel-
foreign military financing scheme does not power of the “free world”. It is a smart and gium, Denmark, Netherlands and Norway)
provide any cash grants to foreign countries; it clever way of getting oneself positioned as went for the US made F-16 fighter thereby
only pays for sale of the stipulated goods or numero uno amidst the group of fighting and heralding, according to Defence Secretary January 2011

Def F Military sales.qxd 1/3/2011 5:05 PM Page 62


out adequate overseas orders these two

major platforms will simply go out of pro-
duction thereby creating more chaos to
the already existing economic downturn to
the US systems. Foreign military sales for the
USA is more crucial and critical today than
ever before; a matter of survival or extinction
of the armament industry of Washington DC.
The final call to the entire issue now is:
why has India got hooked in US “foreign mili-
DEAL OF THE CENTURY: tary sales?” In what way is it going to benefit or
F-16 fighter falcon being the virtual rival to US made F-16, fit the Indian defence deals and the connected
Lavi’s success could jeopardise American industry? Is India on course to be in the same
Donald Rumsfeld, “a new stage in inter- prospects. Understandably, Lavi did not see boat as Pakistan with similar/identical US-
national collaboration”. The relentless pres- the light of day and not surprisingly “foreign made weapon systems in the future? Will it
sure of the US government breached the Euro- military sales” subsequently made Israel ultimately augur well for India in the long run?
pean resistance thereby also underlining the wholly an extension and a continuation of the The answers to all these questions,
basic weakness of the latter. Europe simply US Air Force-used fighters, thereby ensuring perhaps, lie in the changed geopolitics and
was not prepared to build its own independ- the successful application of “interoperabili- economics of the 21st century. For far too
ent defence forces. Hence, Europe failed to ty” concept of Washington DC. long India had put all her aviation and naval
generate its own aerospace industry, at least Thus what began in a small scale “foreign eggs virtually in one basket held by Moscow.
temporarily. “Foreign military sales” by Wash- military sales” to four European nations of However, the demise of the unified USSR
ington triumphed in Europe. NATO in the 1970s, now stands expanded with came as a rude shock as hardware became
Another classic, but forgotten, chapter the entry of Greece in 1989-1990, Italy in 2005, difficult to be repaired, replaced and retrofit-
of the “foreign military sales” is that of the Portugal in 1994, Bahrain in 1990, Egypt in ted thereby resulting in avoidable cost and
story of the Israeli Air Force. Today, of the 1982, Oman in 2005, Pakistan in 1983, Singa- time over-run. India perforce looked to the
total 461 combat capable aircraft, 312 are pore in 1988, Thailand in 1988, and Turkey “foreign military sales” route via Pentagon. It
Lockheed Martin F-16s and Israel’s fighter in 1987. was a good decision but it was also an expen-
making capability has simply vanished. The Although India made a modest beginning sive switchover. It saved the situation as it
whole and sole source of Israeli combat air- under America’s “foreign military sales” became a government-to-government deal.
craft is the USA’s “foreign military sales”. scheme in the aftermath of her drubbing in Thus defence contracts between India and
There, however, was a time when the bible of the Sino-Indian war in 1962, today the the USA have flourished and all military hard-
world aviation, Jane’s all the world’s aircraft prospect of an expenditure of $80 bn for her ware from Washington DC to Delhi promises
1983-1984 devoted eight pages to describe defence forces in the next five years under- to come fast and quick.
the multiple facets of Tel Aviv’s flying standably makes New Delhi the closest However, there is also an inherent dan-
machines with description of fighters, light “partner target” to the USA’s armament export ger; the flow of foreign military sales is solely
military transport and business transport drive. In fact, the process has already begun as at the hands of the Pentagon and Washing-
aircraft. Today, the same aviation encyclope- India’s biggest arms supplier is apparently ton DC can be notoriously fickle-minded,
dia’s 2010-2011 edition has virtually nothing shifting from Russia to America. Under foreign intolerant and impatient at the slightest sus-
to report, except a page to depict the sorry military sales, New Delhi has already signed a picion and provocation. Also, the use of
plight of Israel’s combat aviation enterprise. $170 mn deal for 24 Harpoon Block II common weapons systems between the two
It was the story of the early 1980s (when advanced air-to-surface anti-ship missiles and belligerent nations like India and Pakistan
the US made F-16 was desperately trying to $647 mn contract for 145 US howitzers. Also in can create unforeseen and unanticipated
scout for overseas customers), when the the pipeline are American Strykers and the problems to say the least. In brief, therefore,
Israeli government gave its approval for Israel Javelin third generation anti-tank guided mis- India’s excessive banking on the US weapons
Aircraft Industries (IAI) to develop Lavi (Young siles and Patriot Advanced Capability-3 systems coming through the “foreign mili-
Lion), a new single-seat air defence and ground-based anti-ballistic missile system. tary sales” route may be a sound decision
ground attack fighter for its air force. Being in Purchases already made are the Boeing tactically; but one needs to see beyond one’s
the “final design stages”, the Lavi was to be maritime reconnaissance and Lockheed spe- nose — nay, beyond visual range and ulti-
slightly smaller than (the then) General cial operations C-130J aircraft. mately beyond the horizon. Temporary
Dynamics F-16, incorporating proven state- Today, USA feels the renewed need to pay import of sophisticated weapons could be a
of-the-art technology. Expected to be the greater attention to foreign military sales of US good beginning; but one’s own capacity-
“workhorse” for the Israeli Air Force, a require- weapon systems because it “helps her balance building certainly needs to be the corner-
ment of at least 300 Lavis was projected. With of payment and retain high paying, mostly stone of one’s long-term strategy. Buying the
an emphasis on “close air support and inter- union jobs. In addition, such sales reduce the “best technology” quickly from abroad will
diction roles, with a secondary capability for price for the platforms that the US military tactically help India, no doubt, but if resort-
air-to-air self-defence to and from the target”, acquires, allows for modernisation of existing ed to ceaselessly will ensure loss of indige-
Lavi’s design characteristics included “high- systems and provides for greater interoper- nous enterprise to be self-sufficient in
speed penetration, high manoeuvrability, ability with US forces”. Thus, weapons defence. And no country can afford to be big
first-pass bombing accuracy, and battle programmes like the F-16 and F-15 are solely and play big, after completely surrendering
damage tolerance for safe recovery”. Thus sustained by foreign military sales, and with- to Washington’s “foreign military sales”.

(26) January 2011
Interview Rick.qxd 1/3/2011 5:11 PM Page 61


GEOPOLITICS met Rick McCrary, Director, F/A-18
Super Hornet programme in India, to know
more about the evolution of the programme
and the technical aspects of the Super Hornet
that has made the plane one of the best fighters
in the world. His answers:

On the evolution of the F-18 craft. AESA generates a massive

The first flight of the F 18 of Block 1 was amount of heat, it consumes more than
in 1995. Now we have Block 2, which is double amount of heat as it comprises
an entirely new airplane, which first hundreds of tiny radars, which are indi-
flew in 2005. So, of the 450 airplanes vidually controlled and can track and
that we delivered till date, about 130 make radar maps individually for target
were the Block 1. Both Blocks have the acquisition. We knew that we needed a
same airframe but their avionics are big cooling system and it is fitted at the
different. Block 1 has previous genera- back of the aircraft. In order to have
tion aviation, and Block 2 has our Joint truly capable AESA radar you have to
Strike Fighter avionics. In fact, we design the airplane around it. Then, of
changed the entire front of the air- course, there are different materials,
plane. We have built it around the AESA with different frequency ranges.
radar with the same specification as It’s an incredibly capable system.
was in JSF. The difference is that our Massive amounts of information that
Photo: H.C. Tiwari

radar is produced by Raytheon and this system can bring need better data
Lockheed and by Northrop. We decided collection; so we have a fiber optic net-
to change the airframe when we were work, which is part of this integrated
integrating the AESA radar in the air- body that feeds into our advanced January 2011

Interview Rick.qxd 1/3/2011 5:11 PM Page 62


computer system to have better data col-

lection. It enables us to then integrate the
displays system with the component of sit-
uational awareness — the electronic sig-
nals received by the sensors, the radar sig-
nals plus the helmet-mounted cueing sys-
tem. Whereever you look at the airframe,
you can designate a sensor that brings the
threat info into the system, then process it
with the right weapon, targeting data
directly onto those weapons, and also pass
it to other aircraft.

When was the makeover done and what

are the advanced airframe features?
This was done in 2005. The Navy declared it
operable in 2006, so it’s a new airplane; it’s
the most modern airplane to fly. The JSF
(F-35 by Lockheed Martin) will be similar
when it flies although it’s facing a few prob-
lems right now. And, of course, JSF has
broader stealth characteristics to it. We too
F/A-18 SUPER HORNET: A big buy to strengthen Indian air power
have stealth, it’s very effective. We believe
that we are really looking for survivability
not stealth. We use a combination of stealth On the capability of F/A-18 to pass on
to avoid a threat, which is always the best information to other fliers
way. And then we have great decoy system. We are fully networked within the US sys-
So even if a weapon comes near the air- THE FLIERS tem and we will be networked here as well.
plane we can remove the threat. So it’s all
about survivability. We have produced
ACTUALLY FLY We are going to change our network system
to be compatible with the Indian network.
about 300 of the Block 2, which is on offer WITH THE We get information from the sensors and
to India. pass it on to other players — like our classic
‘GOD’S EYE Hornet, which has older radar and classic
On the Australian programme
This is the same aircraft that is being
VIEW’ AS system now flies with weapons only —
using weapons picture through the Super
offered to India. They have 24 of the 2C WE CALL IT Hornet and pass that information to other
models after that we have the configura- fighters. The information goes straight to
tions called F+, so it’s an upgrade option to its weapons and pops on the screen for the
be converted to E/A 18 G. They haven’t pilot to confirm, but he never has to put in
made decision for upgradation, but if they as a two-seater trainer or a tactical. They anything himself. So, we are really deliver-
will, we can do that locally in Australia. have seen the amount of information com- ing the weapons remotely from that per-
ing in, and they have now shifted their spective. We also take information from
On the convertibility of Super Hornet order towards two-seaters. Originally, they AWACS, AWC and other systems that give
to Growler were just going to get about a third of their us a broader air picture and complete situ-
Yes is the answer. But it would be a signifi- fleet as two-seaters, to replace the F 14s, ational awareness. The fliers actually fly
cant modification, as the wiring that we and the rest would be single-seater to with the ‘God’s eye view’ as we call it, to
have done for Australia. We can do the replace their C models. The amount of know who our friends or the friendlies are.
upgrade in their hangar. Because all we do information that comes into the cockpit It’s all part of the situational awareness
is complete the wire harness. So what we and the value is in the two-seaters. package, to know where the enemy is,
do to convert an F to a G, is drop the gun where my friends are. And it will direct the
out and you replace that with an avionics On the production facility fleet. So, the two-seater is often used as a
package, which manages the AW system. It is built in St. Louis, which is the head of battle director system; it can direct the
Sensors and antenna are inserted at our our defence systems. So, we build over single-seater aircraft around. It can assign
stations. In the 12 F+ that the RAF has, 12000 fighters there and half of those are targets. It’s entirely software driven.
there are cut-outs there with backing plates F-4s. We are in partnership with another The one central will tell the others that
on it. But the IAF hasn’t indicated any company that builds the centre frame for this is your. Here, the aircraft has the
interest in it today and in the 126 on offer. us. It builds that up in California, near advantage of AESA radar accuracy. So, they
The two-seaters are trainers not the tactical LA and ships it to us. We build the wings still have their own radar, which is good for
two-seaters. Even our trainers are convert- and the front and all other stuff. And some operations. But in place of fitting the
ible. We convert back and forth. So, if the we populate it with the equipment in AESA into old aircraft, we just feed them
Navy gets an F model, they can either use it St Louis. the information.

(28) January 2011
Interview Rick.qxd 1/3/2011 5:12 PM Page 63


On the business of geopolitics have done this for the bulk of our sales, all
These are government-to-government around the world.
sales. It’s still government-to-government NOBODY CAN
even though it’s competitive. This is FMS, Offset percentage
the US government is competing. Boeing It’s difficult, but we have worked in places
puts in the bid, Lockheed puts in the bid,
but at the end of the day the US govern-
TO THE where we had 100 per cent offsets. It was
difficult to deal with. The difference here
ment takes the guarantee. We are working TECHNOLOGY is the Transfer of Technology ( ToT)

on behalf of the government. requirement and no other country that we
dealt with had that. It’s a challenge but we
Similarity of equipment between USAF
Super Hornet and those offered to India
TO OFFER do that.

We always tailor our aircraft for the cus- On the bidding process
tomer, like you want different data link, you ToT is all about manufacture of the air-
want different communication system. So agreement, so we have absolutely no con- craft; we are fully prepared and have sub-
it’s not exactly the same as the US. Even trol over it. And when we remove some- mitted a compliance report, that over a
where it’s different, the US government certi- thing from the airplane we need to provide period of years you can manufacture the
fies its capability. It’s safe to fly. They take the an alternative system to ensure the air- aircraft in the country. It’s same for all
first airplane to our test facility and fly it for plane is fit for the purpose. This is not new competitors. First 18 aircraft will be deliv-
several months to ensure that it’s going to to India. Any country that wants a sepa- ered. Starting with number 19, there are
meet the performance that they signed on rate system, we make the changes. We do kits, so the first some number of kits are
for. So, the US government certifies the per- the engineering and the US government big parts. And then those kits become
formance of the aircraft. Even if it’s different, certifies its performance. So, if CISMOA is more kits over time and then it’s all the
it’s certified by the US government. So, even not signed, we will have to provide an parts. And during that timeframe you start
if we put the equipment in as the manufac- alternative system, to meet the one speci- manufacturing the parts. HAL is already
turer, the US government has to certify it for fied by India. building the gun bay door, and over time
two reasons: one, safety in flight and the oth- like I said, and that’s the ToT and it’s a
er, it doesn’t interfere with the installed On offset massive programme. Building an airplane
equipment. So, they are responsible for the Offsets are part of most of our sales. And, is a massive job. Even in St. Louis, a lot of
performance of the aircraft. of course, even in FMS, the US govern- parts comes in kits, and we assemble, test
ment has nothing to do with offsets. So and then we deliver it.
On CISMOA they say to the contractor: ‘This is yours to
CISMOA is a government-to-government deal with.’ It’s a separate contract. And we On the cost component of assembly
I don’t really know the answer; it will be
different here and in the US, as there is
different labour costs. We have quoted for
the first 18 aircraft, and for the kits. Any-
thing quoted in US will be in US pricing.
ON COMPETITION But things down here, we don’t know what
your rates are, so we could not quote that.
COMPARED TO THE On competition
Nobody can be compared to the technolo-
TECHNOLOGY WE gy we have to offer. We are incomparable.
This is a purpose-build strike fighter, the
HAVE TO OFFER. other competitors are interceptors with
WE ARE the secondary mission to strike. The AESA
radar gives us the capability, and it’s a
INCOMPARABLE. new plane. No one else is flying with the
AESA radar.
The department of defence does that. The
They have to comply with the FAA rules,
STRIKE. THE AESA RADAR GIVES US THE CAPABILITY, AND but they are the certifying agency.
IT’S A NEW PLANE. NO ONE ELSE IS FLYING WITH THE On the Indian aerospace industry
AESA RADAR. I think there is more and more
opportunity in the Indian aerospace indus-
try; there are lots of niche players. January 2011

ch self add new:ch self add one page new 2.qxd 5/25/2010 11:56 AM Page 4

CH cover may new:cover novemver NEW.qxd 5/3/2010 12:55 PM Page 1

May 2010 Rs 60

Praful Patel
Minister, Civil
Wilbur Ross, Sanjay Aggarwal
Head, WL Ross CEO, SpiceJet

& Co.


Arvind Jadhav
CMD, Air India


June 2008 Rs 60

As fuel prices touch the stratosphere, airlines owners get edgy. It’s like walking on
hot coals: they are cutting costs, dropping routes and wondering what to do next

The right stuff, all the time, on time

Get your copy today. Call 91-011-41033381 Mob.: 9650433044
India’s best known aviation monthly from Newsline Publications Pvt. Ltd.
ch self add new:ch self add one page new 2.qxd 5/25/2010 11:56 AM Page 4

CH cover may new:cover novemver NEW.qxd 5/3/2010 12:55 PM Page 1

May 2010 Rs 60

Praful Patel
Minister, Civil
Wilbur Ross, Sanjay Aggarwal
Head, WL Ross CEO, SpiceJet

& Co.


Arvind Jadhav
CMD, Air India


June 2008 Rs 60

As fuel prices touch the stratosphere, airlines owners get edgy. It’s like walking on
hot coals: they are cutting costs, dropping routes and wondering what to do next

The right stuff, all the time, on time

Get your copy today. Call 91-011-41033381 Mob.: 9650433044
India’s best known aviation monthly from Newsline Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Spl report Raj mehta new26.qxd 1/3/2011 5:26 PM Page 60


Maj Gen (Retd) RAJ MEHTA believes that the political
establishment and the services are together responsible for
this sorry state of affairs. Will the country learn from the best
practices of other nations and incorporate them in the higher
defence organisation? A special report


The IAF, the Navy and the
Army have a strategic role to
play in India's security

(32) January 2011
Spl report Raj mehta new26.qxd 1/3/2011 5:27 PM Page 61


FINE-TUNING FOREIGN POLICY: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh discussing strategic security issues with US President Obama,
during his India visit

EDIA, THINK-TANKS, India front of the country’s security concerns. This Indian political establishment and its mili-
watchers and the common has regrettably not happened. tary establishment as to desired gains. This
man all believe that the For the first time since attaining its Inde- does not appear to be the case.
current security situation pendence, India hosted the heads of Let us, therefore, review our defence
within India and in the state/government of all five permanent organisation and reflect on why there is such
South Asian region is a matter of grave members of the UN Security Council (US, an inexplicable disconnect between the
national concern. It is, however, a moot Russia, China, Britain and France) in the political hierarchy and its defence compo-
point whether India’s hapless ruling coali- nent.
tion and Parliament share this concern. The
UPA was unable to open the parliamentary INDIA'S EVOLUTION OF INDIAN HIGHER
lock through the entire winter session, with a
fractious opposition hell bent on scoring BOTH CIVIL AND On Independence, Lord Mountbatten and
brownie points on issues of accountability
and endemic corruption. India’s apex lead-
MILITARY his Chief of Staff, Lord Ismay, recommended
a pragmatic system, which was based on a
ership, both civil, and, by extension, its mili- LEADERSHIP ARE Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) for opera-

tary leadership, is thus under substantial tional handling and administration of each
operational stress. Service, and a Chiefs of Staff Committee
With the Af-Pak region threatening to
spin out of American-NATO control, with
SUBSTANTIAL (COSC) for central coordination. The COSC
was to be supported by other committees
increasing Sino-Pak collusion in the PoK STRESS with civil service members in them, to
(Pakistan-occupied Kashmir) region and improve coordination between the Services,
Chinese defence-related proactivity in Tibet and between the Services and the Ministry
and all over the South Asian region; with the same year. The sequence began with British of Defence (MoD). The system was work-
need to promote better relationships with Prime Minister David Cameron in July 2010. able, but the senior civil servants of the time
Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and countries in In November, US President Barack Obama intervened to completely distort the concept
the Indian Ocean littoral, one would have followed. The visits of French President of “civilian supremacy” to give it their own
thought that India would have been deeply Nicolas Sarkozy, Chinese Premier Wen interpretation of “bureaucratic control” by
concerned and would have consistently Jiabao and Russian President Dmitry issuing an edict that made the Services
fine-tuned its defence and foreign policies, Medvedev in December are all of signifi- “attached” to the MoD, thereby exposing
bringing its military leadership to the fore- cance, provided there is synergy within the them to suffocating controls. January 2011

Spl report Raj mehta new26.qxd 1/3/2011 5:28 PM Page 62


Post the Kargil War, the findings of the

Kargil Review Committee (KRC) contained a THE PRESENT SYSTEM
damning indictment of our national securi-
ty system. The KRC led to the formation, in
April 2000, of a Group of Ministers (GoM) to
suggest reforms through four specially man-
dated Task Forces. One of them was the Task
Force on Management of Defence, headed Supreme Commander of Indian Armed Forces
by former Minister of State for Defence,
Arun Singh.


Let us, for a moment, examine the existing
structure. The President is the Supreme Cabinet Committee & Security (CCS) NSC NSA
Commander of the Indian armed forces and Ministeries
the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS)
headed by the Prime Minister, assisted by
his Home, Defence, External Affairs and
Finance ministers is the country’s apex
security decisionmaking body. The National Shiv Shankar
Security Council (NSC), along with the
Home Defence External Affairs Finance
National Security Adviser (NSA), works par- P Chidambaram A K Antony S M Krishna Pranab Mukherji
allel to the CCS. The NSC comprises of a
Strategic Policy Group (SPG), a National
Security Advisory Board (NSAB) and a Secre- Strategic Policy Gruup National Security Secretariat provided by the
tariat provided by the Joint Intelligence Advisor Board Joint Intelligence Committee.
Committee. (JIC). The SPG is responsible for
inter-ministry coordination and comprises
the Cabinet Secretary, three Service Chiefs
and secretaries of key ministries beside
heads of key Intelligence agencies and the Three Security Chiefs
Governor of the Reserve Bank of India.
The MoD is required to ensure effective Cabinet Secretary Governor RBI
implementation of the Government’s K M Chandrasekhar Dr D Subbarao
defence policy directions. It is organised as
four departments (defence, defence produc-
tion, defence research and development
and ex-servicemen’s welfare) with an advi-
sory Defence (Finance) division. The
Defence Secretary is its civilian head and Army — General Navy — CNS Admiral Air Force —
V K Singh Nirmal Verma Pradeep Vasant Naik
also deals with the Integrated Defence Staff
(IDS), the three Services and Inter-Service
Organisations. making apparatus that the Arun Singh Task failure of the Iranian hostage rescue mission
The COSC is a forum for the Service Force thus homed in on to was the absence in 1980, and which were still evident in the
Chiefs to discuss defence matters and ren- of objective and unified apex military advice invasion of Grenada in 1983.
der advice to the MoD. The senior-most and oversight to Government that was free In the pre-Goldwater-Nichols era, the
Chief is the Chairman. Admiral Arun of inter-Services rivalry. What it suggested United States military had a system very
Prakash notes in “India’s Higher Defence after detailed worldwide study was the similar to the Indian one, with field com-
Organisation: Implications for National introduction of the Chief of Staff (CDS) sys- manders reporting to their respective
Security and Jointness”, that when he tem. What it used as a model was the Amer- Service Chiefs. These Chiefs comprised the
became Chairman of COSC in February ican system, enshrined in the Senators Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. The Joint
2005, he was the fourth successive incum- Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Chiefs of Staff elected a Chairman to com-
bent in six months. He adds with sobering Reorganization Act of 1986. municate with the civilian government. The
realpolitik that in his 20-month tenure as What did the US Goldwater-Nichols Chairman of the Joint Chiefs in turn report-
Chairman, COSC, there was rarely a mean- Department of Defense Reorganization Act ed to the Secretary of Defence, the civilian
ingful debate… “Because of the unstated of 1986 do? The Goldwater-Nichols Act was head of the military. Both the Chairman of
understanding amongst the Chiefs that ‘if a bold and revolutionary political initiative the Joint Chiefs and the Secretary of
you don’t interfere with my plans, I’ll not to fix problems caused by inter-Services Defence reported to the President of the
comment on yours’”. rivalry, which had emerged during the Viet- United States, who is Commander-in-Chief
The serious anomaly in the decision- nam War, contributed to the catastrophic of all US armed forces. This system led to

(34) January 2011
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intense inter-Services rivalry. to be created ex-post facto.

Peacetime activities (such This problem has been felt
as procurement and creation by all Services almost since
of doctrine, etc.) were tailored Independence.
for each service in isolation.
Just as seriously, wartime INDIAN JUGAD (IMPRO-
activities of each service were VISED) TO THE RESCUE
planned, executed, and evalu- In the manner that
ated independently. The cre- India seems to have an
(L-R):Barry Goldwater, William Flynt Nichols, K Subramanian, Arun Sinha and
ation of a unifying Air Land unenviable copyright on,
Admiral Arun Prakash
Battle Doctrine in the late we have muddled along, in
1970s-early 1980s, which the absence of political
attempted to synthesise the capabilities of Army has come around to accepting it, not and services consensus on the CDS, by cre-
the Services into a single doctrine, revealed so the Navy and Air Force who fear that ation of an Integrated Defence Staff (IDS)
the serious lack of inter-Services synergy — their Service interests may get swamped by under the Chief of Integrated Defence Staff
a weakness that was exposed in the US inva- the sheer size of the Army as well as the pre- to the Chiefs of Staff Committee (CISC).
sion of Grenada in 1983. sumed inability of the CDS to comprehend This organisation is meant to support the
The first successful test of Goldwater- how the Navy and Air Force look at opti- COSC in performance of its role and func-
Nichols was the 1991 Gulf War (“Operation mum utilisation of their capability and tions, and bring together and coordinate
Desert Storm”), where it functioned exactly reach and their plans to help convert India several functions, including the formula-
as planned, allowing the US Commander, into a regional power of substance. tion of long-term and Five Year Plans and
Army General Norman Schwarzkopf, to Given its size, geographical location, Annual Budgets have been brought under
exercise full control over Marine Corps, trade links and the EEZ (Exclusive Econom- the IDS. Tri-Service bodies promoting
Army, Air Force and Navy assets without ic Zones), India’s security environment ‘jointness’ and ‘synergy’ among the armed
having to negotiate with the individual serv- extends from the Persian Gulf to the Straits forces have been set up like the Defence
ices. Under the Goldwater-Nichols Act, mili- of Malacca across the Indian Ocean, includ- Intelligence Agency (DIA), the Strategic
tary advice was centralised in the Chairman ing the Central Asian region in the North Forces Command (SFC) and the Andaman
of the Joint Chiefs as opposed to the Service West, China in the North East and South and Nicobar Command. Individual service
Chiefs. It increased the ability of the Chair- East Asia. This is how the Navy sees itself; as headquarters have been re-designated and
man to direct overall strategy, but provided a strategic player of substance, with vast integrated to the Ministry of Defence as
greater command authority to “unified” and areas of security responsibility far away part of the ‘Integrated Headquarters of the
“specified” field commanders. Goldwater- from the mainland but key nevertheless to Ministry of Defence’.
Nichols changed the way the Services inter- the nation’s security. The IAF sees itself as a
act. The Services themselves “organise, train strategic force with trans-oceanic reach and THE WAY AHEAD
and equip” forces for use by the combatant is now projecting itself into sole command Given the “banana republic” kind of outlook
commanders (CCDRs), and the Service of space and therefore satellites and that the beleaguered ruling coalition is
Chiefs no longer exercise any operational weapons using space as well. exhibiting; the dismal outlook of a fractious as
control over their forces. Rather than report- The IAF and the Navy, as per Admiral well as fractured opposition, there seems little
ing to a Service Chief operationally, the serv- Arun Prakash, strongly feel they have a hope of our exhibiting the national and politi-
ice component forces support the CCDR much bigger strategic role to play in secur- cal resolve that will see a way out of this mess
responsible for a specific function (Trans- ing India’s strategic security interests than and put politico-military relations on a
portation, Strategic, Joint Forces, and Spe- the Army, which, these Services feel, is healthy track that promotes Indian national
cial Operations), or a geographic region of deeply committed as a ‘landlubber’ to interest over all other (sectarian) interests. For
the globe (Europe, Middle East, etc). mainland security challenges and their them, it seems cruelly apt to apply the words
extension into the peripheral region. It of G K Chesterton: “It is not that they don’t
SERVICES AND POLITICAL therefore does not seem well disposed to know what the solution is; what they don’t
APPREHENSIONS IN INDIA the concept of “theatre commands” that lie know is the problem.” The skeptical observer
Besides the US, UK, France, Germany, Italy, at the heart of what the other two Services might wonder whether the larger military
China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singa- feel ought to be the true DNA of the Indian establishment, given its unease and visible
pore, Thailand and Sri Lanka, all have a security system. discomfort with a unified strategic security
duly-appointed Chief of Defence Staff There is another dissonance too and this vision is also not guilty of displaying the same
(CDS), who enjoys the full confidence and is between the perceived Indian strategic weakness that has remained as a legacy with
trust of the head of government, and to aims, military doctrine and the need for us since the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC
whom he directly reports. In India, howev- acquiring modern military hardware. There — abysmal lack of a strategic culture. What
er, even though the Government accepted is a major problem here, because our strate- seems possible and the right way forward is
the CDS suggestion, it slipped in a caveat gic vision has not been officially stated even for final arbiter of the nation’s destiny; the
that there must be political consensus on though it can be extrapolated. Also, because Supreme Court of India, to step in and
its implementation. The political parties by there is dissonance between politician-mil- demand legislation that removes the
and large have not even replied to the Gov- itary and bureaucrats, we have often ended leadership and operational stresses from our
ernment’s request for their response. up buying hardware that is not in conso- politico-military apparatus.
Within the Services too, there is lack of nance with our needs and for which
consensus on creation of this office. The military use and justification has then got (The author is a Chandigarh-based analyst.) January 2011

Periscope jan.qxd 1/3/2011 5:24 PM Page 12



AFTER NEARLY three decades of develop- The first 40 LCAs will be powered by
ment, India’s indigenous Light Combat the American General Electric GE-F404
Aircraft (LCA) will obtain its Initial Opera- engines. The government had, a couple of
tional Clearance (IOC) around the middle months ago, chosen the GE-F414 as the
of January 2011, taking its last step before new engine for future
induction into the Indian Air Force (IAF). LCAs after rejecting its
As India’s long-time-in-the-works proj- competitor, Eurojet’s
ect, LCA design and development by the EJ200 engine. A total
Defence Research and Development of 99 GE-F414 engines are
Organisation (DRDO) and Hindustan to be purchased under
Aeronautics Limited (HAL) was approved manufacturing agency. the deal with General
by the government in the late 1960s. Nick- With the IOC coming in Electric.
named ‘Tejas’ in 2004, the LCA designing January, the IAF intends to The IAF may ultimately have around
had been launched in 1985 by the Aero- induct two squadrons of the LCA by the 200 LCAs (10 squadrons) in its fleet, pri-
nautical Development Agency (ADA) middle of 2011. The IAF had first placed marily to replace the ageing Russian
under the DRDO with HAL as the nodal the orders for 40 LCAs in March 2005. MiG-21 and MiG-27 fighter jets.

SUPER HERCULES New Mi-117 choppers

DEFENCE MAJOR Lockheed operating from unprepared
Martin delivered the first of runways, would be based at
six C-130Js to the Indian Air the Hindon Air Force station
Force at Marietta on Decem- in UP’s Ghaziabad’s district.
ber 17. The first two The planes are equipped
C-130Js would be flown to with air-to-air refuelling
India in January. The IAF capability and have self-pro-
would deploy this latest fleet tection systems that improve
of airlifters, configured for chances of survival in hostile
special operations and situations. The delivery of
airborne assault, on the out- the airlifters is part of a
skirts of New Delhi to cut $1.2-billion (`5,400 crore)
down on response time in contract the Defence Min-
situations akin to the 26/11 istry had signed in 2008 for
terror attacks. six C-130Js, under Washing-
The C-130J Super Her- ton’s foreign military sales
cules airlifters, capable of programme.

INDIA WILL begin inducting deliveries of 80 Mi-17-V5 heli-

the first lot of 80 Russian copters are expected to con-
Mi-17-V5 helicopters, con- clude by 2014, as per the con-
tracted under a $1.34-billion tract, which also envisages an
deal inked in December 2008, offset obligation by Russia to
from March 2011 onwards, ac- the tune of $405 million.
cording to Defence Minister A While bolstering IAF’s
K Antony. medium-lift capabilities, the
These helicopters will be new helicopters will also make
utilised for special heliborne it possible for the force to de-
operations, air maintenance, ploy additional choppers for lo-
troop and equipment trans- gistical support in ongoing
portation, search and rescue, anti-Naxal operations. The
casualty evacuation and in choppers will replace 50 old
armed helicopter roles. The Mi-8s in the IAF fleet.

(36) January 2011
Periscope jan.qxd 1/3/2011 5:25 PM Page 13

retires State for Defence on December 13.
This OPV has been designed and built
indigenously and is fitted with most-
advanced navigation and communica-
tion equipment, sensors and machinery.
The ship is designed to carry one twin-
engine light helicopter and five high-
speed boats for search and rescue, law-
enforcement and maritime patrol. It is
also capable of carrying pollution
response equipment to combat any oil
spill contamination at sea.
INDIAN COAST Guard ship ‘Vijit’, second ICGS Vijit will be manned by eight offi-
in the series of 90-metre Offshore Patrol cers and 82 men under the command of INDIA’S PRECARIOUSLY low submarine
Vessel (OPV), has been commissioned at Deputy Inspector General Naresh Kaul strength took a dive on December 15 with the
Goa by M M Pallam Raju, Minister of and will be based at Porbandar. decommissioning of the Navy’s oldest foxtrot-
class submarine, INS Vagli, which retired after
36 years of service.
Scorpenes to get lethal plus! Commissioned in August, 1974, INS Vagli
was commanded by 23 officers in all major
tactical exercises off both sea-boards and in
the high seas. With its retirement, the naval
submarine strength has come down to 14 age-
ing vessels of which only eight-nine are opera-
tional at any given point of time.
In 1999, the Cabinet Committee on Security
decided to create two production lines for sub-
marines with foreign vendors to achieve an
indigenous design and manufacturing capa-
bility. While the first line to produce six French
Scorpene submarines is operational at the
Mazgaon Dock, the second line too received
government approval recently.

THE NAVY is weighing a proposal to mod-
ify the under-construction Scorpene sub-
visit to India, says that his company is in
talks with the Navy to equip the sub-
marines to enable the boats to stay un-
derwater for longer periods and enhance
marines with AIP systems. According to
Boissier, if a contract were to be placed by
their combat capabilities. It is considering next year, AIP systems could be integrat- THE INDIAN Navy has asked the Border Secu-
to equip the submarines, being built at ed into the fifth and the sixth submarines rity Force and the customs department to beef
Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL), with an air rolling out of MDL in 2018. The systems up their presence along the 160-km-long stretch
independent propulsion (AIP) system that can be retrofitted on the first four sub- of water that runs through the Sunderbans.
can recharge their batteries without hav- marines later under an upgrade pro- Navy officials are concerned that even two years
ing to surface for more than three weeks. gramme. The Navy is also looking at an in- after the 26/11 attacks in Mumbai, such a long
Conventional submarines have to surface digenous AIP system being developed by stretch has remained unmanned.
almost every second day to run their air- the Defence Research and Development This stretch provides almost free-entry rights
breathing diesel engines, running the risk Organisation. to the Indian waters where ships from
of detection. Navy Chief Admiral Nirmal Verma has Bangladesh are allowed to travel a long stretch
Six Scorpene submarines are being said that the first Scorpene submarine before reaching the Customs checkpoint at
built with transfer of technology from would enter service in 2015 and the re- Namkhana, about 120km south of Kolkata. Ac-
French firm DCNS, under a `18,798-crore maining six within a span of three years. cording to an Indo-Bangladesh trade agree-
programme called Project 75. DCNS CEO The Navy was supposed to induct its first ment, ships from Bangaldesh can enter India
Patrick Boissier, who accompanied French Scorpene in 2012, but the project has through Bihari Khal by going through a routine
President Nicolas Sarkozy, during his recent been delayed. check by the BSF. January 2011

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(38) January 2011
Cover story cyber war NEW.qxd 1/3/2011 4:59 PM Page 39


NFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) is a Narayanan, Cabinet Secretary K M Chan- government for "atrocities” in Kashmir. Obvi-
double-edged sword, which can be drasekhar, PM’s then Special Envoy Shyam ously, it had the intended impact in the Valley.
used for destructive as well as con- Saran and Deputy National Security Advisor Similarly, in 2008, techno-savvy terrorists
structive purposes. It has now created Shekhar Dutt. The four and up to 26 others based in Pakistan used the Internet to send
for the mankind a fifth dimension to were squarely in the crosshairs of the hacking terror e-mails a few seconds before triggering
land, sea, air and space, though unlike attempt. The timing of the espionage attempt the serial blasts across the country.
the other four dimensions it is completely had investigators suspecting that the Chinese In December 2008, the Eastern Railways
man-made and man-controlled. We all know hackers were desperately trying to access any portal was hacked by Whackerz-Pakistan. The
how through the constructive use of IT, India’s data on India’s position at the Copenhagen official site bore a
profile and wealth have gone up enormously Climate Summit. strange look. When opened, the top scroll on
in the world. However, at the same time — and In March 2009, a China-based cyber spy the site, which normally consists of official
this is the destructive aspect — India now network had hacked into the government and announcements, had unusual notes. The first
ranks fifth among countries reporting the private systems of 103 countries, including note read: “Cyber war has been declared on
maximum number of cyber crimes, according those of many Indian embassies and the Dalai Indian cyberspace by Whackerz-Pakistan (24
to a recent report released by the Internet Lama. In May 2008, hackers from China Dec-2008)”. This was followed by two other
Crime Complaint Centre of the United States. attacked the Ministry of External Affairs’ abusive notes. The threat note also claimed
In fact, it is said that with India becoming (MEA) website. Despite official denials, at least that servers of Indian financial institutions
home to the fourth-highest number of Inter- one website reported that the hackers had would also be hacked with the help of the
net users in the world, cyber crimes have been stolen the log-in identities and passwords of group’s members working in computer
rising at more than 50 per cent every year. The several Indian diplomats. In any case, a huge departments of “foreign companies”. The
great virtues of the Internet — ease of access, number of 9,052 Indian websites have been at scene became grimmer after the 26/11 Mum-
lack of regulation, vast potential audiences, the mercy of an anti-India community, that bai attacks in 2008. The Pakistani group, Pak-
and fast flow of information, among others — too in the last three-four years. Hackers from istan Cyber Army hacked the websites of the
have been turned to the advantage of groups across the Indian borders have become a new Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, the Centre
committed to terrorising societies to achieve threat point for the government. Of course, for Transportation Research and Manage-
their goals. Cyber weapons are very different ment, the Kendriya Vidyalaya of Ratlam (a
from conventional weapons in the sense that chain of schools run by the Indian Army) and

they are very easy to replicate without spend- the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation of India
ing much money. Actually, the total expendi- (ONGC). The damages took a long time to fill.
ture is in the creation of the first or original
weapon. Through the applications of these
UNDERGOING Hostile neighbours, or for that matter exter-
nal enemies can always create havoc by
weapons, one can adversely affect individuals, A TURBULENT indulging in what is now well known as cyber
organisations and countries — both singly war. For instance, it is now an open secret that
and combined. PHASE WITH Russia launched an unprecedented cyber war
Terrorism on the Internet is a very dynamic
phenomenon: websites suddenly emerge, fre-
REGARD TO against Estonia in May 2007, soon after Eston-
ian authorities began removing a bronze
quently modify their formats, and then swiftly CYBER CRIMES statute depicting a World War II-era Soviet sol-
disappear — or, in many cases, seem to disap- dier in Tallinn (capital of Estonia). Though offi-
pear by changing their online address but cially Russia denied it, the fact was that its
retaining much the same content. Recently, cyber attack virtually crippled Estonia’s digital
Indian Cabinet Secretary K M Chandrasekhar cyber attacks from across the border are not infrastructure by clogging the websites of the
admitted that cyber terrorism and cyber new to India. It happened for the first time President, the Prime Minister, and Parliament
attacks had emerged as new threats with a when, during the nuclear tests at Pokhran in as well as staggering the country’s biggest
capability to paralyse the critical infrastruc- 1998, Pakistan hacked the websites of Zee bank and the sites of several daily newspapers.
ture of the country. "The damage of such News and India Today. The Pakistan-based In fact, the attack totally destroyed Estonia’s
attacks could range from a simple shut down hackers, GForce Pakistan and Pakistani Hack- financial system for a few weeks.
of a computer system to complete paralysis of erz Club, owned up to the intrusion, leaving The attack on Estonia was one of the most
a significant portion of critical infrastructure," threatening messages and demanding a stop- publicised hacks in recent computing history.
he said. page to the N-tests. Even after the Parliament But it wasn’t the first case of cyber espionage,
That India is undergoing a turbulent phase attacks in December 2001 and later a massive nor the most egregious. It’s the “tip of the ice-
with regard to cyber crimes is evident from the troop stand-off between India and Pakistan, berg of the quantity and quality of attacks that
attack by Chinese hackers to the computers in several hacking incidents were reported. are going on,” says O Sami Saydjari, president
the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) not long Subsequently, the Pakistani hackers of the Cyber Defense Agency, a security con-
ago. The sinister attempt was made around targeted the Indian website www.armyinkash- sultant, and a former Pentagon computer
December 15, 2009. Investigators are still com-, which was providing factual infor- security expert. Israel, Pakistan and the United
ing to terms with the depth of the damage. The mation about daily events in the Kashmir Val- States have all been accused of launching sim-
hackers had aimed high — their targets were ley in 1999. The hackers posted photographs ilar attacks on adversaries.
the cream of India’s national security set-up: showing the Indian security forces allegedly China, however, may be the most active.
the then National Security Advisor M K killing Kashmiri people and blamed the Indian Washington has accused the China of hacking January 2011

Cover story cyber war NEW.qxd 1/3/2011 4:59 PM Page 40


government computer networks at the US

Departments of State, Commerce, and
Defense — in some instances making off with
data. But accusations of Chinese cyber med-
dling reached a crescendo in June 2007, when,
according to the Financial Times, hackers
broke into a Pentagon network that serves the
office of the Secretary of Defense, briefly shut-
ting it down. Chinese electronic espionage has
also been suspected against British compa-
nies (Rolls Royce is one example), as well as
government agencies in France, Germany,
South Korea, and Taiwan. “Chinese capabili-
ties in this area have evolved from defending
networks from attack to offensive operations
against adversary networks,” Deputy Under-
Secretary for Defense, Richard P Lawless told
a House Committee in June 2007. However,
China, like Russia, denied the accusations.


Fortunately, no hostile neighbour has
caused that harm to India as yet, but our com-
panies and financial institutions are appre-
hensive of cyber attacks. In 2006, IBM con-
IN A CYBER war, the enemy's main goal is to States and, in at least one instance, shut off ducted a global survey of more than 3,000
penetrate the rival's computer networks, power to multiple cities. The hackers then
exploit its communication networks and to demanded money (as reported by AP).
manipulate its digital information. As regards India, the immediate threats INDIA
Other cyber tactics are less sophisticated. are from our immediate neighbours, Pak-
The attack that temporarily brought down istan and China, it is believed. According to PERCEIVED
the Estonian networks began with a flood of
bogus messages targeting government
the Intelligence Bureau, China may try and
destabilise our economy by launching
servers, called a “denial of service” attack. attacks on our banking sectors. Pakistan, on AS A GREATER
The approach harnesses “botnets”— mas- the other hand, may attack essential com-
sive networks of interconnected computers modity-related services instead. THREAT THAN
to bombard targeted networks with infor-
mation requests while masking the location
Reports indicate that for a terrorist
organisation, the easiest way to launch an
of the primary attacker. attack on India would be through the cyber CRIME
Another technique is the use of “mal- route. It is high investment, but it saves
ware”, “spyware,” and other malicious pro- them the trouble of manpower on the field
grammes imbedded into computer systems and the impact such an attack could cause is Chief Information Officers or other individu-
to steal information without user knowl- immense. IB reports also suggest that terror- als qualified to answer questions about their
edge. The software is designed to hide ist organisations could start an Internet war company’s IT practices. It included 150
undetected and siphon information from its by hacking into websites and sending out respondents from India. The survey showed
host — everything from secrets stored on viruses to destabilise the enemy nation. The that Indian businesses perceived cyber crime
personal computers to military mainframes. forms of cyber assaults would include cyber (44 per cent) as a greater threat than physical
Less common but far more worrisome are vandalism, destruction of essential com- crime (31 per cent) to their business. They
cyber attacks aimed at critical infrastructure modity-related sites (ESCOMs) and phish- believed that one could always damage
— like nuclear-power-plant control systems, ing. telecommunications or rail links, disrupt
banks, or subways. In March 2007, the US Cyber war on India is likely to be fought power supplies and harm other important
Department of Energy's Idaho Lab conduct- in three stages. First, the enemy would parts of India’s infrastructure through
ed an experiment to determine whether a bring down the control systems of defence cyber attacks.
power plant could be compromised by hack- installations, Parliament, railways and air- As for individual attacks, the trend has
ing alone. The result — a smoking, self- ports. Second, they would look to attack been on a constant rise. According to the lat-
combusting diesel generator incapacitated financial services such as banks and stock est report of the National Crime Record
by nothing more than keystrokes — sent markets. Finally, ESCOMs and other utilities Bureau (NCRB), the maximum cyber crime
shivers (according to CNN) through the pri- services will be taken over. cases, about 46 per cent, were related to inci-
vate sector. The worries were apparently Cyber crime experts say this is a danger- dents of cyber pornography, followed by
well-founded. In January 2008, a CIA ana- ous scenario. It will surely create a lot of hacking. This number must have gone up, giv-
lyst told US utilities that hackers had suc- panic and if they succeed, it could cause a en the fact that this NCRB report was out in
ceeded in infiltrating electric companies in lot of destruction, since it would take days 2007. Experts have always paid scant respect
undisclosed locations outside the United before the services actually recover. to the recorded cyber crime statistics since
this only reflects the cases registered by the

(40) January 2011
Document1 11/1/2010 8:06 PM Page 1

Indira Gandhi International Airport

Terminal 3
Cover story cyber war NEW.qxd 1/3/2011 5:00 PM Page 42


police. It has no relation to the actual number “State” subject and the complaints have to be central government, apart from the required
of cyber crimes happening in the country as lodged with the local police, it all depends review and monitoring of project implemen-
well as complaints taken by the public to dif- under what laws the police register the cases, tation on a continuing basis.
ferent police stations where they are refused. and in most cases, the police prefer the age- The broad objectives of the CCTNS project
However, if we take the figures given by the old IPC simply because the local police is not are streamlining investigation and prosecu-
cyber cell of Delhi Police, one gets a trend and conversant with the intricacies of the IT Act, tion processes, strengthening of the intelli-
that is a matter of concern. The number of which is a central legislation. gence-gathering machinery, improved public-
registered cyber crimes is going up constantly Other than the police officers, in India, delivery system and citizen-friendly interface,
year-after-year and here most of the cases lawyers and judges are not properly trained in nationwide sharing of information on crime
have been e-mail hacking and online matri- cyber law aspects so that cyber criminals may and criminals and improving efficiency and
monial frauds. According to the Delhi Police, be suitably punished. In the absence of proper effectiveness of police functioning. The proj-
in 2009 e-mail hacking and the consequent training, there is almost no conviction of cyber ect aims to fulfil various specified objectives
cheating cases went up by 150 per cent. It is criminals in India. The major problem has over a period of three years. Accordingly, in
said that in many a case, Nigerian gangs are been due to the lack of what is called Cyber December 2009, the Parliament of India was
very active in India, particularly during festive Forensics. We know how forensic devices are told that the Government of India (GoI) was
seasons when massive purchases are done important in normal criminal investigations interconnecting about 14,000 police stations
online, thanks to the system of credit cards to gather evidence to prove in a court but to and 6,000 police offices across the country
and online bank accounts. prove cyber crimes, electronic evidence and through CCTNS. The government is also
It is obvious that cyber criminals, unlike their collection and presentation have posed a examining the feasibility of connecting hotels
other criminals, are educated. They are not challenge to investigation agencies, prosecu- and guesthouses to the CCTNS system.
necessarily motivated by notoriety, unless tion agencies and judiciary. While cyber experts are eagerly waiting for
they are government-sponsored to do mis- Realising the gravity of the situation, the the actual implementation of the CCTNS sys-
chief in enemy countries or are tem, it is also being felt that another
hard core terrorists. Hackers, other- INDIAN WEBSITES improvement that is urgently
wise, want to earn quick money. In required to be adopted, implement-
fact, the demographic profile of a
typical cyber criminal is changing
rapidly, from a bedroom-bound
HACKED ed and inculcated by the Judges of
District Courts, High Courts and
Supreme Court of India pertains to
geek to the type of organised gang- techno-legal acumen and knowl-
ster more traditionally associated edge. Techno-Legal acumen is diffi-
with drug-trafficking, extortion and Eastern Railways cult to acquire as it requires a sound
money laundering. Cyber criminals Zee News working and practical knowledge of
can earn thousands without leaving both technical and legal aspects of
their homes. In fact, to make more the Information and Communica-
money than can be made by selling tion Technology (ICT)-related

heroin. According to NCRB report, aspects. Issues like Cyber Law, Inter-

most of the offenders are in the age national Telecommunications Laws,

group of 18 and 30 years. Kendriya Cyber Forensics, Digital Evidencing,

Vidyalaya of
That brings us to the question on Ratlam Cyber Security, etc. pose difficult
how do deal with the cyber crimes? Indian Institute and sometimes non-understand-
It is no doubt a Herculean task, giv- of Remote able legal issues before the courts.
en the fact that the technology Sensing The judges in India must fill in this
involved in cyber crimes is so fast much-needed and unnoticed legal
changing, any law would find it dif- India Today gap that has not yet been explored
Oil and Natural Gas
ficult to keep pace. Second, any Corporation of India by them.
effective law will need international It must be realised that cyber
cooperation in the sense that the criminal is government has now devised what is now threats are worrisome and, therefore, the gov-
not supposed to be physically present in the known as the Crime and Criminal Tracking ernment must come out with strong and prac-
country where the crime is committed. Unfor- Network & Systems (CCTNS) project, and this tical solutions to counter such threats. But giv-
tunately, there are no international rules and has been formally approved by the Cabinet en the very nature of IT revolution, there can-
conventions as yet to deal with cyber crimes. Committee on Economic Affairs of the gov- not be a single solution to deal with these
Obviously, there is need now to tighten inter- ernment. It has a financial cushion of 2,000 threats. There is a need for what is called a
national digital legislation and of cross-border crore as per the 11th Five Year Plan. The proj- techno-legal “harmonised law”. We need a
law-enforcement co-ordination to fight cyber ect would be initiated by the Ministry of Home good combination of law and technology in
crime. Affairs and implemented by the National such a manner that it is in harmony with the
That brings the scope of national laws. In Crime Records Bureau. The CCTNS project is laws of various countries keeping in mind
India, cyber crimes come under both the to be implemented in a manner where the common security standards. In this era of e-
traditional Indian Penal Code (IPC) and the major role would lie with the state govern- governance and e-commerce, a lack of com-
Information Technology Act, 2000, which was ments in order to bring in the requisite stakes, mon security standards can create havoc for
amended in 2008. And herein lies, according ownership and commitment, and only certain global trade in goods and services, not to talk
to the experts, confusion. Since policing is a core components would be in the hands of the of military matters.

(42) January 2011
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As the threat of cyber terrorism looms large over the future, RADHAKRISHNA RAO
takes a look at how India is prepared to deal with it

HE UNPRECEDENTED com- Testing Facility fully well-equipped to certify servers. The location of one of the servers has
munications revolution that all imported software and hardware pro- been traced to Pakistan while there is no clar-
was ushered in by the cyber age cured for key information systems used by ity on the origin of the other server. A forensic
has turned the world into a ver- Indian agencies including the security estab- report makes it clear that some vital files and
itable "global village". Indeed, lishment. e-mails were deleted from the computer after
cyber space has radically trans- Indian security agencies have been it was seized by the authorities. Significantly,
formed the way individuals and societies expressing concern about malware or spy- the Major came under the shadow of suspi-
communicate by overcoming the barriers of ware embedded into imported hardware that cion after a tip-off from American intelli-
time, distance and natural impediments. But could ultimately be exploited by unfriendly gence agencies that were busy studying the
on the flipside, the cyber revolution has led countries to hack the information networks content of suspicious internet communica-
to terrorists, white collar criminals and anti- with serious consequences for India. On tions as part of their wider probe related to
social elements making use of the cyber another front, with a view to securing vital the Lashkar-e-Taiba operative David Headly.
space to realise their "devious and dangerous areas such as banking, defence, railways, civ- To their surprise, the American probe agen-
objectives". Indeed, there is a growing per- il aviation, atomic energy as well as oil and cies detected a user in the Andaman and
ception that the next war could start and end gas, there is a proposal to set up a high-pow- Nicobar Islands transmitting a picture of a
in cyber space. As pointed out by strategic ered computer emergency responsive team serving Indian Brigadier who was attending a
analysts, the ancient art and profession of for each of these sectors. training programme in the US to a computer
warfare is now all set to enter the domain of In a development that has rattled the Indi- based in Pakistan. This was how the needle of
cyber space after being fought on land, sea an defence establishment and security set suspicion was pointed towards the Indian
and in the air. Sometime back, defence up, the possible role of Indian Army officials Army Major located in the Andaman.
experts had expressed concern over the outer in a suspected cyber-espionage case follow- Amidst this bleak scenario, it is appropri-
space emerging as the battlefield for the next ing the hacking of a computer system of a ate that the Indian Army has directed its offi-
world war. With leading space-faring coun- Major of the Indian Army located in the cials to keep away from social networking
tries, including India, hinting at developing Andaman island is being probed. Investigat- sites, including Twitter, Facebook and Orkut.
devices aimed at ensuring the safety and ing agencies are now probing the circum- They have been asked not to post sensitive
security of their space assets, the possibility stances leading to the "cyber security information like their rank, unit or posting
of space becoming the fourth dimension of breach" leading to the siphoning-off of location. Not too long ago, Chinese hackers
the warfare has been taken for granted. "highly sensitive and top secret" data by Pak- are known to have used social networking
In the Indian context, the threat of cyber istan. Whether this leak was deliberate or due sties to break into the computer systems of
terrorism has assumed serious proportions to the "devious doings" of Pakistan-based the Indian defence establishment. On its part
with a number of terrorist groups targeting hackers, no one is sure as yet. But one dis- the Indian Army has decided to crack the
India making extensive use of cyber net- turbing feature of the whole episode was that whip on erring and defaulting Army officials.
works. For instance, Pakistani-sponsored ter- the files found in the computer system of the Counter-espionage agencies in the country
rorist groups make extensive use of cyber Major were beyond the sphere of his work. have been directed to take up the challenge
communications to "create and sustain the Incidentally, Andaman and Nicobar deploy- of tracking and monitoring social networking
state of disturbance" in the Kashmir Valley. ment is a part of the tri-service command portals more strictly and initiate action
Not surprisingly, the Government of India, where all the three wings of the Indian against erring officials.
with a view to countering cyber attacks, has defence set-up work in unison under the As part of the long-term plan to ward off
come out with a decision to enforce stricter overall command of the Integrated Defence the threat of cyber espionage originating
norms for foreign communications equip- Staff (IDS). from unfriendly countries, India is now
ment vendors and service providers. As a part One of the theories doing the rounds is working towards preparing a blueprint for
of this strategy, the government is exploring that the computer of the Major in the counter-cyber warfare. According to a pro-
the possibility of putting in place a National Andamans was accessed from two proxy posal now receiving the serious attention of January 2011

Cover story cyber war NEW.qxd 1/3/2011 5:00 PM Page 44


the National Security Council, Indian agen- painstaking research by a team of experts military colleges were also taken over by the
cies may be asked to enhance capabilities to from Information Warfare Monitor and the elusive Chinese cyber spies.
exploit the shortcoming in the information Shadowserver Foundation. While Informa- Some of the documents stolen by Chinese
systems of the countries that are inimical to tion Warfare Monitor is a joint endeavour of hackers are known to include secret assess-
India and also collect online intelligence of the Citizen Lab, Munk School of Global ment of the security situation in Assam,
their important military activities including Affairs, University of Canada, and SecDev Manipur, Nagaland and Tripura as well as
defence build-ups. The proposed blueprint Group, an operational consultancy group the Maoist insurgency in India. In the after-
includes plans to set up exclusive laborato- located in Ottawa, the Shadowserver Foun- math of Chinese cyber invasion, Defence
ries in research institutions to simulate cyber dation set up in 2004 is composed of volun- Minister A K Antony had called upon the
attacks with the assistance of ethical hackers. teer security professionals specialising in Indian armed forces to coordinate closely
In addition, these specialised laboratories monitoring malware and malicious attacks with various national cyber agencies for
would be the focal points for training intelli- on computer systems. This report went to evolving a crisis management plan to count-
gence agencies for offensive and defensive reveal — beyond the shadow of doubt — that er the looming threat of cyber terrorism.
cyber techniques. As things stand now, the Chinese hackers could break into high secu- While addressing the United Commanders
National Technical Research Organisation rity computers systems belonging to govern- Conference held in New Delhi in April 2010,
(NTRO), the Defence Intelligence Agency ments, diplomatic missions, as well as busi- Antony observed, "Of late, extraordinary and
(DIA) as well as the Defence Research and ness and industry, from across the world. unprecedented cyber crimes have taken
Development Organisation (DRDO) will be In addition to hacking the information place across the globe, exposing gaping
the key players in giving a practical shape to networks of Indian defence establishments holes in cyber security systems. Although
this blueprint of immense national interest. and Indian diplomatic missions in various Defence Services at all levels have taken
In particular, the plan also points out to the parts of the world, Chinese cyber spies had steps to counter cyber threat through strin-
possibility of setting up early-warning capa- also targeted leading Indian daily, The Times gent implementation of cyber security poli-
bilities about impending attacks on the of India, FICCI (Federation of Indian Cham- cy, there is still a requirement to ensure that
country's information systems and evolving ber of Commerce and Industry), DLF India, all loopholes in this regard are suitably
expertise in the area of cyber forensics. Tata Group, Indian Railways, New Delhi- plugged."
Meanwhile, a well-documented study of based strategic think tank Institute for Significantly, a year before the India-spe-
the future of geo-political relations with Chi- Defence Studies and Analysis (IDSA), the cific cyber espionage from mainland China
na, brought out by the US military, reveals came to light, the same research group had
that the Chinese government is moving tracked a cyber spy network in Hainan island
ahead vigorously with a well-conceived plan INDIA IS of China, which had successfully managed to
to develop a full-fledged cyber warfare divi- siphon off classified documents from govern-
sion. The report makes it clear that the Chi- WORKING ments and private organisations in more
nese government is assembling a team to
deal with "electronic and online arenas". TOWARDS than a 100 countries including the Tibetan
government-in-exile headed by His Holiness
Chinese warfare strategists are clear that by
crippling or destroying the economic, com-
PREPARING A The Dalai Lama. In this instance, Chinese
hackers are known to have exploited a system
munications and strategic networks and BLUEPRINT FOR called Ghostnet to steal the files from the
infrastructure, it is possible to bring the
adversaries to heels. In the ultimate analysis, COUNTER CYBER information network of the Tibetan govern-
ment-in-exile. As it is, for long the Dalai
cyber warfare can prove even more deadly
than ballistic missile strikes.
WARFARE Lama's office was concerned over the possi-
bility of Chinese cyber spies hacking into its
Clearly, in a cyber war, the adversary is computers. Investigations went to show that
not only invisible but also attacks could be NIC (National Informatics Centre) as well as Chinese hackers had copied and stolen files
mounted with a high degree of unpre- many multi-national corporations operat- from the computer network of the Dalai
dictability on civilian and defence assets. ing in India. As it is, the Indian defence set- Lama and his Tibetan government-in-exile.
Stealth and anonymity are the other advan- up has always been suspicious of possible The Chinese government has vehemently
tages of a well-planned cyber war. Because cyber attacks originating from China. denied the involvement of Beijing in the
cyber communications is still in an evolu- Although the identity and motivation of the cyber espionage endeavour originating from
tionary mode, there is no fool-proof firewall hackers are not known, there is ample evi- mainland China. In the absence of a clear-cut
with which to protect the information sys- dence to show that the entire operations proof and clinching evidence to establish the
tems from the manipulations and machina- were directed from a site in Chengdu in Chi- involvement of the Chinese government, the
tions of well-trained and highly-motivated na. As pointed out by a report in the New Indian gssovernment has decided against
hackers. York Times,"the intruders pilfered classified taking up the issue with the authorities in
That China has for quite sometime been and restricted information from the highest Beijing. But India should take all precaution-
active in siphoning off of sensitive and levels of the Indian Defence Ministry." ary measures and initiate a technically-resur-
strategically significant information stored Among the institutions targeted by the gent action plan to insulate itself against the
in the computer systems from across the Chinese hackers were the National Security threat of cyber espionage emanating from
world, including India, became clear after Council Secretariat, 21 Mountain Artillery across the borders. That is simply because
the release of the report, Shadows in the Brigade based in the North-East and Air cyber spies have no physical boundaries to
Cloud in April 2010. This well-documented Force Station in New Delhi. What's more, the negotiate while giving a practical shape to
report is considered a tribute to the computer systems being operated by Indian their "evil designs".

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CHINA’S STRATEGY: China is trying to
resolve its emerging territorial and
boundary disputes by raw show of
strength rather than negotiations

ANY OF Asia’s leaders met
at the East Asia Summit in
Hanoi in the last week of
October 2010 to discuss
geo-strategic and econom-
ic issues of common interest. However,
China is more convinced than ever that as far as the PLA is most of the discussions on the sidelines of
concerned, a military revolution with information warfare as the summit focussed on China’s aggressive
posturing in its area of influence. China’s
the core has reached the stage where efforts must be made to recent assertiveness in the South China Sea
catch up and overtake rivals. GURMEET KANWAL examines and belligerence towards Japan are early
indicators of its emerging proclivity to settle
the possibilities under these circumstances territorial and boundary disputes by force January 2011

China.qxd 1/3/2011 4:53 PM Page 60


rather than through diplomatic negotia- David Shambaugh, a well-known China schol-
tions. India’s unresolved territorial and
boundary dispute with China and an un-
CHINA IS ar in the US, has written: “Rather than con-
ducting a ‘people’s war’ (a strategy to ‘lure the
demarcated Line of Actual Control (LAC) on ENGAGED IN enemy in deep’ into one’s own territory), the
the Indo-Tibetan border do not augur well PLA doctrine of ‘active defence’ calls for for-
for long-term peace and stability between DEVELOPING A ward positioning, frontier defence, engage-
these two Asian giants.
China’s continuing opposition to India’s
MODERNISED ment of the enemy at or over the border and
potential engagement in conflict beyond Chi-
nuclear weapons programme; its nuclear PEOPLE’S ARMY na’s immediate periphery… this doctrine is
and missile collusion and intimate defence essentially pro-active and seeks to take the
cooperation with Pakistan; its support to the WITH CHINESE battle into enemy territory.”
military regime in Myanmar; its inroads into
Nepal; increasing activities in the Bay of CHARACTERISTICS Beijing has defined the following five like-
ly limited war scenarios: Military conflict with
Bengal; its attempts to isolate India in the neighbouring countries in a limited region;
ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF); and, its military conflict on territorial waters; unde-
relentless efforts to increase its influence in Since China’s ignominious incursion into clared air attack by enemy countries; territori-
Bhutan and Bangladesh — are all pointers to Vietnam in 1979, PLA doctrine has evolved al defence in a limited military operation; and,
a carefully orchestrated plan aimed at the from Mao’s “people’s war” to “people’s war punitive offensive with a minor incursion into
strategic encirclement of India. under modern conditions” through a “limit- a neighbouring country.
ed/local war” phase to the current doctrine The new doctrine and the strategy and
EMERGING MILITARY DOCTRINE introduced in 1993. The new doctrine is more tactics associated with it have been influenced
The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is rapid- assertive than previously and is not bound by by the lessons of Gulf War I in 1991 and the
ly modernising itself and is known to be any restrictions to confine and limit future Iraq War of 2003, both of which have been
preparing to fight a “limited border war conflict to within China’s national boundaries. extensively studied by Chinese scholars. The
under hi-tech conditions”. According to the Underpinning the new professionalism of the doctrine requires the creation of a capability
White Paper on China’s National Defence PLA is the basic doctrine of “active defence” to project force across China’s borders through
(2000), “China is engaged in developing a (jiji fangyu) that seeks to conduct “people’s rapid deployment, conventional SRBMs and
“revolutionised, modernised and regularised war under modern conditions” (better under- cruise missiles, information warfare, electron-
people’s army with Chinese characteristics. stood as “local wars under hi-tech conditions” ic warfare, precision-guided munitions, night-
(It is) endeavouring to transform its armed — gaojishu tiaojian xia de jubu zhanzheng. fighting capabilities and other advanced mili-
forces from a numerically superior to a qual- The ‘active defence’ doctrine calls for inte- tary technologies.
itatively superior type and from a manpow- grated, deep strikes — a concentration of China also follows ‘anti-access’ strategies
er-intensive to a technology-intensive type, superior firepower that is to be utilised to to deny access to the adversary to its planned
as well as to train high-quality personnel and destroy the opponent’s retaliatory capabilities launch pads in an endeavour to prevent build-
improve the modernisation of weaponry in through pre-emptive strikes employing long- up of forces for a war against China. Planning
order to comprehensively enhance the range artillery, short-range ballistic missiles for anti-access strategies flows from the
armed forces combat effectiveness.” (SRBMs) and precision-guided munitions. apprehension that if superior, well-equipped
forces (like the US and its allies) are allowed to
arrive in the war zone with the force levels and
in the time frame planned by them, they are
bound to prevail. The Chinese calculate that
“by mounting a credible threat to do so, they
will be able to deter the United States from
intervening in the first place, or at least limit
the scale and scope of that intervention”.
The Chinese aim to deter a conflict or at
least delay the opponent’s preparation till the
PLA is better prepared to react. The PLA seeks
to achieve this aim through attacks against air
bases and ports and other elements of the
logistics chain and against information sys-
tems so as to disrupt command and control
during build-up. While anti-access strategies
are unlikely to succeed in preventing conflict
completely, these could impose considerable
delay and caution during build-up.


ENHANCING MILITARY CAPABILITIES: The People’s Liberalisation Army is The PLA expects to fight the next
modernising itself and preparing to fight the next generation hi-tech war war under conditions of what it calls “inform
ationisation” or “informationalisation”. In

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the White Paper on National Defence (2004),

informationisation was explained only in
general terms, but bears repeating: “To adapt “RATHER THAN CONDUCTING A ‘PEOPLE’S WAR’ (A
itself to the changes both in the internation-
al strategic situation and the national securi- STRATEGY TO ‘LURE THE ENEMY IN DEEP’ INTO ONE’S
ty environment and rise to the challenges
presented by the RMA (Revolution in Mili- OWN TERRITORY), THE PLA DOCTRINE OF ‘ACTIVE
tary Affairs) worldwide, China adheres to the DEFENCE’ CALLS FOR FORWARD
military strategy of active defence and works
to speed up the RMA with Chinese charac- POSITIONING, FRONTIER DEFENCE,
„ To take the road of composite and ENGAGEMENT OF THE ENEMY AT OR OVER
leapfrog development.
„ To build a strong military by means of
„ To deepen the reform of the armed
„ To step up preparations for military
PLA analysts have called the ongoing SEEKS TO TAKE THE BATTLE
RMA an “informationised military revolu-
tion”. It emerges that informationisation INTO ENEMY TERRITORY.”
“clearly relates to the PLA’s ability to adopt
information technologies to command, DAVID SHAMBAUGH,
intelligence, training and weapon systems. WELL-KNOWN CHINA SCHOLAR
This would include broad investment in
new automatic command systems linked
by fiber-optic Internet, satellite and new
high-frequency digital radio systems… The is seen as presenting a level playing field in tinue to generate some local tensions, the
PLA can also contest the information battle an otherwise David versus Goliath scenario CMC has identified space and the oceans
space with its new space-based, airborne, as Chinese hardware is no match to the as the new areas where future conflict
naval and ground-based surveillance and weapons technology fielded today by the might take place.
intelligence gathering systems and its new US and its allies. Recent cyber attacks China is modernising rapidly and
anti-satellite, anti-radar, electronic warfare directed against Taiwan and the US are steadily enhancing its military capabili-
and information warfare systems… There is indicative of the efforts to develop new ties. The military gap between China and
increasing ‘information content’ for new techniques, viruses and logic bombs. India is growing as India’s military mod-
PLA weapons as it moves to link new space, Information warfare will be crucial in the ernisation is constrained by its low
airborne and ELINT (Electronic Signals opening phases of a war aimed at the re- defence expenditure, which is now less
Intelligence) sensors to missile, air, naval unification of Taiwan or a border conflict than two per cent of the GDP. The Chinese
and ground-based ‘shooters’ to enable all with India as it will be important to knock are continuing to drag their feet over
its services to better use new precision- out the adversary’s communications infra- resolving the territorial and boundary dis-
strike weapons”. structure by cyber as well as physical pute with India. Hence, China poses a
According to General Liu Huaqing, Vice means. A private army of “laptop warriors” long-term strategic challenge to India as a
Chairman of the Central Military Commis- — young civilian hackers on whom the competing regional power in Asia, but will
sion, “Information warfare and electronic state can bank during crises — is being remain a military threat till the territorial
warfare are of key importance, while fight- developed for this purpose besides the and boundary dispute is resolved. India
ing on the ground can only exploit the vic- employment of regular PLA personnel. needs to take this reality into account and
tory. Hence, China is more convinced (than distinguish between what China professes,
ever) that as far as the PLA is concerned, a CONCLUSION that is peaceful co-existence, and what it
military revolution with information war- Compared to China’s historically reactive actually does. In the near future, a situa-
fare as the core has reached the stage where stance of luring the enemy in deep and tion of tenuous peace and tranquility is
efforts must be made to catch up and destroying him through strategic defence, likely to continue to prevail along India’s
overtake rivals.” According to the 2004 the present doctrine is essentially Himalayan frontier. It will be punctuated
White Paper, “In its modernisation drive, pro-active and seeks to take the battle into increasingly by patrol face-offs, Chinese
the PLA takes informationalisation as enemy territory. It also strives to achieve incursions and intrusions across the LAC
its orientation and strategic focus.” The surprise in a pro-active manner that is and new claims on Indian territory as hap-
PLA has adopted what it calls a “double his- demonstrated by new “quick-strike” tac- pened in the finger area of the Sikkim
torical mission” and a “leapfrog develop- tics. The aim is to catch the enemy unpre- plateau in May-June 2008.
ment strategy” — accelerating military pared in order to inflict substantial dam-
informationisation while still undergoing age on strategic targets and disrupt logis- (The author is Director,
mechanisation. tics to gain psychological ascendancy. Centre for Land Warfare Studies,
Developing cyber warfare capabilities While the land frontier is expected to con- New Delhi)

(48) January 2011
Internal security cover jan.qxd 1/3/2011 5:09 PM Page 1


Photo courtesy:

How serious are the links between Indian Maoists and Pakistani militant outfits?
briefs january.qxd 1/3/2011 5:14 PM Page 4

TRAINING THE CENTRAL government has approved the
much talked-about Integrated Action Plan (IAP) Naxal Affected Districts
CENTRE IN for Naxal-affected districts that envisages gover-
nance reforms and devolution of power to grass-
BENGAL’S roots’ institutions in these areas. The IAP will be
initially implemented in 35 of the worst-affected
NAXAL districts in the Red Corridor, with funding of `25
crore each for flagship programmes like the
MNREGS (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
HOTBED Employment Guarantee Scheme) and midday meal
THE CRPF is setting up a train- scheme among others. The overall plan envisages a
ing centre and four barracks for `13,742 crore outlay for 60 affected districts to be
its jawans in West Bengal, disbursed in the next three years. The Planning
which is to come up on 212 Commission, which was instrumental in preparing
acres of land at West Midna- the IAP, had been keen to increase its scope to all
pore — one of the three dis- affected districts in this fiscal but Home Minister P
tricts affected by Left Wing Chidambaram’s line that the 35 worst-affected dis-
Extremism (LWE). The four tricts should take it up first, appears to have pre-
places where the camps and vailed. The Planning Commission had set five
the offices will be set up parameters for the districts to benefit from the plan,
include Narayanpur, Bhaduta- which included those districts having 25 per cent
la, Rangamati and Bhinsol. and above tribal population, 50 per cent poverty
At present, 33 companies of ratio and a 30 per cent forest cover.
CRPF are camping in the three
LWE-affected districts of West
Midnapore, Purulia and
Bankura, with 24 companies —
the highest — at West Midna-
pore. About two months ago, THE ARMY is setting up a massive training base While the Army leadership emphasises that
the CRPF shifted its eastern at the doorsteps of the worst-affected Naxal com- its plans are limited to training and there will be
headquarters from Chhattis- bat zone in Bastar, marking its presence in the no active troop deployment against the Maoist
garh’s Raipur to Kolkata due to war against Maoists. Manoeuvre ranges have insurgency, it is believed that the training facili-
security reasons. been finalised in Narayanpur district where train- ty would necessitate logistical support to the
ing will be given to the troops. police forces if the need arises.
The 100 sq km area lies in the foothills of Abu- Since Maoists ambushed and killed more
jhmad, a thickly-forested plateau, straddling than hundred CRPF men in Bastar this sum-
Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. It is one of the mer — incidentally one of the ambushes took
only regions of India unsurveyed by the govern- place close to the proposed training range —
ment and considered out of bounds for the an intense debate has raged over whether at
administration, entirely controlled by insurgents, all the Army should be drawn into anti-Maoist
and often described as a Maoist-liberated zone. operations.

The CRPF has also asked for

30 acres near Kolkata for free to
set up a training camp for its
Mahila Battalion. The state
government, however, is yet to
zero in on the land.
The Centre, meanwhile, has
allotted money to Bengal to set
up a school for the Counter
Insurgency Force at Salua in
West Midnapore.

(50) January 2011
briefs january.qxd 1/3/2011 5:14 PM Page 5



THE GOVERNMENT has approved a new BULLETS TO
project for increased surveillance of river-
ine gaps along the Indo-Pak border on the DISPERSE
Punjab frontier. The Border Security Force
(BSF) will get new infrastructure for the MOBS
project. Trial runs for firing rubber bul-
The new infrastructure would be the lets from Kalashnikov automat-
first of its kind in the country and could ic rifles to control mobs have
be immensely useful in critical situations. been completed. Following
The infrastructure would include illumi- that, a decision to use rubber
nation of the points along the riverine bullets was taken during a
gaps and raising of new posts. meeting of senior officials of the
Ministry of Home Affairs which
has constituted a special group
to analyse various methods
RAJARHAT TO HOUSE NSG COMMANDOS needed for controlling violent
crowds with the least force in
FOR KOLKATA & EASTERN REGION the backdrop of large-scale vio-
lence in the Kashmir Valley this
JUST FIVE days ahead of the second anniver- summer.
sary of the Mumbai terror attack, the two-year- It is learnt that the Defence
long search for a training centre for the elite Research and Development
National Security Guards (NSG) came to an Organisation (DRDO) conduct-
end in Kolkata with the hub set to come up on ed the field trials for using the
a 300-acre plot of land at Jagadishpur-Rajarhat weapons, the first of which were
area near the Dum Dum airport. introduced in 1947. They would
The Union Ministry of Home Affairs is pay- be seen in action soon particu-
ing `600 crore to the state government to ac- larly in the valley. The use of
quire the land. It is to be based on the model of rubber bullets will lessen the
the NSG hub in Manesar. risk of fatalities while control-
Following the 26/11 attack, Union Home ling crowds, it is hoped. The
Minister P Chidambaram had announced the rubber bullets from the AK-47
setting-up of four more NSG hubs — in Mum- rifles may not prove fatal if not
bai, Kolkata, Chennai and Hyderabad — in fired from a close range and if
the country. At present, the NSG unit in Kolkata is sta- they don’t hit a vital organ.
By choosing a 300-acre plot for the elite unit, tioned at a temporary barrack at Badu — AK-47, a selective-fire, gas-
the NSG has cut down on its demand for a 600- 25km from the Dum Dum airport. It regularly operated 7.62x39mm assault
acre plot. The unit will respond to any terror at- conducts mock drills at different vital installa- rifle, was first developed in
tack that may take place in any state of the tions — the last one having been held at the the Soviet Union by Mikhail
eastern region. Metro station at Esplanade. Kalashnikov. AK-47 stands
for Kalashnikov automatic
rifle, 1947 model.
Another riot-controlling
device that has been cleared
is the ‘dazzler’, which uses
BSF JAWAN CAN NOW CATCH SOME SLEEP laser beams to disperse
mobs by causing
deployed along the borders six temporary
hours sleep every 24 hours, and a blindness.
day off every week. These may also
So far, BSF personnel could not be handed over to
sleep for more than two hours at a security forces operating
stretch, it is said, causing much in Kashmir-like situa-
anguish to the personnel in the tions soon.
force, which, incidentally is short The dazzler
of manpower, and keeps an eye on may help in
more than 6,600 km of Indian restricting stone-
borders. pelters, as it can be used
In the paramilitary forces, there towards individuals,
was no concept of a holiday. On rendering them tem-
their formal holidays, the jawans porarily blind. These
would still not be able to leave devices can be use-
INDIA’S JAWANS guarding the borders can finally their border outposts. But now the situation will ful in restricting
catch some sleep. The Border Security Force (BSF) change for them, except those who are deployed in mobs between a range
has asked all units to give the men and women highly sensitive areas. of 50 metres and 250 metres. January 2011

Maoists and Pakistan.qxd 1/3/2011 5:17 PM Page 60


BEN WEST analyses the often-repeated charge of cooperation
between Pakistani militant outfits and Indian Naxals

ndian Maoist militants, known as Nax- STRATFOR has watched Indian officials
alites, have been meeting with mem- link Pakistan to the Naxalites before, but we
bers of the outlawed Pakistani militant have yet to see significant changes on the
group Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), accord- ground that would give any credence to the
ing to the Director-General of Police scenario outlined above. Many Indian offi-
for Chhattisgarh. Based on information cials are equally insistent that no connec-
from a police source, state police chief tions exist between Naxalites and Pakistan.
Vishwa Ranjan said on November 11, Although the Naxalites have provided
2010, that two LeT operatives attended rhetorical support for Kashmiri (and other
a Naxalite meeting in April or May. anti-Indian groups) opposition to New Delhi
While their presence at the meeting over the past year, there has been little action
still needs to be corroborated, the chief to back up the rhetoric. The Indians have
said, it appears very likely that the recent years that we have started to refer to it long feared that outside powers would
Naxalites held the meeting to adopt a and similar groups as “neo-LeT”. manipulate grassroots’ groups in India and
new policy and plans for increasing Before this latest accusation, Indian offi- further destabilise an already regionalised
“armed resistance” in order to seize cials implicated at least six other militant country.
political power in India. groups in Naxalite activities (with varying When the Naxalite movement began in
Indian authorities are degrees of Pakistani support). Linking the the 1960s, New Delhi feared Beijing was try-
using the alleged meet- estimated 10,000-strong Naxalites to mili- ing to get a foothold in India, and for the past
ing between LeT tant groups backed by Pakistan, India's main 50 years, India has demonised Pakistan's
operatives and Nax- geopolitical rival and primary source of Inter-Services Intelligence directorate (ISI)
alites as evidence that external security threats, creates a “night- for allegedly supporting militant operations
Pakistan is trying to forge mare” scenario for India. Indeed, Indian in India. To better understand the allegation
relationships with the Naxalites, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has that Pakistan is supporting the Naxalites, we
which India has long suspected. labelled the Naxalites “the biggest internal have decided to investigate the sources of
India blamed the LeT for the 2008 security challenge” to India. Taken at face Naxalite weapons and training to get an idea
Mumbai attacks and the value, reports of such an alliance lead to of how much outside help the Naxalites rely
2001 Parliament attack. For visions of well-trained, well-disciplined on in the first place, since this is one way to
the Indian public, LeT also Naxal militants expanding their near-daily measure the level of outside assistance. The
has become synonymous with Pak- attacks on low-level rural targets in eastern study below focuses on what types of arms
istani intelligence operations. The India (known as the “Red Corridor”) to Naxalites have access to, how they got them
group that Indian officials refer to as political and high-tech targets in Kolkata, and who they got them from. While we did
“LeT”, however, is no longer an ally of Hyderabad or even New Delhi. But such find evidence of some Pakistani involvement
Pakistan and has changed so much in visions are alarmist and do not reflect the in supplying the weapons through third par-
true nature of the very limited Pakistani- ties, the Naxalites appear to remain a very
NAXALITE WEAPON: AK-47 Naxalite relationship. self-reliant group that has not established a

(52) January 2011
Maoists and Pakistan.qxd 1/3/2011 5:18 PM Page 61




Graphic: Ruchi Sinha



strong partnership with Pakistan when it These factories also produce homemade one militant runs out of ammunition, he can-
comes to weapons and training. mortar rounds and components for not turn to his neighbour for more rounds.
improvised explosive devices. Standardised weapons are a key advantage for
WEAPONS Procuring foreign weapons, ammunition organised militias (the Taliban, for example,
Local Indian media sources report that Nax- and explosives from external militant virtually all use a variant of the AK-47), an
alite forces have an arsenal of approximately and criminal groups operating within advantage the Naxalites appear to be lacking.
20,000 weapons — an average of two and outside of India. Details on the types The lack of weapons uniformity among Nax-
weapons per soldier. The Naxalites have of weapons procured this way are avail- alite groups indicates that they do not have a
obtained this arsenal from four different able from seizures of weapons ship- benefactor that has bestowed on them a
sources: ments into India that have included reliable, standardised arsenal and have had to
From Indian security forces, either by rifles in the .315- to .30-06-calibre range. build up their own from scratch.
Naxalite raids on their outposts in Nax- Such shipments are traded for smuggling
alite-controlled areas or bribing or services or purchased with funds from OUTSIDE SUPPLIERS
coercing members of the security forces banditry, extortion or revolutionary tax- There are numerous reports in open-source
to sell or give them firearms and ammu- es. Purchasing weapons from the outside media in India and elsewhere that link Nax-
nition, along with ballistic vests and tac- is very expensive. According to a 2009 alites to a number of militant and criminal
tical gear, including night-vision optics. India Daily News article, Naxalite expen- groups throughout South Asia. These groups
This is the source of most Naxalite diture reports seized by police showed interact with Maoists from Nepal, secession-
weapons, which include Indian-made that, over a six-month period, one zone ists in India's restive northeast, ISI-backed
assault rifles, light machine guns and command spent more than three-quar- Islamists from Bangladesh, criminals from
carbines that fire 5.62mm NATO ammu- ters of the unit's budget on weapons Myanmar and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil
nition; variants of the AK-47 that fire ($70,214), with the rest ($20,604) spent Eelam (LTTE) in Sri Lanka. Weapons flow
7.62mm rounds; and locally made shot- on supplies. Such evidence suggests that among these groups in a region that has his-
guns of various gauges. Israeli-made Naxalite weapon procurements from the torically been a rich environment for seces-
sniper rifles have also been found in outside have their limitations; obtaining sionist movements. The British originally
Naxalite caches on a few occasions, like them locally is far cheaper and can be encouraged strong regional identities
the Galil 7.62mm rifles that India done by virtually any Naxalite fighter. throughout the Indian subcontinent to pre-
acquired from Israel in efforts to target The Naxalite arsenal is vast and diverse, vent the various ethnic groups from uniting
Naxalite leaders in the first place. consisting of weapons manufactured in Chi- in opposition to British colonial rule.
Theft from businesses operating in the na, Russia, the United States, Pakistan and The Pakistanis continued that strategy in
Naxalite-controlled areas, including India. Photographs of Naxalite units in train- order to maintain leverage over India, sup-
fertilizer distributors and mining ing or on patrols show fighters wielding a porting anti-Indian groups primarily in the
companies that maintain stocks of variety of rifles in different calibres and condi- contested Kashmir region and later in
explosives, blasting caps and detonators. tions, indicating a lack of weapons uniformity Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan), which
Local arms factories run directly by Nax- across Naxalite units. While this does suggest a they used as bases for extending their activi-
alites or other criminal groups. These certain level of resourcefulness among the ties into India. India also supported
operations demonstrate a wide range of Naxalites, it also means that parts and ammu- anti-Pakistani groups in Bangladesh in an
craftsmanship, from assembling nition are not interchangeable, which is an attempt to offset this Pakistani pressure.
makeshift weapons from discarded parts important tactical limitation. If one rifle The Naxalites have benefited from this
to more advanced forging processes. breaks, its parts cannot be easily replaced. If arrangement, directly from foreign powers January 2011

Maoists and Pakistan.qxd 1/3/2011 5:18 PM Page 62


like Pakistan and, for the most part, Shailen Sarkar is a member of the Com-
through indirect relationships with other munist Party of Bangladesh. The Indian
regional secessionist movements that Home Ministry accuses Sarkar's group
also oppose New Delhi. of training Naxalites at ISI-funded
STRATFOR sources in India claim that camps in Bangladesh. The ministry also
Pakistani intelligence has established claims that Sarkar has met with Naxal
business relationships with Naxalites to leaders in India.
sell arms and ammunition and lately has Evidence of direct links between the
tried to use Naxal bases for anti-Indian ISI and the Naxalites is hard to come by.
activities. There is evidence that the ISI is The connections above show only links
providing weapons and ammunition to between Naxalites and Pakistan via third
the Naxalites in exchange for money or parties, which makes it hard to measure
services, mostly through third parties like the influence that Pakistan has over Nax-
the United Liberation Front of Asom alite militants. Pakistan likely wants to
(ULFA) or the ostensible Bangladeshi mil- keep its activities in India covert so as not
itant leader Shailen Sarkar (both are to exacerbate an already tense diplomat-
described in more detail below). Naxalite NAXAL AGGRESSION: In the worst case of ic situation. Murky, circuitous relation-
leaders in India deny cooperating with guerrilla warfare, Maoists blew up a railway track ships are most likely preferred in this
Pakistan but have very publicly pledged in Jharkhand killing over 100 people kind of environment.
their support for separatist movements Indeed, Pakistan does not necessarily
in India. STRATFOR sources in the Indian a secessionist movement in the north- need much more than murky, circuitous
army say they are investigating but still lack east Indian state of Nagaland. Indian relationships in order to keep pressure on
the evidence to prove a direct link between Home Secretary G K Pillai said in June New Delhi. The Naxalites are a low-mainte-
the Naxalites and the ISI, since the Pakista- that the leader of NSCN-IM helped nance, self-sustaining movement that will
nis continue to play a peripheral role. members of the Communist Party of continue to undermine Indian rule in the
The groups below are reported to have India-Maoist (CPI-M) smuggle weapons country's east — Pakistan does not need to
had contact with the Naxalites and to have through Myanmar and Bangladesh. expend more resources to sustain this, and
provided various levels of support. Some of Indian officials in the state of Tripura the Naxalites are likely wary of undermining
these groups have established links to the accused the NSCN-IM of working jointly their own local legitimacy by accepting too
ISI, which makes them possible conduits of with the ISI in assisting militant cadres. much assistance from an outside govern-
contact and support between Pakistan and The People's War Group (PWG) was a ment. While something like a standardised
the Naxalites. militant faction of the Communist Party arsenal compliments of the ISI would
ULFA, one of the largest, most violent of India-Marxist/Leninist until 2004, benefit the Naxalites operationally, such a
secessionist movements in India's when it left and helped form the CPI-M, move would be a high-risk, low-reward effort
northeast, is accused of working with ISI which is the political arm of the Naxalite for Islamabad, which seeks to operate very
Islamist assets along the Indian- movement. In 2004, the PWG received subtly in India for the time being while
Bangladeshi border, where it controls bomb-making materials and training tensions over the 2008 Mumbai attacks con-
smuggling routes through the Siliguri from groups like ULFA and NSCN-IM in tinue to cool off.
corridor. The Indian government accus- Bangladesh in exchange for smuggling The lack of evidence of an institutional
es the Naxalites of working with ULFA to drugs into India, an effort organised by relationship between Naxalites and Pakistan
smuggle drugs and counterfeit money the ISI between 2000 and 2004, when the does not mean that personal relationships
through Siliguri on behalf of the ISI in PWG was not under the Naxalite between ISI assets and Naxalite cadres could
exchange for weapons and explosives. umbrella. not develop through the limited interaction
The People's Liberation Army of LTTE is an ethnic secessionist move- now taking place. A combination of more
Manipur (PLAM) is a secessionist group ment in northern Sri Lanka that was aggressive people from both sides could cer-
in the northeastern Indian state of defeated by Sri Lanka's military in 2009 tainly lead to more concerted attacks in
Manipur. According to Indian security after 26 years of fighting. According to a India, reminiscent of the 2008 serial bomb-
officials, the respective political wings of surrendering Naxalite commander, ings in cities throughout India.
the PLAM and the Naxalites signed a LTTE militants taught Naxalites how to Such attacks, however, would likely be
document in October 2010 pledging to handle mines and grenades at a camp in more of a one-off exception. For the time
“overthrow the … Indian reactionary Bastar, Chhattisgarh state. LTTE fighters being, reports of Pakistani-Naxalite coopera-
and oppressive regime”. However, there have fled Sri Lanka since their 2009 tion will continue to surface, though this
are no documented instances of PLAM defeat, and Indian authorities suspect cooperation will probably involve third-par-
providing material support to the Nax- that Tamil fighters are providing training ty groups that give both Pakistan and the
alites. Indian intelligence agencies for Naxalites in exchange for safe haven. Naxalites plausible deniability. Until we see
report that a militant from Manipur who Nepalese Maoists comprise the militant indications from either the Naxalites or Pak-
was arrested in 2007 revealed that the wing of the Unified Communist Party of istan that they are willing to establish more
PLAM leadership was in frequent con- Nepal. They have exchanged training robust connections and become more
tact with the LeT leadership in 2006 as and weapons with Indian Naxalites, and aggressive toward India, a coordinated
directed by the ISI. there are also reports of Nepalese militant campaign remains unlikely.
The National Social Council of Naga- Maoists receiving medical care at Nax-
land-Issac Muviah branch (NSCN-IM) is alite camps in India. (Republished with permission of STRATFOR)

(54) January 2011
Document1 11/26/2010 2:48 PM Page 1
CPO officers 2.qxd 1/3/2011 4:49 PM Page 60



The Central Police

he Sixth Pay Commission (SPC) for the Central Police Organisation (CPO)
has created a number of anom- cadre officers.
Organisation officers are an alies in the paramilitary forces. The SPC has brought down the grade of
unhappy lot, courtesy the The paramilitary force officers the CPO cadre officers in the second in
are a dissatisfied lot, especially command (2IC) ranks, equivalent to a Lt.
Sixth Pay Commission. Not with the introduction of new tenure policy Colonel in the Army. A Lt Colonel is in the
only are the salary for IPS (Indian Police Service) and recruit- pay band (PB) of four whereas the 2IC is in
structures skewed in favour ment rules for cadre officers. the PB of three. This has resulted in a differ-
The SPC has seen opposition from ence of around `20,000 in salary. A 2IC offi-
of the Indian Police Service across the central services, particularly the cer in the BSF told geopolitics: “Army and
officers, the recruitment armed forces. Everyone in the country is BSF both operate on the LoC (Line of Con-
aware of the grievances of the armed forces trol) together. If a unit each of the Army
and promotion rules too but rarely has any one heard about the dis- and BSF are in the area and by chance the
are unfavourable, as content among the paramilitary cadre offi- commanding officers of either are not pres-
cers, which began with the Sixth Pay Com- ent, then by grade of pay (which decides
ROHIT SRIVASTAVA found mission and has compounded with the the seniority) the Lt Colonel will be the sen-
out after meeting officers new tenure policy for the IPS on central ior officer even though the BSF 2IC has
deputation and the new recruitment rules more experience.” It generally takes an offi-
from the paramilitary forces

TUG OF WAR: CPO officers have

strongly opposed the new tenure
policy and recruitment rules

January 2011
CPO officers 2.qxd 1/3/2011 4:49 PM Page 61



FUTURE: Lapses in
deputation policy of IPS
are apparent

for promotion and is

awaiting promotion orders
for the last year. He further
said that for promotions,
credentials and decora-
tions have very little rele-
vance. In fact, his batch-
mate from the IPS is his
immediate senior.
Deputation to the IPS is
another major issue.
Sources suggest that the
promotion from AC to DC
generally takes seven years
and from DC to 2IC anoth-
er seven. The new recruit-
ment rule of October 2010
implies that the CPO cadre
officers will have to spend
at least five years at the AC
cer 18 years to become a 2IC in the to an ITBP (Indo Tibetan Border Police) level to qualify for promotion to DC and
paramilitary forces while now after the Ajay officer, there was a time when officers in similarly another five years as DC to qualify
Vikram Singh Committee (in 2001, the the expanding forces would get quick pro- for 2IC and a further five to become a Com-
Ministry of Defence formed a committee, motions and within three-four years of mandant — thus at least 15 years of service
headed by then Special Secretary, MoD, service an Assistant Commandant (AC) to become a Commandant and another five
with representatives of the three Services would become a Deputy Commandant to qualify for the post of Deputy Inspector
with an aim to achieve ‘combat effective- (DC) but now the situation has reversed. General (DIG). Incidentally, it is in the DIG
ness’ by bringing down the age profile of However, forces like the Sashastra rank that an IPS cadre officer can move on
the battalion/brigade-level commanders, Seema Bal and ITBP which have seen deputation. So, for any cadre officer, it will
which submitted its report in February expansion recently, do not have to face take at least 20 years to become a DIG. Of
2003) recommendation, an Army officer such acute bottlenecks and thus less dis- all the DIG posts, one-fifth are reserved for
becomes a Lt Colonel after 13 years. satisfaction. But the promotions have IPS and Army officers. So, the actual oppor-
It is important to note that the Army at direct links with the salaries and that is tunity available for the CPO cadre declines
present has more than one Lt Colonel in any hurting the officer cadre. One officer said, rapidly. The loss of pay due to these promo-
of its units unlike the CPO that still has only “I don’t want one more star but find it diffi- tions is enormous if the whole career is
one 2IC in any unit. In many of the Army cult to accept the salary loss that I incur accounted for.
units, a Lt Colonel heads companies. In an due to this new system. For salaried per- On the other hand, any IPS officer
army battalion, there are three companies sons like me `20,000 matters.” This highly becomes a DIG after completion of 14 years
but in many of the CPO battalions, the num- decorated officer has undergone training of service. So, if two officers join the forces
ber of companies is around six or seven. simultaneously and are promoted regular-
Thus the workload in the paramilitary bat- ly, the one from the paramilitary cadre will
talion is far more in comparison to the Army. become a DIG six years after the IPS officer.
The matter doesn’t rest there. Promotion
opportunities in the CPOs also play a PROMOTIONS Efficiency and performance have no roles
to play in the promotions.
significant role. Promotions in the paramil-
itary forces are based on vacancies and not
IN THE At the senior level, the system becomes
uneven for the cadre officers. In the ITBP
on the years of service. The paramilitary PARAMILITARY there are 56 Commandant posts that are

forces have gone through a phase of filled entirely by cadre officers and an equal
abrupt, unplanned expansion creating number of 2IC posts. However, at the DIG
numerous bottlenecks across the hierarchy.
When the forces expanded the induction of
ARE BASED level, the number of posts shrinks to 44
with 20 per cent of them reserved for those
the officers increased and so did the num- ON VACANCIES on deputation. So, for 56 Commandants,
ber of top posts. In these forces, therefore, the opportunity available to become a DIG
promotions take place smoothly. According is limited to 35. This shrinks further to three January 2011

CPO officers 2.qxd 1/3/2011 4:50 PM Page 62


In the CPO, while the IPS officers have

been given reservations, at another level,
there is a shortage of IPS officers across
the nation. The Kamal Kumar Committee
(formed by the Ministry of Home Affairs
and headed by Kamal Kumar, IPS to make
a realistic assessment of shortages
existing in the different cadres of the para-
military as well as the growing need of IPS
strength in view of the expansion plans of
the various State and Central Police
Organisations for 2009-2020 time period
— the committed submitted its report in
October 2009) recommended that the IPS
intake must be increased to 130 per year
for another ten years (2009-20) and addi-
tional intake of 448 officers through other
means should be done to take care
of shortages.
Said a senior CPO cadre officer, “The
system pushes IPS to the commanding
officer’s chair.” The comfort level that is
TO OVERCOME SHORTAGE: The Kamal Kumar Committee has been set up to make a enjoyed between the IPS and the Ministry
realistic assessment of shortages existing in the different cadres of Home Affairs is one of reasons for the
preferential treatment being meted to the
IPS. He further said that the “desire
at the Inspector General Year of Batch Total Actual Drop- among the cadres to become DGPs is
(IG) rank. The sanctioned CSE Intake Intake outs there but it is very unlikely because of the
post for IG is six with half of 2002 2003 56 49 7 government policy”.
them reserved for the IPS. To 2003 2004 88 77 11 There have been numerous suggestions
top it all, if enough cadre officers 2004 2005 88 80 8 that the CPO should be run by cadre offi-
are not available with the 2005 2006 103 90 13 cers who understand the force better and
required eligibility, then IPS offi- 2006 2007 103 89 14 know about its everyday working and
cers are promoted. So, from the Total 438 385 53 operations. But, in spite of numerous
35 DIGs from the cadre serv- Number of IPS intake over the years failures and loss of lives during shabbily-
ice, only three would make it executed operations, the organisations
to an IG’s post and since the are still run by unspecialised IPS, who are
Recruitment Rules (RR) men- neither interested in nor inclined towards
tions “if failing by IPS” or to put solving the problem.
it simply, if the cadre officer fails to It is also felt that retired officers of the
qualify for an IG’s post, then it is to paramilitary do not support and voice
be filled up by an IPS. The policy- their concerns like ex-servicemen do. The
makers, therefore, were well aware attachment that armymen have for their
that even three officers would not be units, regiments and services are missing
available from the 456 AC appointed 25 among the paramilitary veterans.
or 30 years back. In any case, since the leadership at
The system is totally IPS-centric at the higher levels in the CPO mostly comprises
higher level (see table below). In any state IPS officers, it doesn’t suit their interest to
there are around 3 or 4 Director General take sides with the cadre officers and
rank officers and the intake per year per jawans. Nor for that matter is their attach-
state varies but cannot be more than six or ment to the organisation deep. An officer
seven in the case of large states. Thus, pointed out to geopolitics: “Since these
almost half of the IPS officers would reach are unorganised services, there are
IG and above rank (if a state receives six or no temptations for the IPS personnel to
eight IPS at the Superintendent of Police- fit in.”
level in first posting and it has four DG Whatever the reasons, the discontent
ranks — ADGP, ADG Vigilance and so on, among the officers of the CPOs and their
half of the IPS officers will be able to fill the gradual devaluation is creating bad blood,
ranks of IG and above). And with the which can result in a backlash in many dif-
avenues available in the paramilitary ferent ways. An officer summed it
forces, the late promotees would easily find up quite eloquently: “The government’s
themselves in these forces. Sixth Pay Commission has created a class.”

( January 2011
Diplomacy cover jan.qxd 1/3/2011 5:07 PM Page 53

Photo courtesy:



Brazil, the sleeping giant has woken up


Ambassador Journal.qxd 1/3/2011 4:47 PM Page 54





The two countries are
far apart from each other
but are not dissimilar. Over
the years, moves between
India and Brazil —
diplomatic and economic
— have brought one closer
to the other. ASH NARAIN
ROY believes that it will be
in the interest of India
to foster closer ties with
Brazil, the sleeping giant
that has woken up

(60) January 2011
Ambassador Journal.qxd 1/3/2011 4:47 PM Page 55



O THE rest need the West? That themselves to bypass the West.” The message global diplomacy. Way back in 2003, Presi-
is what several geopolitical in this prognostication is unmistakable. dent Lula had said rather bluntly, “We will
sages are presently discussing. With the US in constant decline and los- not accept any more participating in inter-
Alluding to the growing irrele- ing much of its sheen as the world’s sole national platforms as if we were the poor
vance of the Western powers superpower, the focus has shifted to ‘Chin- little ones of Latin America, a ‘little country’
and the corresponding rise in the global dia’. The ‘elephant vs. the dragon’ debate has of the third world… This country has every-
clout of China and India, the New Atlanticist become the fashionable buzzword of con- thing to be the equal of any other country.”
said recently, “The World without the West is temporary global discourse. But Brazil too Historically, Indian foreign policy has
becoming preferentially and densely inter- has a story to tell. been shaped by a quest for global power sta-
connected.” It further said, “If during the India and Brazil are the two whales in the tus. IBSA initiative represents a significant
1990s, rising and resurgent powers tried to global ocean who along with South Africa avenue through which India is pursuing its
deepen their connection with the Euro- have taken concrete steps to forge a neo- leadership aspirations. Politically, IBSA fits in
Atlantic hub, they are now taking more steps Gondwanan alliance. Since the world has neatly with Delhi’s political priorities and
to tighten the relationships between looked at global trends and developments interests in the global system, with its need
through the distorted lens of US hegemony, to forge alliances with other developing
it has failed to give proper consideration to countries. Economically, it dovetails with
significant developments elsewhere. Brazil, India’s policy to continue reforms initiated in
Russia, India and China (BRIC) and India, 1991 to liberalise the Indian economy.
Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) are in the Brazil’s dominance in Latin America is a
process of building parallel international consequence of the country’s geography,
systems and networks. However, besides population and economic size as well as its
China, only India and Brazil, the two flour- military strength. Brazil too harbours global
ishing democracies, are the likeliest candi- aspirations. To this end, it skillfully utilises
dates to rise as great powers who have the multilateral institutions to stake its claim as
potential to become superpowers. a global actor, while also projecting itself as a
Brazil hasn’t received the attention it bridge between the major powers and the
deserves. In their obsession with the US and South. Brazil regards India as integral to its
Pakistan, India’s strategic community and strategy of promoting its economic interests
opinion-makers haven’t focused their glare by strengthening its economic linkages with
on the importance of the India-Brazil part- continued on page 64
nership. India and Brazil are not only stable
democracies, they are now trillion-dollar A STRONG BOND: India and Brazil
economies. Like India, Brazil too has made have taken significant steps to forge
rapid strides in international affairs and meaningful ties January 2011

Ambassador Journal.qxd 1/3/2011 4:48 PM Page 56



The long distance kept India and Brazil apart in the past. But, with the world
increasingly turning into a global village, the two countries are working hard to
take their relationship to a higher level, both in range and magnitude, asserts
MARCO BRANDAO, Ambassador of Brazil to India, in a candid conversation
Photo: H.C. Tiwari

(62) January 2011
Ambassador Journal.qxd 1/3/2011 4:48 PM Page 57



t the outset let me say that unlike India, United States, but we are not so. In fact, Brazil Politically, we are now very close. Even in the
Brazil is a very lucky country. It is lucky and the Unites States are exemplary friends, military sphere, our connection is getting
because it has a stable neighbourhood, given the quality of our interactions in such stronger with each passing day. Brazil is
with most of the countries valuing democracy fields as tourism, culture and academics. discussing with India how to develop joint mil-
as the best political system. All our govern- As I have already pointed out, multilater- itary products. My Defence Minister has visit-
ments in the region are now democratically- alism is our most important diplomatic tool. ed the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)
elected. And it has helped. Brazil has no prob- As a developing country like India, we are for in Bengaluru. India has already bought some
lems with its neighbours. We have no border equitable global development. Similarly, we planes for its VIPs from Brazil. We, through
problems. We are located in a conflict-free do not want the world to be dominated by any IBSA, have conducted joint military exercises.
region that includes a no-nuclear zone. We single country — politically and militarily. Even otherwise, our respective military officers
are a huge country with abundant natural Towards this goal, we are coordinating our have been exchanging visits of late.
resources. We do have a very cohesive social efforts with like-minded countries like India. Economically speaking, trade between
structure. Though we have a big population, it India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) forum Brazil and India more than tripled in the last
is manageable. needs to be seen in this context. We three are five years. Bilateral trade has increased from
Brazil’s foreign policy strives for global democratic countries in three different $2.340 billion in 2005 to $7.461 billion (October
peace and stability. Our mantra is multilater- regions but through consensus are acting 2009 to October 2010), although it corresponds
alism, be it politics or economics. We do not together on burning global issues. Similarly, to a small proportion of the total of Brazilian
believe in any ism, including the so-called we have the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and exports (2.2 per cent in 2009) and of its imports
Third-Worldism. That explains why despite China) platform, which I consider essentially (1.7 per cent in 2009). According to the Min-
our great admiration for India, Brazil did not to be an economic forum on the global eco- istry of Commerce of India, for the financial
join the Non-Aligned Movement. We strongly nomic issues, though some would like it to year, Brazil is responsible for 0.5 per cent of the
believe that all the global problems or dis- have political overtones as well. total of Indian exports and accounts for 0.73
putes should be resolved through talks or per cent of the total of Indian imports.
negotiations. Brazil attaches the highest In relation to Brazilian exports, the sec-
importance to the United Nations. That is why TRADE tors of crude oil (HS Code 27090010) and raw
we are consistent in our resolve that the world
body must reflect the real world. We will keep
BETWEEN cane sugar (HS Code 17011100) represent
the most dynamic sectors and account for
on coordinating our endeavours along with BRAZIL AND 61.38 per cent of total exports from Brazil to
India, Japan and South Africa for the four India by October 2010. Regarding Brazilian
countries getting their rightful places as the INDIA MORE imports, only “diesel” (HS Code 27101921)
permanent members of the United Nations
Security Council. It is not that countries like
THAN TRIPLED represents 41.01 per cent of all purchases
until October 2010. Other generating sets
Brazil and India demand to be recognised as IN THE LAST wind-powered (HS Code 85023100), poly-
big powers. On the other hand, the world ester-textured yarn (HS Code 54023300) and
expects us to have increasingly global respon- FIVE YEARS cotton yarn (HS Code 52052310) also have a
sibilities, evident from the fact that we are relative importance in the total of Brazilian
already on the big table of G-20. imports up to October 2010.
I am indeed happy that during his recent Coming specifically to Indo-Brazil bilater- It is a happy sign that more and more
visit to your country, President Obama did al relations, there are no concrete problems as Indian businessmen are now visiting Brazil.
support India as an aspirant for the perma- such. But unfortunately, there is the distance- On an average we are issuing 20 business
nent membership. I do not pay much impor- factor. The distance between our two coun- visas every day. Indian companies have
tance to the WikiLeaks’ disclosure of the tries is so huge that we do not know one started investing in Brazil. Tata Consultancy,
American diplomats describing India, Brazil another well enough. Our air and shipping Mahindra Automobiles and Bajaj are already
and South Africa as a “self-appointed” group links are very weak. We must do something there. Some Indian companies have also
working for the permanent membership. After about it. Of course, it is a growing process. But invested in our sugar industry and agricul-
all, we will go by what the US President says we must promote a lot of interaction between tural products. Indian pharmaceutical com-
publicly, not what its diplomats think private- Indians and Brazilians in the fields of tourism, panies are also going. We would love more
ly. As regards Brazil, even though ours is a left- banking and academics. Regrettably, we do and more Indian technologies in Brazil and
of-the-centre government, we have excellent not have a single bank in India. Nor for that here the sky is the limit.
ties with the United States. Let me be very matter is there any Indian bank in Brazil. Our At the end, I must tell you that world’s
candid in admitting that in our part of the respective media does not cover news about purest Indian cows are only available in Brazil.
world, we cannot live without the United one another. My countrymen are totally Over the recent centuries, Indian cattle have
States. Good relations with the Unites States dependent on the American media to know got mixed with those coming from central and
are absolutely essential for facilitating our and understand India. Same is also your story West Asia. But in our case, we imported pure
economic growth. Whether it is trade or as far as Brazil is concerned. We must get Indian cattle long time back when we found
industrial growth, we cannot have a con- together to have our own news. That is the that those from the European origin did not
frontationist policy towards the United States. best way to bridge the gap between our two survive in Brazil, possibly due to the climatic
It is not that we have no issues with the Amer- countries. factors. But Indian cattle, maybe because of
icans, but these are to be resolved through It is heartening that our political leader- common tropical weather, not only have sur-
talks only. Maybe some Latin American coun- ships have started realising the importance of vived but also prospered in Brazil. Our entire
tries are very vocal in their criticism of the the relationship between India and Brazil. cattle population is almost of Indian origin. January 2011

Ambassador Journal.qxd 1/3/2011 4:48 PM Page 58


continued from page 61
and Dr Reddy’s Laboratories Limited have The two sides have already appointed
other developing countries. Central to made a mark in Brazilian market. defence attaches in their respective
Brazil’s strategy is a desire to link its domes- Finally, as R Viswanathan, India’s embassies in Brasilia and in New Delhi to do
tic political priorities, including poverty Ambassador to Argentina, Uruguay and the spadework for intensified military
reduction, with its foreign economic policy. Paraguay, says, the gaze of Indian compa- co-operation.
Brazil has for long been projected as the nies “is falling on Latin America, where Brazil’s Defence Minister Nelson Jobim vis-
‘country of the future’. Today, many Brazil- hyperinflation and currency devaluation ited India in early 2010 to prepare the ground
ians would like to believe Brazil itself is the no longer dominate headlines… Latin for significant defence ties and defence co-
future. Brazil is the eighth biggest economy America is becoming stable and increasing- operation. Indo-Brazilian co-operation in this
in the world. It has the largest tropical forest ly growing and prosperous market that sector represents a significant diversification
and largest reservoir of fresh water. It is self- offers opportunities for our companies.” To of India’s quest for arms and defence technol-
sufficient in oil and gas. Petrobras is the a large extent, India’s decision to explore ogy. Although Brazil has few external threat
fourth biggest company in the world, larger the Latin American market is guided by perceptions, it has traditionally developed a
than Exxon Mobil, Apple and Petrochina. It China’s massive investment in the region. strong indigenous defence industry, co-oper-
has a market value of $214 billion, which is India and Brazil have taken significant ation with which will considerably increase
more than that of Microsoft and Wal-Mart. steps to forge meaningful ties in unconven- India’s options.
Petrobras will be spending over the next few tional areas, including defence. An India- India and Brazil have also enhanced
years $224 billion in exploration and produc-
tion. This is the largest corporate investment
plan in the world at the moment.
A newly-tapped oil field off the coast of
Brazil could contain up to 15 billion barrels
of oil. If these figures were confirmed, it
would double Brazil’s known oil reserves. It
would also be the biggest oil field discovered
in the Americas since 1976 when Mexico
found the giant Cantarell field in the Gulf of
Mexico. Brazil has discovered billions of bar-
rels of oil in the last few years, mostly in
deep, pre-salt fields off its south-eastern
coast. The discoveries should make Brazil
one of the world’s top 10 oil producers.
Brazil is an agricultural superpower. It has
the largest surplus land that can be brought
under cultivation. Its potential to feed the
global population can be gauged by the fact
that Brazil can add 130 million hectares of INDIA AND BRAZIL co-operation in science and technology,
nuclear energy, space and defence for mutual
land which is equal to the total area cultivat-
ed by India to feed its billion-plus
ARE PURSUING benefit. Biotechnology, information technol-
ogy, marine science, and nanotechnology are
population. THE JOINT other areas that have been identified where

Bilateral trade between India and Brazil significant potential for co-operation exists.
has picked up in the last few years. But it is By 2050, Brazil will be the world’s fourth
still much below its potential. It is likely to
increase to $10 billion in the coming three-
OF HI-TECH largest economy, outranked only by China,
US and India. Brazil enjoys privileged geo-
four years from $5 billion at present. Indian MILITARY graphic position as it doesn’t border any

companies have started showing interest in hostile power. The same can’t be said about
Brazil and Latin America. Renuka Sugars has China, Russia and India. Like India, Brazil’s
made investment in Brazil worth half a bil- weight in international economic and
lion dollars. Almost all major pharma players Brazil joint defence committee is already political forums has raised manifold. On
of India have established their presence in operational. The two countries are now pur- issues like climate change, nuclear prolifer-
Brazil with supply of bulk drugs, finished for- suing the joint development of high-tech- ation, food security and international
mulations and establishment of manufac- nology military aircraft through continuing trade, their positions will matter even
turing units and joint ventures. contacts already established between the more. The very fact that Brazil will host the
India and Brazil have begun to work Defence Research and Development Organ- World Cup Soccer and the Olympics in 2014
together in various fields, including aviation, isation (DRDO) and Brazil’s Embraer. and 2016 respectively is recognition of its
engineering products, agriculture-based Embraer, one of the largest aircraft manu- clout and potential. The sleeping giant has
industries, energy including ethanol, IT, facturers in the world, tapping specific woken up.
banking and urban infrastructure. IT, segments in defence aviation, is already sup-
biotechnology and pharmaceuticals are key plying aircraft, which are used by India as part (The author, Associate Director with the
areas where India has made investments in of the country’s squadron for movement of Institute of Social Sciences, specialises in
Brazil. Tata Consultancy Services, Ranbaxy VVIPs within the country and often abroad. Latin American affairs)

(64) January 2011
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Nepal's politics is dangerously adrift and nothing can be worse — both for Nepal
and its closest and most important neighbour, India. K V RAJAN looks at the
scenario and offers a prescription for the path ahead

EPAL is going downhill at an successor to Madhav Kumar Nepal, who certain as to how the Army will react if the
alarming rate. A consensus is resigned several months ago under Maoist present drift continues).
essential for peace to be con- pressure, have yielded no results. There is The death of G P Koirala has removed
solidated and the Constitution considerable popular disillusionment with from the scene — the one leader of stature
to be written — but is rendered all the political parties, thanks to the naked who, whatever his shortcomings may have
impossible by the trust deficit between its display of their single-minded pursuit of been, was capable of creating a sense of
political leaders and parties, compounded power without any thought of the country's responsibility among party leaders. The
by serious inter-party as well as intra-party expectations or needs. There is a near-total restoration of democracy with promises of a
differences (including within the Maoist absence or failure of all institutions (with the federal structure has created an explosion of
leadership). There is very little prospect of exception of the Army — but it is far from ethnic demands which is only one among
the Constitution being written even within
the new deadline of May 29, 2011. POLITICAL INSTABILITY:
Nepal continues to have two armies — Nepal's political situation is like a
one official, the other Maoist — but no Prime dark tunnel with no hope of light
Minister, since repeated "elections" for the
Photo courtesy: ? January 2011

The impasse in Nepal.qxd 1/3/2011 5:35 PM Page 56



many pretexts for the existing environment ful attempts to neutralise the Army's resist-

of impunity and violence, precipitating a ance to them. It would be logical to assume
possibly dangerous economic crisis. It is that the Maoists will not agree to integration
arguable whether the present trends, leading
to a disaster scenario of national as well as
SERIOUS or rehabilitation of their armed cadres with-
out an accompanying change in the charac-
regional proportions, can still be reversed. A IDEOLOGICAL ter of the Nepalese Army.
"sustainable" process towards a peaceful, The Nepalese Army does need to become
stable and increasingly prosperous Nepal DIVISIONS more professional, more democratic, more
seems a remote prospect, and India perhaps
needs to factor this in when considering its
AMONG transparent, and, more accountable. It does
not have to get politicised in the way the
medium-term options. MAOISTS AT Maoists appear to expect: "civilian control"
At the core of this grim situation is the of the Army, certainly, cannot be translated
inability or unwillingness of the Maoists to THE TOP into its "Maoisation". While a resolution of
transform themselves into a normal political the differences between the Army and the
party committed to peaceful democratic Maoists on integration looks extremely diffi-
processes, contrary to their assurances when none of them has attempted to moderate the cult, given the entrenched positions on both
they entered into a Comprehensive Peace mindsets of Maoist cadres away from the use sides, India's traditional contacts with the
Agreement with the main political parties, of undemocratic methods in pursuing their Nepal Army could, perhaps, be put to con-
agreed on a ceasefire, submitted to UN mon- goals. Clearly, arms and use of violence are structive use so that the Maoists can be per-
itoring of their armed cadres, stood for elec- considered necessary and useful to all suaded that they can disarm in a result-ori-
tions, and came out as the single largest par- Maoist factions in marginalising the tradi- ented, time-bound manner without losing
ty in the Constituent Assembly elections in tional political parties and ensuring capture either their sense of security or self-respect
2008. Maoist leaders do make reassuring and consolidation of power. — supposedly their two principal concerns.
noises about their commitment to "compet- The Maoists see the Nepal Army as the Maoist intentions as regards India remain
itive politics" (significantly, not to a multi- most important hurdle in their way, and opaque. Maoist leaders seem to be torn
party democracy); but their resistance to have been making repeated but unsuccess- between the need to make overtures to India
making serious progress on the inte- so that it drops its reservations
gration and rehabilitation of their towards them, and the need to main-
militia, their disinterest in disman- tain a minimum stance of assertive-
tling front organisations which ness vis-à-vis India in order to retain
engage in systematic intimidation their credibility in the eyes of their
and violence, and their continuing cadres. The fact that India has made it
ideological rhetoric favouring a clear that a Maoist return to power is
"people's republic" as the ultimate an unwelcome proposition and is
objective, fuel serious concerns widely perceived to be influencing
about their agenda. friendly political parties to oppose the
It is now clear that there are seri- Maoists is a complicating factor. Anti-
ous ideological divisions among Indian activities are in direct propor-
Maoists at the top, and also a com- tion to the level of political insecurity
petition for personal power. The the Maoists feel because of India's
three factions, which could be engagement with other political play-
described (at the risk of oversimplifi- ers in Nepal.
cation) as "pragmatic", "hard line" India's concerns stem from four
and "expedient", are respectively led fronts: the strong anti-Indianism,
by Baburam Bhattarai, Mohan which seems to be an inalienable part
Baidya "Kiran" and Prachanda. The of Maoist ideology, and which they
pragmatic group argues that it is have tried to spread throughout Nepal
premature and risky to abandon the in a way that threatens to take anti-
democratic route to capturing pow- Indian sentiment to unprecedented
er as being urged by the hardliners, levels; the frequent rhetoric suggest-
and questions the logic of an ultra- ing keenness to intensify links with
nationalistic, anti-India line Indian Naxalites; the attempt to play
favoured by the other two; Prachan- the China card in a way which might
da's tactical flexibility (try for peace actually threaten India's strategic
and Constitution, but prepare for a interests in Nepal; and the stated ide-
revolt) keeps the party intact and ological commitment to transform
himself at the helm of it, albeit at the Nepal's multiparty democracy into a
cost of his eroding personal credibil- GRIM SITUATION: Inability of Maoists to commit North Korean or at least a Chinese
ity. All three leaders maintain their themselves for a peaceful democracy is the key reason for model, through the use of violence
commitment to achieving the objec- the continuing stalemate and non-democratic means if
tive of a "people's republic", and necessary.

(66) January 2011
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The unprecedented level of anti-Indian- the latter reduce its excessive dependence for India does exist as long as the Maoists are
ism that manifests itself regularly is not lim- on India. The Chinese government has finding their feet, i.e., for the next few years.
ited to the Kathmandu Valley, nor to the fold announced an additional package of $7.31 If they refuse to play ball, other options may
of Maoist cadres, even if the Maoists are million to Nepal, increasing its annual finan- have to be considered in consultation with
without doubt the main instigators of attacks cial assistance to Nepal to $21.94 million. It the international community. Once they
on India. India has to do some introspection has also assisted Nepal in over 20 infrastruc- develop their capacity to form a government
to see if there are more sensitive ways of ture developmental projects. China is also on their own and have succeeded in sub-
managing its relations with a neighbour, expanding its relationship from state-level to stantially undermining the institutions and
with which its shared affinities and comple- people-to-people level by funding and other major parties, compromises may not
mentarities far outweigh the differences and establishment of front organisations in be feasible.
irritants, keeping in mind a natural psyche Nepal. India also needs to urgently evolve a
on the latter's part of being "India-locked". India should have and project the self- more innovative, ambitious programme for
Should India be alarmist about the possi- confidence of a major power in its interac- inclusive development in Nepal, while
ble influence of Nepal's Maoists on its own tions with China, and not hesitate to engage simultaneously addressing the sources and
Naxalite problem? There is little hard evi- purposefully with China on respecting our reasons for the spurt of anti-Indian activity
dence about substantive cross-border inter- core sensitivities in Nepal. It is most unlikely in that country. Here again, past experi-
actions between left-wing extremists of the that at this particular juncture the Chinese ence would suggest that we should avoid
kind and on a scale which should cause seri- would accord higher priority to its interests exclusively government-to-government aid
ous concern, but the example of Maoists in Nepal if they impinge adversely on India's programmes, which inevitably get politi-
succeeding in their country, professing core concerns. cised, or create misunderstandings
democracy but through the use of non-dem- How should India deal with an unstable, because of poor delivery or high costs, and
ocratic means, will undoubtedly have an increasingly radicalised and nationalistic offer instead cooperative, interdependent
impact on Naxalite strategies. There are Nepal? The Maoists are a political reality that projects in the private sector or at the com-
already early warning signs that the open cannot be wished away. India will have to munity level, where the Nepalese side is
border makes monitoring and management given a sense of equality and ownership.
of movements of even well-known left-wing A plan for the accelerated development
leaders very difficult. Of late, Maoist leaders ANTI-INDIAN of Nepal, which will protect trade, tourism,
and documents speak assertively about step-
ping up interactions with Naxalites in India,
ACTIVITIES ARE IN investment and development from political
shortcomings and vicissitudes, will also
and there seems to be some evidence of PROPORTION TO help counter anti-Indian trends by demon-
arms transfers taking place, as also insurgent strating India's commitment to the welfare
groups from the North-East considering THE LEVEL OF of the people of Nepal, giving the latter a
operations from Nepal since Bhutan and
Bangladesh are no longer hospitable terrain. POLITICAL sense of hope for the future and the feeling
that the winning side is democracy and
Maoists have made no effort to reduce
their overtures to China; in fact, China's own
INSECURITY THE development backed by India. The com-
mon people should be at the core of this
increasing visibility in Nepal cannot but be MAOISTS FEEL plan. India needs to be clear about its own
seen in India as an exercise in calibrated priorities in Nepal. If a stable, prosperous,
provocation by Beijing in its backyard. The democratic and peaceful Nepal is the real
sudden expansion of "Confucian centres", devise a "tactical" approach which gives the objective, then its policies should be fash-
proliferation of high-level visits, Chinese Maoists a sense of political security and ioned, refined or redefined to sub-serve
support for infrastructure projects and offers them a chance to moderate their that objective.
exchanges on defence and security coopera- extremist positions on these fronts, enabling
tion are clearly intended to send signals to the Constitution to be written and progress (The author is a former Secretary,
Nepal as well as India, that China is keen to made on integration and disarmament of Ministry of External Affairs and was
upgrade its bilateral ties with Nepal and help their militia. A small window of opportunity Ambassador to Nepal from 1995 to 2000) January 2011

India Look East.qxd 1/3/2011 5:15 PM Page 54



ndia’s ‘Look East’ policy has entered its strong economic content to suit the require-
third phase of evolution with a thrust on ments of the day. This was the first phase of
emerging strategic balance in the Asia- ‘Look East’. The strategic and security compo-
Pacific region. The seeds of strategic nent, however, was never lost on Rao’s moves
focus could be traced to Rajiv Gandhi’s and even when India’s ‘Look East’ policy was
period during the late Eighties when great defined in term of economic engagement with
power relations in the Asia-Pacific had started the ASEAN region, India finalised deals of
changing. The then Soviet Union was folding servicing MiG fighter aircraft with Malaysia
out and China was preparing itself to claim and Laos and established defence training
major stakes in the strategic architecture of and cooperation missions in the region.
the region. Rajiv Gandhi undertook a visit to The second phase of the ‘Look East’ policy
India has slowly but surely China in December 1988 to break the ice in was announced during the NDA regime by the
consolidated its ‘Look East’ bilateral relations and deputed his diplomats then Foreign Minister Yashwant Sinha, who
to facilitate the resolution of the Kampuchean introduced defence co-cooperation as the
policy to firmly entrench issue that had created misunderstanding major plank of this policy along with econom-
itself as a key player in the between India and ASEAN. ic engagement. In an address at Harvard Uni-
Narasimha Rao, who was involved in the versity in September 2003, he said: “The new
Asia Pacific region. Now it’s Rajiv Gandhi period’s ‘Look East’ initiative as phase of this policy is characterised by an
time to go to the next level, Foreign Minister, picked up the threads of the expanded definition of ‘East’, extending from
policy again when he became Prime Minister Australia to East Asia, with ASEAN at its core.
explains S D MUNI in 1991 and repackaged the policy with a The new phase also marks a shift from trade to


(68) January 2011
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wider economic and security issues, including tions on the part of some of the countries like interactions. India’s support for the expansion
joint efforts to protect the sea lanes and coor- Malaysia and China for the participation of of EAS to include Russia and the US in July
dinate counter-terrorism activities.” In the India, along with that of Australia and New 2010 may be mentioned in this respect. India
third phase, India is expected to situate itself Zealand, in EAS, but these reservations were has made special efforts to enhance coopera-
as a major factor in the unfolding strategic set aside in view of the strong support from tion with the new ASEAN members, namely
balance of the region where signs of China’s rest of the members, particularly Singapore, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, all
assertiveness and US re-engagement are Indonesia and Japan. Therefore, when the of which also happen to be located on
becoming clear. ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM) Chinese periphery.
The first two phases of the ‘Look East’ pol- decided to change its format by expanding its This regional integration of India with
icy have enabled India to rehabilitate itself in membership as ADMM-Plus at its fourth East Asia carried through its ‘Look East’ policy
the region and consolidate its position as a meeting in May 2010, India was invited to join has proved to be advantageous both to India
friend and sincere partner in cooperation for with seven other countries, namely Japan, and the countries of the region in concrete
development and security. Such rehabilitation China, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, terms. For instance, India’s bilateral trade with
and consolidation was necessary to break Russia and the United States. ASEAN has increased manifold under the
nearly four decades of isolation caused by the Outside ASEAN, India has been engaged ‘Look East’ policy; from $2.3bn in 1991-92 to
cold war and the Sino-Indian conflict in the with the countries of the region in two other more than $45bn in 2010. Four of the ASEAN
Himalayas. In the process of rehabilitating forums, namely BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Ini- members — Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia
itself, India graduated from a sectoral to a full tiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Eco- and Thailand — account for most of this trade.
dialogue partner of ASEAN by 1995 and nomic Cooperation) and Mekong-Ganga The phenomenal growth in Sino-Indian trade
became a summit-level partner by 2002. Being Cooperation Initiative (MGCI) established in should also be seen as a part of India’s
a full dialogue partner, in 1995, India was 1998 and 2000 respectively. The only multilat- eastward economic engagement.
invited to join the ASEAN Regional Forum eral forum in the region, where India is not China, Japan, Singapore and South Korea
(ARF), the first security grouping established represented, is Asia-Pacific Economic Com- have also emerged as strong investors in India
in the region in July 1994. A major landmark in munity (APEC), though there are also strong from its eastern neighbourhood. By 2010, the
India’s integration with the region has been its advocates of India’s membership, which for flow of investments into India from the east is
participation in the East Asia Summit (EAS), the moment stands frozen. A notable aspect of nearly $15bn, with Singapore alone account-
established in 2005. This was an indication India’s approach to regional groupings in East ing for more than half of this amount. India, in
that now onwards there were no barriers to Asia has been to cultivate those where China turn, has also made matching investments in
India’s active involvement in the affairs of the is not present like BIMSTEC and MGCI and the East Asian countries, with the highest
Asia-Pacific region. throw its weight with those where China is Indian FDI of $14.23bn going to Singapore by
It may be recalled that there were reserva- being engaged in extended multilateral 2008-2009. India’s conclusion of Free Trade
Agreement with ASEAN and bilateral ‘Com-
prehensive Economic Partnership/Coopera-
tion Agreement’ (CEPA/CECA) with
Singapore, Malaysia, Japan and South Korea is
bound to provide greater momentum to the
prospects of trade and investment.
India’s defence and security cooperation
with the countries of east has also been
strengthened under the ‘Look East’ policy.
This dimension was boldly highlighted in
2002 by Indian escort of US ships in the
Malacca Strait to protect them from piracy.
Since then, regular high-level political visits
between India and the East Asian countries
have taken place to discuss broader issues of
regional and global security as also to firm up
critical bilateral cooperation in the areas of
defence, security and economic engagements.
Defence Minister A K Antony’s participa-
tion in the ADMM+8 in Hanoi in October
2010 and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s
visits to Japan, Malaysia, Vietnam and the
Republic of Korea during October-Novem-

KEY PLAYER: Prime Minister

Manmohan Singh at the ASEAN Summit,
Hanoi, Vietnam, held in October 2010,
to strengthen the regional integration of
India with East Asia January 2011

India Look East.qxd 1/3/2011 5:15 PM Page 56



ber 2010 may be recalled as the take concrete shape and there are
latest examples of such high-lev- many other areas of soft power wait-
el interactions. Regular consulta- ing to be harnessed. It is only by rein-
tions on foreign and defence forcing its economic, security and
affairs at ministerial and senior cultural cooperation with the individ-
official levels have been institu- ual countries and multilateral fora in
tionalised and strategic partner- the region that India can augment its
ships of varying depths and potential to play an effective role in
intensities have been established the region’s strategic balance.
with a number of countries. At the other broader strategic
Indian Navy and defence level, India faces a dilemma due to
forces hold regular training, exer- uncertainty in the US-China strate-
cises and visits with almost all the gic equation. This equation ranges
countries of the East-Asian region, from the scenarios of G2 to an inten-
including with China and in the sifying new cold war between them
South China Sea. In some of the and both of these extreme possibili-
countries, India has set up ties are uncomfortable for India.
defence and airforce academies While the former would tend to iso-
to impart training on a perma- HIGH-LEVEL INTERACTION: Defence Minister A K Antony late India in the region the latter
participated at the ADMM+8 in Hanoi in October 2010
nent basis. India’s relations with may force it to take sides between
Singapore are the closest in this the two contenders. India had coor-
respect. India has also started supplying ensuring stability. The revival of tensions in dinated its efforts with the US, Japan and
defence equipment and exchanging defence South China Sea over territorial disputes Australia to provide relief to the tsunami-
technologies to the countries of the region. between China and the South East Asian affected east and has also, by now, remark-
The proposals of joint defence production countries, the China-Japan spat on the fish- ably improved its strategic understanding
with Singapore and Indonesia are being ing boat incident around the disputed with traditional US allies like Japan, Australia
actively pursued by India. Sankaku/Diaoyu Island and now the North and the Republic of Korea. But it would cer-
The strides made by India to engage with Korean offensive against the South are all tainly not like to go piggyback on the US or a
the Asia-Pacific region through its ‘Look East’ indications of the disturbed regional strate- coalition put together by it to confront or
policy are impressive but in no way adequate. gic balance. contain China as long as its rise remains
The other major players in the region like the The East Asian region is clearly uneasy peaceful and orderly.
US, China and Japan are far ahead of India. It with the unexpected assertiveness in China’s The Chinese proposal to divide the Indian
has been noted earlier that the range of FTAs stance and values a multilateral strategic bal- Ocean and the Pacific with the US as their
and CEPA/CECA put in place and being pur- ance in the interest of peace and stability. respective areas of influence as also Obama’s
sued between India and the region both at the There is a clear demand that the US should re- call on China in November 2009 in Beijing to
regional and bilateral levels will give a definite engage itself strongly with the region and the help ensure South Asian peace and stability
boost to its economic engagement. However, other rising powers of the region like India has raised the levels of anxiety and concern in
India will only be able to harness the full should come actively forward to ensure stabil- New Delhi. India is happy to see the revived
potential of its economic cooperation with the ity of the regional balance. The East Asian interest of the US in East Asian affairs. Much
region by hastening the pace of its domestic countries find India’s response below their before Obama’s reassuring visit to India in
economic reforms and further opening of its expectations. Even the US President Obama November 2010, Pranab Mukherjee, the then
economy to Asia and the world. during his visit to India called upon India not India’s Defence Minister, speaking in June
In defence and security matters, India has only to ‘look east’ but to ‘engage’ (i.e. actively 2006 at the Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore
to catch up with the fast pace of China, not participate) with it. said: “India is one of the important legs of the
only in military modernisation but also in the India is burdened with constraints at two Asian juggernaut along with China, Japan and
area of offering military hardware and tech- levels in this respect. At one level, India is nei- Indonesia. In the Asia-Pacific region, India’s
nologies. It is worth noting here that Philip- ther economically deep pocketed nor over- growing ties with the United States and other
pines, a traditional military ally of the US, has stocked by defence goodies to be as generous countries in North and South America brings
started exploring the possibilities of acquiring as China in meeting the expectations of its with it a commensurate role in the region…
arms from China. India is still new in the field regional friends. This weakness may be over- India’s role is crucial for ensuring and main-
of maritime and military diplomacy. The qual- come through the establishment of trade and taining long-term peace, stable balance of
ity and quantity of its defence production is economic arrangements in the region, and power, economic growth and security in Asia.
not yet fully geared to the value and culture of economic reforms and enhanced defence This being the driving aspiration of India’s
exports. India has surely become conscious of production at home. India has also not made Look East policy, it will get a strategic direction
this but building required capabilities will proper use of its soft power in the region, and gather further momentum as the equa-
take time. which is embedded in its civilisational and tion between a turbulent US and a rising
The challenge of the third phase in cultural linkages, a vibrant diaspora and bur- China settles down in Asia.”
India’s ‘Look East’ policy arises from the dis- geoning impact of Bollywood.
turbed regional strategic balance in East Asia The establishment of Nalanda University (The author, a former Indian Ambassador
due to China’s rise and the perception of US in 2010 is an indication that India is awaken- to Laos, is Visiting Research Professor, Insti-
constraints on playing its traditional role of ing towards this asset, but the project is still to tute of South Asian Studies, Singapore.)

(70) January 2011
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TechScan Jan.qxd 1/3/2011 5:33 PM Page 24

INDIA'S FIRST modern air enemy fighters if they advance
defence system is ready to roll off deep into enemy territory.
the assembly line. An operational The Akash — developed by the
Akash missile system, developed DRDO, in partnership with BEL,
by Bharat Electronics (BEL) in under the Integrated Guided Mis-
Bengaluru, is all set to be deliv- sile Development Programme — is
ered to the Indian Air Force (IAF) a sophisticated amalgam of sys-
by March 2011. This first Akash tems working in concert. The heart
squadron will protect the of the Akash is a mobile Rohini
Gwalior Air Base, where the IAF radar, which can detect an aircraft
bases its Mirage-2000 fighters. when it is 120km away; automati-
BEL will follow this up quick- cally, a coded electronic interroga-
ly with a second Akash tor ascertains whether this is an
squadron by December 2011, IAF aircraft, or a civilian airliner.
which will safeguard Lohegaon With the target identified, the
Air Base at Pune, a major base Rohini radar alerts the Akash
for the front-line Sukhoi-30MKI squadron headquarters, which
fighters. Meanwhile, another then controls the engagement.
defence public sector undertaking, Bharat allows for continuous technological As the enemy fighter races in at about
Dynamics, will build six more Akash improvements. 15km per minute, the task of shooting it
squadrons, most of these for the IAF's new The Indian Army is also close to order- down is allocated through a secure digital
fighter bases along the Sino-Indian border, ing a high-mobility version of Akash, link to one of the squadron's two missile
including Tezpur, Bagdogra and Hasimara. mounted on T-72 tanks, that can move “flights”, which are normally about 25km
BEL is building two Akash squadrons alongside tank forces. One of the Army's away, to cover the maximum area. The
for `1,221 crore. The ground infrastruc- three strike corps, which attacks deep into designated Flight Control Centre locks its
ture would cost another `200 crore, so enemy territory, has no anti-aircraft “area sophisticated 3D phased-array radar onto
each squadron effectively costs about defence system”; the other two strike the enemy fighter and calculates the
`700 crore. That is not just significantly corps are equipped with the vintage Russ- launch parameters for an Akash missile to
cheaper than foreign procurement, but ian SA-6, designed in the early-1960s. This shoot down the target at its maximum
also permits better maintenance and makes them dangerously vulnerable to range of 25km.


IN THE wake of chemical and nuclear INMAS would have a CBRN training insti-
threats, the Institute of Nuclear Medicine tute, where paramilitary, employees at
and Allied Sciences (INMAS) of Defence government orgainsations, health insti-
Research and Development Organisation tutes and civilians would be trained to
(DRDO) is strengthening its chemical, prepare them for any CBRN mass casualty.
biological, radiological and nuclear Keeping the importance of hospitals
(CBRN) defence by extending training and health research institutes in mind,
programmes to private and government INMAS had already published a 250-page
institutes, health organisations and para- book on medical management on CBRN
military forces. This would also include casualties and distributed it in hospitals
health institutes such as PGIMER where including PGIMER. It had trained a sec-
doctors and nurses are to be provided tion of doctors, nurses, and other health
similar training in order to prepare them professionals on how to treat a patient
to deal with CBRN casualties. exposed to radioactive agents prior to
More than the CBRN threat from other the Commonwealth Games
countries, today it is the threat of prolifer- at Delhi.
ation of such highly devastating agents The training is based on the
into the hands of terrorist organisations existing defence technique of
across the globe. Also, there could be inci- NBC currently being used in
dents where the disaster is a natural one, the military. This would be
as was the recent case of Delhi University modified for the civil sector. For
Cobalt-60 disaster. In contrast to the high instance, the technology used in
intensity of threats, the awareness is very military tanks to counter NBC attacks
low among professionals and public. would be modified and simplified for the
Keeping this in mind, for the first time use of personal vehicles.

(72) January 2011
TechScan Jan.qxd 1/3/2011 5:33 PM Page 25

these single-hand carbines that has a
lethality range of 200 m and hold 30
rounds in the ammunition cartridge.
Developed by the Armament Research
and Development Establishment, Pune,
the carbine will screen multiple sites to
strike a target accurately.
Besides the new carbine, the defence
laboratory has also started working on an
intelligent rifle with embedded sensors.
The Gen Next rifles will have systems to
coordinate with a backpack computer or
a head-mounted display for the future INDIA WILL build two ranges for testing
soldier for better and accurate strike. radar-based electronic warfare systems, as
The Pune laboratory is also developing it seeks to strengthen its capability in the
A CARBINE that can be fired on the ene- technologies to convert the Indian Air field, seen to be vital in war scenarios.
my using only one hand is all set to make Force's existing stock of "dumb bombs" One range would come up in Chitradurga
its debut in the armed and paramilitary into "smart bombs" for precise hits at a in Karnataka and another in Tandur in
forces, providing an impetus in fight distance of 20km. This will be done by Andhra Pradesh, which would test "non-
against Naxals and in counter-insurgency inserting a guidance system in the nose communication" and "communication"
operations. and tail of the ammunition so that it can EW systems, respectively.
The Army is about to start trials of be guided by a laser or a seeker. Once the two new testing ranges are oper-
ational in 2012-13, experimental and R&D
tests can be conducted. The present EW

systems have been integrated with MiG-27
fighters and operational flights are slated
next year. They would be integrated with
INDIA'S SUPERSONIC cruise missile, The only supersonic cruise missile in MiG-29 fighters and the light combat air-
BrahMos was successfully flight-tested the world today, BrahMos is said to be craft next year.
from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at one of the unparalleled missiles. It has a
Chandipur, Orissa, the mission high-
light being to perform tricky manoeu-
vres, rolls and a vertical dive towards the
targeted area in the Bay of Bengal even
as it flew at a velocity of 2.8 times the
speed of sound. The missile travelled its
full range of 290km. It was the missile's
Block III version, boasting advanced
guidance and upgraded software that track record of successive successes in
was tested. The flight established the its both ship-launched and ground-
missile's precision strike capability in launched versions against ship-based
mountain warfare. and land-based targets.


Research and Development Establish-
ment (CVRDE) will develop the gearbox
IN AN attempt to provide the impe- of a cluster with the partnering for the Advanced Medium Combat Air-
tus to nano technology, the of IITs and other academic craft (AMCA), a fifth generation aircraft.
Defence Research Development institutions of India. The R&D The Aircraft Mounted Accessory Gear-
Organisation (DRDO) will be set- facilities for nano technology box (AMAGB), developed by CVRDE for
ting up a nano foundry in can be used by industry and the Light Combat Aircraft, Tejas, has
Bengaluru or Hyderabad. The academic institutions for received the "type approval" from the
foundry, which is expected to cost research purposes. Centre for Military Airworthiness and
`500 crore will develop nano products Nano technology has several Certification (CEMILAC). The Indian
from nano designs. Its primary aim will applications — from agriculture to Navy has also approached the CVRDE for
focus on three products: nano compos- defense — and the DRDO has already gearboxes for its submarines, being
ites, nano electrodes and bio-sensors. invested `200 crore for developing nano developed indigenously.
The nano foundry project will be part technology applications. January 2011

EDIT Rigt Angle December.qxd 1/3/2011 5:30 PM Page 35

Right Angle

Russia, the all-weather friend

rime Minister Manmohan Singh and Russian Pres- properly highlighted that one of India's most significant over-
ident Dmitry Medvedev have just concluded the seas investments ($2.8 bn) has been in Sakhalin-I (Siberia) for
11th annual Indo-Russian summit, a feature that extracting oil. That is not all. India has also invested more in
started in 2000. Indian media might not have given that region through ONGC Videsh Limited — $2.1 bn was the
the event due coverage, but compared to the over- investment for buying a British company called Imperial
hyped visit of US President Obama in November, its results Energy in the Tomsk region in Siberia. So, India has had an
are more tangible. The Obama trip saw India and the United energy strategy of investing in equity in that region and this
States signing some 20 agreements worth $10 bn. In contrast, continues. India has been discussing with the Russian side on
the "low-profile" visit of President Medvedev to several more investments where ONGC Videsh
the country resulted in 30 bilateral agreements, Limited is willing to go along with Russian oil
of which the deal on the joint production of and gas majors like Gazprom and Rosneft to
fifth generation aircraft alone was worth $30 invest in different regions of Siberia and even
bn. In fact, when one talks of India's broad North Russia. In Siberia, the regions are
strategic interactions with the outside world, Sakhalin-III and there is a region on Timan
there is no parallel to its bourgeoning all- Pechora, as well as an interest on the Indian side
weather relations with Russia. While one is not in the Yamal peninsula, which is a gas-rich area
belittling the growing Indo-US ties, the reality Prakash Nanda in Northern Russia. India has been keen to
is that of all the P-5 countries (US, UK, France, acquire a stake in Sakhalin-III. It was reassuring
China, Russia — all permanent members of the United that the summit meeting witnessed meaningful agreements
Nations Security Council), it is Russia that shares most of on all these areas.
India's global vision and concerns. All this, however, does not mean that there are no hiccups
Russia gives India around 70 per cent of its defence needs. in Indo-Russian ties. The two countries have not yet come to
And importantly, defence cooperation is not exactly restrict- terms with the new situation where private players and
ed to a buyer-seller relationship; it includes joint design, organisations are dominating the economic contours in the
research and development, joint production, training, and two countries and where they have to deal with each other
service-to-service contacts. Russia shares its most sensitive directly without governmental interventions. The result is
and newest developments in technology with India, some- that not many Indian businessmen are sure of their returns
thing that the United States is reticent to do. BrahMos missile on investments in and trade with Russia. Even in military
system is a shining example of this type of collaboration. sales, the Russians have to re-establish their
Presently, several similar joint development projects in areas Soviet-days' reliability in not only timely delivery of the
of cutting-edge and frontier technologies are being pursued. products but also with commitments for after-services and
Besides, Russia has so far maintained its policy on not pro- spare parts.
viding our adversary China (or for that matter Pakistan) the However, these hiccups pale into insignificance if one
same weapons system it supplies to India. sees the broad strategic framework. The fundamental real-
Some critics do point out that in today's arms bazaar, ity is that though Russia may have lost its position as a
Russia is not exactly a great market, given the comparatively super-power in Cold War equations, it is still a big power if
poor technology associated with its weapons. But then, no one goes by any possible definition of the elements that
nation would fulfil the requirements of India like the Russians constitute power. It is huge and possesses the largest land-
and no one else would be willing to lease their nuclear sub- mass of the earth as a single country. It strategically abuts
marines to the Indian Navy. Notwithstanding the much- on Central Asia, China and Iran, an area of political securi-
hyped 2008 civil Indo-US nuclear deal, it is Russia rather than ty and economic interests to India. Russia is endowed with
the United States that proved to be a better partner in aug- enormous natural resources, technological capacities and
menting India's nuclear power by not hesitating to transfer trade potential. Above all, it has a highly talented reservoir
the so-called "dual-use technology" on a range of sensitive of human capital. It still is the most important military
areas such as reprocessing technology, joint thorium fuel power in the world after the United States. Most signifi-
cycle nuclear power projects and fast neutron reactors. cantly, Russia, perhaps, gives a higher priority to India in
Similarly, no country other than Russia has collaborated its foreign policy and strategic calculations than the Unit-
with India in its several space technology-based cooperation ed States or other power centres of the world, their
projects. acknowledgment of India's rising importance
Though it is below potential that the present bilateral notwithstanding.
two-way trade is only $7.46 bn (2009) and present two-way
investment is approximately $5.5 bn, it is, perhaps, not

(74) January 2011
Diplomacny cover.qxd 5/31/2010 12:34 PM Page 53

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